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aqa prose coursework This guide is written for students and teachers who are preparing for GCSE exams in English and English literature. This guide gives a general introduction to the AQA Anthology , which is a set text for the AQA's GCSE syllabuses and to the prose texts. Resume Internal? On this page I use red type for Dostoyevski, emphasis. Brown type is resume used where italics would appear in print (in this screen font, italic looks like this , and is unkind on Dostoyevski most readers). Headings have their own hierarchical logic, too:
Main section headings look like this. Sub-section headings look like this. Minor headings within sub-sections look like this. The English Anthology is a collection of poems and short prose fiction. These are set texts (texts you have to internal study) for GCSE exams in rose hulman homework English and English Literature. If you are a student preparing for these exams, then #45; for some parts of each exam #45; you will write about some of these texts. For other parts (such as written or spoken coursework) your teacher may use the Anthology or may choose other texts. There is more than one Anthology #45; as different exam boards have their own. This guide is resume internal aimed at the AQA Anthology for GCSE English/English literature (Specification A) from dicom digital, 2004 onwards.
Your teacher will help you prepare for resume internal, your exams, but you may use other sources of help. Bioinformatics Papers? Your Anthology is a very important book. Your teacher may ask you to internal keep it in school for at least part of the GCSE course. You will use a clean copy of the Anthology for your exams, which will normally be in June or possibly May. (Most students take a two#45;year course and are assessed at the end of Year 11, but it is possible to take either exam in an earlier year. There is a special syllabus for thesis prevention, older students; this usually takes one year to do.) For GCSE English (AQA Specification A), you need your Anthology for the first half of the second exam paper ( Section A: Reading ). For this you will answer one of the resume internal questions (in past exams there have been two to java homework help choose from) on Poems from Different Cultures . You will normally write about poems in one or other of the two clusters #45; but you can mix poems from both clusters. The two clusters belong to a single coherent collection of texts.
The only significance of the clusters is the requirement to name a poem - there will be two questions and resume internal, one will have a named poem from cluster 1 whilst the other names a poem from cluster 2. And candidates are free to choose a second poem from Dostoyevski, either cluster. Resume? Answering your chosen question should take you about dicom digital breast half an hour. If you go over this time, you may have to rush the second half of the paper ( Section B: Writing ). This is not a good idea generally. However your teacher may advise you to spend a little more time in a given section if he or she knows that you can pick up extra marks at one point without too much risk of losing lots of marks elsewhere. Of course, if you finish the Writing section early, you can always go back to your work on Poems from Different Cultures in Section A: Reading. Below you will find guidance on how to use your answer booklet to leave space for this. Internal? For GCSE English Literature , use of the Anthology is rose homework optional for the first part of the paper (you may use it but you don't have to) but compulsory for the second part. Internal? In the end#45;of#45;course exam (for which there is only one paper) you have to java help write on set texts. These are divided into two sections: post 1914 Prose (Section A) and pre#45; and post#45;1914 Poetry (Section B) Section A #45; the prose texts in the Anthology are mostly shorter than the other set texts.
If you find a lot of reading hard or can't cope with lots of books, studying the internal prose in the Anthology may be best for you. This section is letter for retail manager worth 30#37; of the total marks for literature. The question may name one of the stories or ask you to choose from a selection #45; but you will normally have to write about resume internal two stories together. The seven stories in dicom tomosynthesis the Anthology are: Doris Lessing #45; Flight Sylvia Plath #45; Superman and Paula Brown's New Snowsuit Michele Roberts #45; Your Shoes Joyce Cary #45; Growing Up Ernest Hemingway #45; The End of Something Graham Swift #45; Chemistry Leslie Norris #45; Snowdrops. The titles of the stories are interesting.
With one exception (click here to find out which) the titles suggest the themes of the stories. Two of them are abstract , while four of them are ambiguous #45; they refer to one thing literally (an object or physical process) and another thing metaphorically (an abstract process). Take the example of internal Chemistry . This word literally names a physical science #45; most students will learn about chemistry as part of a science course. But chemistry is also used as a metaphor for the way people get on together (it is java homework very commonly used to internal describe characters in rose homework film who have #45; or lack #45; on#45;screen chemistry together, for example). Reading the stories and getting to know them. The Anthology has a lot of print in it.
For many students this is no problem #45; you enjoy reading independently and know what things mean, or are comfortable that you can find out. The same might be true of most teachers, too! But we do not all have the same learning styles #45; and internal, we can use visual, auditory and kinaesthetic learning to make the experience more lively and enjoyable, as well as more memorable. Thesis? If you are a teacher, it makes sense to internal read through any text before you try to present it in java homework help a live reading #45; otherwise you may be unsure how to pronounce, say frangipani in resume internal Flight . Probably all of the stories are short enough for you to manage a live reading in the course of a teaching period #45; the shortest is for retail just over three pages long while the longest is some seven pages. Do you know which these are? Click to find out the names of the resume shortest and the longest stories. (At about cover three minutes a page, that might take over twenty minutes.) Where a story has passages of dialogue, then you might like to resume internal ask pupils to read a part, as in a play. (All of the stories have dialogue except one #45; do you know which? Click here to check the answer.) You should give the readers time to rose hulman homework look at their lines before they read them. The ideas in resume the next section are suitable, in bioinformatics research papers science many cases, for assessment in English (speaking and listening), as well as supporting the internal study of prose for English literature.
Ideas for students (with or without teachers) These ideas will work both for students working in prevention a class and those working independently #45; perhaps with a home tutor or being educated at home. If you enjoy visual learning #45; maybe you are good at resume illustration #45; then you can produce a shortened version, or even the full version, of the bioinformatics research papers text in an illustrated format: as a comic strip, photo#45;story or mix of text and images. You will not want to copy the full text (unless you are very patient) but can use a scanner and optical character recognition (OCR) software to produce a copy. (It will need a few corrections, but this is resume internal much easier than typing it out.) Please note that because of copyright laws, you may only do this for your own private use, and should not distribute copies to anyone or publish them anywhere. A teacher could use this technique in a classroom, where all the students already had the homework Anthology, but could not save the resulting document to a public network. Internal? This idea works best for students working in pairs or small groups. You can prepare and rehearse dramatic readings of part or all of java homework a story. You can also record it. One way is to use analogue technology #45; compact cassette or VHS tapes. You can also use digital recording software to resume internal record on a computer, in formats like Real Audio or mp3. You can store the resulting data files on Dostoyevski a hard disk drive or other media (CD, floppy disk, minidisk, memory stick and so on).
Digital audio files are very good if you want to edit them or add effects (FX). If you produce a high quality audio version, then you may want to share it with other people. Again, you need to resume be aware of copyright and may need to best cover for retail manager get the permission of the publishers of the resume internal story. All of the hulman homework programs listed here are available as freeware - you can get them at no cost. (Click on the hyperlinks to go to the suppliers' Web sites.) You can record mp3 files using Audacity. You can record Real Media files (or convert them from wav or mp3 files) using Helix Producer Basic. To play these files you will need a media player such as RealOne Player or Windows Media Player. Once you have recorded files, you can edit them and add effects, using these programs. If you keep recordings for your own use, then they can be very good as revision aids. You can listen at the same time as you read on the page.
Or you can play back a reading while doing other things. (On car journeys, while getting ready to go out, while playing a game on the PC #45; so revision does not have to be painful.) You can also use physical actions to reinforce learning. In the case of the resume internal stories this could involve some of these ideas: Dramatic reading: actors speak the dialogue at the same time as performing physical actions. Dramatic reading: one group reads the narrative and dialogue; others perform the prevention actions (this means that the actors are not restricted by holding copies of the Anthology, to read from). Mime: work out a play, without any speech, to show the main events in the story. This is very hard, but in planning it, you would come to know the story well. Resume Internal? Scenes: Take an episode from best manager, a story and make it into a scene for performing. In this case you might learn the internal lines by heart, use properties and dicom, costume, to produce a more convincing result. Resume Internal? You will want to be able to write about any two stories #45; and must be ready to homework help answer any question that the examiners set. Broadly speaking, the questions will be of two kinds. These are. questions that group stories by subject or theme, and questions that ask you to look at the writer's method, the form or structure of the stories.
It is probably easier for you to think of the stories in the first way. Here are some ideas of how you might group them. This is a popular subject for treatment in short stories #45; in some of the Anthology stories we find this theme. Resume? Do you agree with the statements below? In Flight the rose hulman homework grandfather may be wrong about his granddaughter and her fiance. In Superman and Paula Brown's New Snowsuit people are wrong about the narrator. In Your Shoes we have a sense that what the mother/narrator tells us is not the same as what is really happening. Resume Internal? In Chemistry we are not quite sure if all the on crime prevention things the narrator presents are really the resume way he sees them.
Can you think of things not being what they seem in homework help other stories? If this idea is right #45; then how does the reader discover what is really happening #45; or at least come to have doubts about internal what seems at first to Dostoyevski be going on? This is resume a similar idea to that of things not being what they seem #45; but you should be prepared for slightly different emphasis and different wording. In many of the stories we get a sense of something that the writer is telling us #45; but not directly. Here are a few suggestions as to how this might work in dicom digital breast tomosynthesis a few of the stories. In Your Shoes the writer suggests some things that the narrator does not tell the reader in a straightforward way #45; but which she reveals without meaning to do so.
In Snowdrops there is a love story hidden beneath the surface story of a young boy going to see some flowers with his class and teacher. In Chemistry there are hints of something going on behind the scenes #45; but this perhaps never appears very clearly. Can you find other examples of hidden narratives below the surface? Some of the stories conceal mysteries #45; which may or may not be resolved. In Chemistry we are never quite sure about the deaths of various characters, nor about what is the narrator's response to events. In Your Shoes , we are left uncertain about what has really happened to the young woman whose mother narrates the story. In Snowdrops , we do not clearly learn what happened between the teacher Miss Webster and the young man who has died. Can you think of other mysteries in the stories? What do you think happens?
Do you agree that the writer has not made it clear, or do have a firmer idea of what takes place? Many of the internal stories are about homework nature #45; perhaps that of animals and plants #45; and its relation to people. Resume? Look at the statements below and see whether you agree with any of them. You might use these as a starting point for a practice essay. Flight compares the homework homing pigeons kept by an old man #45; and especially his favourite #45; to resume internal his granddaughter, whom he fears to digital tomosynthesis lose.
In Growing Up , we see a contrast between nature in a wild state and in resume a civilized or cultivated state #45; this applies to digital breast the garden of the people in the story, their pet dog and the two daughters. Resume Internal? In Chemistry we see ideas of natural science #45; of on crime chemistry and physics #45; in the forces that control and attract people. One quite common theme in these stories is the idea of escape or leaving #45; with or without taking leave. Here are a few examples of stories where this may be important. In Flight we can see how Alice is moving away from one kind of life to another #45; she will be leaving her mother to live with her new husband. In Your Shoes the daughter has left home. We do not know where she has gone, and she has not said goodbye to her family.
In The End of internal Something Nick is leaving Marjorie #45; he also may be running away from something else, commitment, perhaps. Chemistry has several partings #45; as well as the Dostoyevski death of the grandfather, there are the earlier departures of his wife and the narrator's mother. Snowdrops has a narrative of internal a parting #45; the thesis final parting of death. Many of the stories look at relations between two or over three generations. Resume? For example:
Flight looks at the relationship between Alice and her grandfather #45; with her mother, Lucy, caught in the middle and trying to help her father accept what is happening. In Superman and Paula Brown's New Snowsuit the narrator, as a child, looks to her parents for support but does not receive it. Your Shoes gives a portrait of three generations of a very confused and unhappy family #45; the narrator's family history may be responsible for thesis on crime prevention, her relationship with her daughter. Growing Up explores the relation between a father and his two daughters. In Chemistry we again see a family spread out over three generations #45; and how an outsider upsets the symmetry of their relationship.
A similar way of looking at the stories is in resume internal terms of rites of passage #45; important events in the lives of the bioinformatics characters. Flight shows how Alice is growing up and moving on into a new life, while her grandfather and mother respond in their different ways to this. Superman and Paula Brown's New Snowsuit is about a first betrayal #45; the internal narrator is dicom breast falsely accused by her schoolfellows, and her parents do not stick up for her. Your Shoes is resume internal also about a young woman's attempt to gain independence #45; though in a very different way from research papers, that of Alice in Flight. In Growing Up we see how Robert Quick begins to resume recognize his daughters' increasing autonomy #45; the story looks forward to the idea of the girls' courtship, and Robert's becoming marginalized. The End of Something looks at the way love can come to Dostoyevski an end #45; it is about the severing of resume internal a relationship. Both Chemistry and Snowdrops look at Dostoyevski the last rites of passage #45; at internal death, and the way the living accept death and get on with life. Another way to group the stories is to decide whether they are sad, happy or a mixture. Rose Hulman? Which is the most and resume internal, which the least happy or sad?
There are different kinds of sadness #45; both the mother in Your Shoes and the teacher in Snowdrops are sad because they have lost someone they love. But the nature of their sadness differs greatly. Can you say how? Sometimes a story begins sadly but moves to dicom digital tomosynthesis a happy ending or seems to. Resume? In Flight the old man accepts his granddaughter's moving on, and marrying. But right at the end of the story she is in tears? The End of Something is about a relationship that dies #45; but is it as sad as other stories here? In some of the stories the characters or narrators accept things that happen to them. In other stories they are more defiant. Java Homework Help? Robert, in Growing Up , is resume perhaps more resigned to what happens than the narrator of Chemistry . Digital Tomosynthesis? Or is internal he? What do you think.
Using a grid to compare the stories. You can use a grid to organize comments on pairs of stories. Click on the links below to open a grid in a new window #45; fill in the blanks with your own responses, and you can produce an outline for an essay or exam answer. On Crime Prevention? If you want to use the grid with your computer, then you should use the .doc (Microsoft Word) or .rtf (rich text format) files. If you wish to print it out and write on it, then use the .pdf (portable document format file. Left click to resume internal open the document in a new window; right click to save it to your computer or storage media. You can always get an homework idea of the kind of questions that examiners set, by looking at past papers from real exams. But you know that these questions will not be set again. Resume Internal? So it may be better to practice with questions that might come up #45; by looking at stories arranged in pairs by theme or subject. For example, you might think about stories that feature parents and/or their children . Homework? (You can prepare to write on both #45; the question in the exam will show you where to place the main emphasis.) This example (parents and children) would work for any of these stories: Flight (you could look either at Alice as the child of Lucy, or Lucy as her father's child) Superman and Paula Brown's New Snowsuit (the narrator and her parents; the other children and theirs) Your Shoes (the mother as parent or as child) Growing Up (Robert and his daughters) Chemistry (the narrator and his parents #45; one dead and internal, one living) You could also write about Snowdrops , though this (parents and children) is not really the thesis central subject.
The End of Something would not be suitable. You can make up your own questions by using the examples discussed under the internal heading: Putting the Stories Together. When you are taking the exam it is very important for you to be able to see what the examiners are asking you. They are very un likely to set exactly the same question, using the thesis very same words, that this guide or your teacher gives you. Internal? But they are very likely to ask you questions that are mostly the same #45; since the questions here are based on what the stories are about.
The few example questions below are meant to show you the style the examiners will use in setting questions for you. In both Superman and Paula Brown's New Snowsuit and Growing Up the main characters learn things about people around them. Compare the things they learn, and the ways the writers show the help characters' experiences of learning. the things they learn; how the writers show the characters' experiences of learning by the ways they write about them; similarities and internal, differences between their experiences of learning, and how the writers show them. In Flight the grandfather has to face some unpleasant truths. Compare the ways the grandfather and one other character from another story in the selection have to letter manager face unpleasant truths. the truths that the two characters have to face; how their experiences are shown to be unpleasant by the writers of the internal stories; similarities and java help, differences between the experiences, and the ways they are shown. Compare the attitudes of adults towards children in any two of the resume internal stories in the list below. the attitudes of the adults; how the thesis on crime writers show the attitudes of the adults by the ways they write about resume them; similarities and differences between the attitudes in the stories, and how the writers show them. Compare the ways the writers of Flight and one other story from the letter for retail Anthology shape their stories to prepare readers for the endings.
Compare the ways the writers of any two of the stories in the list below show children coming to resume internal terms with growing up. Compare the ways the writers of best any two of the resume stories in homework the list below present the resume internal relationship between parents and children. Can I print this guide and photocopy it? This guide is free for individual users - for example, teachers or students working from home - in any part of the world. You can print out the guide, but it is dicom digital not ideal for printing and photocopying, and may run to many more pages than you expect.
If you are working in a school or college, you may purchase a high-quality printed version optimized for multiple photocopying. Resume Internal? The cost of the printed version includes permission for unlimited reproduction within your institution - if you expect to make multiple copies, this will probably save on your bulk photocopying and printing costs. To obtain the printed guide, contact: ZigZag Education and Computing Centre Publications Greenway Business Centre Doncaster Road Bristol BS10 5PY Tel: +44 (0)117 950 3199. Click on the link to on crime prevention go to the ZigZag Education Web site: Please acknowledge my authorship by giving the resume URL of any pages you use, and/or include the copyright symbol.
Suggestions for improvement are welcome. Thank you.
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paraguay essay Albrecht Glatzle and Dieter Stosiek. Paraguay is resume a landlocked Central South American country (Figures 1 and 2) which has common frontiers with Argentina (to the south and on crime prevention west), Brazil (east) and internal Bolivia (north). The total land area is 406,752 square km. The country is divided in two major geographical regions, with distinct topography and geology, by the south-flowing Paraguay River. Whereas the eastern region (Oriental) with 159,827 square km has an undulating landscape of rolling hills with abundant rainfall (up to 1,700 mm/year), the western part (Region Occidental or Chaco) is an extensive semi-arid to sub-humid alluvial plain with 246,925 square km (AHK 1999). Paraguay#146;s population was estimated to be 5,734,139 in July 2001 and science 6,506,464 in July 2006 (World Factbook 2006, July 2006 est.), of which about 98 percent are in internal the eastern sector; the 2006 estimated growth rate was 2.45%. More than 50 percent of the population is considered urban. Best Cover. Agriculture and Forestry account for 26 percent of GDP and 90 percent of exports (70 percent of which goes into the neighbouring MERCOSUR [Southern Cone Common Market] countries). Internal. Total GDP is 8,273,000,000 US $. The contribution of livestock to the GDP is 8 percent (MAG 1996). Note: ------------ boundary of Paraguay.
Figure 1: Biogeographic Provinces of South America and digital breast tomosynthesis Location of Paraguay. Adapted from Tarso Zuquim and Lima Serrano (1997) Politically, the country is divided into 17 Departments of resume internal, which the three largest ones are part of the Chaco, whereas the 14 most populated ones belong to rose homework, the Region Oriental (Figure 3). Land tenure is unbalanced. More than 80 percent of the resume internal, farmers are small holders with properties of less than 20 hectares, but they account for less than seven percent of the dicom digital tomosynthesis, total farming area, whereas farms larger than 1,000 hectares (1 percent of farms) account for 77 percent of the internal, total farm land (GTZ 1994). Dostoyevski. There are reports of farm occupations, by a growing number of landless campesinos, particularly in the Oriental sector of the country. Figure 2: Map of Paraguay (from World Factbook 2006 Website) Figure 3: Republic of Paraguay: Political Subdivision, Departamentos (GTZ 1994)
Landforms. Within the resume internal, two main physiographic zones, the Chaco Paraguayo and the oriental region, there are further subdivisions to be featured (Figure 4): A) The Chaco Paraguayo which comprises about best cover letter for retail, 60 percent of the country, is an alluvial plain with sediments from the Andes, naturally limited to the east by the Rio Paraguay and to resume internal, the south and south-west by digital tomosynthesis, the Rio Pilcomayo. Altitudes range between 380 m in the north-west and resume 80 m in the south-east, where the Paraguay and Pilcomayo Rivers join, a distance of 750 km (Ramella and Spichiger 1989). Mereles et al. (1992) distinguish two major zones of the Chaco: the dicom digital breast, Humid Chaco (Bajo Chaco), a plain liable to flooding, influenced by the Paraguay and Pilcomayo Rivers (annual rainfall 900 to 1300 mm); the Dry Chaco (Chaco Boreal) with an annual rainfall range of resume internal, 400 to 900 mm, which is further subdivided into rose homework 3 major sub regions (Glatzle 1999): The Central Chaco is resume internal derived from a former inland delta with a mosaic of tomosynthesis, so called campos (old riverbeds with coarse sandy sediments) which contrast with the monte areas with fine textured soils (formerly temporarily inundated by flooding of the resume, ancient river system). Hulman. Campos areas comprise 15 percent of this region. Most of the resume, Northern Chaco is more uniform and is comparable with the monte system of the Central Chaco. Sand dune areas in the far north-west of the Paraguayan Chaco are alluvial deposits remodelled by winds. B) Eastern Paraguay (Oriental Region) comprises 40 percent of the country. Altitudes range from above 600 m in the north-eastern corner (Pedro Juan Caballero) and 55 m in the south-west (Pilar). The Oriental sector of Paraguay is a rather humid region of rolling hills with three major subdivisions (Bertoni and Gorham 1973): The Rio Paraguay Valley is an undulating lowland with plains, parts of which are liable to flooding and digital breast with a few hills or strings of hills.
Almost half of Paraguay#146;s population live here, where the capital Asuncion is located. Resume Internal. The Central Plateau with many low hills forms the continental divide between the watersheds of the Rio Paraguay and the Rio Alto Parana. The Alto Parana Valley is an undulating plain, rising to the west. As annual rainfall is bioinformatics research high, this zone has many large and small watercourses, all draining to the Rio Alto Parana, which runs through a deep gorge and is dammed as the Itaipu reservoir which powers the world#146;s biggest electrical power plant. Figure 4: Paraguay: Physiographic Zones (adapted from Bertoni and internal Gorham 1973) Soils. The Paraguayan Chaco is dominated by geologically relatively young eutric cambisols and orthic luvisols with loamy textures (BGR 2001). Sub-dominant are eutric regosols and poorly developed arenosols (in the sand dune area). Poorly drained eutric gleysols and planosols are found in inclusions of the Central Chaco (so called water-camps with temporary water logging) and in homework the inundated areas of the Humid Chaco. As the resume internal, distance from the help, Andes increases, soils tend to become finer in texture.
The dominating soils in the Chaco have no major limitations in soil fertility, there are however big differences in water availability (drought and excess of water) over internal long periods (Fatecha 1989). Soil pH ranges from mildly acid to mildly alkaline. The horizons are deep with relatively high salinity. Dostoyevski. From north-east to south-west, right across the Paraguayan Chaco, there is a belt of about 500 km long and 50 to 75 km wide with a shallow saline ground water table. This transitional zone between the Dry and resume internal Humid Chaco is rose prone to dry land salinity due to capillary ascension and salt enrichment at the soil surface, producing orthic solonetz and solonchaks in the discharge area of saline ground water. In eastern Paraguay, ferric acrisols with sandy to loamy texture are the main groups of internal, soils in the rolling hills (Central Plateau).
In contrast to cover letter manager, the Chaco with greyish soils, for the Oriental Region a reddish soil colour is typical, due to sesquioxide formation in a rather humid environment. As most bedrocks are acidic (granite, sandstone, schists, gneiss), soils also are almost consistently acid. The depth of the soil profile and also the pedogenetic stage depends largely on resume internal its position in on crime prevention the relief of the landscape. Seasonally swampy, lower-lying areas in the Rio Paraguay Valley, particularly in the south-western corner (vicinity of resume, Pilar) produce soils with hydromorphic properties (planosols). Intensively cropped basalt-derived ferric luvisols are the dominant group in letter the Alto Parana Valley. Generally, the soils in the Oriental sector of Paraguay are considered to have high to medium potential for rainfed crop production (two crops a year), so long as there are no limitations of topography (steep slopes) or waterlogging in temporarily flooded areas.
Contrary to the Chaco, the internal, region has been settled and Dostoyevski farmed for several centuries and little of the original vegetation remains undisturbed. 3. CLIMATE AND AGRO-ECOLOGICAL ZONES. There is a pronounced rainfall gradient right across Paraguay. Mean annual rainfall increases from internal about 400 mm in the north-west to 1,700 mm in the south-east (Sanchez 1973, Figure 5). In the hulman homework, Chaco, about 80 percent falls in summer, whereas in the south-east corner mean monthly rainfall is more equally distributed, with a slight depression in the driest months, July and August. The growing season lasts from October to March in the Chaco. Typical crops are sorghum, cotton and groundnuts. In eastern Paraguay, arable lands are often cropped twice a year under rainfed conditions, with soybean, cotton or maize, followed by a winter crop, such as temperate cereals. Mean annual temperatures vary from 25.9 0 C in the north (Bahia Negra) to 21.4 0 C in the north-eastern corner of the oriental region (Pedro Juan Caballero).
Summers are hot, even very hot. Therefore, potential evapotranspiration reaches values up to internal, 2100 mm (Verma 1982). Absolute maxima range from Dostoyevski 40.8 0 C (Encarnacion) to resume, 44.0 0 C (Mariscal Estigarribia). Best Cover For Retail Manager. In winter, night frosts (to an absolute minimum temperature of - 6.0 0 C) occur, except in the extreme north east. Resume. Aerial parts of tropical grasses are generally burnt off by frost. This can produce a forage shortage, when standing hay is spoiled by rain after frost (Glatzle 1999). Temperature changes may be sudden (15 to 20 degrees in a few hours with the onset of a storm), as prevailing winds switch from northerly to southerly, since there are no significant east west mountain barriers to retain winds.
Wind speed exceeds 6 m/s for 14 percent of the year, resulting in wind erosion of prevention, cleared, bare land (Hacker et al . Resume Internal. 1996). In short, Paraguay has a subtropical continental climate dominated by java homework help, summer rainfall. It falls within the C climates of Koppen#146;s classification (Eidt 1969). Figure 5: Paraguay (Chaco) : Rainfall and resume Temperature. Vegetation. The dominant vegetation formations are xeromorphic, thorny, dry deciduous forests in research papers science the Chaco and resume internal subtropical rainforests in best cover letter the East. Dominant trees in the Dry Chaco are Aspidosperma quebracho-blanco, Chorisia insignis and Schinopsis quebracho-colorado . Internal. Among the shrubs, various Prosopis spp ., Acacia spp ., Capparis spp., Ruprechtia triflora and rose hulman Cercidium praecox are dominant on the monte type soils. In contrast, the sandy campos, along the ancient riverbeds, are characterised by a savanna-like open woodland with the dominant trees being Astronium fraxinifolium, Schinopsis heterophylla, Tabebuia caraiba and Jacaranda mimosifolia . Resume Internal. The herbaceous layer is predominantly grass species Elyonurus muticus . In the Dostoyevski, past, fires, frequently lit by indigenous people, helped to keep the vegetation open (Hacker et al. 1996). Sand dunes in the north-western Chaco are stabilized by natural vegetation. Their pronounced topography differs markedly from the flat, sandy campos in resume internal the Central Chaco, but their savanna-like vegetation is very similar.
To the south and east, depressions with seasonal waterlogging (water-camps) become more frequent. Here, the trees Prosopis ruscifolia, Calycophyllum multiflorum and Bulnesia sarmienti indicate cracking clay soils. Java. The centre of the resume, seasonal ponds, however, have no woody vegetation. An edaphic grassland with species tolerant of waterlogging like Hemarthria altissima, Leersia hexandra and Paspalum spp . covers the ground. In the humid Chaco, the dicom digital tomosynthesis, vegetation is characterised by resume internal, a mosaic with the irregular distribution of wetlands. The lower areas are seasonally waterlogged savannas with a palm ( Copernicia alba ) and grasses like those in the water-camps of the bioinformatics papers science, Central Chaco, whereas drier areas typically support a tall Anadenanthera colubrina forest (Ramella and Spichiger 1989). In the Oriental Region, the resume internal, littoral of the Rio Paraguay Valley resembles the Entre Rios Formations of Argentina with open swampy grasslands and marshes.
This region is suitable for cattle raising. Hulman. The predominantly sandy soils of the Central Plateau and its outskirts once supported a dense forest, rich in quality and variety of hardwood species (e.g. Resume Internal. Amburana cearensis, Aspidosperma polyneuron, Pterogyne nitens, Peltophorum dubium ) which were progressively cleared. Besides timber species there are yerba mate ( Ilex paraguariensis ) and homework the tung-oil trees ( Aleurites fordii ) as well as the coco-palm ( Acrocomia totai ) grown in pure plantations or mixed cropping systems. The valleys are dominated by grasslands which are, however, nowadays successively converted into arable lands with zero-tillage technology. The undulating plain of the Alto Parana Valley was also once covered by species-rich subtropical forest, much of which has been converted in recent years to intensively cropped arable lands (particularly for soy bean and temperate cereals). 4. Internal. RUMINANT LIVESTOCK PRODUCTION SYSTEMS. There are about 10,000,000 head of cattle, 400,000 sheep, 350,000 horses, 120,000 goats plus 1,800,000 pigs and some 15,000,000 poultry in Paraguay (DCEA 2000).
Figures in FAOSTAT for 2005 are 9.6M cattle; 500,000 sheep; 360,000 horses; 155,000 goats; 1.6M pigs and 17.9M poultry (FAO, 2006). Hence, cattle raising for tomosynthesis meat and milk is by resume internal, far the most important livestock sector. Livestock numbers are shown in Table 1. There are about 310,000 individual producers (99 percent) or companies (1 percent) on java help the 24,000,000 hectares of useful land (arable and grazing). On average there are 5.3 members per producer family. Table 1. Livestock numbers (FAO databases, 2006) Poultry nos (,000,000) Land and Livestock Tenure.
With respect to land and livestock tenure systems, land ownership is unbalanced. Farms between 1 and internal 20 hectares own less than 15 percent of the livestock and homework help represent more than 70 percent of all producers / producer families. On the other hand, the producer class with more than 1000 hectares (1 percent of the farms) owns 77 percent of the internal, farm land and 60 percent of the livestock population (Table 2). About 25 percent of Paraguay#146;s producers are involved exclusively in crop production. Of the rest, 89 percent run mixed farms (Molas et al. Digital. 1996), combining, meat or milk production and crops, to resume internal, diversify activities and minimize risk. The remaining 11 percent are exclusively livestock producers. Smallholders are usually subsistence oriented and labour intensive with limited use of technology and Dostoyevski external inputs. However, farms at all production levels are commercially orientated, obviously with increasing market orientation, as the resume, farm size gets bigger. Dicom. Farms over 1,000 hectares contribute more than three quarters of the agricultural exports of the country (GTZ 1994).
Table 2: Land tenure system in resume Paraguay as analysed by most recent agricultural census (MAG 1992) Number of farms. Rel. no. of thesis prevention, farms ( %) per class. Total area (1000 ha) Rel. no. of total ha (%) per class. Rel. no. of cattle (%) per class. 1000 to 5000 ha. 5000 to 10.000 ha. The most striking difference between farming systems in eastern Paraguay and internal the Chaco is average farm size and average stock number per farm (Table 23). Whereas in Dostoyevski the sparsely populated Chaco (1 inhabitant per 2 sq. km) large farms (up to 50,000 ha) predominantly produce beef, in the more densely populated Oriental Region (32 inhabitants per sq. km) farm size is much smaller and farms are much more oriented to internal, mixed farming. Cover Manager. Beef and milk production is highly commercialised, whereas small ruminants and pigs are predominantly kept for resume internal subsistence or have only local commercial importance (no exports).
Horses are almost exclusively working animals, particularly for cattle herd handling. Table 3: Distinctive characteristics of farms in rose hulman the Oriental Region and resume internal the Chaco. (MAG 1992 and DCEA 2000) Number of farms. Total number of cattle. Average farm size. Relative number of farms with. Avg. no. of cattle per farm. There is practically no permanent housing of ruminants.
Steer fattening in feedlots has shown marginal profitability. Animals are ranched on natural or improved pastures. Even in science intensive dairy systems milking cows gain part of their feeding requirements on pastures near milking pens. Tethering is common among smallholders and landless campesinos, otherwise they keep their animals on internal public land between the fences at both sides of public roads. Stocking densities on Dostoyevski range, bush land and sown pastures vary from about 10 (Alto Paraguay) to 0,2 ha (Central Department) per internal, head of cattle, depending on the agro-ecological conditions and feed and supplement availability. Paraguay has a multicultural rural population with strong minorities (native Indians of at least eight different ethnicities and languages, groups of settlers of cover for retail, Brazilian, German or Japanese origin and foreign investors) which differ considerably in their production systems, production levels and resume internal organizational structures.
While the native Indians live predominantly by subsistence agriculture on communally owned land, most of best letter manager, them showing little affinity for animal husbandry, typical Paraguayan campesinos and foreign groups of settlers generally apply mixed farming systems on privately owned land, being predominantly market oriented. Foreign investors, representing a fairly high proportion in the Chaco (Table 3), are exclusively commercially oriented and frequently grow monocultures, such as beef, soy bean or cotton. The organizational structure of Paraguayan campesinos and foreign investors is relatively weak. However almost all emigrant settlers communities are organised into resume marketing co-operatives. Among them are so called colonies of Japanese and Mennonites (a religious community of German origin which settled in the Chaco and in best cover for retail manager eastern Paraguay mainly in the first half of the past century). These colonies exert a strong impact on national markets in special sectors such as dairy products, vegetables and yerba mate. Herd Productivity and Breeds.
Beef is commonly produced in extensive systems on internal the 165,000 square km of homework, native pastures and grazed bush land plus 33,000 square km of internal, cultivated pastures. Main capital investments refer to fencing, establishment of herd handling facilities, construction of dams or so called Tajamares (basins for best cover manager rain water collection) and resume pasture establishment and maintenance. Traditionally, there was little veterinary care and infrequent herd mustering, no seasonal bull service, no weaning control and homework help little genetic improvement. Therefore, traditional herd productivity is low compared to production figures which are regularly achieved nowadays by a growing number of cattle farmers (Table 4). Table 4: Comparison of traditional and present production parameters of resume internal, beef cattle herds and grazing lands in the Chaco (Glatzle, 1999) From the java homework, most important production parameters. Calving rate ( percent) Mortality calves ( percent), first year. Mortality adults ( percent)
Fattening period till 450 kg LW (months) Proportion of internal, cows in the herd ( percent) . result in the following production indices: Extraction rate ( percent) Energy efficiency (kg LW GJ -1 ME) Liveweight production (kg LW ha -1 a -1 ) from on crime ME consumed: 2.5 GJ ME ha -1 a -1 (native bushland)
25 GJ de ME ha -1 a -1 (sown pasture) The energy efficiency of forage was modelled on the basis of the resume internal, production parameters of both traditional and modern systems. The improved herd productivity results in almost twice as much liveweight being produced from hulman a unit of fodder energy consumed. Resume. Moreover, up to a tenfold rise in homework liveweight production per internal, area (across the whole herd) is achieved by improving the forage base. Hence, improved pasture establishment results in breast tomosynthesis a better land use efficiency (Table 4) as long as the resume, production system is ecologically compatible.
More efficient beef production technologies are increasingly adopted by cattle farmers, as indicated by an increase by 66 percent of the rose, nation-wide extraction rate in the past 20 years (Table 6). As far as the milk sector is concerned, 40 percent of the farms own milking cows (in the average 3.6 per farm). Resume. Only part of them (estimated at cover manager, 25 percent) have access to resume, milk collection and processing systems. The remaining 75 percent are either subsistence oriented or depend on local markets for hulman fresh milk or home made cheese. There is a big variation of resume internal, production levels, taking into account all (not only the commercial) milk producers. Whereas the nation-wide average production parameters are poor, specialised commercial milk producers achieve remarkably high production levels (Table 5) applying high technology, and covering up to 75 percent of the daily feed requirements with concentrates and silages, in order to raise milk yields and to achieve a more balanced production across the seasons.
Table 5: Milk production parameters in Paraguay comparing the national average with data from a commercial farm and java homework help a Mennonite co-operative (Molas et al . 1996) Heifer age at first service (months) Calving interval (days) Lactation period (days) Average production (kg milk/cow/year) The Criollio breed, derived from Spanish and later British cattle importations, is a well adapted, small framed and robust, double purpose breed, highly fertile but otherwise low in production. This traditional breed forms about 70 percent of the resume, Paraguayan cattle population (MAG 1992). Homework. However, an increasing proportion of commercial beef cattle farms are replacing Criollo by Zebu types, such as Nellore and Brahman.
Frequently a high level of Zebu-genes is maintained in the herds, served by internal, bulls of hulman homework, British (Angus, Hereford) or European continental (Gelbvieh, Fleckvieh, Limousine) breeds in order to produce a fast growing, environmentally adapted and resistant industrial cross. In commercial dairying, almost exclusively Holstein Friesian genes are incorporated by substitution crossing. In addition some hardy dual purpose breeds, such as Santa Gertrudis or Brown Swiss are kept. Artificial insemination is practised within well organized co-operatives or on resume very big farms. Production, Marketing and bioinformatics research science Consumption of Animal Products. Resume. Since the early nineteen-eighties the cattle population grew by about 50 percent from approx. 6,500,000 to almost 10,000,000 (MAG 1992 and DCEA 2000). In the same period, beef and milk production more than doubled, and indicators of homework help, production levels, such as average extraction rate of slaughter animals and milk yields per milking cow, increased by about 65 percent and internal 25 percent respectively (Table 6).
These higher production levels can be attributed to better herd handling, improved veterinary care and the use of adapted and Dostoyevski productive breeds, but also to internal, the expansion of the area sown to improved pastures. Dicom Breast. Moreover the amount of agro-industrial by-products available increased considerably in the past two decades, particularly in medium to large scale dairy farms. In 2000, total agricultural imports reached a value of US$ 383,241,000 and resume exports a value of dicom digital breast, US$ 647,699,000 (FAO 2005) by 2003 figures were US$ 207.7 for imports and US$ 1.02 billion for exports. Net beef exports accounted for 4 to 9 percent of the internal, total beef production in homework the past years (Table 6). Beef exports vary from year to year and depend very much on the outbreaks of resume internal, Foot and Mouth Disease and a positive immunological status of the animals due to compulsory vaccinations; meat exports beyond South America are insignificant. Beef imports are negligible, like imports and Dostoyevski exports of other meats.
Almost all wool and internal hides are processed locally or discarded. There is only commercial milk production where an digital tomosynthesis, efficient and reliable collection system and a processing plant have been built up. This is the case in the Central Department (around the capital Asuncion) with about 1,000,000 inhabitants, in the Boqueron and Presidente Hayes Departments (Chaco) and resume internal the Departments Caaguazu and Alto Parana (Oriental Region). Insignificant amounts of dairy products are exported since national production does not cover consumption. Imported milk equivalents (predominantly from Argentina) account in dicom tomosynthesis recent years for 7 to 13 percent of the national production of commercialised milk (Table 6). More than half of the meat consumed is beef. As stated in Table 6, total meat consumption is high in Paraguay. On the other hand the resume internal, supply of processed milk is Dostoyevski unsatisfactory (less than 2/3 of the 150 kg/head/yr. recommended by the FAO). Table 6: Paraguay statistics of production, exports and consumption of animal products and important agro-industrial by-products used as animal feeds (FAO 2006) (percent cattle slaughtered) 1. Live cattle net export.
Net beef export. (1000 t) incl. offal. Mutton and goat meat production (1000 t) Pig meat production. Poultry meat production. Production of cattle hides. Milk production 2. Milk production 2. per milking cow (kg/yr.) Net milk product imports. (1000 kg milk equiv.)
Bovine meat supply. Total meat supply. Milk supply (kg/cap/yr.) Agro-industrial by-products for concentrates: 1 Sources: MAG (1992), DCEA (2000) and FAO (2006) 2 Only commercialised milk. 3 Bran yield: about 25 percent of resume, wheat production - wheat exports. 4 Seed cakes (production - exports) of soy bean, cotton, sunflower and groundnuts. The main forage resource for ruminant livestock is natural pasture, cultivated pastures, and bioinformatics research science native bush . The total area dedicated to livestock production is 19,900,000 ha which are distributed in resume the Oriental and the Occidental Regions as shown in Table 7. Table 7: Areas (millions of hectares) of native and cultivated pastures and extensively grazed bush land in Paraguay (Molas et al . 1996)
Native Grazing Resources in Eastern Paraguay. Most of the on crime, grazing lands in the Oriental Region are marginal for agriculture due to natural constraints such as poor drainage, shallow soils, and rocky soil . Internal. Basically there are two types of native pastures in Eastern Paraguay. Lowland grazing (Praderas Bajas): grazing lands on hydromorphic, periodically waterlogged and even swampy soils, mostly on the banks of dicom digital tomosynthesis, rivers (particularly Rio Paraguay). However, there are also extended stretches of plains with hydromorphic planosols with an resume internal, impermeable clayey subsoil towards the central Oriental Region along riverain zones. Hulman. Within these grazing lands, the dominant herbaceous species are large tussock grasses generally with low palatability and internal nutritive value Sorghastrum agrostoides, Panicum prionitis, Andropogon lateralis , and A. condensatus , and grasses of low growth habit, such as Andropogon selloanus, Leersia hexandra, Luziola peruviana, Hymenachne amplexicaulis, Panicum millioides, Paspalum almum, Hemarthria altissima, Rottboellia selloana, Paspalum notatum, Axonopus compressus, A. Java Help. affinis , and Paspalum plicatulum , all considered as highly palatable and nutritive. Moreover, herbaceous legumes such as Desmodium canum, Aeschynomene americana, Macroptilium lathyroides and resume internal Arachis spp . are valuable components commonly found in the lowlands of the rose homework, Oriental Region.
Hillside grazing (Praderas Altas): These are grazing lands in the rolling hills of eastern Paraguay, predominantly at sites, sub-optimal for cropping in the Central Plateau and the Alto Parana Valley. Though generally not cultivated, native hillside grazing lands developed under human influence in forest clearings. Most of them maintain the aspect of a savanna or open woodland with varying densities of trees (even the planted coco-palm Acrocomia totai ). In the Central Plateau, grazing lands are often restricted to sandy soils with rocky outcrops (granite, sandstone, schist) and resume internal of limited fertility (high acidity, high aluminium and low phosphorous contents). In the papers science, Alto Parana Valley, fertility characteristics of the basaltic soils are better, however, grazing lands frequently present slopes marginal for agriculture. Internal. The most important indigenous forage grasses of hillside grazing lands are Paspalum notatum, Axonopus affinis, A. compressus, Paspalum plicatulum and Andropogon lateralis . Common valuable native legumes are Chamaecrista rotundifolia, Stylosanthes guianensis, Arachis spp . , and Alysicarpus sp . . Among the grasses of low stock acceptability are Imperata brasilensis and Aristida spp . . Weedy dicotyledoneous species commonly found are Vernonia chamaedrys, Baccharis sp ., Psidium araca, Butia yatay and Campomanesia obversa . Native Grazing Resources of the Chaco Region. The Occidental (Chaco) Region is an extended alluvial plain with a gradient of rainfall and soil texture from north-west to south-east (more rain and finer texture as the distance from the Andes Mountains increases). The agro-ecological conditions are good for permanent pastures.
However cropping faces some limitations and risks from the quantity and distribution of rainfall (Dry Chaco) and homework help temporary waterlogging (Humid Chaco) respectively (Figure 4). The native grazing resources in the two major physiographic sub regions of the Chaco can be described as follows: The Humid Chaco (Bajo Chaco) : The grazing lands of the Humid Chaco are predominantly palm savannas with Copernicia alba on poorly drained, hydromorphic gleysols and planosols. The palm Copernicia tolerates fires and temporary waterlogging. Resume Internal. It is found in densities of up to 100 trunks per hectare and research papers its spread is promoted by livestock (Degen 1996). These natural grazing lands contain many grasses of resume, medium to high nutritive value and palatability, such as Leersia hexandra, Hemarthria altissima, Panicum elephantipes, Diplachne uninervia, Hymenachne amplexicaulis, Paspalum lividum, P. Dostoyevski. alcalinum, P. almum, Cynodon dactylon, Pennisetum nervosum and Eriochloa montevidensis . Frequently found herbaceous legumes are Desmodium canum, Aeschynomene americana, A. denticulata, Desmanthus virgatus, Dolichopsis paraguariensis and Macroptilium lathyroides . Tussock grasses with rather low palatability are Sorghastrum agrostoides, Paspalum paniculatum, P. plicatulum and P. conspersum. Reported carrying capacities are one American Livestock Unit (454 kg LW) per 2 to 4 ha (Ramirez and Laneri 1989). Besides mechanical or chemical treatments or burning of the shrubby weeds ( Acacia curvifructa, Prosopis ruscifolia and Geoffroea decorticans, and Tessaria dodoneaefolia ), there are practically no interventions for the maintenance of good grazing economically feasible or necessary (Glatzle 1999).
Periodically and episodically flooded areas with waters from the Pilcomayo river in internal regions with rather low rainfall (below 750 mm) are to be considered as a transitional zone between the Humid and the Dry Chaco. This zone along the left side riverbanks of the upper Picomayo-river is exposed to digital breast, an extremely varying water regime, which may cause seasonally flooded grasslands to be reconverted into xeromorphic bush and vice versa within a few consecutive years. The Dry Chaco : Traditionally the most important natural grazing resource in resume the Dry Chaco are the espartillo grasslands (campos) on hulman the regosols or arenososls in old riverbeds of the former inland delta which shaped the resume, landscape of the Central Chaco. These grasslands are characterised by abundance of the grass Elyonurus muticus (espartillo), not particularly palatable. Other grasses are Aristida circinalis, Paspalum chaseanum, Heteropogon contortus and Sporobolus pyramidalis . Best Cover Manager. The espartillo-grasslands present a wealth of native legumes as soon as fire frequency is reduced and disturbance by grazing increased. Among the more important legumes are Aeschynomene histrix, Stylosanthes leiocarpa, Galactia sp ., Macroptilium bracteatum, Mimosa chacoensis, M. nuda, Rhynchosia balansae, Chamaecrista rotundifolia and Zornia crinita (Hacker et al.
1996). Internal. Typical pasture weeds coming up in overgrazed espartillos are Sida spp ., Croton cujabensis, Aloysia virgata and bioinformatics science Acacia aroma . In former decades, a relatively high proportion of the resume internal, campos was used for dicom digital cropping by early European settlers and indigenous horticulturalists. Although the fertility status (organic matter, P, K) of virgin regosols is relatively high, continuous cropping with frequent tillage and without fertilization drastically reduced soil fertility. Resume Internal. Nowadays, rundown regosols are restored establishing a permanent pasture (e.g. with Pangola grass) and introducing a suitable legume (e.g. Stylosanthes hippocampoides or Alysicarpus vaginalis ). Towards the sub-humid parts of the Central Chaco (south and east), inclusions of edaphic grasslands on poorly drained gleysols (so called water-camps ) are found with increasing density. The forage species occurring in the water-camps are essentially those listed for the Copernicia savannas in the Humid Chaco. Another important traditional natural forage resource in the Dry Chaco is the native bush land ( montes ). Browsing the mostly thorny woody plants, such as Acacia praecox, A. aroma, Caesalpinia paraguariensis, Ruprechtia triflora, Capparis tweediana and C. retusa and eating the pods of various Prosopis and Acacia spp. Dostoyevski. (Morello and Toledo 1959) supports an average stocking density of about one bovine animal unit to 10 to 15 ha of bush (Fretes et al.
1969). Understorey grasses are virtually absent: Setaria globulifera, S. Internal. fiebrigii and Digitaria sacchariflora are practically the only grasses found, but in thesis very low frequency. Resume. There are studies demonstrating a severe degradation of the monte soils due to overgrazing under traditional grazing regimes. However, Adamoli et al. (1990) estimated the area affected by soil degradation in Chaco bush land to be less than one percent of the total area. Abril and Bucher (2001) reported that soil organic carbon losses are much lower under cultivated pastures than in over utilised bush land. 6. Prevention. OPPORTUNITIES FOR IMPROVEMENT OF FODDER RESOURCES. Sown Pastures with Introduced Forages . The establishment of pastures with selected grasses and legumes on cleared land raises herd productivity per unit area about ten fold (Glatzle and resume internal Cabrera 1996, and Table 3). Hence it is papers not surprising that the area of cultivated pastures increased five to six fold since 1980, mostly at resume internal, the expense of native forests and bush. Large scale land clearing and pasture establishment obviously has adverse effects on landscape and species diversity and carbon sequestration. Therefore it is thesis prevention indispensable to take into account a number of resume, land clearing regulations in Dostoyevski order to maintain or create a healthy and diverse agro-ecosystem.
A steadily increasing number of farmers leave at least 25 percent of the forest, woodlands or bush of a property intact (Ley Forestal 422/73). Leave intact a bush strip of 100 m width in east-west orientation, perpendicular to internal, the prevailing wind (north-south) every 500 m and around the property (Resolucion No. 729/2000) Leave bush borders at least 100 m wide around all types of temporary or permanent waters (rivers, lagoons, water-camps) (Decreto No. 18.831/86). A significantly higher biodiversity was found when pastures contained a large number of on crime, native bush niches (strips and resume internal islands) and when the use of fire as a management tool was restricted or avoided (Glatzle 1999). Moreover, at sites with an elevated dry land salinity risk (high water table of saline ground water in a semi-arid climate, such as the Chaco), native bush fulfils the important role of preventing salinity due to the very high suction forces produced by many Chaco woody species, capable of keeping the papers, ground water at a low level (Glatzle et al. 2001).
Bush clearing at sites prone to salinisation has resulted in the loss of valuable pasture land. Pasture establishment in Paraguay with selected forages has a relatively short history but has reached significant importance during the past two decades (Table 7). Probably with the introduction and multiplication of buffel grass ( Cenchrus ciliaris ) by an American agricultural advisor of the Mennonite colonies in the Central Chaco, Robert Unruh, in the early nineteen fifties, cultivated pastures attained economic importance for the first time. Resume. Later on, a number of dicom tomosynthesis, other introduced grasses gained commercial importance and were multiplied on a national level (Table 8). When the German-Paraguayan Project Estacion Experimental Chaco Central started in the early nineteen-nineties, a new era started for the commercial use of resume, introduced pasture legumes (Table 8). In order to thesis prevention, maintain productivity, cultivated pastures require, even more than native grazing lands, a correct adjustment of stocking rates.
Typical stocking rates range from about 0.5 to 2 bovine units per hectare along the rainfall gradient across Paraguay, from north-west to south-east. Maximum energy conversion from Panicum maximum cv. Gatton and Cynodon nlemfuensis pastures in the Central Chaco by internal, grazing steers (into animal liveweight per ha) was attained by a stocking rate of 1.8 AU/ ha (Stosiek et al. Rose Homework. 1997). This figure exceeds, however, the recommended long term ecological optimum stocking rate for this zone (0.8 to 1.2 AU/ ha). Maintenance interventions, such as woody weed control, are necessary to maintain long term profitability of sown pastures. Other grasses cultivated on a commercial scale, but of much less importance than the ones mentioned in Table 8, are: Chloris gayana cv. Internal. Callide, Panicum coloratum cv. Bambatsi, Brachiaria decumbens, B. mutica, B. Papers Science. humidicola, Cynodon sp . Tifton 85 and Callie, Digitaria milanjiana, Cenchrus ciliaris Bella, Acroceras macrum and Dichanthium caricosum . Pasture legumes of secondary importance are: Macroptilium atropurpureum Siratro, Lotononis bainesii, Stylosanthes scabra cv.
Seca and Siran, S. Internal. hamata cv. Java Homework. Amiga, Clitoria ternatea cv. Milgarra and Chamaecrista rotundifolia cv. Wynn. Other Fodders. Among the most important cultivated forages is Silage Sorghum for dairy enterprises. In the Central Chaco (accounting for resume about 50 percent of the national milk production), the area cultivated with Silage Sorghum is estimated at over 10,000 hectares. At smallholder level in Eastern Paraguay some silage is thesis made from Pennisetum purpureum (Cameroon grass). Part of the grain Sorghum (23,000 t on 16,000 ha in Paraguay) and maize (900,000 t on 370,000 ha in Paraguay) is used for concentrates, to be mixed at farm or at internal, small commercial enterprise level with the agro-industrial by-products obtained predominantly from oilseeds (Table 6). Best For Retail Manager. No statistics are available on total concentrate feed production, nor on the proportions used to feed dairy cows, pigs, horses or poultry.
However, concentrates used for beef production are negligible. A typical emergency feed is sugar cane, grown on resume a small area on many farms and harvested in the dry season. During prolonged drought periods (about one in 10 years), whole sugar cane (produced in more humid Eastern Paraguay) is sold to cattle farmers in the Dry Chaco to enable them to maintain at hulman, least their breeding herd. There is little haymaking in Paraguay. Similarly, there is virtually no irrigated fodder production due to the absence of irrigation water in the Chaco (and poor external drainage) the high rainfall reliability in Eastern Paraguay the high opportunity costs (irrigated vegetables are more profitable than forages).
Table 8: Commercially important pasture grasses and legumes in Paraguay. Cultivar or/and common name. Since 1990 most important grass for newly cleared lands. Resume Internal. In the Chaco, many 100,000 hectare of highly productive Gatton pastures. Colonial and Tanzania. Grown on the more fertile basaltic soils in East Paraguay. Less important in the Chaco. Buffel grass, Texas 4464. Since nineteen fifties.
Several 100,000 ha in the Dry Chaco. Otherwise replaced by Gatton. Several 100,000 ha along the homework, limit of the Dry and internal Humid Chaco, in thesis on crime prevention the Humid Chaco, and on the fertile soils in East Paraguay. Wide spread in East Paraguay predominantly on infertile sandy soils. In the Chaco not frequent.
Tolerant to spittle bug. Digitaria eriantha var . pentzii. Several 10,000 hectare on sandy soils and at shortly inundated sites in East and West Py. Important since 1995 in resume the Chaco to restore rundown Gatton and buffel pastures. Restores rundown arable regosols in the Chaco. Combines well with Pangola. Dicom Digital Breast. Also used as a summer active ley legume. Excellent to restore rundown arable regosols. Combines well with Pangola.
Cultivated legume, native to the Chaco. Adapts well to heavy textured soils. Resume Internal. Unsatisfactory long term persistence under grazing is limiting factor. Cunningham and Tarramba. Used as a fodder bank by an increasing number of smallholders and big farms. Winter active, to be mixed into best letter for retail manager permanent pastures in internal the Alto Parana Valley, East Py. Winter active ley legume, relatively rare. Constraints. The main constraints to pasture establishment, grassland management, forage and ruminant production and product marketing in Paraguay are the following: Shrubby weed invasion in cultivated pastures and native grasslands (requires interventions every two to three years) Soil compaction due to overstocking and loss of soil plasticity (loss of research papers, organic matter) Reduced pasture productivity due to nitrogen deficiency in older pastures Uncontrolled fires entering from neighbouring properties, destroying fodder reserves Wind erosion on sandy, denuded soils Increasing pests and resume internal diseases, such as leaf cutting ants ( Acromyrmex landolti and Atta vollenweideri ), grasshoppers ( Staurorhectus longicornis ), caterpillars ( Spodoptera frugiperda ), spittle bugs ( Zulia sp . ), red spider mite ( Tetranychus sp. ), buffel blight ( Pyricularia grisea ), ergot ( Claviceps maximensis ) etc. Dostoyevski. Unexpectedly prolonged droughts, particularly in the Chaco High risks of dryland salinity within a belt of about 500 km long and 50 to 75 km wide with a shallow saline ground water table, right across the Paraguayan Chaco from north-east to south-west Long distances to the slaughter houses (reduces profitability for resume beef) Absence of papers, milk collection systems in many parts of the country. Pasture seed production.
There is internal a strong small to medium scale pasture seed production in rose hulman the Central Chaco of resume internal, Paraguay at farm level. The seed produced are Panicum maxium cv. Gatton, Cenchrus ciliaris cv. Texas 4464 and Bella, Urochloa mosambicensis, Chloris gayana cv. Hulman Homework. Callide, selections of resume internal, Digitaria milanjiana , Panicum coloratum cv. Bambatsi, Sorghum sudanense, Leucaena leucocephala, Alysicarpus vaginalis, Desmanthus virgatus cv. Filadelfia and Stylosanthes hippocampoides cv. Oxley. Total seed production attains several hundred tons a year.
Although there is no pasture seed certification, seed quality commonly competes with certified Argentine or Brazilian seed. Most seed is locally marketed directly between farms or via the co-operatives of the zone. Bigger seed producers also export Gatton Panic seed to neighbouring Argentina and Bolivia. However, practically all Brachiaria spp . Java. seed and most Panicum maximum cv. Internal. Tanzania and Dostoyevski cv. Colonial seed which are used in resume Paraguay, are imported from Brazil, because seed yields are too low under local conditions.
7. RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT ORGANIZATIONS AND PERSONNEL. At present little research is carried out actively in Paraguay in homework the fodder and pasture sector. Resume Internal. However, in the past, international or bilateral programmes and projects introduced and screened pasture species, initiated trials on pasture and herd handling and grazing management, and disseminated innovations in the forage and livestock sector. For example: an American agronomist employed by the MCC (Mennonite Central Committee) who introduced buffel grass and initiated pasture cultivation in the Chaco the Servicio Tecnico Interamericano de Cooperacion Agricola (STICA) who evaluated for the first time cattle breeds, native and dicom digital tomosynthesis introduced to internal, Paraguay a Swiss project in connection with the Instituto Agrario Nacional (IAN) in Caacupe a USAID project in bioinformatics research papers science connection with PRONIEGA (Programa Nacional de Investigacion y Extension Ganadera) in Pozo Colorado a French project in resume internal connection with the Fondo Gandero in La Patria a German project in co-operation with DIA (Direccion de Investigacion Agricola) in java the Central Chaco (Estacion Experimental Chaco Central, Cruce de los Pioneros). Besides that, there were many initiatives by resume internal, individual farmers to introduce and test species they brought in from other countries, mostly Brazil and Argentina. Dostoyevski. Most of the Brachiaria species and a number of internal, Cynodon cultivars came in through this channel and bioinformatics were spread from farmer to internal, farmer. More recently, livestock farmers interested in applied experimentation became privately organised in the Consorcio Ganadero para la Experimentacion Agropecuaria (CEA). CEA holds a highly appreciated international congress on technology transfer every year in Asuncion at the headquarters of the Asociacion Rural del Paraguay (ARP).
CEA members even organised an information travel of farmers to homework help, Queensland, Australia, from internal where a lot of new ideas and aspects on cattle breeds and grass cultivars came into on crime prevention the country. Moreover, the resume internal, ARP is the organiser of a big annual Agricultural Trade Fair, where regularly cattle breeds and adapted pasture seed are exposed and marketed. On a regional level, farmers conscious of sustainable and profitable production systems organise themselves in so called CREA-groups (Consorcio Regional de Extension Agropecuaria). On Crime Prevention. Some private CREA groups work very efficiently, and sometimes contrast favourably with public extension services, such as divisions of the resume internal, Ministry based Direccion de Extension Agricola y Ganadera (DEA) or even services offered by papers, credit institutes, such as CAH, BNF and Fondo Gandero. Only about one in ten farms is reached by resume, a pubic extension service at a nation-wide average (Molas et al. 1996). However, many producers#146; co-operatives provide competent technical assistance to their members. A new programme has started in October 2001 at Loma Plata, Chaco, the Iniciativa para la Investigacion y Transferencia de Tecnologia Agraria Sostenible (INTTAS), initiated by the private foundation DeSdel-Chaco (Fundacion para el Desarrollo Sostenible del Chaco), and sponsored by the Swiss foundation AVINA (Accion para la Vida y la Naturaleza).
This programme integrates, co-ordinates and complements the on-farm-experimentation and technology dissemination activities carried out by various co-operatives and their extension services, and private farmer groups within the Paraguayan Chaco. Furthermore, INTTAS is to reactivate a virtually paralysed public research station in the Chaco Region, implementing joint research programmes, and to thesis on crime prevention, promote regular exchange of experience with private and public entities of interest from the other Chaco countries, Argentina and Bolivia. The Direccion de Investigacion Agricola (DIA), part of the Ministry of Agriculture, carries out research mainly in the cropping sector in 9 research stations spread over the country. However, little importance is internal given to research in pastures and forages. Java Homework Help. The mandate of another Ministry-dependent research unit, the Direccion de Investigacion de Produccion Animal (DIPA), is to conduct research in the animal production sector in three stations across the country. Again, the products of co-operative based and other private initiatives on internal animal breeding, animal selection and improvement of herd handling are more obvious than public efforts in this field. The low efficiency of public research in Paraguay is primarily due to the lack of operational funds. Research Science. More than 80% of the internal, small budgets available (including revenues generated on the research stations) are used to cover the personnel costs.
In contrast to many other countries throughout Latin America efforts to revamp public-sector agricultural research and development agencies in Paraguay have yet to come to fruition. Major change was proposed in the mid-1990s in the form of the Dostoyevski, establishment of a national agricultural research institute, the Paraguayan Institute of Agrarian Technology (IPTA), as a joint public-private venture with multiple funding sources. The proposal for resume internal the creation of bioinformatics research papers science, IPTA is still pending, however, and it now appears that no legislative decision will be made until at least 2002, following a public reform process that is currently underway in Paraguay Beintema et al. (2000). On the other hand meanwhile, a strong negative selection process is being observed, by skilled technicians and scientists moving away from the public sector (DIA and resume DIPA) into private research and development entities. Some kind of extension work and breast small scale experimentation in the forage and resume internal livestock sector is done by institutions of higher education which are:
Facultad de Ciencias Agrarias (FCA) - Universidad Nacional de Asuncion (UNA) Facultad de Ciencias Veterinarias (FCV) - Universidad Nacional de Asuncion (UNA) Facultad de Ciencias Agrarias (FCA) - Universidad Catolica Nuestra Senora de Asuncion (UCA) Facultad de Ingenieria Agronomica Ciencias Agrarias (FCA) - Universidad Nacional del Este (UNE) Distinguished Technicians currently engaged in public or private research programmes in the pasture and forage sector are: Jefe Seccion Pastura. Estacion Experimental Chaco Central. Cruce de los Pioneros. Ruta Trans-Chaco - km 412.
Estacion Experimental Pilar. Tacuary esq. Bioinformatics Papers. Dr. Mazzei. Facultad de Ciencias Agrarias, UNA. Dpto. Produccion Animal. Campo Universitario, San Lorenzo. Servicio Agropecuario, Chortitzer Komite. Loma Plata - 101 / Chaco.
C.d.c. 883 Asuncion. Facultad de Ciencias Agrarias, UNA. Campo Universitario, San Lorenzo. Servicio Agropecuario, Chortitzer Komite. Loma Plata - 101 / Chaco. C.d.c. 883 Asuncion. Tel: xx 595 918 2301. Abril, A. and E.H.
Bucher (2001): Overgrazing and soil carbon dynamics in the western Chaco of Argentina. Resume Internal. Applied Soil Ecology 16, 243 - 249. Adamoli, J., E. Sennhauser, J.M. Acero and A. Rescia (1990): Stress and disturbance: Vegetation dynamics in the dry Chaco region of Argentina. Journal of Biogeography 17, 491 - 500. AHK (1999): PARAGUAY . Deutsch-Paraguayische Industrie- und Handelskammer, Asuncion, Paraguay. Beintema, N.M., P. Zambrano, M. Nunez, and research science P.G. Pardey (2000): Agricultural RD in internal Paraguay: Policy, Investments, and Institutional Profile. International Food Policy Research Institute, Washington D.C. Bertoni, G.T. and J.R. Gorham (1973): The Geography of Paraguay.
In J.R. Gorham (ed.). Paraguay: Ecological Essays. Academy of the Arts and Sciences of the Americas, Miami, pp. Dicom Breast Tomosynthesis. 9 - 18. BGR (2001): Proyecto Sistema Ambiental del Chaco. Inventario, evaluacion y recomendaciones para la proteccion de los espacios naturales en la Region Occidental.
Bundesanstalt fur Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe, Hannover. DCEA (2000 ): Sintesis Estadistica 1999/2000. Direccion de Censos y Estadisticas Agropecuarias, Ministerio de Agricultura y Ganaderia, Asuncion, Paraguay. Degen, R. (1996): Dinamica poblacional de Copernicia alba Morong Caranda#146;y. Direccion de Ordenamiento Ambiental and Estacion Experimental Chaco Central (unpublished report) Eidt, R.C. (1969): The climatology of South America. In E.J.J. Illes, H. Klinge, G.H. Resume. Schwabe, and H. Sioli (eds.). Biogeography and ecology of South America. Vol.
1. Dr. W. Junk, The Hague. FAO (2006): Online Statistical Database. http://apps.fao.org. Fatecha, A. (1989): Present and dicom digital breast potential area for agricultural use in the Arid Chaco of Paraguay. Resume. In M. On Crime Prevention. Hump and M.A. Tiefert (eds.). Agricultural Production under Semi-Arid Conditions with Special Reference to the Paraguayan Chaco: Strategies and Appropriate Technologies . DSE Feldafing, pp. 26-49.
Fretes, R., C. Gay and R. Samudio (1969): Las praderas naturales del Paraguay. Resume Internal. I. Clasificacion y caracterizacion. Programa Nacional de Investigacion y Extension Ganadera. Publicacion No. Tomosynthesis. 6, San Lorenzo.
Glatzle, A. and A.J.N. Cabrera (1996): Potencial de las pasturas cultivadas en el Chaco Paraguayo. In Consorcio de Ganaderos para Experimentacion Agropecuaria (ed.): CEA #146;96 ; Forrajes. III er Congreso Internacional de Transferencia Tecnologica Agropecuaria (17 y 18 de Nov. 1996), Asuncion, 155 - 168. Glatzle, A. (1999): Compendio para el Manejo de Pasturas en el Chaco . Resume Internal. Edicion El Lector, Asuncion, Paraguay. Glatzle, A., R. Thesis On Crime Prevention. Schultze-Kraft, and R. Mitlohner (2001): Potential Role of Native Bush in the Chaco for Mitigation of internal, Dryland Salinity in Grassland . Prevention. XIX International Grassland Congress, February 2001, Piracicaba, Brazil, ID 24-02. Gorham, J.R. Internal. (1973): The Paraguayan Chaco and Its Rainfall.
In J.R. Gorham (ed .). Paraguay: Ecological Essays . Academy of the Arts and Sciences of the Americas, Miami, U.S.A., pp. 39 - 60. GTZ (1994): PARAGUAY. Perfil del pais con informaciones y comentarios relacionados al desarrollo economico y socia l. Deutsche Gesellschaft fur Technische Zusammenarbeit, Eschborn, Germany. Hacker, J.B., A. Glatzle and dicom digital breast R. Resume. Vanni (1996): Paraguay - a potential source of new pasture legumes for research science the subtropics. Tropical Grasslands 30, 273 - 281. MAG (1992): Censo Agropecuario Nacional 1991 . Ministerio de Agricultura y Ganaderia, Asuncion, Paraguay. MAG (1996): Lineamiento Estrategico para el Desarrollo del Sector Agropecuario y Forestal. Resume Internal. Ministerio de Agricultura y Ganaderia, Asuncion, Paraguay.
Mereles, F., R. Degen and N. Lopez de Kochalca (1992): Humedales en el Paraguay: Breve resena de su vegetacion. Thesis Prevention. Amazoniana 12, 305 - 316. Molas, O., R. Heyn and R. Arias (1996): Documento base sobre el sector pecuario y su impacto ambiental. ENAPRENA, Asuncion, Paraguay. Morello, J. and resume internal C. Saravia Toledo (1959): El Bosque chaqueno.
II. La ganaderia y el bosque en el Oriente de Salta. Revista Agronomica del Noroeste Argentino 3 (1-2), 209 - 258. Ramella, I. and R. Spichiger (1989): Interpretacion preliminar del medio fisico y de la vegetacion del Chaco Boreal. Research. Contribucion al estudio de la flora de la vegetacion del Chaco. Candollea 44, 639 - 680. Ramirez, E.G. and J.L.
Laneri (1989): Fodder and Feeding of Cattle in the Paraguayan Chaco. In M. Resume Internal. Hump and M.A. Tiefert (eds.). Rose Hulman. Agricultural Production under Semi-Arid Conditions with Special Reference to the Paraguayan Chaco: Strategies and Appropriate Technologies . Resume. DSE Feldafing, pp. 139-148.
Sachez, T.F. (1973): The climate of Paraguay. In J.R. Gorham (ed.). Paraguay: Ecological Essays . Academy of the Arts and Sciences of the Americas, Miami, U.S.A., pp. 33 - 38. Stosiek, D., A. Glatzle and R. Schultze-Kraft (1997): Utilized Metabolizable Energy and Its Impact on on crime the Management of Grass Pastures in the Central Chaco of Paraguay. Proc. XVIII th International Grassland Congress , Winnipeg and Saskatoon, Canada, 29-7 - 29-8. Tarso Zuquim, P. and I. Internal. Lima Serrano (1997): Tuiuiu: Under the skies of the Pantanal. Empresa de Artes, Sao Paulo, Brazil (work sponsored by java homework help, Monsanto do Brazil)
Verma, G.P. (1982 ): Research needs for resume internal the development and improvement of dryland agriculture in the Paraguayan Chaco . Unpublished report of the Technical and for retail manager Economic Co-operation between the Government of the Republic of India, New Delhi, India and the Government of the Republic of Paraguay, Asuncion, Paraguay. Glatzle, Dr. Albrecht. Asesor Tecnico Administrativo de la Iniciativa para la Investigacion y Transferencia de Tecnologia Agraria Sostenible (INTTAS)
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There. Oak flooring Hardwood versus laminate, this is a common decision that homeowners face on a regular basiswhen choosing which type of flooring to have installed in their homes today. Although laminate flooring has a layer of resume internal real wood on the surface, there are areas of the home where real wood will definitely. What Advantages and bioinformatics research papers Disadvantages You Face When Living Far from Home? Nowadays, living far from home is popular with many people especially students who were born in provinces far from the large cities. Internal? A number of people argue that this is a good chance of growing up and helps them to have a complete view about life. However, it is short-sighted if we would refer not.
today is to turn to java homework help green living.Many people do not actually understand what living green is all about. Anything that you do that produces a beneficial effect on the environment is green living . The ultimate goal for green living is to have the earth in an ecological balance. When we decide to live green. How to Decide Whether to Live at Home During College. How to Decide Whether to Live at Home During College Most students are ready to get out of their house by internal the end of rose high school and try living life quot;on their ownquot; in resume internal the experimental structure known as college.
Still, there are some benefits to thesis living at home during college: whether or not. The Joys of Moving Into Your First Apartment. Into Your First Apartment Until the latter years of my teenage life, I have not yet been able to experience the internal, joys of living alone, until recently. I decided to brave the world at the young age of eighteen and bioinformatics papers acquire my own living arrangements, other than my parents. Living with roommates. choice between staying in internal the dormitories on campus or finding themselves living quarters off campus. Many students and their parents are faced with this decision when the java homework, student is accepted to a university that is not so close to home . There are many factors on why students should make this decision wisely.
The Advantages of Renting an Apartment. Even though ownership of resume internal a house is an “All American Dream,” the advantages of renting an apartment , far exceeds that dream. When it concerns making the decision weather to java homework rent an internal, apartment or buying a house, it may seem like a game of tug-of-war. Dostoyevski? That kind of big life decision can leave potential. and Caregivers As people get older there will be decisions made by resume internal them, their families, or even caregivers.
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Tonya Spaulding COM/15 March 5, 2011 Suzanne Wolf Renting an apartment is a better option than buying a house. This is a statement that is resume, most likely different for each individual. I believe there. Living in java homework Apartment and Dormitories. from home . There fore, many students opt to live in an apartment or in dormitories in the University. But before they make a decision, they need to consider all the aspects of these kinds of resume accommodation because each his its advantages and disadvantages. On the hulman, one hand, living in resume internal an apartment has many. the changes in the people coming in Dostoyevski and out of the building from apartment four are amazing. The neighborhood drug dealers and in and out.
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waste than any other living creature on earth. Hulman Homework? We are a nation of producers and consumers. If something is not done to stop this crisis of global warming and destroying our natural resources, generations from now will not be able to live the resume, lifestyles today’s society has. Living “green” and converting. Case Study Market Research and Analysis. heartland. On Crime Prevention? With modest educations, sprawling families, and service jobs, many of these residents struggle to make ends meet. One quarter live in resume mobile homes . One in three haven't finished high school. Rich in scenery, Bedrock America is a haven for fishing, hunting, hiking, and dicom breast camping. 50 . BUS 215 Week 3 DQ 1 Renting vs.
Buying. com/bus-215/bus-215-week-3-dq-1-renting-vs-buying/ Renting vs. Buying. Consider whether renting or buying a home is the best approach to achieving your long-term financial goals. Use the text concepts, tools, and various data (housing rental costs, home sale prices, mortgage rates, etc.) available to you in your geographic area, and. My Rural Vietnamese Home It is resume internal, hard for me to forget the place where I were born and grew up. Rose Hulman Homework? The house is located in thinly populated village in Vietnam. At that house, I have many sweet and unforgettable memories. Although I had to go far away from the house for internal, a long time, I still cannot forget.
Living in Dorm and Living in Your House. rTOPIC: Living in dormitory and living in your house. Up to now, there are two places that have had a profound impact in my life. They are home and dormitory which I am living in Dostoyevski now. When you compare them, they seem dramatically different places, but they have something in common and I love them. House and Apartment : Similarities and Differences A home is a place that makes us feel secure and comfortable. So, it should be a place that is the most suitable place for us to rest after did many activities at the day. However, as the internal, time goes by, there has been built an apartment which is has the. English 10 - Is living in a house your family owns different from best living in a house use or apartment your family rents? How? Are renters Owners and homeless people all considered equal citizens in America?
Why or Why not? - Living in a house your family owns is different from living in a house or apartment. Marriage Versus Living Together - Essay. Marriage versus living together Carrie nelson E N C 2300-9 Work 8 docs. Marriage is the largest things that a man and internal woman do as husband and wife, we get marriage in courthouse and some get jurisdictions, between us as the same sex, it a union between two people.
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Essay // The Psychology Behind Conformity, Compliance Obedience. Adaptive Social Behaviours. Conformity, compliance and obedience are a set of adaptive social behaviours that one makes use of to get by in daily social activities. They are all some form of resume internal social influence, which causes a change in homework a particular person or group’s behaviour, attitude and/or feelings (Cialdini, 2000, 2006). Various forms of social influence have been used for a variety of reasons; sometimes to resume internal help individuals stray from harmful behaviour such as smoking; other times [not as altruistic as the latter] to sway customer decisions towards consumerism.
Such changes in behaviour require systematic approaches that can be in the shape of direct personal requests; or more subtle and elaborate commercials and political campaigns. Direct efforts geared at changing another’s overt behaviour require persuasion; and are often described as compliance [seeking compliance]; which involves specific requests that are answerable by simple answers such as “Yes”, “No” or “Maybe”. Other behavioural etiquettes sometimes require the impact of a set of rules, such as [formally] speed signs, or [informally] public space rules [staring at strangers is seen as inappropriate]; this type of thesis on crime influence is known as conformity, which is generally believed to be an integral part of social life. Obedience as a form of social influence tends to take a more straightforward [abrupt] approach as it involves direct orders or commands from a superior. Conformity: Pressure to behave in ways deemed acceptable (by who why?) Conformity which is an internal integral part of social life and rose hulman could be defined as the pressure to resume behave in ways that are viewed as acceptable [appropriate] by rose hulman a particular group [peer or cultural]. Resume? The rules that cause people to conform are known as social norms, and have a major influence on our behaviour. When the norms are clear and dicom breast tomosynthesis distinct we can expect to conform more and when not clear, it generally leads the way for internal less conformity and uncertainty. An effective example of norms explicitly stated was seen in Setter, Brownlee, Sanders (2011) where percentages were left on java homework the bill for tipping guidance; what was observed is the positive effect it had on customers, making them tip. However, whether social norms are implicit, formal or informal, most individuals who chose to embrace social reality tend to follow the rules most of the time. While some might argue that conformity takes away a lot of social freedom from the individual; the other perspective sees conformity as an important agent in internal the proper functioning of society [supposed no one obeyed road laws, chaos would spread across cities worldwide].
Furthermore, many people choose to comply to thesis on crime look good to resume internal others and make a positive impression even if their true self do not agree with conforming, similarly to Hewlin (2009) where many employees adopted the “facades of conformity” and although found it unpleasant – thought of java help it as necessary for career progress – conformity for resume internal many is seen as tactic of java self-presentation. Yet, many individuals are unaware of the amount of conformity they show, and would rather see themselves as an internal independent who is less susceptible to conformity (Pronin, Berger, and Molouki, 2007). Individuals generally choose to conform primarily because most individual have the desire to be liked and one way of achieving this is to agree and behave like others [contradictions might not lead to acceptance]. Secondly, the desire to be right – to have a reliable understanding of the social world (Deutsch Gerard, 1955; Insko 1985) leads most to go with the values of others in who might be described as a group of individuals chosen to be a guide in partial identity. However, while conformity serves as a guide, it can also hamper evolution and innovation as critical analysis is homework not likely to resume thrive where most individuals seem to dicom digital breast tomosynthesis follow a pre-programmed behavioural patterns that have been established centuries ago. Therefore a fair balance in thought and application seems to remain the best line of resume thought when dealing with conformity [think, analyse evaluate]. Thinkers: Not Everyone Conforms Blindly As an Increasing Number of Individuals Now Think Independently. Somehow, not everybody conforms, many individuals and groups are able to withstand conforming pressures as shown in Reicher and Haslam (2006) BBC prison study. Power was found to be a factor that acts as a shield against conformity (Keltner, Gruenfeld, and Anderson, 2003); it was found that restrictions that influence the science thought, expression and behaviour of resume most people do not seem to apply to Dostoyevski people in power [leaders, CEOs, politicians, etc] with the reasons being the fact that these people are generally less dependent on others for social resources; pay less attention to threats; and are less likely to resume internal consider the perspective of other people.
Griskevicius, Goldstein, Mortensen, Cialdini, and rose homework Kenrick (2006)’s study supported the resume internal reasoning that when humans desire to attract desirable mates, both sexes tend to conform to gender stereotypes – here the java homework help male would usually not conform to everyday social rules [but indirectly conform to gender stereotype]. Finally, many human beings refuse to conform due to resume their desire to be unique – when their uniqueness feels threatened, they tend to thesis on crime actively resist conformity (Imhoff and Erb, 2009). Compliance: A Request requiring Conformity. Compliance is internal a form of conformity, however, unlike the latter it involves a request for others to answer with a “yes”. Thesis? While conformity attempts to resume alter people’s behaviour in Dostoyevski order to match their desire to be liked and to be right; compliance is usually aimed at a gain, and to achieve it one would need compliance from resume internal others. One technique used to gain compliance is an impression management, ingratiation; which involves getting others to like us in order to increase the chance of making them comply to our requests (Jones, 1964; Liden Mitchell).
Gordon (1996) suggested 2 techniques that work, flattery and Dostoyevski promotion. Another powerful means is “incidental similarity” where attention is called onto internal, small and slightly surprising similarities between them and ourselves (Burger, Messian, Patel, del Pardo, and Anderson, 2004). While Conformity consisted mainly in gaining acceptance and trust, compliance is more focussed on bioinformatics research papers getting to an end. A technique used to get compliance, is the resume internal “Foot-in-the-door” technique which involves inducing target people with a small request [once they agree], only to make a larger one, the one we wanted all along (Freedman Fraser, 1966) – it relies on the principles of consistency [once said yes, more likely to say yes again]. Another technique known as the “Lowball Procedure” rests on science the principle of commitment where a deal is proposed, only to be modified once the target person accepts – the resume initial commitment makes it harder to turn down. The “Door-in-the-face” technique involves a large request, only to fall on research science a smaller one after refusal; this was proven to resume internal be efficient by Gueguen (2003). The “That’s-not-all-technique” was also confirmed to thesis work by resume Burger (1986), a technique based on rose homework reciprocity involving enhancing the deal before the target person has the time to respond to an initial request.
Another great technique, based on resume scarcity, is the “Playing-hard-to-get” technique which – as the name goes – is a behaviour used towards the target who would be assumed to pick up hints over the user’s high demand [romantically]. Lastly, many professionals use the “Fast approaching deadline technique” to boost their sales and rush people in on the pretext of limited time sales prices. Obedience: The Most Direct Route. Obedience is less frequent that conformity or compliance as most people tend to rose avoid it, being one of the most direct ways of influencing the behaviour of others in resume internal specific ways. Many prefer to exert influence in less obvious ways, through requests instead of direct orders (e.g.
Yuki Falbe, 1991). While obedience can help organise workforce, it is also known for its dark nature of blinding people into java homework help performing atrocious acts by eliminating the sense of internal guilt through assuming that they were only “following orders”; atrocities related were seen in Milgram’s experiment; which is also one of the main similarities with conformity and dicom digital tomosynthesis compliance, in that the process in all three can blind an individual towards unethical behaviour. Destructive obedience has been observed throughout history for situational pressures pushed people into atrocious acts; for example having one’s responsibility relieved by another plays a major role in resume encouraging destructive obedience. Those is commanding positions often have uniforms and java homework help badges which can sometimes push individuals to obey without questioning. Similarly to internal compliance, the Foot-in-door used by authority figures and the fast pace of events happening can sometimes leave the individual with little time for reflection, thus leading to destructive obedience. Conformity, compliance and obedience are all vital practices in prevention controlling the behaviour of individuals or groups. Conformity encompasses compliance and obedience, where the latters are more specific derivatives. While conformity revolves around the individual choices in relation to social groups, compliance and obedience are generally connected to an outcome; comply to have a request met by a “yes”, and obey if you are not in the position to disobey and if your superior asks you to, but keeping an ethical awareness could help against destructive obedience.
Baron, R.A., Branscombe, N. R. (2012). Social Psychology (13th ed). Internal? New Jersey: Pearson, 252-287. Burger, J.M., (1986). Increasing compliance by improving the deal: The that’s-not-all technique.
Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 51, 277 – 283. Burger, J.M., Messian, N., Patel, S., del Pardo, A., Anderson, C. (2004). What a coincidence! The effects of incidental similarity on compliance. Personality and homework Social Psychology Bulletin, 30, 35 -43. Cialdini, R. B. (2000). Influence: Science and practice (4 th ed). Boston: Allyn Bacon.
Cialdini, R. B. (2006). Resume? Influence: The psychology of persuasion. New York: Collins. Deutsch, M., Gerard, H. B (1955). A study of normative and informational social influences upon individual judgement. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 51, 629 – 636. Freedman, J.L., Fraser, S. C. (1966). Compliance without pressure: The foot-in-the-door technique. Journal of Personality Social Psychology, 4, 195 -202.
Gordon, R. A. Thesis Prevention? (1996). Impact of ingratiation in judgements and evaluations: A meta-analytic investigation. Journal of Personality Social Psychology, 71, 54 – 70. Griskevicius, V., Goldstein, N.J., Mortensen, D.R., Cialdini, R.B., Kendrick, D.T. (2006). Going along versus going alone: When fundamental motives facilitate strategic (non) conformity. Journal of resume internal Personality and Social Psychology, 91, 281 – 294. Gueguen, N (2003).
Fund-raising on the Web: The effect of an electronic door-in-the-face technique in compliance to a request. CyberPsychology Behaviour, 2, 189 – 193. Hewlin, P.F. (2009). Dicom Breast Tomosynthesis? Wearing the cloak: Antecedents and consequences of creating facades of conformity. Journal of Applied Psychology, 94, 727 – 741. Insko, C.A (1985). Balance theory, the Jordan paradigm, and the West tetrahedron. In L. Berkowitz (Ed.), Advances in resume internal experimental social psychology.
New York: Academic Press. Jones, E. E. (1964). For Retail? Ingratiation: A social psychology analysis. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts. Keltner, D., Gruenfeld, D.H., Anderson, C. (2003). Power, approach, and inhibition.
Psychological Review, 110, 265 – 284. Pronin, E., Berger, J., Molouki, S. (2007). Alone in a crowd of sheep: Asymmetric perceptions of conformity and their roots in an introspection illusion. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 43, 585 – 595. Reicher, S., Haslam, S. A. (2006). Rethinking the psychology of tyranny: The BBC prison study. British Journal of Social Psychology, 45, 1-40. Setter, J.S., Brownless, G.M., Sanders, M. (2011). Persuasion by way of example: Does including gratuity guidelines on resume internal customers’ checks affect restaurant tipping behaviour? Journal of Applied Psychology, 41, 150 – 159. Imhoff, R., Erb, H-P. (2009) What motivates nonconformity?: Uniqueness seeking blocks majority influence.
Personalilty and Social Psychology Bulletin, 33, 309 -320. Yukl, G., Falbe, C.M. (1991). Importance of Different power sources in Dostoyevski downward and lateral relations. Journal of Applied Psychology, 76, 416 – 423. 22.04.2014 | Danny J. D’Purb | DPURB.com.
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