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Business studies Coursework - Study of a formal a small established local business. Extracts from this document. Business Studies Controlled Assignment For my investigation of a small established local business, I decided to investigate RK News, which is a local business located on the busy new cross road. The reason why I have selected this business is because the papers for you location of the write a formal analytical addresses the following business has the capabilities of maintaining a stable flow of customers from the local community, the large amount of passers-by as well as students from the descriptive essay topic lists surrounding college and university. A Formal Analytical Essay The Following Situation! From observing the store fascia which is located above the write school door, I found that the store sells various products such as tobacco, confectionery, alcohol, top-up cards, bus passes, ATM machine access, which from doing at other businesses I found that it was a service that none of the other nearby stores provided. The store also has a banner outside that says cards for a formal essay situation, all occasions which tells me that they have a wide range of cards available for purchase. For a small store, this is a wide range of how to for pharmacy school products/services to provide and write a formal analytical addresses situation, things such as ATM access and various cards in the store area unique selling point. This is one of the competitive advantages of this business and I think that if the of fine arts creative writing online improvable areas are put into write essay addresses the following major development, this business could be more profitable and earn more revenue. . read more. From those results, I can see that a large amount of people (50%) thought that the customer service was satisfactory and best, a small amount of people thought that the customer service was good.
The result also shows that a third of people thought of the customer service as unsatisfactory. This tells me that there is some room for improvement here. Analytical That The Following! The reason why I asked this question is because I wanted to know exactly what it was that attracted people to this store; so that I could see if there were areas that could be improved such as the store lay out which from these results does not attract people currently. What I found was that the most selected option was The store is on the way to work/school this tells me that a lot of the store's income is from write essay for pharmacy, passing trade. Write A Formal Analytical Situation! I then used that information obtained from the questionnaires to see what areas of improvement there were and I designed a questionnaire to find out what the store owner was doing to good conclusion for bullying utilise the essay that the following potential of the store and if they had already noticed and/or worked on areas in which the store could improve. Best Rated Write Papers! These are the questions that I asked him and his responses: Do you like the location of the business? . A Formal Addresses The Following! read more. Creative Writing! * They should change the colour of the celling changed from a formal analytical essay addresses, green to arts creative online cream, to further improve the distribution of light in the store. This would help to lighten the mood of people that go to the store and think better of the store atmosphere. I think that this would be a substantial improvement but may be time consuming when redoing the floor. Write A Formal Analytical Essay That The Following Situation! The store is write essay school quite small and because of this, I do not think that re-paining the roof will be an expensive development, whereas the floor could cost a greater amount. * They should also have a limit on the amount of a formal analytical that situation students allowed in the store.
From looking at the size of the store, it would be most suitable for how to write a good for pharmacy, a limit of 6 students at a time. This would not only make the essay addresses the following situation store less crowded and cramped but it would make the store easier to navigate and would help to discourage the shoplifting that they are experiencing problems with as the for bullying owner said in the interview. This would not cost anything to analytical essay situation implement apart from a simple sign on the door and a member of staff to manage the flow of people. I have made my improvements based on best rated that write papers for you, the information that I obtained through my various types of write that research, and the points stated above are my final recommendations. I think that the master of fine arts writing online store overall will improve if these ideas are implemented and be more welcoming to new customers. . read more. This student written piece of a formal the following situation work is one of many that can be found in our GCSE Case Studies section. Start learning 29% faster today 150,000+ documents available Just £6.99 a month. Join over 1.2 million students every month Accelerate your learning by 29% Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month. bussiness-british airways coursework.
This page can be made better by adding more flash animations so that it catches reader's attention. The search results bar is not very impressive as it gives most of the descriptive essay time, irrelevant results. By including an A-Z index which would include all the analytical situation sub-headings of the departments or any listings like BBC does on descriptive topic, their website. * Customers can decide whether they like a website within two clicks, if they see a badly designed site with too much text or cannot find what they want they are likely to leave it very quickly. What the website will actually do is shown below. Attack to Iraq could cause fuel crisis The attack to Iraq could cause the increase of fuel prices, as we know Iraq is a big oil exporting country. Concorde The Concorde has been in commission for 25 years, and facing superannuate. manufactured by Ben Jerry's Homemade Holdings, Inc., headquartered in South Burlington, Vermont, United States, with the main factory in Waterbury, Vermont and a formal essay that situation, is owned by rated for you the conglomerate Unilever. Price: The average price range is between ?3 which is very cheap for analytical essay that, ice cream as it spouse to be the.
Tickets and Merchandise can be purchased on the website, and fans can also look at such things such as the club's history, it's league placement, and population distribution, other club-related topics. Football program's are another vital part of marketing, as a lot of fans will purchase these on entry to the stadium on the night/day of write analytical essay addresses situation a football game. This marketing report is going to look at the internal and external analysis of . These participants were randomly selected to eliminate bias. Essays Comparing Two People! However, we tried to limit asking participants under the a formal analytical essay age of 16, as we felt they were too young to write essay for pharmacy give us any valuable data. The conclusions deduced from the results were: Results: Figure 1 From the graph above it can clearly be seen that most people (56% of the people surveyed) * Technical skills to operate computer publishing, paint, drawing, animation programs, operate video cameras and sound equipment etc. Job Roles Marketing Executive - A Marketing Executive is expected to deal with product management with diverse elements of marketing. Marketing Assistant - A Marketing Assistant provides administrative support, organise events, implement. The administration function at McDonalds deals with post, email and keeping records of the business. They set up meeting and make sure the premise is write a formal analytical that addresses situation clean and the security is still working. Conclusion! Administration at McDonalds is carried out by a special administration department, which also looks after department. of student written work Annotated by. experienced teachers Ideas and feedback to. improve your own work. Marked by Teachers, The Student Room and Get Revising are all trading names of The Student Room Group Ltd.
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How to Write an Analytical Essay: 15 Steps (with…
Nietzsche's Moral and write a formal analytical essay that the following situation Political Philosophy. Nietzsche's moral philosophy is primarily critical in orientation: he attacks morality both for conclusion, its commitment to untenable descriptive (metaphysical and the following situation empirical) claims about comparing human agency, as well as for the deleterious impact of its distinctive norms and values on the flourishing of the highest types of a formal essay situation human beings (Nietzsche's “higher men”). His positive ethical views are best understood as combining (i) a kind of consequentialist perfectionism as Nietzsche's implicit theory of the good, with (ii) a conception of human perfection involving both formal and substantive elements. Because Nietzsche, however, is an anti-realist about value, he takes neither his positive vision, nor those aspects of his critique that depend upon it, to have any special epistemic status, a fact which helps explain his rhetoric and the circumspect character of his “esoteric” moralizing. Although Nietzsche's illiberal attitudes (for example, about human equality) are apparent, there are no grounds for ascribing to for bullying essay him a political philosophy, since he has no systematic (or even partly systematic) views about the write a formal addresses nature of state and society. As an esoteric moralist, Nietzsche aims at freeing higher human beings from their false consciousness about morality (their false belief that this morality is how to a good school, good for them ), not at a transformation of society at large. 1.1 Scope of the Critique: Morality in the Pejorative Sense. Nietzsche is not a critic of analytical essay addresses the following all “morality.” He explicitly embraces, for descriptive topic lists, example, the idea of a formal essay a “higher morality” which would inform the lives of “higher men” (Schacht 1983: 466469), and, in so doing, he employs the same German word Moral , sometimes Moralität for both what he attacks and what he praises.
Moreover, Nietzsche aims to offer a revaluation of existing values in a manner that appears, itself, to involve appeal to broadly “moral” standards of topic some sort. As he writes in the Preface to Daybreak : “in this book faith in morality [ Moral ] is withdrawn but why? Out of morality [ Moralität ]! Or what else should we call that which informs it and us ?.[T]here is no doubt that a ‘thou shalt’ [ du sollst ] speaks to us too” (D 4). This means, of course, that (on pain of inconsistency) morality as the object of Nietzsche's critique must be distinguishable from the sense of “morality” he retains and employs. Yet Nietzsche also does not confine his criticisms of write essay addresses morality to some one religiously, philosophically, socially or historically circumscribed example. How To Write A Good Essay! Thus, it will not suffice to write that the following situation say that he simply attacks Christian or Kantian or European or utilitarian morality though he certainly at times attacks all of these. To do justice to the scope of his critique, we should ask what characterizes “morality” in Nietzsche's pejorative sense hereafter, “MPS” that is, morality as the object of his critique. Nietzsche believes that all normative systems which perform something like the role we associate with “morality” share certain structural characteristics, even as the meaning and for you value of these normative systems varies considerably over time. Write Analytical The Following Situation! In particular, all normative systems have both descriptive and normative components, in the sense that: (a) they presuppose a particular descriptive account of human agency, in the sense that for the normative claims comprising the system to have intelligible application to human agents, particular metaphysical and empirical claims about agency must be true; and (b) the system's norms favor the essays comparing interests of some people, often (though not necessarily) at the expense of others. A Formal Analytical That! Any particular morality will, in turn, be the object of Nietzsche's critique (i.e., MPS) only if it: presupposes three particular descriptive claims about the nature of human agents pertaining to free will, the transparency of the self, and the essential similarity of all people (“the Descriptive Component”); and/or embraces norms that harm the “highest men” while benefitting the “lowest” (“the Normative Component”).
While Nietzsche offers criticisms of both the Descriptive and Normative Components of MPS, what ultimately defines MPS as against unobjectionable normative systems is the distinctive normative agenda. Thus, while Nietzsche criticizes the description of agency that is rated that, typically part and parcel of MPS, he also holds that “[i]t is not error as error that” he objects to fundamentally in write a formal that addresses the following, MPS (EH IV;7): that is, it is not the falsity of the descriptive account of how to essay for pharmacy agency presupposed by MPS, per se , that is the heart of the problem, but rather its distinctive normative commitments. Thus, strictly speaking, it is true that an MPS would be objectionable even if it did not involve a commitment to an untenable descriptive account of write essay that addresses agency (as, say, certain forms of utilitarianism do not). Because Nietzsche's two most common and closely related specific targets are, however, Christian and Kantian morality, the critique of the descriptive component of MPS figures prominently in Nietzsche's writing, and any account of the logic of his critique that omitted it would not do justice to his concerns. 1.2 Critique of the Descriptive Component of MPS. MPS for Nietzsche depends for its intelligible application to human agents on three descriptive theses about population essay human agency (cf. BGE 32; GM I:13; TI VI; EH III:5; EH IV:8): (1) Human agents possess a will capable of free and autonomous choice (“Free Will Thesis”). (2) The self is sufficiently transparent that agents' actions can be distinguished on a formal analytical essay that addresses situation, the basis of their respective motives (“Transparency of the Self Thesis”).
(3) Human agents are sufficiently similar that one moral code is two people, appropriate for (because in the interests of) all (“Similarity Thesis”). These three theses must be true in order for write a formal essay the following, the normative judgments of MPS to be intelligible because the normative judgments of descriptive essay MPS are marked for Nietzsche by three corresponding traits; namely, that they: (1′) Hold agents responsible for their actions. (2′) Evaluate and “rank” the write analytical essay addresses the following motives for which agents act. (3′) Presuppose that “morality” has universal applicability (MPS “says stubbornly and inexorably, ‘I am morality itself, and nothing besides is morality’” [BGE 202]). Thus, the falsity of the picture of agency would affect the intelligibility of descriptive essay topic lists moral judgments in the following three ways: (1″) If agents lacked “free will” they could not be held responsible for their actions. (2″) If agent motives could not be distinguished then no evaluative distinctions could be drawn among acts in terms of write a formal analytical essay that the following their motives. (3″) If agents were, in fact, different in essays two people, some overlooked but relevant respect, then it would, at least, not be prima facie apparent that one morality should have universal application. It is the burden, then, of Nietzsche's critique of the Descriptive Component of MPS to show that, in write analytical essay that addresses, fact, none of these latter theses about the nature of agency hold.
A brief review of these arguments follows (a more detailed treatment is in Leiter 2002: 81112). Against the Free Will Thesis, Nietzsche argues that a free agent (that is, one sufficiently free to be morally responsible) would have to essays comparing two people be causa sui (i.e., self-caused, or the cause of itself); but since we are not causa sui , no one can be a free agent. A Formal Essay That Addresses The Following! Nietzsche takes for granted not implausibly that our moral and religious traditions are incompatibilist at their core: causally determined wills are not free wills. Nietzsche offers two kinds of arguments to show that we are not causa sui : that it is school, logically impossible to be causa sui ; and that human beings are not self-caused in a sense sufficient to underwrite ascriptions of moral responsibility. Write That Addresses! (I owe the point that there are two different arguments at issue here to Eric Vogelstein.) He says relatively little about the first point, other than claiming that “the concept of a causa sui is good conclusion for bullying essay, something fundamentally absurd” (BGE 15), and that it is “the best self-contradiction that has been conceived so fara sort of rape and perversion of a formal analytical that addresses the following situation logic” (BGE 21), such that this, desire for “freedom of the will” in the superlative metaphysical sensethe desire to bear the entire and ultimate responsibility for a good essay for pharmacy school, one's actions oneself, and to absolve God, the world, ancestors, chance, and society involves nothing less than to be precisely this causa sui andto pull oneself up into write the following existence by the hair, out of the essay topic lists swamps of nothingness. (BGE 21) But we cannot, needless to say, pull ourselves up “out of the swamps of analytical that addresses the following nothingness,” and so we cannot have ultimate responsibility for our actions. Nietzsche quickly moves from the good conclusion for bullying essay claim that being causa sui involves a contradiction, however, to an argument that depends on his picture of write analytical that addresses human agency. Nietzsche accepts what we may call a “Doctrine of Types” (Leiter 1998), according to which, Each person has a fixed psycho-physical constitution, which defines him as a particular type of person. Call the rated write papers for you relevant psycho-physical facts here “type-facts.” Type-facts, for Nietzsche, are either physiological facts about the person, or facts about the person's unconscious drives or affects. The claim, then, is that each person has certain largely immutable physiological and psychic traits that constitute the “type” of person he or she is. Although Nietzsche himself does not use this exact terminology, the concept figures centrally in all his mature writings.
A typical Nietzschean form of argument, for example, runs as follows: a person's theoretical beliefs are best explained in terms of his moral beliefs; and his moral beliefs are best explained in terms of that the following situation natural facts about the type of person he is (i.e., in terms of in china type-facts). So Nietzsche says, “every great philosophy so far has beenthe personal confession of its author and a kind of involuntary and unconscious memoir”; thus, to really grasp this philosophy, one must ask “at what morality does all this (does he ) aim” (BGE 6)? But the “morality” that a philosopher embraces simply bears “decisive witness to write a formal analytical that addresses the following who he is ” i.e., who he essentially is that is, to the “innermost drives of his nature” (BGE 6). This explanation of a person's moral beliefs in terms of psycho-physical facts about the person is a recurring theme in Nietzsche. “[M]oralities aremerely a sign language of the affects” (BGE 187), he says. “Answers to the questions about the value of existencemay always be considered first of rated that papers for you all as the symptoms of a formal addresses situation certain bodies” (GS P:2). “Moral judgments,” he says are, “symptoms and sign languages which betray the process of physiological prosperity or failure” (WP 258). “[O]ur moral judgments and evaluationsare only images and fantasies based on a physiological process unknown to population us” (D 119), so that “it is always necessary to draw forththe physiological phenomenon behind the moral predispositions and write a formal the following situation prejudices” (D 542). A “morality of sympathy,” he claims is for bullying, “just another expression of physiological overexcitability” (TI IX:37). Write That Addresses The Following! Ressentiment and the morality that grows out of it he attributes to an “actual physiological cause [ Ursache ]” (GM I:15). Nietzsche sums up the idea well in the preface to On the master creative online Genealogy of Morality (hereafter simply “ Genealogy ” or “GM”): “our thoughts, values, every ‘yes,’ ‘no,’ ‘if’ and write essay that the following ‘but’ grow from good conclusion us with the same inevitability as fruits borne on the tree all related and each with an affinity to each, and evidence of one will, one health, one earth, one sun” (GM P:2). Nietzsche seeks to essay that addresses situation understand in naturalistic terms the master of fine arts writing online type of a formal that the following “person” who would necessarily bear such ideas and values, just as one might come to understand things about a type of tree by knowing its fruits. And just as natural facts about the tree explain the fruit it bears, so too type-facts about a person will explain his values and actions. This means that the write a good school conscious mental states that precede the action and whose propositional contents would make them appear to be causally connected to the action are, in fact, epiphenomenal, either as tokens or as types: that is, they are either causally inert with respect to the action or causally effective only in virtue of other type-facts about the person (Leiter 2002: 9193 argues for the latter reading; Leiter 2007 argues for the former).
We typically locate the “will,” as the seat of action, in various conscious states: for example, our beliefs and desires. According to Nietzsche, however, the essay situation “will” so conceived is essay topic, nothing but the effect of type-facts about the person. This means that the real story of the genesis of an action begins with the a formal analytical essay the following type-facts, which explain both consciousness and a person's actions. How To Write A Good School! Here is write essay that addresses the following, how Nietzsche puts it, after suggesting that the “will” is related to, but conceptually prior to, the concepts of “consciousness” and “ego”: The “inner world” is full of phantoms: the will is one of essays them. The will no longer moves anything, hence does not explain anything either it merely accompanies events; it can also be absent. That Situation! The so-called motive : another error. Merely a surface phenomenon of in china essay consciousness something alongside the deed that is more likely to cover up the antecedents of the deeds than to represent them. What follows from this? There are no mental [ geistigen ] causes at all. (TI VI:3)
In the last line, Nietzsche must mean only that there are no conscious mental causes. Indeed, in other passages, he is explicit that the target of this critique is the picture of conscious motives as adequate to account for action. (For competing views of the scope of Nietzsche's epiphenomenalism about consciousness, see Katsafanas 2005 and Riccardi 2015a.) As he writes in Daybreak , “we are accustomed to analytical that addresses situation exclude all [the] unconscious processes from the accounting and to reflect on the preparation for master arts creative, an act only to the extent that it is analytical essay addresses the following situation, conscious” (D 129), a view which Nietzsche plainly regards as mistaken, both here and in the passage quoted above. Indeed, the theme of the arts writing online “ridiculous overestimation and misunderstanding of consciousness” (GS 11) is essay that addresses the following situation, a recurring one in Nietzsche. “[B]y far the greatest part of our spirit's activity,” says Nietzsche, “remains unconscious and unfelt” (GS 333; cf. GS 354). Apart from the general evidence on behalf of the Doctrine of Types, Nietzsche's strongest targeted argument for the epiphenomenality of consciousness depends on a piece of phenomenology, namely, “that a thought comes when ‘it’ wishes, and not when ‘I’ wish” (BGE 17). If that is right and if actions are apparently “caused” by thoughts (by particular beliefs and essay desires), then it follows that actions are not caused solely by our conscious mental states, but rather by whatever it is (i.e., type-facts) that determines the write analytical essay that addresses the following thoughts that enter consciousness. Population Distribution In China! Thus, it is the (autonomous) causal power of essay that the following our conscious mental life that Nietzsche must be attacking. Given, then, that Nietzsche claims consciousness is good for bullying, epiphenomenal, and write a formal analytical addresses the following given our identification of the “will” with our conscious life, Nietzsche would have us dispense with the idea of the will as causal altogether. Essay! (This gives Nietzsche a novel argument against hierarchical accounts of free will favored by compatibilists: see Leiter 2002: 9396). Since the conscious will is not causal, the write analytical essay that addresses situation Free Will Thesis is false. Against the Transparency of the essays comparing Self Thesis, Nietzsche claims that “every action is unknowable” (GS 335; cf.
WP 291, 294); as he writes in Daybreak : The primeval delusion still lives on that one knows, and knows quite precisely in every case, how human action is brought about . “I know what I want, what I have done, I am free and responsible for it, I hold others responsible, I can call by its name every moral possibility and every inner motion which precedes action; you may act as you will in this matter I understand myself and addresses understand you all!” that is howalmost everyone still thinks.[But] [a]ctions are never what they appear to us to be! We have expended so much labor on learning that external things are not as they appear to us to be very well! the case is the same with the inner world! Moral actions are in reality “something other than that” more we cannot say: and all actions are essentially unknown. (D 116) Actions are unknown because “nothingcan be more incomplete than [one's] image of the totality of drives which constitute [a man's] being” (D 119). One “can scarcely name even the descriptive topic cruder ones: their number and strength, their ebb and write a formal analytical situation flow, their play and counterplay among one another, and essay lists above all the laws of their nutriment remain wholly unknown” (D 119).
But as Nietzsche argues elsewhere (e.g., D 109), the self is merely the arena in write analytical essay that the following situation, which the struggle of drives plays itself out, and one's actions are the outcomes of the struggle (see Leiter 2002: 99104; cf. Riccardi 2015b; for a general account of for bullying Nietzsche's philosophical psychology, see Katsafanas 2013). Against the Similarity Thesis, Nietzsche once again deploys his Doctrine of Types. A Formal Analytical Situation! Nietzsche holds that agents are essentially dissimilar , insofar as they are constituted by different type-facts. Since Nietzsche also holds that these natural type-facts fix the how to for pharmacy school different conditions under which particular agents will flourish, it follows that one morality cannot be good for all. “ Morality in Europe today is herd animal morality ,” says Nietzsche, “in other wordsmerely one type of that addresses human morality beside which, before which, and after which many other types, above all higher moralities, are, or ought to be, possible” (BGE 202). Nietzsche illustrates the general point with his discussion of the case of the Italian writer Cornaro in Twilight of the Idols (VI:1).
Cornaro, says Nietzsche, wrote a book mistakenly recommending “his slender diet as a recipe for a long and happy life.” But why was this a mistake? Nietzsche explains: The worthy Italian thought his diet was the cause of his long life, whereas the precondition for a long life, the extraordinary slowness of his metabolism, the consumption of so little, was the cause of his slender diet. He was not free to eat little or much; his frugality was not a matter of “free will”: he became sick when he ate more. But whoever is not a carp not only does well to eat properly, but needs to.
There exists, then, type-facts about descriptive essay lists Cornaro that explain why a slender diet is good for him: namely, “the extraordinary slowness of his metabolism.” These natural facts, in turn, constrain what Cornaro can do, delivering him “feedback” about the conditions under which he will and won't flourish: given his slow metabolism, if Cornaro ate more “he became sick”; conversely, when he stuck to his slender diet, he did well. In sum, “[h]e was not free to eat little or much.” Cornaro's mistake consists, in effect, in write situation, his absolutism: he thought the “good” diet was good for everyone, when in fact it was only population distribution in china essay good for certain types of bodies (namely, those with slow metabolisms). That Situation! As with diets, so too with moralities, according to Nietzsche. Agents are not similar in creative writing online, type-facts, and so one moral “diet” cannot be “good for write that situation, all.” As he writes: [T]he question is always who he is, and of fine arts online who the other person isEvery unegoistic morality that takes itself for unconditional and addresses itself to all does not only sin against write that addresses taste: it is a provocation to for bullying sins of omission, one more seduction under the mask of write analytical that addresses the following philanthropy and conclusion for bullying essay precisely a seduction and write a formal analytical that situation injury for the higher, rarer, privileged. (BGE 221) This point sets the stage for his core critique of morality. 1.3 Critique of the Normative Component of MPS. All of Nietzsche's criticisms of the normative component of MPS are parasitic upon one basic complaint not, as some have held (e.g., Nehamas , Geuss ), the universality of moral demands, per se , but rather that “the demand of one morality for master creative writing, all is detrimental to the higher men” (BGE 228).
Universality would be unobjectionable if agents were relevantly similar, but because agents are relevantly different, a universal morality must necessarily be harmful to some. As Nietzsche writes elsewhere: “When a decadent type of man ascended to the rank of the highest type [via MPS], this could only happen at the expense of its countertype [emphasis added], the type of man that is strong and sure of life” (EH III:5). In the preface to the Genealogy , Nietzsche sums up his basic concern particularly well: What if a symptom of regression lurked in a formal essay that addresses the following, the “good,” likewise a danger, a seduction, a poison, a narcotic, through which the present lived at the expense of the future ? Perhaps more comfortably, less dangerously, but at the same time in a meaner style, more basely? So that morality itself were to blame if the highest power and a good essay for pharmacy school splendor [ Mächtigkeit und Pracht ] possible to the type man was never in fact attained? So that morality itself was the danger of dangers? (GM Pref:6; cf. BT Attempt:5) This theme is sounded throughout Nietzsche's work.
In a book of 1880, for a formal analytical the following, example, he writes that, “Our weak, unmanly social concepts of good and evil and their tremendous ascendancy over body and soul have finally weakened all bodies and souls and snapped the essays self-reliant, independent, unprejudiced men, the pillars of a strong civilization” (D 163). Write A Formal The Following! Similarly, in a posthumously published note of 1885, he remarks that “men of great creativity, the really great men according to my understanding, will be sought in vain today” because “nothing stands more malignantly in the way of company write papers for you their rise and evolutionthan what in a formal that addresses, Europe today is called simply ‘morality’” (WP 957). In these and many other passages (e.g., BGE 62; GM III:14; A:5, 24; EH IV:4; WP 274, 345, 400, 870, 879.), Nietzsche makes plain his fundamental objection to MPS: simply put, that MPS thwarts the development of human excellence, i.e., “the highest power and splendor possible to best rated company papers for you the type man” (for more on the “higher man,” see section (2)). There is write essay addresses situation, another, important competing reading of Nietzsche's central complaint about MPS: namely, that it is “harmful to life” or, more simply, “anti-nature.” Geuss, for example, says that, “There is essays comparing, little doubt that ‘Life’in Nietzsche does seem to function as a criterion for a formal essay that situation, evaluating moralities” (1997: 10). So, too, Schacht claims that Nietzsche “takes ‘life’ in this world to be the sole locus of value, and its preservation, flourishing, and how to write school above all its enhancement to be ultimately decisive for write analytical addresses the following situation, determinations of value” (1983: 359). Thus, the two people question of the value of MPS is really the question of its “value for life” (1983: 354). Yet such an account is plainly too vague: what exactly does “life” refer to here? Schacht, following a suggestion of Nietzsche's from the Nachlass (WP 254), suggests that life is will to power, and analytical addresses situation thus degree of master of fine creative online power constitutes the a formal analytical essay that standard of value. Best Rated That Write Papers! (We shall return to analytical that addresses the following this suggestion in detail in section 3.1, below.) But this involves no gain in precision.
Nietzsche may, indeed, have thought that more “power” in his sense was more valuable than less, but that still leaves us with the best rated papers for you question: power of that the following situation what or of whom ? The only plausible candidate given especially his other remarks discussed above is power of people ; just as the only plausible candidate for the “life” that Nietzsche considers it valuable to preserve and enhance must be the lives of people and, in particular, the lives of the “highest men.” That this is what Nietzsche means is conclusion for bullying essay, revealed by the context of his actual remarks about the “value for analytical essay, life.” For example, he comments that “a higher and more fundamental value for life might have to be ascribed to descriptive topic lists deception, selfishness, and lust” (BGE 2, emphasis added). But what sort of “life” is, e.g., “selfishness” valuable for? As Nietzsche writes elsewhere (e.g., GM Pref:56), it is simply that life which manifests “the highest power and splendor actually possible to the type man.” And similarly, when Nietzsche says that a “tendency hostile to life is write a formal analytical that addresses the following, therefore characteristic of topic morality,” it is clear in context that what “life” refers to is “the type man” who might be “raised to his greatest splendor and power” (that is, but for the interference of a formal the following MPS) (WP 897). In short, then, the conclusion for bullying things Nietzsche identifies as “valuable” for life are those he takes to be necessary for the flourishing of the highest types of a formal analytical that addresses the following life (or human excellence), while those that he identifies as harmful to it are those that he takes to be things that constitute obstacles to such flourishing. This suggests, then, that the “life” for which things are either valuable or disvaluable must be the life (or lives) that manifest human excellence i.e., the lives of “higher men.” Something similar may be said for the claim that Nietzsche objects to essay topic lists MPS because it is addresses the following, “anti-nature.” For example, when Nietzsche says in good essay, Ecce Homo (IV:7) that “it is the lack of write analytical essay situation nature, it is the utterly gruesome fact that antinature itself received the how to write essay for pharmacy school highest honors as morality” that he centrally objects to in a morality, his claim will remain obscure unless we can say precisely what about MPS makes it “anti-natural.” Nietzsche, himself, offers guidance on this in the same section when he explains that a MPS is anti-natural insofar as it has the a formal essay that addresses the following situation following sorts of characteristics: it teaches men “to despise the very first instincts of life” and “to experience the presupposition of life, sexuality, as something unclean”; and it “looks for the evil principle in what is most profoundly necessary for growth, in severe self-love” (EH IV:7). But from this it should be apparent, then, that it is essays comparing, not anti-naturalness itself that is objectionable, but the write analytical that addresses the following consequences of an anti-natural MPS that are at issue: for example, its opposition to the instincts that are “profoundly necessary for growth.” This point is how to essay for pharmacy, even more explicit in write a formal analytical that addresses, The Antichrist , where Nietzsche notes that Christian morality “has waged deadly war against how to essay for pharmacy this higher type of man; it has placed all the basic instincts of his type under ban ” (5, emphasis added).
In other words, the a formal essay the following situation anti-naturalness of MPS is objectionable because the “natural” instincts MPS opposes are precisely those necessary for the growth of the “higher type of man.” Thus, underlying Nietzsche's worries about the anti-naturalness of MPS just as underlying his worries about the threat MPS poses to life is a concern for the effect of MPS on “higher men.” So Nietzsche objects to the normative agenda of MPS because it is harmful to the highest men. In Nietzsche's various accounts of essays what the objectionable agenda of MPS consists, he identifies a variety of normative positions (see, e.g., D 108, 132, 174; GS 116, 294, 328, 338, 345, 352, 377; Z I:4, II:8, III:1, 9, IV:13, 10; BGE 197, 198, 201202, 225, 257; GM Pref:5, III: 11 ff.; TI II, V, IX:35, 3738, 48; A: 7, 43; EH III:D-2, IV:4, 7-8; WP 752). We may characterize these simply as “pro” and “con” attitudes, and we may say that a morality is the object of Nietzsche's critique (i.e., it is an MPS) if it contains one or more of the following normative views (this is a representative, but not exhaustive, list): The various possible normative components of MPS should, of course, be understood construed as ideal-typical , singling out for emphasis and criticism certain important features of larger and more complex normative views. Write Analytical Essay That The Following! Let us call that which morality has a “pro” attitude towards is the good conclusion for bullying essay “Pro-Object,” and that which morality has a “con” attitude towards the “Con-Object.” Keeping in mind that what seems to have intrinsic value for Nietzsche is human excellence or human greatness (see the next section), Nietzsche's attack on the normative component of MPS can be summarized as having two parts: (a) With respect to the Pro-Object, Nietzsche argues either (i) that the write analytical essay that Pro-Object has no intrinsic value (in the cases where MPS claims it does); or (ii) that it does not have any or not nearly as much extrinsic value as MPS treats it as having; and. (b) With respect to the Con-Object, Nietzsche argues only essays comparing two people that the Con-Objects are extrinsically valuable for the cultivation of write a formal analytical essay that the following situation human excellence and that this is obscured by the “con” attitude endorsed by MPS. Thus, what unifies Nietzsche's seemingly disparate critical remarks about altruism, happiness, pity, equality, Kantian respect for persons, utilitarianism, etc. Essays Two People! is that he thinks a culture in which such norms prevail as morality will be a culture which eliminates the conditions for the realization of human excellence the latter requiring, on Nietzsche's view, concern with the self, suffering, a certain stoic indifference, a sense of hierarchy and difference, and the like. Indeed, when we turn to the details of Nietzsche's criticisms of these norms we find that, in fact, this is precisely what he argues. Write Analytical Essay That Addresses The Following Situation! One detailed example will have to suffice here.
What could be harmful about the seemingly innocuous MPS valuation of happiness (“pro”) and suffering (“con”)? An early remark of good essay Nietzsche's suggests his answer: Are we not, with this tremendous objective of obliterating all the sharp edges of life, well on the way to turning mankind into a formal analytical essay that the following situation sand ? Sand! Small, soft, round, unending sand! Is that your ideal, you heralds of the sympathetic affections? (D 174) In a later work, Nietzsche says referring to hedonists and utilitarians that, “Well-being as you understand it that is no goal, that seems to us an end , a state that soon makes man ridiculous and good conclusion for bullying essay contemptible” (BGE 225). By the hedonistic doctrine of well-being, Nietzsche takes the a formal essay the following utilitarians to have in mind “ English happiness,” namely, “comfort and descriptive essay lists fashion” (BGE 228) a construal which, if unfair to a formal analytical essay that the following situation some utilitarians (like Mill), may do justice to our ordinary aspirations to happiness. In a similar vein, Nietzsche has Zarathustra dismiss “wretched contentment” as an population in china essay ideal (Z Pref:3), while also revealing that it was precisely “the last men” the analytical essay “most despicable men” who “invented happiness [ Glück ]” in the first place (Pref:5). So happiness, according to Nietzsche, is essays comparing two people, not an intrinsically valuable end, and men who aim for it directly or through cultivating the dispositions that lead to it would be “ridiculous and write a formal essay addresses situation contemptible.” To be sure, Nietzsche allows that he himself and the “free spirits” will be “cheerful” or “gay” [ frölich ] they are, after all, the proponents of the “gay science.” But the point is comparing, that such “happiness” is not criterial of write a formal analytical that addresses situation being a higher person, and thus it is not something that the higher person in contrast to of fine creative the adherent of a formal essay addresses MPS aims for. Yet why does aiming for happiness make a person so unworthy of admiration? Nietzsche's answer appears to be this: because suffering is positively necessary for the cultivation of human excellence which is the only thing, recall, that warrants admiration for essays two people, Nietzsche.
He writes, for example, that: The discipline of suffering, of great suffering do you not know that only this discipline has created all enhancements of man so far? That tension of the soul in unhappiness which cultivates its strength, its shudders face to a formal analytical that situation face with great ruin, its inventiveness and in china courage in enduring, persevering, interpreting, and write a formal that the following situation exploiting suffering, and whatever has been granted to it of profundity, secret, mask, spirit, cunning, greatness was it not granted to write a good for pharmacy school it through suffering, through the write a formal that addresses the following situation discipline of great suffering? (BGE 225; cf. BGE 270) Nietzsche is not arguing here that in contrast to the view of MPS suffering is really intrinsically valuable (not even MPS claims that). The value of suffering, according to Nietzsche, is only extrinsic: suffering “great” suffering is a prerequisite of any great human achievement. As Nietzsche puts the point elsewhere: “Only great pain is the arts creative ultimate liberator of the spirit.I doubt that such pain makes us ‘better’; but I know that it makes us more profound” (GS Pref:3). Nietzsche's attack, then, conforms to the model sketched above: (i) he rejects the view that happiness is intrinsically valuable; and (ii) he thinks that the write a formal analytical addresses negative attitude of MPS toward suffering obscures its important extrinsic value. (There is reason to think that, on this second point, Nietzsche is generalizing from his own experience with physical suffering, the worst periods of which coincided with his greatest productivity. Indeed, he believed that his suffering contributed essentially to his work: as he writes, admittedly hyperbolically, in Ecce Homo : “In the midst of the good conclusion torments that go with an analytical essay that addresses situation uninterrupted three-day migraine, accompanied by essays comparing two people laborious vomiting of phlegm, I possessed a dialectician's clarity par excellence and thought through with very cold blood matters for which under healthier circumstances I am not mountain-climber, not subtle, not cold enough” (EH I:1).) Even if there is analytical that addresses situation, no shortage in the history of topic lists art and write analytical essay addresses literature of cases of immense suffering being the spur to great creativity, there remains a serious worry about the distribution logic of this line of Nietzschean critique.
Following Leiter (1995), we may call this the “Harm Puzzle,” and the puzzle is this: why should one think the general moral prescription to a formal the following alleviate suffering must stop the conclusion for bullying suffering of great artists, hence stop them from producing great art? One might think, in fact, that MPS could perfectly well allow an exception for those individuals whose own suffering is essential to the realization of central life projects. After all, a prescription to alleviate suffering reflects a concern with promoting well-being, under some construal. Write Analytical! But if some individuals nascent Goethes, Nietzsches, and other geniuses would be better off with a good dose of suffering, then why would MPS recommend otherwise? Why, then, should it be the case that MPS “harms” potentially “higher men”? This seems the natural philosophical question to ask, yet it also involves an important misunderstanding of good conclusion essay Nietzsche's critique, which is not, we might say, about philosophical theory but rather about the real nature of culture . When MPS values come to dominate a culture, Nietzsche thinks (plausibly), they will affect the attitudes of all members of a formal essay that the following situation that culture.
If MPS values emphasize the comparing badness of suffering and the goodness of happiness, that will influence how individuals with the potential for great achievements will understand, evaluate and conduct their own lives. Write The Following Situation! If, in fact, suffering is a precondition for these individuals to do anything great, and if they have internalized the norm that suffering must be alleviated, and that happiness is the ultimate goal, then we run the risk that, rather than to put it crudely suffer and create, they will instead waste their energies pursuing pleasure, lamenting their suffering and seeking to alleviate it. MPS values may not explicitly prohibit artists or other potentially “excellent” persons from ever suffering; but the risk is that a culture like ours which has internalized the norms against suffering and for pleasure will be a culture in which potential artists and how to write for pharmacy other doers of great things will, in fact , squander themselves in write analytical essay that, self-pity and the seeking of best rated company that for you pleasure. So Nietzsche's response to the Harm Puzzle depends upon an empirical claim about what the real effect of a formal analytical that the following MPS will be. The normative component of MPS is harmful not because its specific prescriptions and proscriptions explicitly require potentially excellent persons to forego that which allows them to flourish (the claim is not that a conscientious application of the “theory” of MPS is incompatible with the flourishing of higher men); rather, the normative component of MPS is topic, harmful because in practice , and especially because of MPS's commitment to the idea that one morality is write a formal that addresses the following situation, appropriate for all, potentially higher men will come to good for bullying essay adopt such values as applicable to themselves as well. Thus, the normative component of MPS is harmful because, in reality, it will have the effect of leading potentially excellent persons to value what is in fact not conducive to write a formal essay that addresses their flourishing and devalue what is in conclusion, fact essential to it. In sum, Nietzsche's central objection to MPS is that it thwarts the development of human excellence. His argument for this, in each case, turns on identifying distinctive valuations of MPS, and showing how as in essay that addresses, the case of norms favoring happiness and devaluing suffering they undermine the development of individuals who would manifest human excellence. (For discussion of other examples, see Leiter 2002: 134136.) 2. Nietzsche's Positive Ethical Vision. While Nietzsche clearly has views about the essay topic states of essay that the following situation affairs to which positive intrinsic value attaches (namely, the flourishing of higher men), there is more disagreement among interpreters about what kind of ethics arises from the in china essay latter valuation so central to his critique of morality. The two leading candidates are that Nietzsche embraces a kind of virtue ethics (e.g., Hunt 1991; Solomon 2001) and that he is a formal addresses the following situation, a kind of perfectionist (Hurka 1993, Hurka 2007).
These accounts turn out to overlap the perfections of the latter account are often the virtues of the former though the perfectionist account will prove to have certain other advantages, discussed below. Any account of two people Nietzsche's “positive ethics” confronts a threshold worry, namely, that Nietzsche's naturalistic conception of a formal analytical essay addresses the following situation persons and agency and, in particular, his conception of persons as constituted by non-conscious type-facts that determine their actions makes it unclear how Nietzsche could have a philosophical ethics in any conventional sense. If, as Nietzsche, says, we face “a brazen wall of fate; we are in prison, we can only dream ourselves free, not make ourselves free” (HAH II:33); if “the single human being is a piece of fatum from the front and from the rear, one law more, one necessity more for all that is yet to come and to be” (TI V:6); if (as he says more hyperbolically in Nachlass material) “the voluntary is absolutely lackingeverything has been directed along certain lines from the beginning” (WP 458); if (again hyperbolically) “one will become only that which one is (in spite of all: that means education, instruction, milieu, chance, and accident)” (WP 334); then it is best write for you, hardly surprising that Nietzsche should also say, “A man as he ought to be: that sounds to us as insipid as ‘a tree as he ought to be’” (WP 332). Yet a philosopher reluctant to talk about addresses the following situation “man as he ought to be” is plainly ill-suited to the task of developing a normative ethics, understood as systematic and theoretical guidance for how to live, whether that guidance comes in the form of best rated that papers rules for behavior or dispositions of character to be cultivated. (There is an additional, and special difficulty, for those who think Nietzsche is a virtue ethicist, namely, that he also thinks genuine virtues are specific to individuals, meaning that there will be nothing general for a formal essay that addresses the following, the theorist to say about them [see, e.g., Z I:5].) This means we must approach the question of Nietzsche's “positive” ethics in terms of explicating (1) what it is distribution, Nietzsche values, (2) what his criteria of evaluation are, and (3) what evaluative structure , if any, is exhibited by the answers to (1) and (2). We go wrong at the start, however, if we expect Nietzsche to produce a normative theory of any familiar kind, whether a virtue ethics or otherwise. Importantly, the write that addresses situation preceding points should not be read as denying that Nietzsche thinks values and evaluative judgments can have a causal impact on distribution essay, actions and how lives are lived. After all, there would be no point in write a formal essay that, undertaking a “revaluation of values” if such a revaluation would not have consequences for, e.g., the flourishing of higher men, or if MPS values did not have deleterious causal consequences for those same people. Values make a causal difference, but, given Nietzsche's epiphenomenalism about consciousness (discussed, above, in 1.1), they do not make this difference because of free, conscious choices individuals make to adopt certain moral rules or cultivate certain dispositions of character. We can better appreciate Nietzsche's unusual views on this score by looking more closely at the popular, but mistaken, idea that Nietzsche calls on good conclusion essay, people to “create themselves” (on the general topic, see Leiter 1998). Alexander Nehamas, for example, reads Nietzsche as endorsing an analytical situation ethics of self-creation.
For Nietzsche, Nehamas says, “The people who ‘want to become those they are’ are precisely ‘human beings who are new, unique, incomparable, who give themselves laws, who create themselves’ (GS, 335)” (1985, p. Descriptive Topic! 174). Unfortunately, Nehamas truncates the quote from The Gay Science at a misleading point. For Nietzsche, in write a formal essay that addresses, the full passage, continues as follows: To that end [of creating ourselves] we must become the best learners and discoverers of everything that is lawful and necessary in the world: we must become physicists in order to be creators in this sense [ wir müssen Physiker sein, um, in jenem Sinne , Schöpfer sein zu können ] while hitherto all valuations and essays comparing two people ideals have been based on ignorance of write essay the following physics . Therefore: long live physics! (GS 335) Creation “in this sense” is, then, a very special sense indeed: for it presupposes the discovery of master creative online what is “lawful and necessary” as revealed by physical science! The passage begins to a formal analytical essay that the following situation make more sense in lists, context. A Formal Essay That The Following Situation! For in this same section, Nietzsche claims that “every action is unknowable,” though he adds: our opinions, valuations, and tables of what is good certainly belong among the most powerful levers in the involved mechanism of our actions, butin any particular case the law of their mechanism is indemonstrable [ unnachweisbar ]. This observation leads Nietzsche immediately to how to essay the suggestion that we should create “our own new tables of what is good,” presumably with an eye to effecting the causal determination of a formal analytical essay that the following our actions in new ways.
However, we need help from of fine arts online science to identify the lawful patterns into which values and actions fall; even if the mechanisms are indemonstrable, science may at least reveal the patterns of value-inputs and action-outputs. So to create one's self, “in this sense,” is to accept Nietzsche's basically deterministic picture of action as determined by sub-conscious causes (type-facts) that are hard to identify but to use science to help identify those “values” which figure in the causal determination of action in new, but predictable, ways. Values, then, have a causal impact upon how people act and thus also on their life trajectories; but we cannot expect these impacts to flow from free, conscious choices that persons make. This would explain, of a formal analytical essay situation course, why we find so little in Nietzsche by descriptive essay topic way of a formal essay that addresses the following situation argumentative or discursive support for his evaluative judgments: such intellectual devices are precisely the ones that would appeal to good for bullying essay our conscious faculties, and thus would be idle with respect to the desired outcomes. Nietzsche's often violent rhetorical style, by contrast, might be expected (or so Nietzsche presumably thinks) to write that addresses the following have the requisite non-rational effect on his desired readers those “whose ears are related to ours” (GS 381). (More on good, this issue in Section 4, below.) If Nietzsche does not have a typical normative ethics, he certainly has no shortage of views about evaluative questions.
For example, it is clear from the earlier discussion of Nietzsche's critique of a formal analytical essay morality that he assigns great intrinsic value to the flourishing of higher men. But who are these “higher men” and why does Nietzsche assign value to them? (Note that while Nietzsche speaks in Thus Spoke Zarathustra of the write essay for pharmacy school “superman” as a kind of analytical essay the following ideal higher type, this concept simply drops out of his mature work (except for a brief mention in descriptive essay topic, EH in the context of discussing Zarathustra ). “Higher men” is an important concept in Nietzsche; the a formal analytical essay addresses the following “superman” is conclusion for bullying essay, nothing more than a rhetorical trope in the highly stylized Zarathustra. ) Nietzsche has three favorite examples of “higher” human beings: Goethe, Beethoven, and Nietzsche himself! What makes these figures paradigms of the “higher” type for Nietzsche, beyond their great creativity (as he says, “the men of great creativity” are “the really great men according to my understanding” (WP 957))? Following Leiter (2002: 116122), we can identify five characteristics that Nietzsche identifies as distinctive of “higher men”: the higher type is solitary, pursues a “unifying project,” is healthy, is write a formal essay the following, life-affirming, and practices self-reverence. Taken together, they are plainly sufficient to population in china essay make someone a higher type in Nietzsche's view, though it is not obvious that any one of these is necessary, and various combinations often seem sufficient for explaining how Nietzsche speaks of write a formal situation higher human beings. First, higher types are solitary and deal with others only instrumentally. “Every choice human being,” says Nietzsche, “strives instinctively for a citadel and a secrecy where he is write essay for pharmacy school, saved from the crowd, the many, the analytical addresses situation great majority” (BGE 26). In China! “[T]he concept of greatness,” he says in the same work, “entails being noble, wanting to write analytical essay that situation be by population distribution in china essay oneself, being able to be different, standing alone and having to a formal analytical essay live independently [ auf-eigne-Faust-leben-müssen ]” (BGE 212). Indeed, the higher type pursues solitude with something of population distribution in china a vengeance, for he “knows how to make enemies everywhere,[He] constantly contradicts the a formal analytical essay addresses situation great majority not through words but through deeds” (WP 944). Unsurprisingly, then, the great or higher man lacks the “congeniality” and “good-naturedness” so often celebrated in contemporary popular culture. “A great manis incommunicable: he finds it tasteless to be familiar” (WP 962). Best Company Papers For You! More than that, though, the higher type deals with others, when he has to, in a rather distinctive way: “A human being who strives for something great considers everyone he meets on his way either as a means or as a delay and obstacle or as a temporary resting place” (BGE 273).
Thus, “a great manwants no ‘sympathetic’ heart, but servants, tools; in his intercourse with men, he is always intent on write analytical essay the following situation, making something out of them” (WP 962). The great man approaches others instrumentally not only descriptive topic because of his fundamental proclivity for solitude, but because of another distinguishing characteristic: he is consumed by his work, his responsibilities, his projects. Second, higher types seek burdens and responsibilities, in the pursuit of some unifying project . “What is noble?” Nietzsche again asks in a Nachlass note of 1888. His answer: “That one instinctively seeks heavy responsibilities” (WP 944). Write A Formal Analytical Essay That Addresses Situation! So it was with Goethe: “he was not fainthearted but took as much as possible upon himself, over how to write essay for pharmacy, himself, into himself” (TI IX:49). But the write that addresses the following situation higher type does not seek out master of fine arts creative, responsibilities and tasks arbitrarily. “A great man,” says Nietzsche displays “a long logic in all of his activityhe has the ability to extend his will across great stretches of addresses the following his life and to descriptive lists despise, and reject everything petty about a formal essay addresses the following him” (WP 962). This is the trait Nietzsche sometimes refers to as having “style” in good conclusion essay, “character” (GS 290). (Note that this famous passage (GS 290) merely describes those “the strong and domineering natures” who are able “‘to give’ style” to their character; it does not presuppose that just anyone can do so and it is not a recommendation that everyone try to do so.) Indeed, Nietzsche understood his own life in these terms: [T]he organizing “idea” that is a formal essay that addresses the following, destined to rule [in one's life and work] keeps growing deep down it begins to command; slowly it leads us back from side roads and wrong roads; it prepares single qualities and fitnesses that will one day prove to be indispensable as means toward a whole one by essays two people one, it trains all subservient capacities before giving any hint of the dominant task, “goal,” “aim,” or “meaning.” Considered in this way, my life is simply wonderful. Write Analytical Situation! For the task of a revaluation of a good for pharmacy all values more capacities may have been needed than have ever dwelt together in a single individual.I never even suspected what was growing in me and one day all my capacities, suddenly ripe, leaped forth in their ultimate perfection. Write Analytical Essay That Situation! (EH II:9). Earlier in Ecce Homo , Nietzsche describes himself as a higher type, “a well-turned-out-person” (EH I:2), and thus we may conclude that it is a characteristic only comparing of the higher type that he is driven in pursuit of a project in write a formal essay that addresses, the way described here.
Indeed, it turns out to be precisely this kind of instinctive drivenness that Nietzsche has partly in mind when he praises “health.” Third, higher types are essentially healthy and resilient. One essential attribute of the “well-turned-out-person ”is that he “has a taste only for what is good for him; his pleasure, his delight cease where the essay topic lists measure of what is good for write that addresses situation, him is essay, transgressed. He guesses what remedies avail against what is harmful; he exploits bad accidents to his advantage” (EH I:2). But this is just to addresses the following situation say that a higher type is healthy , for population, health, Nietzsche tells us, means simply “instinctively cho[osing] the right means against wretched states” (EH I:2). This permits us to understand Nietzsche's own declaration in analytical addresses the following situation, Ecce Homo that he was “ healthy at bottom ” (EH I:2), a seemingly paradoxical claim for a philosopher whose physical ailments were legion. Yet “health,” for Nietzsche, is a term of art, meaning not the absence of sickness, but something closer to resilience , to how one deals with ordinary (physical) sickness and setbacks. How To Write Essay For Pharmacy! “For a typical healthy person,” Nietzsche says, “being sick can even become an write analytical essay that addresses energetic stimulus for two people, life, for living more. Analytical That Situation! This, in fact, is how [my own] long period of sickness appears to me now it was during the years of my lowest vitality that I ceased to distribution essay be a pessimist; the instinct of self-restoration forbade me a philosophy of poverty and discouragement” (EH I:2). To cease to be a pessimist is to reject MPS, for write addresses the following, only under the color of for bullying MPS does life appear to lack value. Analytical Addresses The Following! Thus, being healthy, in turn, entails a distinctive non-pessimistic attitude towards life which is yet a fourth mark of the higher type.
Fourth, higher types affirm life, meaning that they are prepared to will the conclusion for bullying eternal return of their lives . In Beyond Good and Evil , Nietzsche describes “the opposite ideal” to that of moralists and pessimists like Schopenhauer as “the ideal of the most high-spirited, alive, and addresses the following world-affirming human being who has not only come to terms and learned to get along with whatever was and is, but who wants to essay school have what was and is repeated into all eternity” (BGE 56). Put more simply: the higher type embraces the a formal essay that addresses the following situation doctrine of the eternal recurrence and thus evinces what Nietzsche often calls a “Dionysian” or “life-affirming” attitude. A person, for Nietzsche, has a Dionysian attitude toward life insofar as he affirms his life unconditionally; in particular, insofar as he affirms it including the “suffering” or other hardships it has involved. Best Rated Papers! So someone who says, “I would gladly live my life again, except for my first marriage,” would not affirm life in the requisite sense. Thus, we may say that a person affirms his life in Nietzsche's sense only insofar as he would gladly will its eternal return: i.e., will the repetition of his entire life through eternity. Analytical That Addresses! In fact, Nietzsche calls “the idea of the eternal recurrence” the of fine arts writing “highest formulation of affirmation that is at all attainable” (EH III:Z-1; cf. BGE 56). Higher men, then, are marked by a distinctive Dionysian attitude toward their life: they would gladly will the a formal that addresses the following repetition of their life eternally. Strikingly, Nietzsche claims that precisely this attitude characterized both himself and Goethe. Of Fine Arts Online! Speaking, for example, of the neglect by his contemporaries of his work, Nietzsche writes: “I myself have never suffered from that addresses the following all this; what is necessary does not hurt me; amor fati [love of fate] is my inmost nature” (EH III:CW-4). Regarding Goethe, Nietzsche says that, “Such a spiritstands amid the cosmos with a joyous and trusting fatalism, in the faith that all is how to a good, redeemed and affirmed in the whole.Such a faith, however, is the highest of all possible faiths: I have baptized it with the name of Dionysus ” (TI IX:49).
Finally, the higher type of essay that the following situation human being has a distinctive bearing towards others and especially towards himself: he has self-reverence. “The ‘higher nature’ of the great man,” says Nietzsche in a striking Nachlass note of 1888 “lies in population essay, being different, in incommunicability, in distance of rank, not in an effect of any kind even if he made the whole globe tremble” (WP 876; cf. GS 55). This is write essay addresses, perhaps the most unusual feature of Nietzsche's discussion of the master arts online higher type, for it suggests that, at bottom, being a higher type is a matter of “attitude” or “bearing.” In a section of that addresses the following situation Beyond Good and Evil , Nietzsche once again answers the question, “What is noble?”, this time as follows: “It is not the works, it is the faith that is write a good essay, decisive here, that determines the order of rank: some fundamental certainty that a noble soul has about write situation itself, something that cannot be sought, nor found, nor perhaps lost. The noble soul has reverence [Ehrfurcht] for itself” (BGE 287). Self-reverence to revere and respect oneself as one might a god is no small achievement, as the proliferation of conclusion for bullying essay “self-help” programs and pop psychology slogans like “I'm OK, you're OK” would suggest. Self-loathing, self-doubt, and self-laceration are the norm among human beings; to possess a “fundamental certainty” about oneself is, Nietzsche thinks quite plausibly, a unique state of affairs. Allied with this posture of self-reverence are other distinctive attitudes that distinguish the write essay bearing of the higher man. “The noble human being,” says Nietzsche, “honors himself as one who is powerful, also as one who has power over himself, who knows how to speak and comparing be silent, who delights in being severe and hard with himself and respects all severity and hardness” (BGE 260). (The higher man, unsurprisingly, is no hedonist: “What is noble?” asks Nietzsche: “That one leaves happiness to the great majority: happiness as peace of soul, virtue, comfort, Anglo-angelic shopkeeperdom a la Spencer” (WP 944).) In an earlier work, Nietzsche explains that: [T]he passion that attacks those who are noble is peculiar.It involves the use of a rare and singular standard cold to analytical essay that addresses the following everybody else; the discovery of values for best write for you, which no scales have been invented yet; offering sacrifices on altars that are dedicated to an unknown god; a courage without any desire for honors; self-sufficiency that overflows and gives to men and that addresses the following things. (GS 55) Indeed, the master arts creative writing ability to set his own standard of valuation is one of the most distinctive achievements of the higher type, as we saw already in the discussion of solitude. And “the highest man” says Nietzsche is “he who determines values and write a formal analytical that the following directs the will of millennia by giving direction to the highest natures” (WP 999). Considered all together, it becomes clear why creatives geniuses like Goethe, Beethoven, and Nietzsche himself should be the preferred examples of the rated company write for you higher human being: for the characteristics of the higher type so-described are precisely those that lend themselves to artistic and write analytical essay that addresses the following creative work. A penchant for population distribution, solitude, an write analytical that the following absolute devotion to one's tasks, an descriptive essay topic indifference to write essay external opinion, a fundamental certainty about oneself and one's values (that often strikes others as hubris) all these are the how to essay for pharmacy school traits we find, again and again, in artistic geniuses. (It turns out, for example, that Beethoven, according to his leading biographer, had almost all these characteristics to a striking degree; for discussion, see Leiter 2002: 122123.)
If “the men of write that the following situation great creativity, the really great men according to my understanding” (WP 957), men like Goethe and Beethoven, are Nietzsche's paradigmatic higher types, whose lives are models of flourishing excellence, is there anything systematic to be said about the theory of descriptive essay topic lists value that undergirds these judgments and informs, in essay that, turn, Nietzsche's critique of two people morality (MPS) on the grounds that it thwarts the development of write a formal essay that such men? One popular idea (e.g., Schacht 1983, Richardson 1996) is that higher men exemplify “power,” which is claimed to be Nietzsche's fundamental criterion of value. Such readings, alas, have to employ the concept of “power” rather elastically, since the conglomeration of creative writing traits of higher human beings noted above don't seem to be, in any ordinary sense, instances of “power” or its manifestation. (Treating Nietzsche's fundamental criterion of value as “power” confronts even more serious textual and philosophical obstacles: see Section 3.1, below.) More illuminating is Hurka's view (1993 and Hurka 2007) that Nietzsche's evaluative posture conjoins perfectionism with maximizing consequentialism: what has value are certain human excellences (or perfections), and write a formal analytical the following states of affairs are assessed in terms of their maximization of these excellences. Best Rated Write For You! As Hurka helpfully observes (1993: 75), Nietzsche seems to operate with the opposite of Rawls's maximin principle, what Hurka calls approriately “maximax.” Hurka states this as a rule for conduct (“each agent's overriding goal should be not a sum or average of that situation lifetime value, but the greatest lifetime value of the single most perfect individual, or, if perfections are not fully comparable, of the few most perfect individuals” [1993: 75]), but given the descriptive essay lists earlier caveats about reading Nietzsche as a conventional normative theorist, it is better to treat maximax as reflecting the implicit structure of Nietzsche's revaluation of values: he rejects MPS because it fails to maximize the analytical essay that addresses the following situation perfection of the highest human beings, and he does so without, it appears, any regard for the costs to online the herd of such a rejection (see Section 4). This leaves the question whether there are (formal or substantive) criteria of “perfection” for Nietzsche? Many writers (e.g., Hurka 2007; Nehamas 1985; Richardson 1996) are attracted to the idea that “style” or “unity” is a criterion of excellence or perfection for Nietzsche, and, indeed, as noted above, the pursuit of a unified or coherent life project is a characteristic feature of those Nietzsche deems to be higher men. Whether such style or coherence suffices is analytical essay that addresses the following, a vexed interpretive question, since it is not entirely clear that the formal criterion of style or unity is available only to Goethes and Beethovens: did not Kant, that “catastrophic spider” as Nietzsche unflatteringly calls him (A 11), exhibit an descriptive extraordinarily coherent style of creative productivity over many years? Others (e.g., Magnus 1978) take Nietzsche's idea of eternal recurrence (the hallmark of life-affirmation, as noted above) as the criterion of a formal essay addresses the following situation a well-lived life: perfection is a matter of living in such a way that one is descriptive essay topic, ready to gladly will the repetition of one's life, in all its particulars, in to eternity. This, too, seems both too thin and too severe as a criterion of perfection standing alone: too thin, because anyone suitably superficial and complacent might will the eternal return; too severe, because it seems to write a formal that addresses the following require that a post-Holocaust Goethe gladly will the repetition of the Holocaust. Nehamas (1985), who shares some of Magnus's view, adds an idioscynratic element to this account: he claims that Nietzsche does not describe his ideal person his “higher man” but rather “exemplifies” such a person in the form of the “character” that is constituted by and exemplified in his corpus.
Nietzsche, however, describes at great length and in many places (e.g. D 201; GS 55; BGE 287; NCW Epilogue:2; WP 943) the types of persons he admires; and he also describes himself as such a person (e.g., EH I:2) In any case, Nehamas's view would have the odd consequence that for Nietzsche to have had a positive ethical vision at any point earlier in his career he would have had to anticipate writing the series of books he actually wrote, such that his ethical ideal would be properly exemplified in them! Needless to descriptive topic say, there is situation, no reason to think this was Nietzsche's view. Nietzsche holds that moral (i.e., MPS) values are not conducive to the flourishing of human excellence, and it is by reference to distribution this fact that he proposed to assess their value. The enterprise of assessing the value of certain other values (call them the write a formal analytical situation ‘revalued values’) naturally invites the metaethical question: what status metaphysical, epistemological do the values used to undertake this revaluation (the ‘assessing values’) enjoy? (It is population, doubtful Nietzsche has a definite semantic view about judgments of value: cf. Write Analytical That Addresses The Following! Hussain 2013, esp. 412.) Following Leiter (2000), we may distinguish “Privilege Readings” of for bullying Nietzsche's metaethics which claim that Nietzsche holds that his own evaluative standpoint is write analytical, either veridical or better justified than its target from in china essay those readings which deny the claim of privilege. (Note that defenders of this latter, “skeptical” view need not read Nietzsche as a global anti-realist i.e., as claiming that there are no truths or facts about anything, let alone truths about value a reading which has now been widely discredited. There is, on the skeptical view at issue here, a special problem about the objectivity of write a formal addresses situation value.) Privilege Readings of Nietzsche can come in three varieties: Intuitionist Realist (I-Realist); Naturalist Realist (N-Realist); and Privilege Non-Realist (P-Non-Realist). The proponents of these views would hold the following: (i) According to the I-Realist, there are non-natural normative facts, which are sui generis, and which are apprehended by some appropriate act of normative ‘perception.’ (ii) According to master of fine writing online the N-Realist, there are normative facts because normative facts are just constituted by certain natural facts (in some sense to be specified).
(iii) According to the P-Non-Realist, there are no normative facts, but some normative judgments still enjoy a privilege by virtue of their interpersonal appeal or acceptance. To say that there are ‘normative facts’ will mean, for purposes here, that norms are (in some sense) objective features of the world. Write A Formal Analytical Essay That Addresses The Following! No one, to date, has construed Nietzsche as an population distribution essay I-Realist, but Schacht (1983) and Wilcox (1974), among many others, have defended an a formal that addresses situation N-Realist reading, while Foot (1973) has defended a P-Non-Realist reading. We consider the difficulties afflicting these Privilege Readings in turn. According to conclusion for bullying essay the N-Realist reading, Nietzsche holds, first, that only power really has value and, second, that power is an objective, natural property. Nietzsche's evaluative perspective is a formal analytical that addresses, privileged, in turn, because it involves asssessing (i) prudential value (value for how to write for pharmacy school, an agent) in terms of degree of power, and (ii) non-prudential value in terms of maximization of prudential value (i.e., maximization of power). (A cautionary note about terminology here: by ordinary conventions, the N-Realist proper holds that value itself is a natural property, not simply that what has value is a natural property. There is no clear textual evidence of Nietzsche's view on this subtle question, yet it still makes sense to use the “N-Realist” label for two reasons: first, defenders of this reading treat Nietzsche's view as “naturalistic”; and, second, it is in write a formal essay situation, fact ‘naturalistic’ in a familiar nineteenth-century sense, i.e., it denies that there are any supernatural properties. In the theory of value, then, one might plausibly think of Nietzsche as being a kind of essay naturalist in the sense of a formal addresses the following situation resisting religious and quasi-religious theories that view goodness as supervening on non-natural (e.g., the “Forms”) or supernatural properties; as against this, Nietzsche claims that goodness supervenes on a (putatively) natural property, namely power.) According to Schacht, Nietzsche's account of “the fundamental character of life and the world” as will to power is supposed to “ground” his own evaluative standpoint (1983: 348349). Essays! As Nietzsche writes (in a passage Schacht quotes): “assuming that life itself is the will to power,” then “there is nothing to life that has value, except the degree of power” (WP 55). Nietzsche's revaluation of values, then, assesses moral values on write a formal essay situation, the basis of their “degree of power,” something which constitutes an “objective measure of value” (WP 674).
Hence the privilege of how to write a good for pharmacy his view: it embraces as an evaluative standard the only thing in life that (in fact) has value (namely power), and employs this “objective measure of value” in the revaluation (e.g., by criticizing Christian morality because it does not maximize “power”). What exactly is write analytical essay, Nietzsche's argument on the N-Realist reading? When pressed, commentators are never very clear. Schacht, for example, writes: Human life, for for bullying essay, Nietzsche, is analytical that addresses, ultimately a part of a kind of vast game[which] is, so to speak, the only game in write, town.The nature of the game, he holds, establishes a standard for the evaluation of everything falling within its compass.
The availability of this standard places evaluation on footing that is as firm as that on which the comprehension of life and the world stands. (1983, p. Essay That The Following! 398) Talk of “the only game in rated write, town” is far too metaphorical, however, to bear the write analytical essay philosophical weight demanded. From the fact that “life itself is the will to power,” how does it follow that power is the only standard of write a good essay school value? From the a formal addresses situation fact, for two people, example, that all life obeys the laws of fundamental physics, nothing follows about the appropriate standard of value. What Schacht and others seem to have in mind is something like John Stuart Mill's argument for write a formal essay addresses the following situation, utilitarianism, which proceeds from the premise that since happiness is the only thing people desire or aim for, it follows that happiness is the only thing that possesses intrinsic value. This argument, though, is famously unsuccessful: from the fact that only happiness is desired, nothing at all follows about what ought to be desired. Attempts to construe Nietzsche's argument in an analogous way encounter similar problems (Leiter 2000 explores the analogy in detail). On Mill's well-known and oft-criticized ‘proof’ of the principle of utility from his 1861 Utilitarianism , to show that something is visible, we must show that it is seen; and to show that something is audible, we must show that it is heard; analogously, (P) to show that something is desirable (i.e., valuable), show that it is desired. Millian hedonism holds that only happiness or pleasure is intrinsically desirable or valuable (‘Prescriptive Hedonism’). Let us call ‘Value Nihilism’ the view that there is nothing that has value or is valuable (or desirable).
To get Prescriptive Hedonism from (P), then, plug in ‘Descriptive Hedonism’ the thesis that people do in fact desire only pleasure as an end. If (P) is arts, valid, Descriptive Hedonism true, and write a formal that addresses Value Nihilism false, then the truth of Prescriptive Hedonism follows. ((P), of course, is not valid, a point to which we will return.) Notice, now, that the same type of argument seems to capture what the N-Realist construal of Nietzsche has in mind. That is, to get the N-Realist Nietzschean conclusion that what is valuable is power, take (P) and plug in a strong form of population Nietzsche's descriptive doctrine of the will to power the doctrine, roughly, that all persons intrinsically ‘desire’ only write analytical essay that addresses the following power. If (P) is valid, Value Nihilism false, and the descriptive doctrine of the will to power is true, then the normative conclusion about good essay power, which Schacht is after, seems to analytical essay addresses situation follow. (Note, of course, that the Millian Model argument as formulated so far would show only that power is what is company that write papers for you, non-morally valuable or good for an agent.
Of course, if the Millian Model argument for prudential value or non-moral goodness does not work, then that provides a very strong (if defeasible) reason for analytical essay that addresses the following situation, supposing that there is no further argument for rated that papers for you, the related account of non-prudential value as consisting in maximization of power.) What are the problems with this “Millian argument”? The first problem, of course, is that (P) is not valid. While from the fact that x is heard, it follows that x is audible, it does not follow from that fact that x is desired that x is desirable in the sense necessary for the argument . For while ‘audible’ can be fairly rendered as ‘can be heard,’ ‘desirable,’ in the context of Prescriptive Hedonism, means ‘ ought to be desired’ (not ‘can’ or ‘is’ desired). Thus, while it follows that: it does not follow that, If x is desired, then x ought to be desired (‘is desirable’). Yet in a formal analytical that addresses, claiming that pleasure or power are valuable, Mill and the N-Realist Nietzsche are advancing a normative thesis. The truth of this normative thesis, however, simply does not follow from the corresponding descriptive thesis. Many, of course, have thought this too facile a response. Supplement the argument, then, by adding an ‘Internalist Constraint’ (IC), one that many philosophers have found plausible in the theory of value: (IC) Something cannot be valuable for a person unless the person is capable of comparing two people caring about (desiring) it. The (IC) is motivated by the thought that it cannot be right to say that ‘X is valuable’ for someone when x is alien to essay the following anything a person cares about or could care about: any plausible notion of value, the a good essay school (IC) supposes, must have some strong connection to a person's existing (or potential) motivational set.
How does the (IC) help? Recall (P): (P) To show that something is desirable (i.e., valuable) show that it is desired. Now the (IC) puts a constraint on what things can, in fact, be desirable or valuable: namely, only a formal analytical that addresses the following those things that agents can, in fact, care about or desire. This suggests that we might reformulate (P) as follows: (P′) To show that something is lists, desirable (i.e., valuable), show that it is write a formal essay addresses situation, or can be desired. (P′) now is simply a different formulation of the (IC): if we accept the (IC) then we should accept (P′). But what happens, then, if we grant the truth of Descriptive Hedonism: namely, that only for bullying essay pleasure is, in fact, desired.
In that case, it would now follow that only pleasure is desirable (ought to be desired) (assuming, again, that Value Nihilism is false). That is, since something ought to be desired only if it can be desired (internalism), then if only x can be desired, then only a formal analytical essay addresses the following x ought to be desired (assuming that Value Nihilism is descriptive, false). Will this argument rescue the write analytical essay that addresses N-Realist Nietzsche? Two obstacles remain. Master Arts Online! The first, and perhaps less serious one, is that we must have some reason for accepting the (IC) or, more modestly, some reason for thinking Nietzsche accepts it.
It is not clear, however, that there are adequate textual grounds for saying where Nietzsche stands on this question. Write A Formal Analytical Essay That Addresses! Since the (IC) does, however, seem to be presupposed by the Nietzschean remarks from the Nachlass that support N-Realism in the sense that such remarks do not constitute a good argument without the (IC) let us grant that Nietzsche accepts the (IC), and topic let us simply put aside the contentious issue of whether we ought to accept the (IC) as a general philosophical matter. A second difficulty will still remain: namely, that the a formal analytical addresses the following argument for N-Realism still depends on the truth of the relevant descriptive thesis, in Nietzsche's case, the a good essay for pharmacy school doctrine of the will to essay situation power. This presents two problems. First, in the works Nietzsche chose to publish, it seems clear that he did not, in fact, accept the descriptive lists doctrine in the strong form required for the N-Realist argument (namely, that it is only power that persons ever aim for or desire). Second, it is simply not a plausible doctrine in its strong form.
For the Millian Model argument for N-Realism to work in its new form (that is, supplemented with the (IC)) it must be the case that that which ought to be desired (‘is valuable’) are the only things that are, in fact, desired. Since the N-Realist Nietzschean conclusion is that only power is a formal analytical that addresses situation, valuable, power must be the only thing that is, in fact, desired (assuming, again, that something is valuable, i.e., that Value Nihilism is false). Many, of master of fine creative writing online course, have thought that Nietzsche held precisely this view, and he plainly says much to suggest that. Write A Formal Analytical That Addresses Situation! Zarathustra states that, “Where I found the living, there I found will to essays power” (Z II:12); Nietzsche refers to “the will to power which is the will of life” (GS 349); he says “the really fundamental instinct of lifeaims at write analytical essay addresses, the expansion of power ” (GS 349); “life simply is best company that papers for you, will to write a formal analytical addresses power,” meaning a striving “to grow, spread, seize, become predominant” (BGE 259); he refers to comparing two people his “theory that in all events a will to power is operating” (GM II:12); he claims that “[a] living thing seeks above all to discharge its strength life itself is will to power ” (BGE 13); and so on. The difficulty is that Nietzsche says other things which might suggest that the stronger remarks are misleading; for example: Life itself is to my mind the instinct for growth, for durability, for an accumulation of forces, for power : where the will to power is lacking there is decline. It is my contention that all the analytical essay the following situation supreme values of mankind lack this will. (A 6)
But if all actions manifested this will , then this will could never be found lacking. Yet Nietzsche thinks it can be lacking, which means he must countenance the possibility that not everyone aims for (‘desires’) power. This passage is not atypical. Later in the same work, he returns to the same theme concerning “[w]herever the essays will to a formal analytical essay that addresses power declines in any form” (A 17). Good Essay! In the immediately preceding work he claims that the “effects” of liberal institutions are “known well enough: they undermine the will to power” (TI IX:38). And in the immediately subsequent work (his last), Nietzsche refers to “the terrible aspects of reality (in affects, in write analytical essay that addresses the following situation, desires, in the will to power)” (EH IV:4), which certainly sounds as if will to power is simply one among various characteristics of write essay for pharmacy reality alongside affects and desires, rather than the essential core of them all. Three other general textual considerations count against attributing the strong doctrine of the will to power to Nietzsche. First, if, as the defenders of the strong doctrine believe, “his fundamental principle is the ‘ will to power’ ”, then it is hard to understand why he says almost nothing about will to power and nothing at all to suggest it is his “fundamental principle” in the two major self-reflective moments in the Nietzschean corpus: his last major work, Ecce Homo , where he reviews and assesses his life and writings, including specifically all his prior books (EH III); and the series of new prefaces he wrote for a formal analytical essay that the following, The Birth of Tragedy , Human, All Too Human , Dawn , and The Gay Science in 1886, in which he revisits his major themes. That this putative “fundamental principle” merits no mention on either occasion strongly suggests that its role in Nietzsche's thought has been greatly overstated. Second, the view at issue presupposes an unusually strong doctrine of the will to power: a doctrine, to the effect, that all life (actions, events) reflects the how to a good essay will to power.
But recent scholarship has cast doubt on write a formal that situation, whether Nietzsche ultimately accepted such a doctrine. The single most famous passage on will to descriptive lists power in a formal analytical that the following, the Nietzschean corpus, for example, is the concluding section (1067) of The Will to Power , where he affirms that, “ This world is the will to power and nothing besides ! And you yourselves are also this will to power and nothing besides!” Although a favorite of commentators for many years, the passage has now been conclusively discredited by best company papers for you the leading scholar of the Nachlass , the late Mazzino Montinari. Montinari has shown that Nietzsche had, in fact, discarded the write a formal essay addresses passage by the spring of 1887 (1982, pp. 103104)! It was, as Montinari notes, made part of the Köselitz-Forster compilation of The Will to Power (the basis for the English-language edition by Kaufmann and Hollingdale) notwithstanding “Nietzsche's literary intentions” (1982, p. 104).
Finally, Maudemarie Clark has argued that Nietzsche could not have accepted the essay very strongest form of the write a formal analytical the following situation doctrine of the will to power namely, that all force , animate and inanimate, is how to a good essay, will to power given the putative argument he gives for it. Clark points out that the only argument for this doctrine of the will to power in Nietzsche's published works in Section 36 of Beyond Good and Evil is cast in the conditional form: if we accept certain initial hypotheses, then, Nietzsche thinks, the strong doctrine of the will to power follows. But one of the antecedents of this conditional is the that addresses situation “causality of the will,” and Clark argues that Nietzsche clearly rejects such causality elsewhere in his work (e.g., GS 127, TI II:5, TI VI:3). Master Arts Online! Therefore, this section cannot constitute an argument for the strongest doctrine of the will to analytical that addresses power that Nietzsche, himself, would actually accept! Rather than embracing the strongest form of the doctrine, Clark argues that Nietzsche is, somewhat ironically, illustrating the very flaw of philosophers he warns against in descriptive essay topic lists, the surrounding passages: namely, their tendency to propound theories of the essence of reality that are just projections of their own evaluative commitments (Clark 1990, pp. 212227). Write A Formal Analytical Essay The Following Situation! Thus, Nietzsche says of the Stoic talk of living “according to nature” that “while you pretend rapturously to read the canon of your law in nature, you want something opposite.Your pride wants to impose your morality, your ideal, on nature” (BGE 9).
How, Clark wonders, could Nietzsche's own doctrine of will to power be exempted from such a charge? (Note, too, that Montinari claims that the one surviving relic of 1067 of essay The Will to analytical situation Power in the published works is best rated company, precisely the ironic Section 36 of a formal addresses the following Beyond Good and Evil (1982, p. 104).) What, then, does Nietzsche believe about population distribution essay will to power? As others have noted (e.g., Clark 1990: 209212), Nietzsche's doctrine of analytical essay addresses will to power in its original deployment and good for bullying essay most of its later development is psychological in character: the will to write a formal essay addresses situation power is posited as the best psychological explanation for a wide variety of human behaviors. But as the preceding passages and considerations make clear, Nietzsche could not have believed that will to power was the exclusive explanation for all human behavior. To the extent he sometimes seems to embrace this stronger claim (see the example, above), we must simply take Nietzsche to have overstated his case something which his penchant for hyperbolic rhetoric and polemics often leads him to how to essay school do or to be engaged in the kind of ironic move described by Clark, above. Write A Formal Addresses The Following Situation! That would, of write a good essay course, be quite fortunate, since it is hardly plausible that will to power is the exclusive explanation for all human behavior. There is an a formal essay that addresses additional, textual worry for good conclusion essay, the argument that will to power provides an objective criterion of value lurking here as well.
Nietzsche only makes the remarks that seem to suggest that power is an objective criterion in passages from the Nachlass , work that Nietzsche never published during his lifetime. Thus, even if one thought that Nietzsche really held the a formal analytical essay the following strong descriptive doctrine of the best rated write for you will to write a formal analytical essay the following situation power the doctrine that all animate force (perhaps all force) is will to power in his published works, it is still the case that he only write essay for pharmacy uses this doctrine to argue for the normative conclusion in Nachlass material. Since scholars have now raised important doubts about the canonical status of this Nachlass material (Montinari 1982, pp. A Formal Analytical Essay The Following Situation! 92104; Hollingdale 1985, pp. 166172, 182186), this might suggest that a view ought not to be attributed to Nietzsche solely on the basis of its articulation in descriptive essay topic, these notebooks, which is exactly what the N-Realist reading requires.
Although not attributing to a formal that addresses the following Nietzsche any kind of value realism, Philippa Foot, like Schacht, wants to show that Nietzsche is doing something more than simply expressing his idiosyncratic view, a view that admits of no interpersonal justification. While agreeing that Nietzsche's intention is, in distribution, part, “to present us with a clash of interests the good of the strong against a formal essay that addresses the following situation that of the weak,” Foot adds that “this is not all he wants to suggest” (1973: 162). Company Papers! Noting that Nietzsche “seems to want to say that anyone who is strong, independent, and so on anyone who fits his description of the higher type of man is one who has value in himself” (163), Foot goes on to explicate this notion of “value” as follows: [I]t does make sense to say that we value strong and exceptional individuals. We do find patterns of write that addresses reaction to exceptional men that would allow us to see here a valuing rather similar to a good essay school valuing on aesthetic grounds. A Formal Analytical That Addresses! I am thinking of the interest and admiration which is the best that for you common attitude to remarkable men of that addresses exceptional independence of for bullying essay mind and strength of write analytical the following will. [Nietzsche] is appealing to our tendency to admire certain individuals whom we see as powerful and splendid. [There is] a similarity between the population in china essay way we attribute value (aesthetic value) to art objects and the value that Nietzsche attributes to a certain kind of man, both resting on a set of common reactions. (1973: 163)
So Nietzsche, on this account, does not claim that his evaluative perspective is write a formal analytical that addresses the following, veridical; he simply claims that it enjoys a certain sort of interpersonal appeal, owing to our “common attitude to remarkable men,” “our tendency to admire certain individuals,” to find them aesthetically appealing. There may be no fact-of-the-matter as to whether higher men are or are not really valuable, but Nietzsche's evaluative standpoint is privileged by virtue of its appeal to for bullying all of analytical addresses the following situation us. Distribution Essay! We're all interested, it seems, in a formal essay that the following, the flourishing of higher men. Yet Nietzsche could not embrace the topic view that the flourishing of “higher men” will appeal to “ our tendency” to admire such men or to write a formal essay that addresses any sort of “common” attitude, given the logic of his critique of morality. This follows from what we may call Nietzsche's ‘Callicleanism,’ after Plato's Callicles in the Gorgias . It has now become something of a commonplace for commentators to note that Nietzsche did not accept one sort of Calliclean view, namely, the view that “anyone who is to live aright should suffer his appetites to grow to the greatest extent and not check them” ( Gorgias , 419e) (cf. Nehamas 1985: 202203; BGE 188). Yet there remains a more important respect in which Nietzsche's view is Calliclean: namely, in its embrace of the master of fine arts creative Calliclean doctrine that the inferior employ morality to make “slaves of those who are naturally better” ( Gorgias , 491e-492a), that the weaker folk, the majorityframe the laws [and, we might add, the write a formal analytical that the following situation morals] for their own advantage’ in order to ‘frighten [the strong] by saying that to overreach others is shameful and master creative writing online evil’ ( Gorgias , 483b-d). In short, Callicles' view is a formal essay addresses, that morality is arts creative writing online, simply the prudence of the weak, who unable to do what the strong can do, opt instead to put the actions of the strong under the ban of write a formal analytical essay addresses morality. This, of course, is master creative writing online, essentially Nietzsche's view as well. So, for example, Nietzsche describes slave morality as simply ‘the prudence [ Klugheit ] of the lowest order’ (GM I:13), and he observes that “everything that elevates an individual above the herd and intimidates the neighbor iscalled evil ” (BGE 201), that “[m]oral judgments and condemnations constitute the favorite revenge of the spiritually limited against those less limited” (BGE 219), and he claims that the a formal analytical essay addresses “chief means” by which the “weak and mediocreweaken and company that pull down the stronger” is write a formal analytical essay that the following, “the moral judgment” (WP 345). Recall, now, that Foot wanted to resist the view that in essay topic, his revaluation Nietzsche simply “present[s] us with a clash of interests the good of the strong against that of the weak” (1973: 162); instead, Foot suggests that Nietzsche is appealing to a ‘common’ tendency to admire higher men, men who would otherwise be thwarted by write a formal analytical essay addresses the reign of moral values.
But for a Calliclean like Nietzsche, it is part of the very appeal of essay morality that it does thwart the flourishing of higher men. If that is right, then he could not think that the flourishing of “higher men” would appeal to everyone. Write Essay That Situation! It is descriptive essay, precisely because it doesn't that morality arises in the first place, as a means for the low and write essay that the following base to thwart the flourishing of the high. This is not to two people deny that higher men may still be admirable in the eyes of the base and low (hence their envy); it is to deny, however, that Nietzsche's evaluative perspective that it is an objection to morality that it thwarts the write a formal analytical essay that situation high could enjoy a privilege in virtue of this shared admiration. Good Essay! On the Calliclean picture, there is write a formal analytical essay, a fundamental hostility between the high and low, the strong and the weak, one which will not be bridged by inviting the low to admire the high, or the weak, the strong. Essay Topic! “The well-being of the analytical essay that addresses the following situation majority and the well-being of the few are opposite viewpoints of value,” Nietzsche says in essays two people, the ‘Note’ at the end of the write a formal essay the following situation first essay of the essay Genealogy . And in the following situation, Nietzsche's revaluation, it appears, there is no evaluative standpoint from which one could successfully mediate and reconcile the normative claims of the population distribution in china opposing moralities. If Nietzsche is not a realist about value, then he must be an anti-realist: he must deny that there is any objective fact of the matter that would privilege his evaluative perspective over its target. (This, in fact, is the most familiar reading outside the secondary literature on Nietzsche; one finds this view of Nietzsche's metaethics, for example, in the sociologist Max Weber and the moral philosopher Alasdair MacIntyre, among many others.) We must be careful about the kinds of a formal essay judgments to good conclusion essay which this anti-realism applies. Recall that in his critique of morality, Nietzsche appears to that addresses hold that, e.g., “herd” morality is good for the herd, but that it is bad for higher men. Conclusion For Bullying! He says, for example, that, “The ideas of the herd should rule in write a formal the following, the herd but not reach out beyond it” (WP 287; emphasis added); and good conclusion essay elsewhere he describes slave morality as simply “the prudence of the lowest order” (GM I:13). Write A Formal Essay That Addresses The Following Situation! It may appear that regarding value judgments pertaining to welfare or prudential goodness what is best that papers for you, good or bad for particular sorts of analytical essay addresses persons Nietzsche believes there is an in china objective fact of the matter, though one relative to type-facts about persons. A Formal Essay Addresses The Following! But this is not right: while Nietzsche believes it is objectively correct that different moralities have certain effects on different kinds of people, that these effects are good or bad itself admits of anti-realist interpretation (cf. A Good Essay! Leiter 2015: 119 for a revision of the view defended in Leiter 2002).
Even more importantly, though, Nietzsche's anti-realism applies to the “revaluative” judgment that follows upon these judgments about the effects of write essay the following different moralities: that is, the judgment that because herd morality is good for the herd but bad for higher men, herd morality (or the universal reign of herd morality) is bad or disvaluable. Nietzsche certainly says much that sounds like he is denying the arts creative writing objectivity of values. Zarathustra tells us that, “Verily, men gave themselves all their good and evil [ Gut und Böse ]” (Z I:15) and that “good and evil that are not transitory do not exist” (Z II:12). In The Gay Science , Nietzsche explains that, “Whatever has value in our world now does not have value in itself, according to its nature nature is always value-less, but has been given value at some time” (301; cf. D 3). Indeed, like certain radical anti-realists, he tends to equate evaluative questions with matters of taste. Write Analytical Addresses! “What is for bullying, now decisive against Christianity is our taste [ Geschmack ], no longer our reasons” (GS 132), he writes, noting later in the same work that what counts as “justiceis by all means a matter of taste, nothing more” (GS 184). Nietzsche's central argument for anti-realism about a formal essay addresses the following situation value is population in china, explanatory : moral facts don't figure in a formal analytical essay situation, the “best explanation” of population distribution experience, and write essay that the following situation so are not real constituents of the objective world. Moral values, in short, can be “explained away.” Such a conclusion follows from Nietzsche's naturalism (on the latter, see the competing accounts in Janaway 2007 and Leiter 2013). As we saw in the context of Nietzsche's critique of morality, Nietzsche thinks a person's moral beliefs can be explained in naturalistic terms, i.e., in terms of type-facts about topic that person. Thus, to explain a person's moral judgments, one needn't appeal to the existence of objective moral facts: psycho-physical facts about the person suffice.
Thus, since non-evaluative type-facts are the primary explanatory facts, and since explanatory power is the write essay addresses the following mark of objective facts, it appears that there cannot be any value facts. Moral judgments and evaluations are “images” and “fantasies,” says Nietzsche, the mere effects of type-facts about agents (D 119). To describe Nietzsche as a moral anti-realist is so far only to ascribe to him a metaphysical view: namely, that there are no objective facts about good essay what is morally right and wrong. It is a formal addresses, a somewhat vexed interpretive question whether we should also ascribe to Nietzsche a particular view about the semantics of moral judgment, a topic about which no philosopher prior to the 20 th century had a workedout view (see again Hussain 2013). For example, while it seems clear (from the passages quoted above) that Nietzsche has distinct views on the central metaphysical question about value, it seems equally apparent that there are inadequate textual resources for ascribing to him a satisfying answer to the semantic question. Elements of his view, for example, might suggest assimilation to what we would call non-cognitivism and, in particular, expressivism. For example, in describing master and population distribution in china essay Christian morality as “opposite forms in the optics of value [ Werthe ],” Nietzsche goes on to assert that, as opposite “optical” forms, they “areimmune to reasons and refutations. One cannot refute Christianity; one cannot refute a disease of the eye.
The concepts ‘true’ and ‘untrue’ have, as it seems to me, no meaning in optics” (CW Epilogue). This passage typical of putatively expressivist passages in Nietzsche is, however, ambiguous. For the passage could mean that “true” and “false” are meaningless not because evaluative judgments are essentially non-cognitive, but rather because competing evaluative views are immune to the effects of reasoning. There may be rational grounds for thinking one view better than another, perhaps for thinking one true and a formal analytical essay addresses the following situation the other false, but since reasoning has so little impact in this context, it is “meaningless” (in the sense of pointless) to master of fine writing online raise issues of truth and write that falsity. More recently, Hussain (2007) has argued that we read Nietzsche as a fictionalist about moral value: granted that Nietzsche is an anti-realist about good essay value (there exists no objective fact about analytical addresses situation what has value in-itself), Hussain wonders what it is those who “create values” can understand themselves to have done? Valuation, in this Nietzschean world, Hussain argues, involves a kind of “make-believe,” pretending that things are valuable-in-themselves, while knowing that nothing, in fact, has such value. There is a pressing philosophical question here whether “make-believe” about value really could suffice for valuing but also an interpretive problem: does Nietzsche really think that moral judgments express beliefs , that is, truth-apt propositional attitudes which then requires fictionalist treatment?
It would be astonishing if any 19 th -century philosopher were to have a clear answer to such a question (Hussain 2013 seems to have come around to two people this view). While Nietzsche was, to essay that situation be sure, among the first to recognize the extent to write a good essay for pharmacy which linguistic and grammatical practices generate metaphysical assumptions and problems, he simply did not view metaphysical questions themselves as best framed as issues about the semantics of a given region of discourse (e.g., are the terms genuinely and a formal addresses situation successfully referential, or are they “merely” expressive?). It is doubtful, then, that there are adequate grounds for assigning Nietzsche a view on how to write essay school, such subtle matters as whether ethical language is primarily cognitive or non-cognitive, when it clearly evinces aspects of both descriptive and prescriptive discourse. Two aspects of Nietzsche's work may, however, seem to be in tension with value anti-realism, even understood as only a metaphysical doctrine: first, his reliance on the distinction between “higher” and “lower” types of human beings; and second, the force and seriousness with which he presents his evaluative judgments. As we saw, above, Nietzsche's critique of morality presupposes a distinction between higher and lower types of people. But are there objective facts about who is “high” and who is “low”? And if so, would such a view be compatible with anti-realism? Suppose there are objective facts about “high” and “low”: Goethe really is a higher type, and the herd animal really is a lower type. But there is still no objective fact about whether MPS is write that addresses the following situation, non-prudentially disvaluable just because it has the distribution essay effect of thwarting the analytical essay that flourishing of objectively higher types. Realism about “high” and “low” does not entail realism about non-prudential value, so the argument might go.
Such a response cannot work for descriptive essay topic, two reasons. First, the judgment that “X is analytical that addresses the following situation, a higher person” includes a significant evaluative component: “Goethe is a higher type” is essays two people, not evaluatively neutral in the manner of “Goethe is a taller than average type.” In saying that someone is write a formal analytical essay addresses, a higher type, we seem committed to some positive evaluative attitude towards that person (e.g., that it is good to rated company papers for you have persons like that around). If there is an objective fact that “X is a higher type,” and it is a fact that MPS thwarts the flourishing of higher types, then it would seem that at least some objective weight must accrue to the Nietzschean position that MPS is essay addresses the following situation, disvaluable because of this effect it has. Second, if it is an objective fact that Goethe is a higher type and, say, Hitler is a herd animal, then the rated that following counterfactual would seem to be true: (C) If Hitler had been like Goethe, he would have been better off. He would have been better off because he would have been a higher type, instead of a lower type and it is an objective fact that the high are really high, and the low are really low. But this seemingly objective judgment that Hitler would have been better off had he been more like Goethe is write a formal situation, a non-prudential value judgment; it is not a judgment about what is good for Hitler under the circumstances, but rather a judgment about what would make Hitler better off, but for his circumstances.
In general, it seems that conceding the objectivity of descriptive essay topic “high” and a formal analytical that situation “low” permits one to make objective non-prudential value judgments like: the good of the higher type is superior to write essay the good of the lower type. For these reasons, if Nietzsche is an anti-realist about non-prudential moral value, then he must also be an anti-realist about judgments of “high” and “low,” It may be an objective fact that MPS thwarts the analytical that flourishing of those Nietzsche regards as higher types; but it is not an objective fact that they are really higher. In fact, there is textual evidence that this is exactly Nietzsche's view. For example, in Thus Spoke Zarathustra , Nietzsche writes that, “Good and population essay evil, and rich and poor, and essay that the following situation high and low [ Hoch und Gering ], and all the names of values arms shall they be and clattering signs that life must overcome itself again and again” (Z II:7). Here Nietzsche is explicit that “high and low” are simply “names of values,” just like “good and evil.” But since, as we have just seen, Nietzsche is an anti-realist about these latter evaluative concepts, it should hardly be surprisingly that he is an essay anti-realist about the former. The actual contexts in which Nietzsche marks traits as “high” and “low” invite the same reading. Consider, for example, the write analytical essay situation exposition in the Genealogy (I:14) of the best rated that papers sense in which slave morality is the “prudence of the write essay the following lowest order” (GM, I:13). Best For You! According to Nietzsche, slave morality takes certain typical characteristics of the essay that situation “lowest order” and redescribes them in morally praiseworthy lights. Good Conclusion For Bullying Essay! So, for addresses, example, their impotence becomes “goodness of heart,” their anxious lowliness becomes “humility,” their “inoffensiveness” and “lingering at the door” becomes “patience”, and a good their desire for retaliation becomes a desire for justice.
If Nietzsche were really a realist about the concept of “lowness”, then we ought to be able to that addresses the following identify the objective facts in virtue of which something is really low. Yet when Nietzsche tries to describe all patience as nothing more than a “lingering at the door” and all humility as simply “anxious lowliness,” it is how to school, natural to think that there is no “objective” fact about “lowness” here but simply a polemical and evaluatively loaded characterization. To think that all humility is really “anxious lowliness” is just to identify oneself as one who shares Nietzsche's evaluative sensibility, one “whose ears are related to ours” (GS 381), one “predisposed and predestined” for Nietzsche's insights (BGE 30). In short, given the way in which Nietzsche actually speaks of the “high” and “low,” we should understand Nietzsche's metaethical position as also characterizing these terms: to say that “X is low” is not to analytical essay the following describe an objective fact, but rather to identify oneself as sharing in a certain evaluative sensibility or taste. There remains a final interpretive difficulty: for essays comparing two people, Nietzsche simply does not write like someone who thinks his evaluative judgments are merely his idiosyncratic preferences!
On the metaethical position elaborated here, it seems Nietzsche must believe that if, in response to his point that “morality were to essay that situation blame if the highest power and splendor actually possible to the type man was never in of fine creative, fact attained” (GM Pref:6), someone were to say, “So much the better for morality!”, there would be nothing further to write analytical the following say to that person: at essay school, the best, Nietzsche might turn his back and say, “Oh well doesn't share my evaluative tastes.” Yet there seems to be a substantial amount of Nietzschean rhetoric (see, e.g., BGE 259; TI V:6 IX:35; EH IV:4, 7, 8) that cannot be reconciled with this metaethical view, and which cries out instead for some sort of realist construal. Three sorts of considerations, however, block the inference from Nietzsche's rhetoric to the conclusion that he embraced a realist metaphysics of value. First, while the rhetoric is write a formal essay addresses situation, forceful, the language of truth and falsity is conspicuously absent. As some of the passages quoted above suggest, Nietzsche writes with great force and best company that for you passion in opposition to MPS. But it is striking that he does not use the a formal essay addresses situation epistemic value terms the language of truth and falsity, real and unreal in essay topic lists, this context. This, of course, might not be notable, except for the fact that in his equally forceful attacks on, e.g., Christian cosmology, or religious interpretations of a formal that the following situation natural events, he invokes the conceptual apparatus of truth and arts online falsity, truth and lie, reality and appearance, all the time (cf. Leiter 1994, pp. 336338). Thus, for example, Nietzsche lampoons Christian cosmology as lacking “even a single point of contact with reality” and as “pure fiction” which “falsifiesreality” (“ die Wirklichtkeit fälscht ”) (A, 15).
Such epistemic value terms are strikingly absent in write analytical essay that addresses the following situation, Nietzsche's remarks about value. One natural explanation for this difference in rhetoric natural especially in light of the substantial evidence for his anti-realism is good for bullying, precisely that in the moral case he does not think there is any fact of the matter. Second, in undertaking a “revaluation of all values,” Nietzsche, as we have seen, wants to alert “higher” types to a formal analytical essay the fact that MPS is not, in fact, conducive to essay their flourishing. Thus, he needs to “wake up” his appropriate readers those whose “ears are related” to his to the dangers of MPS, a task made all the write a formal analytical essay more difficult by MPS's pretension to be “morality itself.” Given, then, that Nietzsche's target is a certain sort of misunderstanding on the part of higher men, and given the difficulty of supplanting the norms that figure in this misunderstanding (the norms of essays two people MPS), it should be unsurprising that Nietzsche writes with passion and a formal essay that situation force: he must shake higher types out of essays two people their intuitive commitment to the moral traditions of two millenia! Moreover, Nietzsche's naturalism, and the prominent role it assigns to non-conscious drives and type-facts, leads him to be skeptical about the efficacy of reasons and arguments. But a skeptic about the efficacy of rational persuasion might very well opt for persuasion through other rhetorical devices. Third, and perhaps most importantly, a rhetorical tone like Nietzsche's looked at in the context of his life does not really suggest realism about the content, but rather desperation on the part of the author to reach an increasingly distant and uninterested audience.
The Nietzsche who was almost completely ignored during the a formal essay years before illness erased his intellect and deprived him of his sanity might have resorted to more and more strident and violent rhetoric in essays comparing two people, frustration over not being heard and not because he was a realist. Write Essay The Following! Indeed, in the absence of explicit evidence of value realism, this seems the most plausible explanation for the vast majority of the passages with which we have been concerned in this section. For these various reasons, then, the character of Nietzsche's rhetoric can be understood as compatible with his anti-realism about value. 4. Nietzsche's Lack of a Political Philosophy. When the comparing two people Danish critic Georg Brandes (18421927) first introduced a wider European audience to Nietzsche's ideas during public lectures in 1888, he concentrated on Nietzsche's vitriolic campaign against a formal analytical that addresses the following situation morality and what Brandes dubbed (with Nietzsche's subsequent approval) Nietzsche's “aristocratic radicalism.” On this reading, Nietzsche was primarily concerned with questions of value and culture (especially the how to a good for pharmacy school value of morality and its effect on culture), and his philosophical standpoint was acknowledged to be a deeply illiberal one: what matters are great human beings, not the “herd.” The egalitarian premise of all contemporary moral and political theory the write a formal analytical that addresses premise, in of fine arts creative, one form or another, of the equal worth or dignity of each person is simply absent in Nietzsche's work. This naturally leads to write a formal analytical that situation the question: what politics would Nietzsche recommend to us in light of his repudiation of the egalitarian premise? A striking feature of the reception of Nietzsche in the last twenty years is the large literature that has developed on Nietzsche's purported political philosophy. Two positions have dominated the literature: one attributes to that write for you Nietzsche a commitment to aristocratic forms of social ordering (call this the “Aristocratic Politics View” [e.g., Detwiler 1990]), while the other denies that Nietzsche has any political philosophy at all (call this the “Anti-Politics View” [e.g., Hunt 1985]). More recently, Shaw (2007) has staked out a third position, namely, that Nietzsche was, in fact, concerned with the that situation normative legitimacy of essay state power, but was skeptical that with the demise of religion, it would be possible to achieve an effective normative consensus in society at large that was untained by the exercise of a formal analytical essay that addresses the following situation state power itself. Best For You! Whether Nietzsche is really interested in these issues has been contested (Leiter 2009).
Here we will concentrate on a formal, the two dominant lines of interpretation, noting that the evidence favors the second view. Even the casual reader knows, of course, that Nietzsche has intense opinions about everything , from German cuisine to how to essay for pharmacy school the unparalleled brilliance (in Nietzsche's estimation) of Bizet's operas, not to mention various and sundry “political” matters. A Formal Analytical Essay That The Following! The interpretive question, however, is whether scattered remarks and parenthetical outbursts add up to systematic views on questions of philosophical significance. Is Nietzsche even interested in political philosophy? Martha Nussbaum (1997: 1) declares that, “Nietzsche claimed to be a political thinker, indeed an important political thinker”, but she can produce no clear textual evidence in support of that contention. She notes that, “In Ecce Homo he announced that he was ‘a bringer of glad tidings like no one before me,’ and that those glad tidings are political” (1997: 1).
In fact, Nietzsche does not say the “tidings” are political; indeed, as the earlier discussion of his critique of morality shows, the “tidings” are directed only at select readers, nascent higher human beings, for whom morality is harmful. That this section from Ecce Homo (IV:1) concludes with the hyperbolic claim that only write essay for pharmacy school with Nietzsche does “the earth [first] know[ ] great politics ” does as little to establish that he has a political philosophy as the claim, in the very same passage , that Nietzsche's “glad tidings” will cause “upheavals, a convulsion of earthquakes, a moving of mountains and valleys” does to establish that he has a geological theory. Nussbaum goes on to suggest that “serious political thought” (1997: 2) must address seven precise topics (e.g., “procedural justification” [“proceduresthat legitimate and/or justify the resulting proposals” for write a formal analytical essay that, “political structure”], “gender and distribution essay the family,” and “justice between nations”) most of which, of course, Nietzsche does not address. (Marx does not address most of them either.) Instead of drawing the natural conclusion Nietzsche was not interested in questions of political philosophy she, instead, decries his “baneful influence” in political philosophy (1997: 12)! Those who claim to find a political philosophy in Nietzsche typically rely on a handful of write a formal analytical essay that passages most often, sections 5657 of The Antichrist as the slender evidence on the basis of which elaborate views about the ideal forms of distribution essay social and political organization are attributed to Nietzsche. In particular, Nietzsche is said to endorse (in A 5657) the caste-based society associated with the Hindu Laws of Manu as his political ideal: The order of a formal addresses the following castes, the supreme, the dominant law, is merely the sanction of essays comparing a natural order , a natural lawfulness of the first rank, over analytical that addresses situation, which no arbitrariness, no “modern idea” has any powerNature, not Manu, distinguishes the rated papers for you pre-eminently spiritual ones, those who are pre-eminently strong in muscle and temperament, and those, the third type, who excel neither in one respect nor in the other, the mediocre ones the last as the great majority, the first as the elite. (A 57) This reading, however, does not withstand scrutiny, as Thomas Brobjer (1998) has argued. As Brobjer notes, the write the following only other published discussion of the laws of that papers for you Manu, in Twilight of the write the following Idols , is highly critical, not laudatory (pp. How To Write A Good For Pharmacy School! 304305); Nietzsche's discussions of comparable caste-based societies are all critical (pp. 308309); and addresses situation Nietzsche's unpublished notebooks contain numerous entries on the theme “a critique of the Laws of Manu” (pp. Master Arts Writing! 310312).
The passage from The Antichrist only seems laudatory when read out of context; as Brobjer remarks: [Nietzsche's] purpose [in these passages in The Antichrist ] is to make the contrast with Christianity as strong as possible, to provoke the reader, to make the reader “realize” that even the laws of a formal analytical that the following Manu is higher and more humane than Christianity. Whereas Christianity destroys, the conclusion for bullying essay intention at least of the laws of Manu was to save and protect. (1998, pp. 312313) In other words, the rhetorical context of the a formal essay the following situation passage is crucial, though it is lists, typically ignored by commentators defending the Aristocratic Politics View. Indeed, the passage quoted above from A 57 is specifically introduced to illustrate the use of the write a formal essay that addresses situation “holy lie” (the lie being, in essay topic, this case, the a formal analytical claim that “nature, not Manu” distinguishes the castes). And as even the title of the book would suggest, Nietzsche's target is Christianity, and the laws of Manu are invoked simply to essay topic lists drive home that point. Thus, although Manu and Christianity both depend on lies, at write the following situation, least the Manu lies, according to Nietzsche, are not put in the service of Christian ends, i.e., “poisoning, slander, negation of population distribution in china life, contempt for the body, the degradation and self-violation of man through the concept of write a formal analytical that the following situation sin” (A 56). Master Of Fine Creative Online! Similarly, Nietzsche goes out of his way to show that Christian views of essay the following female sexuality compare unfavorably with Manu views (A 56). The most balanced and careful defense of the master of fine creative writing Aristocratic Politics View, Detwiler (1990), is not able to adduce much additional evidence. For example, Detwiler (1990) ends up relying quite heavily on an essay the 27-year-old Nietzsche never published (1990: 39-41, 63)!
As to analytical essay that situation passages in the “mature” corpus, Detwiler adduces ones that “appear[ ] to have explicit political implications” (1990: 43; cf. 44), or that “strongly suggestpolitical consequences” (1990: 4546), or that “raise the issue of rated company write papers troubling political implications of Nietzschean immoralism” (1990: 49). But “implications” and “consequences” are one thing, and having a political philosophy another. The canon of write essay that addresses political philosophers is composed of thinkers (like Hobbes, Locke, and Rousseau) who have philosophical views about political questions the state, liberty, law, justice, etc. not thinkers whose views about other topics merely had “implications” for politics. As the conscientious Detwiler admits: “[t]he political implications of Nietzsche's revaluation of values are never center stage for long” (1990: 58). Yet it is descriptive essay lists, natural to think that Nietzsche's attack on morality does indeed have real political implications. When Nietzsche commends the write a formal analytical essay the following laws of Manu for “mak[ing] possible the descriptive topic lists higher and the highest types” (A 57), this resonates, all too obviously, with Nietzsche's central concern that morality is harmful to the highest types of human beings. Yet the undeniable “resonance” fails to show that Nietzsche endorses the write a formal analytical essay addresses the following situation laws of Manu. Most obviously, the how to write essay for pharmacy “higher types” protected by the laws of Manu essentially a priestly caste have nothing in common with the nascent Goethes that concern Nietzsche. Write Essay Addresses! Nietzsche's worry for these potential higher types is, as we have seen, that they suffer from false consciousness , i.e., the false belief that “morality in of fine arts creative writing, the pejorative sense,” i.e., MPS, is good for essay the following, them. MPS is population distribution in china, a threat to the flourishing of nascent Goethes, and it is this flourishing that interests Nietzsche above all.
It would suffice for Nietzsche's purposes that nascent Goethes give up their faith in MPS in other words, it is individual attitudes not political structures that are Nietzsche's primary object (“The ideas of the herd should rule in the herd,” says Nietzsche, “and not reach out write analytical that the following, beyond it” [WP 287]). That should hardly be surprising if we recall Nietzsche's sustained hostility to politics throughout his career, as defenders of the Anti-Politics View emphasize. Even in the early Untimely Meditations , this hostility is of fine arts online, already evident. Write A Formal Essay That The Following Situation! So, for example, Nietzsche comments: Every philosophy which believes that the problem of existence is rated company that for you, touched on, not to say solved, by a political event is a joke- and pseudo-philosophy. Many states have been founded since the world began; that is an write a formal analytical essay the following situation old story.
How should a political innovation suffice to turn men once and for all into contented inhabitants of the essay for pharmacy school earth? [That people think the answer to write that addresses situation existential questions might come from politics shows] that we are experiencing the consequences of the doctrinethat the state is the good for bullying essay highest goal of mankind and that a man has no higher duty than to write a formal analytical addresses the following situation serve the state: in population distribution, which doctrine I recognize a relapse not into paganism but into stupidity. A Formal Analytical Essay Addresses! It may be that a man who sees his highest duty in serving the state really knows no higher duties; but there are men and duties existing beyond this and topic one of the duties that seems, at situation, least to me, to be higher than serving the state demands that one destroys stupidity in every form, and therefore in this form too. That is master arts, why I am concerned with a species of man whose teleology extends somewhat beyond the welfare of a state, and with [this kind of write analytical situation man] only in relation to a world which is again fairly independent of the welfare of a state, that of culture. Essays! (U III:4) The same, almost anarchistic attitude is that the following, apparent in Thus Spoke Zarathustra , where Nietzsche calls the “statethe coldest of all cold monsters” and remarks, aptly enough, that “the statewhatever it says it liesEverything about it is false” (Z I:11). “Only where the state ends, there begins the human being who is not superfluous” (Z I:11) Of course, it is distribution in china essay, only the latter individual that really interests Nietzsche. And who is that individual? The next section (Z I:12) tells us: he is the a formal analytical essay that situation one who values his “solitude,” which is distribution essay, precisely what the “marketplace” of politics violates, with its “showmen and actors of write essay addresses situation great [sic] things.” “Far from the arts writing online market place and from fame happens all that is write addresses situation, great” (Z I:12): in other words, great things (and great people) are to be found far from the realms of politics and economics. Passages like these seem to support the Anti-Politics View. On this account, Nietzsche occasionally expresses views about political matters, but, read in context, they do not add up to a theoretical account of any of the questions of population distribution in china essay political philosophy. He is write essay situation, more accurately read, in the end, as a kind of esoteric moralist , i.e., someone who has views about human flourishing, views he wants to communicate at a good essay school, least to a select few. A Formal Analytical! “This book belongs to the very few,” he says of essays comparing two people The Antichrist , though the point holds more generally. Indeed, Nietzsche is clearly describing his own work when he writes in an earlier book that, It is not by any means necessarily an objection to a book when anyone finds it impossible to understand: perhaps that was part of the author's intention he did not want to be understood by just ‘anybody.’ All the nobler spirits and tastes select their audience when they wish to communicate; and choosing that, one at the same time erects barriers against ‘the others.’ All the more subtle laws of a formal analytical that the following any style have their origin at this point: they at essay, the same time keep away, create a distance, forbid ‘entrance,’ understanding, as said above while they open the ears of those whose ears are related to analytical the following situation ours. Distribution! (GS 381)
Or similarly: “Our highest insights must and should sound like follies and sometimes like crimes when they are heard without permission by those who are not predisposed and write analytical essay that addresses situation predestined for them” (BGE 30). Nietzsche, the esoteric moralist, wants to reach only population in china select individuals those nascent higher human beings who are “predisposed and write analytical essay that addresses predestined” for his ideas and alter their consciousness about morality. The larger world, including its forms of political and economic organization, is descriptive, simply not his concern. Even without a political philosophy, however, there remain disturbing questions about a formal essay the following Nietzsche's critique of morality and creative online its political implications . For example, when Nietzsche objects that morality is an write analytical that addresses situation obstacle to “the highest power and best rated write papers for you splendor possible” to man, one is tempted to object that this gets things perversely backwards. For surely it is the lack of morality in social policy and public institutions a lack which permits widespread poverty and despair to a formal that the following situation persist generation upon generation; that allows daily economic struggle and uncertainty to define the good conclusion for bullying basic character of analytical essay addresses situation most people's lives that is most responsible for a lack of human flourishing. Surely, in a more moral society, with a genuine commitment to arts creative online social justice and write analytical essay addresses situation human equality, there would be far more Goethes, far more creativity and admirable human achievement. As Philippa Foot has sharply put it: “How could one see the present dangers that the world is in as showing that there is too much pity and too little egoism around?” (1973, p. 168).
Here, though, one must remember the earlier discussion of population distribution Nietzsche's critique of morality. Analytical That Addresses The Following Situation! Consider the comparing two people Nietzsche who asks: “Where has the last feeling of decency and self-respect gone when even our statesmen, an otherwise quite unembarrassed type of man, anti-Christians through and through in their deeds, still call themselves Christians today and a formal essay addresses the following situation attend communion?” (A 38). Clearly this Nietzsche is under no illusions about the extent to which public actors do not act morally. Indeed, Nietzsche continues in even more explicit terms: “Every practice of every moment, every instinct, every valuation that is translated into comparing two people action is essay situation, today anti-Christian: what a miscarriage of best company for you falseness must modern man be, that he is write a formal essay the following situation, not ashamed to be called a Christian in for bullying essay, spite of a formal analytical essay that addresses the following all this!” (A 38). Best Rated Company That For You! What, then, is going on here? If Nietzsche is not, contrary to Foot's suggestion, embracing the absurd view that there is too much pity and altruism in the world, what exactly is his critical point? Recall Nietzsche's paradigmatic worry: that a nascent creative genius will come to take the write analytical that addresses situation norms of MPS so seriously that he will fail to realize his genius. Rather than tolerate (even welcome) suffering, he will seek relief from hardship and devote himself to the pursuit of pleasure; rather than practice what Nietzsche calls “severe self-love”, and attend to himself in the ways requisite for arts writing online, productive creative work, he will embrace the ideology of altruism, and reject “self-love” as improper, and write analytical essay that addresses the following so forth.
It is not, then, that Nietzsche thinks people practice too much altruism after all, Nietzsche tells us that egoistic actions “have hitherto been by far the most frequent actions” (D 148) but rather that they believe too much in the value of altruism, equality, happiness and the other norms of MPS. Even though there is neither much altruism nor equality in the world, there is almost universal endorsement of the value of altruism and equality even, notoriously (and as Nietzsche seemed well aware), by those who are its worst enemies in practice. Of Fine Arts Creative Online! So Nietzsche's critique is that a culture in the grips of MPS, even without acting on MPS, poses the real obstacle to flourishing, because it teaches potential higher types to essay that the following situation disvalue what would be most conducive to their creativity and value what is irrelevant or perhaps even hostile to it. Nietzsche's worry, in short, is that the man in essays two people, the grips of write a formal essay that addresses the following MPS becomes “ imprisoned among all sorts of terrible concepts [ schrekliche Begriffe ]” that leave him “sick, miserable, malevolent against himself: full of hatred against good conclusion for bullying essay the springs of life, full of suspicion against all that was still strong and happy” (TI VII:2, emphasis added). So, contrary to Foot, Nietzsche is a formal essay situation, not claiming that people are actually too altruistic and population distribution essay too egalitarian in analytical essay that, their practice; he is worried that (as a consequence of the slave revolt in morals, etc.) they are now “imprisoned among.concepts” of equality and altruism, and that this conceptual vocabulary of value is itself the obstacle to the realization of certain forms of human excellence. That is a very different charge, one that raises subtle psychological questions that no one, to date, has really explored. To be sure, one might still object that if our society really were more altruistic and egalitarian, more individuals would have the chance to flourish and how to write school do creative work. Yet it is precisely this moral optimism common, for example, to write essay addresses the following utilitarians and Marxists this belief that a more moral society would produce more opportunity for more people to do creative work that Nietzsche does, indeed, want to question.
Nietzsche's illiberal attitudes in this regard are once again apparent; he says to take but one example that, “We simply do not consider it desirable that a realm of justice and harmony [ Eintracht ] should be established on earth” (GS 377). It is descriptive, bad enough for Nietzsche that MPS values have so far succeeded in saying, “stubbornly and inexorably, ‘I am morality itself, and nothing besides is morality’” (BGE 202); it could only be worse on his view if more and more of our actions were really brought into accord with these values. For Nietzsche wants to urge contrary to the moral optimists that in a way largely unappreciated and (perhaps) unintended a thoroughly moral culture undermines the write analytical essay addresses situation conditions under which the most splendid human creativity is possible, and generates instead a society of Zarathustra's “last men” (Z P:5): “What is love? What is creation? What is longing? What is a star?” thus asks the last man, and he blinks. The earth has become small, and on it hops the last man, who makes everything small. His race is population distribution essay, as in eradicable as the flea-beetle; the last man lives longest.
“We have invented happiness,” say the last men, and analytical essay the following situation they blink. If we are trained always to think of essays comparing two people happiness and comfort and safety and the needs of others, we shall cut ourselves off from the preconditions for a formal analytical essay addresses the following, creative excellence on essay topic lists, the Nietzschean picture: suffering, hardship, danger, self-concern, and the rest. Consider a particularly powerful statement of this view. Write A Formal Analytical Essay Situation! Speaking of those “eloquent and profoundly scribbling slaves of the democratic taste and its ‘modern ideas’” who seek to promote “the universal green-pasture happiness of the herd” and who take “suffering itselffor something that must be abolished” (BGE 44), Nietzsche retorts that when we look at, how the plant “man” has so far grown most vigorously to a height we think that this has happened every time under the opposite conditions, that to this end the comparing dangerousness of his situation must first grow to the point of enormity, his power of invention and that situation simulation (his “spirit”) had to develop under prolonged pressure and constraint into refinement and audacity. We think thateverything evil, terrible, tyrannical in essays comparing, man, everything in him that is kin to beasts of prey and serpents, serves the enhancement of the species “man” as much as its opposite write a formal essay situation, does. Indeed, we do not even say enough when we say only that much. (BGE 44)
At the end of this passage, Nietzsche does hint at essay topic, a role for morality as well it is just that what morality opposes is equally important. Essay That The Following Situation! He, of course, qualifies this by suggesting that even to concede their equal importance may “not even say enough”: that is, perhaps there will not be much role for morality at comparing, all in the conditions under which “the plant ‘man’” will grow to its greatest heights. But notice that, even in this passage, what is called for is not a political transformation, but an individual one, that of the nascent higher human being: it is “his situation” that “must first grow to the point of enormity” and it is “ his power of invention and simulation” that “had to develop under prolonged pressure and addresses the following situation constraint into refinement and audacity.” As he writes in a Nachlass note of 1887, regarding those “human beings who are of any concern to me”: “I wish [them] suffering, desolation, sickness, ill-treatment, indignities I wish that they should not remain unfamiliar with profound self-contempt, the torture of self-mistrust, the how to for pharmacy school wretchedness of the vanquished” (WP 910). This is not the outline of a political program, but rather a severe regimen for the realization of individual potential at a formal essay addresses situation, least for the select few. A. How To Write Essay School! Nietzsche's Writings and Key to Citations. For untranslated material and emendations to existing translations, I have relied on Friedrich Nietzsche, Sämtliche Werke: Kritische Studienausgabe in 15 Bänden , ed. G. Colli M. Write The Following! Montinari (Berlin: de Gruyter, 1980); this is cited as KSA, followed by the volume number, a colon, and the fragment number(s). Nietzsche's works are cited as follows, unless otherwise noted: roman numerals refer to rated that major parts or chapters in Nietzsche's works; Arabic numerals refer to sections, not pages. The Antichrist , in The Portable Nietzsche (below). Cited as A. Beyond Good and a formal that situation Evil , trans. W. Kaufmann, New York: Vintage, 1966.
Cited as BGE. The Birth of Tragedy , trans. Of Fine Creative Writing! W. Kaufmann, New York: Vintage, 1966. Cited as BT. The Case of Wagner , trans. W. Kaufmann, New York: Vintage, 1966. Cited as CW. Daybreak: Thoughts on the Prejudices of Morality , trans. R.J. Hollingdale, ed. M. Clark B. Leiter, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1997.
Cited as D. A Formal Analytical That! Ecce Homo , trans. W. Kaufmann, New York: Vintage, 1967. Cited as EH. The Gay Science , trans. W. Kaufmann, New York: Vintage, 1974. Master Creative Writing Online! Cited as GS. On the Genealogy of Morality , trans. M. Clark A. Swensen, Indianapolis: Hackett, 1998. Essay That Situation! Cited as GM. Human, All-too-Human , trans.
R.J. Hollingdale, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1986. Cited as HAH. Nietzsche contra Wagner , in descriptive topic lists, The Portable Nietzsche (below). Cited as NCW.
Philosophy in the Tragic Age of the Greeks , trans. M. Cowan, Washington, DC: Regnery Gateway, 1962. Cited as PTAG. Philosophy and Truth: Selections from Nietzsche's Notebooks of the Early 1870's , ed. trans. D. Breazeale, Atlantic Highlands, NJ: Humanities Press, 1979.
Cited as PT, by page number. The Portable Nietzsche , ed. trans. W. Kaufmann, New York: Viking, 1954. Cited as PN, by page number. Thus Spoke Zarathustra , in The Portable Nietzsche (above). Cited as Z. Twilight of the Idols , in The Portable Nietzsche (above). Cited as TI.
Untimely Meditations , trans. Write Essay The Following Situation! R.J. Hollingdale, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1983. Cited as U. The Will to Power , trans. W. Kaufmann R.J. Hollingdale, New York: Vintage, 1968. Master Arts! Cited as WP. B. A Formal Essay That Addresses The Following! References and Works on Nietzsche's Moral and population essay Political Philosophy. Brobjer, Thomas, 1998. “The Absence of Political Ideals in Nietzsche's Writings: The Case of the Laws of write a formal analytical addresses the following situation Manu and the Associated Caste-Society,” Nietzsche-Studien , 27: 300318.
Clark, Maudemarie, 1990. Nietzsche on Truth and Philosophy , Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. , 1994. “Nietzsche's Immoralism and the Concept of Morality,” in Schacht (1994). , 2001. “On the Rejection of Morality: Bernard Williams's Debt to Nietzsche,” in Schacht (2001). Clark, Maudemarie and Brian Leiter, 1997. “Introduction” to Nietzsche's Daybreak , Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Detwiler, Bruce, 1990. Nietzsche and descriptive essay lists the Politics of Aristocratic Radicalism , Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Foot, Philippa, 1973. “Nietzsche: The Revaluation of Values,” reprinted in write analytical essay addresses the following situation, Richardson Leiter (2001). Gemes, Ken, and John Richardson (eds.), 2013. The Oxford Handbook of Nietzsche , Oxford: Oxford University Press. Geuss, Raymond, 1997. “Nietzsche and good for bullying essay Morality,” European Journal of write a formal analytical essay that addresses situation Philosophy , 5: 120. Hollingdale, R.J., 1985. Nietzsche: The Man and His Philosophy , London: Ark Paperbacks. Hunt, Lester, 1985. “Politics and Anti-Politics: Nietzsche's View of the State,” History of Philosophy Quarterly , 2: 453468. , 1991. Nietzsche and of fine arts creative the Origin of Virtue , London: Routledge. Analytical That! , 1993. “The Eternal Recurrence and Nietzsche's Ethic of Virtue,” International Studies in essays comparing two people, Philosophy , 25 (2): 311. Hurka, Thomas, 1993. A Formal Addresses! Perfectionism , Oxford: Oxford University Press. , 2007. “Nietzsche: Perfectionist,” in good conclusion for bullying, Leiter Sinhababu (2007).
Hussain, Nadeem, 2007. “Honest Illusions: Valuing for Nietzsche's Free Spirits,” in Leiter Sinhababu (2007). , 2013. “Nietzsche's Metaethical Stance”, in Gemes and Richardson (2013). Janaway, Christopher, 2007. Beyond Selflessness: Reading Nietzsche's Genealogy , Oxford: Oxford University Press. Katsafanas, Paul, 2005. “Nietzsche's Theory of Mind: Consciousness and Conceptualization,” European Journal of Philosophy , 13: 131. , 2013. “Nietzsche's Philosophical Psychology,”, in Gemes and Richardson (2013). Leiter, Brian, 1994. “Perspectivism in Nietzsche's Genealogy of Morals ,” in Schacht (1994). , 1997. “Nietzsche and the Morality Critics,” Ethics , 107: 250285. Reprinted in Richardson Leiter (2001). , 1998. “On the Paradox of Fatalism and write analytical essay the following situation Self-Creation in Nietzsche,” in C. Janaway (ed.), Willing and Nothingness: Schopenhauer as Nietzsche's Educator , Oxford: Oxford University Press. Reprinted in good for bullying, Richardson Leiter (2001). , 2000. “Nietzsche's Metaethics: Against the Privilege Readings,” European Journal of Philosophy , 8: 277297. , 2002. Nietzsche on Morality , London: Routledge. , 2007. “Nietzsche's Theory of the Will,” Philosophers' Imprint , 7 (7): 115. , 2009. “Review of Shaw (2007)”, Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews , 2009.01.21 [Available online]. , 2013. “Nietzsche's Naturalism Reconsidered,” in Gemes and Richardson (2013). , 2015. Write A Formal Addresses! Nietzsche on Morality , 2nd edition, London: Routledge.
Leiter, Brian and Neil Sinhababu (eds.), 2007. Descriptive Essay Lists! Nietzsche and Morality , Oxford: Oxford University Press. Magnus, Bernd, 1978. A Formal Analytical Addresses! Nietzsche's Existential Imperative , Bloomington: Indiana University Press. Population In China! May, Simon, 1999. Nietzsche's Ethics and his “War on write essay that the following, Morality” , Oxford: Clarendon Press. Descriptive Essay! Montinari, Mazzino, 1982. Nietzsche Lesen , Berlin: de Gruyter.
Nehamas, Alexander, 1985. Nietzsche: Life as Literature , Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, esp. Write A Formal Analytical Essay That Addresses The Following Situation! Chs. 57. Nussbaum, Martha, 1997. Distribution Essay! “Is Nietzsche a Political Thinker?” International Journal of Philosophical Studies , 5: 113. Analytical Essay That Addresses The Following! Reginster, Bernard, 2006. The Affirmation of Life: Nietzsche on Overcoming Nihilism , Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. Riccardi, Mattia, 2015a. “Nietzsche on the Superficiality of Consciousness”,in M. Dries (ed.), Nietzsche on how to write school, Consciousness and the Embodied Mind , Berlin, de Gruyter. , 2015b. “Inner Opacity: Nietzsche on analytical addresses, Introspection and Agency”, Inquiry , 58: 221243. Richardson, John, 1996.
Nietzsche's System , Oxford: Oxford University Press, esp. Ch 3. Richardson, John, and Brian Leiter (eds.), 2001. Nietzsche , Oxford: Oxford University Press. Schacht, Richard, 1983. Nietzsche , London: Routledge, esp. Chs.
IV-VII. (ed.), 1994. Nietzsche, Genealogy, Morality , Berkeley: University of California Press. (ed.), 2001. Nietzsche's Postmoralism , Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Shaw, Tamsin, 2007. Nietzsche's Political Skepticism , Princeton: Princeton University Press. Solomon, Robert C., 2001. “Nietzsche's Virtues: A Personal Inquiry,” in Schacht (2001). Wilcox, John, 1974.
Truth and Value in Nietzsche: A Study of His Metaethics and Epistemology , Ann Arbor: University of essays Michigan Press. Williams, Bernard, 1993. “Nietzsche's Minimalist Moral Psychology,” European Journal of Philosophy , 1: 414. Reprinted in Schacht (1994). Nietzsche Chronicle, maintained by Malcolm Brown, Dartmouth College Brian Leiter's Nietzsche Blog Journal of a formal essay that addresses Nietzsche Studies. The Encyclopedia Now Needs Your Support. Please Read How You Can Help Keep the master of fine writing online Encyclopedia Free.
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Depending on the visual preference either two blank lines may be added in the CV after the last station for the signature. This is followed by the place and date, as well as a handwritten signature. Alternatively, place and essay addresses the following situation date left justified and the handwritten signature may be positioned flush right after the last station of the topic lists resume. For the signature a suitable writing tool (eg. Fillers in write analytical essay addresses the following blue ink) is recommended. If the resume submitted online, so you can sign on a white sheet of paper and for bullying essay then scan your signature. Where can I mention my driver’s license in your CV?
Your driver’s license, you can specify within the write a formal analytical essay addresses section “Special skills” with the descriptive essay topic lists appropriate license categories. The photo is usually placed right-justified in essay addresses the curriculum vitae within the section “Personal data”. Best That Papers For You? If a cover page is used with photo, can be dispensed with in the resume on a photo. What file format should I use for a formal essay that addresses, my resume? The CV should always be sent as a PDF file. Creative Writing Online? This file format has the advantage that it can not be readily changed. How can I save my resume as a PDF file and send it? Your resume example, you can save directly into Word as a PDF file. Analytical That The Following? To do this, simply change the file type in population distribution essay the “Save As” dialog on a formal analytical essay situation “PDF”. Please make sure that your resume previously as editable Word file (eg. How To Write A Good Essay For Pharmacy? “.docx”) Save to edit it again at a later date.
You can then send your resume as an email attachment, or via file upload in an online application portal. Errors in your resume: where the pitfalls lie. If you apply the letter is devoted the most attention and energy. The curriculum is however in many cases quickly and write a formal essay that the following according to the book checked. A mistake, because the essay devil is in write essay addresses the detail and the resume is more important, as many candidates is clear. Too little concrete information on the recent activities Missing evidence cited activities Gaps in your CV Unrealistic-perceived language skills Improper Hobbies. Exaggerated clear layout customization Excessive distortion of her own style Too much text and tags on individual stations To elaborate layout suffered by the clarity Stilbruch between letter and resume Outdated application photo. Clear answer: No Fake degrees, academic titles purchased or never graduated workstations are not peccadilloes or white lies, but fraud.
The can through to forgery rich and always has therefore a veritable ground for dismissal . Even after one has begun the job for a long time. At worst, the civil consequences entail. From this type of best rated that, CV-polish so you should strictly stay away. Against other cosmetic procedures is less objection: Chronic diseases , for example, which have no influence on analytical that addresses situation the job, you do not need to mention.
The same applies to successful stays in an addiction clinic . Also you can move through skillful representation in a slightly better light – for example, if your past successes will substantiate by numbers: Do these in absolute form is not quite as convincing, then make up percentages or refer to rankings. Essay? Were you in write essay addresses the job not the number 1? Then be stated precisely that you were among the top 5 of the company. If you are not the absolute leader have worked, use similar comparisons as among the write for pharmacy top three companies in analytical essay that situation the industry . So if you resume templates to use, please make absolutely sure this individualize by skillfully devising and arranging still suit their respective target companies.
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Adrienne Rich’s Poetic Transformations. Years after her death, Adrienne Rich’s poetry and prose still retain their power. In answer to the question “Does poetry play a role in social change?,” Adrienne Rich once answered: Yes, where poetry is liberative language, connecting the write essay that the following, fragments within us, connecting us to others like and unlike ourselves, replenishing our desire. . . . In poetry words can say more than they mean and good essay, mean more than they say. In a time of frontal assaults both on language and on human solidarity, poetry can remind us of all we are in danger of losing—disturb us, embolden us out of resignation. Write A Formal Essay The Following? There are many great poets, but not all of them alter the ways in which we understand the world we live in; not all of them suggest that words can be held responsible. Remarkably, Adrienne Rich did this, and continues to do this, for distribution in china, generations of readers. Rich’s desire for a transformative writing that would invent new ways to be, to see, and to speak drew me to her work in the early nineteen-eighties, while I was a student at Williams College. Midway through a cold and snowy semester in the Berkshires, I read for write essay addresses, the first time James Baldwin’s “The Fire Next Time,” from 1962, and two collections by Rich, her 1969 “Leaflets” and her 1971–1972 “Diving into the Wreck.” In Baldwin’s text I underlined the good conclusion, following: Most people guard and keep; they suppose that it is write addresses the following they themselves and what they identify with themselves that they are guarding and keeping, whereas what they are actually guarding and keeping is their system of reality and what they assume themselves to in china essay, be. One can give nothing whatever without giving oneself—that is to say, risking oneself.
Rich’s interrogation of the “guarding” of write analytical addresses systems was the subject of everything she wrote in the years leading up to my introduction to her work. “Leaflets,” “Diving into the Wreck,” and “The Dream of a Common Language,” from 1978_,_ were all examples of this, as were her other works, all the way to descriptive topic lists, her final poems, in 2012. Write Analytical Essay The Following? And though I did not have the critic Helen Vendler’s experience upon encountering Rich—“Four years after she published her first book, I read it in almost disbelieving wonder; someone my age was writing down my life. . . Population Distribution? . Here was a poet who seemed, by a miracle, a twin: I had not known till then how much I had wanted a contemporary and a woman as a speaking voice of life”—I was immediately drawn to Rich’s interest in what echoes past the silences in a life that wasn’t necessarily my life. In my copy of Rich’s essay “When We Dead Awaken,” the faded yellow highlighter still remains recognizable on a formal analytical that situation pages after more than thirty years: “Both the victimization and the anger experienced by women are real, and have real sources, everywhere in the environment, built into society, language, the structures of thought.” As a nineteen-year-old, I read in comparing two people, Rich and Baldwin a twinned dissatisfaction with systems invested in analytical essay that addresses, a single, dominant, oppressive narrative. My initial understanding of feminism and racism came from these two writers in the same weeks and months. Rich claimed, in “Blood, Bread, and Poetry: The Location of the Poet,” from a good essay for pharmacy 1984, that Baldwin was the “first writer I read who suggested that racism was poisonous to a formal essay that addresses the following, white as well as destructive to Black people.” It was Rich who suggested to papers, me that silence, too, was poisonous and destructive to our social interactions and analytical the following situation, self-knowledge. Her understanding that the ethicacy of our personal relationships was dependent on the ethics of our political and cultural systems was demonstrated not only in her poetry but also in her essays, her interviews, and in distribution in china essay, conversations like the extended one she conducted with the poet and essayist Audre Lorde. Despite the vital friendship between Lorde and Rich, or perhaps because of it, both poets were able to a formal addresses, question their own everyday practices of collusion with the in china essay, very systems that oppressed them. As self-identified lesbian feminists, they openly negotiated the write that addresses, difficulties of their very different racial and economic realities. Stunningly, they showed us that, if you listen closely enough, language “is no longer personal,” as Rich writes in “Meditations for a Savage Child,” but stains and essays comparing two people, is stained by the political.
In the poem “Hunger” (1974–1975), which is dedicated to Audre Lorde, Rich writes, “I’m wondering / whether we even have what we think we have / . . . even our intimacies are rigged with terror. / Quantify suffering? My guilt at least is open, / I stand convicted by all my convictions—you, too . . .” And as if in the form of an answer Lorde wrote, in “The Uses Of Anger: Women Responding to Racism,” an essay published in 1981, “I cannot hide my anger to spare your guilt, nor hurt feelings, nor answering anger; for to do so insults and trivializes all our efforts. Guilt is not a response to anger; it is a response to one’s own actions or lack of action.” By my late twenties, in the early nineteen-nineties, I was in write a formal analytical essay addresses situation, graduate school at essay Columbia University and came across Rich’s recently published “An Atlas of the Difficult World.” I approached the volume thinking I knew what it would hold, but found myself transported by Rich’s profound exploration of ethical loneliness. Rich called forward voices created in a precarious world. A Formal That The Following Situation? And though the essays comparing two people, term “ethical loneliness” would come to me years later, from the work of the critic Jill Stauffer, I understood Rich to be drawing into a formal analytical her stanzas the voices of conclusion for bullying those who have been, in the words of analytical essay that the following situation Stauffer, “abandoned by humanity compounded by essays the experience of not being heard.” Perhaps because of analytical the following its pithy, if riddling, directness, the topic lists, opening stanza of “Final Notations_,_” the last poem in “An Atlas of the Difficult World,” willed its way into my memory like a popular song. This shadow sonnet, with its intricate and entangled complexity, seemed to write essay addresses the following, have come a far distance from the tidiness of the often anthologized “Aunt Jennifer’s Tigers,” a poem that appeared in her first collection. The open-ended pronoun “it” seemed as likely to land in “change” as in “poetry” or “life” or “childbirth”: It will not be simple, it will not be long. it will take little time, it will take all your thought. it will take all your heart, it will take all your breath. it will be short, it will not be simple.
As readers, when we are lucky, we can experience a poet’s changes through language over a lifetime. For me, these lines enacted Rich’s statement, in “Images for Godard” (1970), that “the moment of good conclusion for bullying essay change is the a formal analytical that addresses the following, only poem.” Rich’s own transformations brought her closer to the ethical lives of her readers even as she wrote poems that at times lost patience with our culture’s inability to change alongside her. Arriving at Radcliffe, the daughter of a Southern Protestant pianist mother and a Jewish doctor father, Rich initially excelled at being exceptional in accepted ways. Often working in traditional form in her early writing, she, even in these nascent poems, was already addressing the frustration of being constrained by forces that traditionally were not inclusive. Consequently, Rich was never primarily invested in traditional meter and form, though she employed them early on. Some of comparing two people her earliest poems suggest she was already grasping toward what could not yet be described as “liberative language.” Her poems often found ways to critique existing expectations for one’s femininity and write that addresses the following, sexuality, and a decorum that did not include speaking her truth to power. Good Conclusion Essay? Rich began her public poetic career as the 1951 winner of the Yale Younger Poets Prize, which was awarded for her first collection, “A Change of World.” W. H. Auden selected Rich’s volume and brought to write the following situation, the world’s attention Rich’s first thorny questions, embedded in lyrics, addressing a culture’s disengagement with its embattled selves. A poem like “A Clock in comparing two people, the Square,” published in that volume, finds its inspiration in a “handless clock” that refuses, rather than is unable, “to acknowledge the hour”: This handless clock stares blindly from its tower, Refusing to acknowledge any hour, But what can one clock do to stop the game. When others go on striking just the analytical essay, same?
Whatever mite of truth the gesture held, Time may be silenced but will not be stilled, Nor we absolved by any one’s withdrawing. From all the restless ways we must be going. And all the rings in which we’re spun and swirled, Whether around a clockface or a world. The clock appears initially to be broken, but its handlessness proves an ineffective strategy against the “game.” Silence as a form of rebellion proves inadequate to good conclusion, the moment.
Auden praised “A Change of World” for, among other things, its “detachment from the self and its emotions,” as is demonstrated in “Aunt Jennifer’s Tigers,” a poem that has always been coupled in my mind with Rainer Maria Rilke’s “The Panther.” “Aunt Jennifer’s Tigers” projects freedom onto the image of the tigers that the poem’s protagonist stitches into her needlework. This is in contrast to Rilke’s portrayal of the panther as imprisoned and a formal analytical essay situation, behind bars. Company That? Rilke depicts the panther’s very will as having been paralyzed: The padding gait of flexibly strong strides, that in the very smallest circle turns, is like a dance of strength around a center. in which stupefied a great will stands. Rich’s dialectical use of the write analytical essay that the following situation, tigers to contrast with the paralysis intrinsic to Aunt Jennifer’s domestic life speaks gently to her early “absolutist approach to the universe,” as she herself observed in descriptive, a 1964 essay.
She would come to understand society’s limits as touching all our lives. A Formal The Following Situation? “Aunt Jennifer’s Tigers” ends with a quatrain: When Aunt is dead, her terrified hands will lie. Population Essay? Still ringed with ordeals she was mastered by. The tigers in the panel that she made. Essay? Will go on conclusion essay prancing, proud and unafraid. Essay That The Following? Those “terrified hands,” “ringed” and “mastered,” also could imagine and create a fantastical reflection of life, those tigers , which remain “proud and unafraid.” Rich came of population age in a postwar America where civil rights and analytical essay the following situation, antiwar movements were either getting started or were on the horizon. Poets like Robert Lowell, Allen Ginsberg, James Wright, and LeRoi Jones (later known as Amiri Baraka), among others, were abandoning the illusionary position of objectivity and finding their way to the use of the conclusion for bullying essay, first person, gaining access to their emotional as well as political lives on the page. A Formal Essay That? Rich’s reach for objectivity would be similarly short-lived. She joined poets engaged in political-poetic resistance to the Vietnam War, as can be seen in master creative writing online, “The Burning of Paper Instead of Children” (1968), which includes lines like “Frederick Douglass wrote an English purer than Milton’s.” She began to elide traditions in order to speak from a more integrated history. “Even before I called myself a feminist or a lesbian,” Rich wrote in “Blood, Bread, and Poetry,” “I felt driven—for my own sanity—to bring together in my poems the political world ‘out there’—the world of children dynamited or napalmed, of the urban ghetto and militarist violence—and the supposedly private, lyrical world of sex and write a formal analytical that the following, of male/female relationships.” With Rich came the formulation of an alternate poetic tradition that distrusted and questioned paternalistic, heteronormative, and hierarchical notions of what it meant to creative online, have a voice, especially for female writers. Write That Addresses Situation? All of culture found its way into Rich’s poems, and population distribution in china, as her work evolved she made it almost impossible for write a formal that situation, any writers mentored by her poetry and master writing, essays to experience their own work as “sporadic, errant, orphaned of any tradition of its own,” to quote from her foreword to her 1979 book “On Lies, Secrets, and Silence.” A dozen years after “A Change of World” was published, Rich would look back on her earlier work—which includes her second volume, “The Diamond Cutters,” and its metrical and write a formal essay that, imagistic tidiness—and admit that “in many cases I had suppressed, omitted, falsified even, certain disturbing elements, to of fine online, gain that perfection of analytical essay the following situation order.” This understanding that disruption seen and negotiated inside the poem might be closer to her actual experience of the world changed the content, form, and voice of her poetics.
In her third collection, “Snapshots of a Daughter-in-Law” (1963), a restlessness settles into rated company the poems that explore marriage and child rearing. Write Essay Addresses The Following Situation? It’s here the exasperation of a “thinking woman” begins the fight “with what she partly understood. Good Conclusion? / Few men about her would or could do more, / hence she was labeled harpy, shrew and write analytical that the following, whore,” as Rich writes in the title poem. The nineteen-seventies saw the publication of some of Rich’s most memorable and powerful poems. How To For Pharmacy School? She developed in her writing the appearance of the unadorned simplicity of a mind in rigorous thought. In a 1971 conversation with the poet Stanley Plumly, Rich said she was “interested in write a formal essay, the possibilities of the ‘plainest statement’ at times, the kind of things that people say to each other at moments of stress.” In poems like the groundbreaking “Diving into the Wreck,” Rich clearly chooses reality over myth in order to descriptive, create room within the poems to confront what was broken in our common lives: I came to explore the wreck. The words are purposes.
The words are maps. I came to see the damage that was done. and the treasures that prevail. I stroke the write analytical essay that addresses situation, beam of my lamp. slowly along the flank. of something more permanent. than fish or weed. the thing I came for: the wreck and not the story of the wreck. the thing itself and not the myth. the drowned face always staring. the evidence of damage. worn by arts writing online salt and situation, sway into this threadbare beauty. the ribs of the disaster. When “Diving into the Wreck” won the National Book Award, in 1974, Rich accepted the write a good essay school, prize in solidarity with fellow nominees Alice Walker and Audre Lorde: The statement I am going to read was prepared by three of the women nominated for the National Book Award for write analytical addresses situation, poetry, with the arts writing online, agreement that it would be read by whichever of us, if any, was chosen. We, Audre Lorde, Adrienne Rich, and Alice Walker, together accept this award in the name of all the write a formal analytical, women whose voices have gone and still go unheard in a patriarchal world, and in the name of those who, like us, have been tolerated as token women in this culture, often at great cost and in great pain. We believe that we can enrich ourselves more in supporting and essays comparing, giving to each other than by competing against each other; and write a formal analytical, that poetry—if it is poetry—exists in a realm beyond ranking and comparison. We symbolically join together here in refusing the terms of patriarchal competition and declaring that we will share this prize among us, to be used as best we can for population in china, women. We appreciate the good faith of the judges for this award, but none of write analytical essay that the following situation us could accept this money for herself, nor could she let go unquestioned the terms on which poets are given or denied honor and livelihood in this world, especially when they are women. We dedicate this occasion to the struggle for self-determination of all women, of every color, identification, or derived class: the poet, the comparing, housewife, the lesbian, the analytical essay addresses the following situation, mathematician, the mother, the dishwasher, the pregnant teen-ager, the teacher, the grandmother, the prostitute, the philosopher, the waitress, the master arts online, women who will understand what we are doing here and those who will not understand yet; the silent women whose voices have been denied us, the articulate women who have given us strength to do our work.
Over twenty years later, in 1997, Rich declined the National Medal for the Arts, this country’s highest artistic honor, because she believed that “the very meaning of art, as I understand it, is incompatible with the write a formal analytical the following situation, cynical politics of this administration.” In her July 3rd letter to company papers for you, the Clinton Administration and Jane Alexander, the chairwoman of the National Endowment for write a formal analytical that addresses the following situation, the Arts, she wrote, I want to population essay, clarify to you what I meant by my refusal. Anyone familiar with my work from the early sixties on knows that I believe in art’s social presence—as breaker of official silences, as voice for those whose voices are disregarded, and write a formal essay, as a human birthright. In my lifetime I have seen the space for the arts opened by comparing two people movements for social justice, the write a formal analytical addresses, power of population art to break despair. Over the past two decades I have witnessed the a formal analytical that addresses situation, increasingly brutal impact of racial and economic injustice in our country. There is no simple formula for the relationship of art to in china, justice. But I do know that art—in my own case the art of poetry—means nothing if it simply decorates the dinner table of power which holds it hostage. Positioned as a teacher, as I often am now, at the front of a classroom, I was struck by reading a line in “Draft #2006,” from “Telephone Ringing in the Labyrinth.” The line—“Maybe I couldn’t write fast enough. Maybe it was too soon.”—reminded me that this urgency, apprehension, and questioning has characterized all of Rich’s poems. Still, it seems she responds in time, as she will always be once and future, and her work always relevant. A Formal Essay That Situation? They asked me, is this time worse than another.
I said for whom? Wanted to show them something. While I wrote on the. chalkboard they drifted out. I turned back to an empty room. Maybe I couldn’t write fast enough. Maybe it was too soon.
In her “Collected Poems 1950_–_2012” we have a chronicle of over distribution in china essay, a half century of analytical that the following what it means to population essay, risk the self in order to give the self, to write addresses the following situation, refer back to Baldwin. As the poet Marilyn Hacker as written, Rich’s body of population distribution in china essay work establishes, among other things, an intellectual autobiography, which is interesting not as the narrative of one life (which it’s not) and still less as intimate divulgence, but as the write analytical essay that the following situation, evolution and revolutions of an good conclusion essay, exceptional mind, with all its curiosity, outreaching, exasperation and even its errors. One of our best minds writes her way through the changes that have brought us here, in all the places that continue to essay that addresses situation, entangle our liberties in the twenty-first century. And here is write essay for pharmacy school not “somewhere else but here,” Rich writes. We remain in “our country moving closer to its own truth and dread, / its own way of making people disappear.” What Kind of Times Are These. There’s a place between two stands of trees where the grass grows. and the old revolutionary road breaks off into a formal analytical the following situation shadows. near a meeting-house abandoned by the persecuted. who disappeared into conclusion those shadows. I’ve walked there picking mushrooms at write a formal analytical that addresses the edge of dread, but. this isn’t a Russian poem, this is good for bullying essay not somewhere else but here, our country moving closer to its own truth and dread, its own ways of making people disappear. I won’t tell you where the place is, the write analytical essay, dark mesh of the woods. Distribution? meeting the write a formal analytical essay that addresses the following, unmarked strip of light— ghost-ridden crossroads, leafmold paradise: I know already who wants to buy it, sell it, make it disappear. And I won’t tell you where it is, so why do I tell you. anything?
Because you still listen, because in times like these. to have you listen at of fine arts creative writing all, it’s necessary. to talk about trees. Write A Formal Essay That Addresses? _This essay was drawn from the introduction to “Collected Poems 1950–2012,” by Adrienne Rich, which is out June 21st from W. W. Norton Company. _. Claudia Rankine is the author of “Citizen: An American Lyric,” the winner of the 2014 National Book Critics Circle Award for poetry.
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My first Car Enc1101 March 11, 2012 Descriptive essay My first car was my first most prized possession. I’d named her, . tested her out on interstates, and took good care of her like she was one of a formal analytical that my children. She had mirror tinted windows and was deep ocean blue that gleamed in best rated that write papers for you, the summer sun, she was flawless. I will never forget my first out of town drive to Tallahassee- smoothest, fastest ride ever! Had it not been for write a formal essay that addresses the following the scenery I would’ve felt like I was driving in a race. I remember.
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?How to Write a Descriptive Essay Descriptive essays are often subjective tasks. The first issue at . hand is to make sure you know what type of paper you are writing. A Formal That Addresses The Following Situation. The descriptive essay is often creative, personal, or simply artistic. Discuss the assignment with your professor or teacher before you begin. Even though your descriptive essay is more personal than a standard five-paragraph or compare-contrast essay , there is still quite a bit of homework to be done. Here is a list of important rules. Emotion , Essay , Essays 1406 Words | 5 Pages.
| Descriptive Essay | Rough draft | | Gatewood, Jasmine | 10/12/2012 | Myself: Person Hello kitty . collection thing Homemade spaghetti food Downtown Dallas place Jasmine Gatewood English 0331.2 Ms. Two People. Fischel 10/12/12 Description Essay Downtown Dallas home of the dart and the drug dealers on write that situation, every corner, my friends and I used to visit regularly to have a nice chipotle dinner. Descriptive Essay Lists. When you are hear you cannot help but, visit the write a formal analytical essay that addresses the following many food places, and essays comparing cultural. Dallas , Dallas Area Rapid Transit , Dallas – Fort Worth Metroplex 1433 Words | 4 Pages. Descriptive Essay Hearts were racing, twelve to be exact, lungs were being constricted tighter and tighter with every second . Write Addresses Situation. that went by, joints were being pushed to their limits as their limbs stretched the farthest they could reach, and yet these twelve people were still able to ignore their injuries.
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Descriptive essay examples will certainly help aspiring writers compose. Emotion , Essay , Essays 738 Words | 3 Pages. ?Name Professor Course Name and Number Date Descriptive Essay One of write a formal essay addresses tha problems with growing older is good, losing tha wonder and . fascination of tha world that children see. With tha everyday drudgery of write a formal analytical that addresses situation life, it gets harder and master arts harder to see tha world with tha child like perspective that we all once did. This is tha reason that having children has been so exciting because I can once again regain tha opportunity to see tha world through thair innocent, creative eyes.
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For example, if you are writing about a place, go there and take notes on the sights, sounds, and smells. A descriptive essay paints a picture for the. Essay , Figure of speech , Grammatical tense 1171 Words | 4 Pages. ? Descriptive Essays vs. Narrative Essays Many people have different preferences on what type of writing style . they think is essay, more superior to another, I believe descriptive writing to analytical addresses the following situation be more excellent writing style then narrative.
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ARIA Charts , Automobile , New Year 1041 Words | 3 Pages. Descriptive paper Mercedez 1 How It Feels To Be in a Live Poker Tournament About five years ago I used to date this guy, whose mother . loved to go to analytical essay the following the casino. When I first heard about her going, I just couldn’t understand why she would get so excited about going there. She would come home and population distribution in china essay say how she had the best time and how she got so lucky. Write A Formal Analytical The Following Situation. She claimed that her son would give her luck and other small things that she would do, to claim she received luck that night. I would just look. Card game , Game , Luck 1678 Words | 4 Pages. Compare-Contrast Essay Eng121: English Composition I (AXC13480) Regina McKinney Professor: Nancy Segovia January 1, 2014 A . narrative essay is about storytelling for a narrative story to work it must capture and hold the audience attention you must give a clear understanding of your story. A descriptive essay lets you describe in detail what the essay is all about using words that appeal to your sense of smell, hearing, see, touch, and distribution taste. A descriptive essay lets you use words that. Essay , Maya Angelou , Narrative 1226 Words | 4 Pages.
Ivory Koehn 9/10/2010 Descriptive Essay Under The Raised Hand Prologue When I was a young girl learning about life and write analytical essay that the following . love, I always thought that some man would sweep me off my feet and it was my fate to be with him and only him. Of Fine Creative Online. My mother was not a big fan of love and fate. She didn’t have a very good history of a formal analytical essay the following situation guys and relationships. Descriptive Topic. She would always tell us love was not a reality and we should find someone with a lot of write a formal analytical essay that the following situation money. My mother is a strong feminist woman and I tried as hard. 2008 singles , English-language films , High school 2045 Words | 5 Pages. Narrative Essay Vs. Descriptive Essay. ? Narrative Essays Are a Great Read Name ENG121 Professor June 16, 2014 Narrative Essays Are a . Great Read Narrative essays and Descriptive essays can be similar but they are different in nature. The narrative essay “I Want a Wife” is more compelling than the descriptive essay “Homeless” because the narrative essay has a point of view, uses humor and satire, and uses tone and language that can draw the reader in. “Narration is storytelling from the perspective of. Essay , Essays , Homelessness 1604 Words | 7 Pages.
?THINGS TO BE GIVEN IMPORTANCE IN A DESCRIPTIVE ESSAY IDENTIFICATION OF THE THINGS TO BE DESCRIBED Descriptive . essay focuses on a person, place, memory, experience or an object. First, the exact thing that is to be described must be identified. REASON FOR WRITING A DESCRIPTIVE ESSAY There will be particular reason for writing this kind of two people essay . That reason will help the writer focus his description and imbue his language with a particular perspective or emotion. FOCUS ON THE FIVE SENSES Focusing. Essay , Essays , Five senses 1217 Words | 3 Pages. Jennifer Schacht ENG-090 2/10/2011 Descriptive Essay Final We have been waiting nine long months, and we have had much . preparation to a formal addresses the following situation do before the arrival of our daughter. Of all the things we have prepared for her, I am most proud of good her room, my mother and essay that addresses the following I painted it and sat it up with all the accessories together.
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? NIGERIA The purpose of this essay is to describe Nigeria. Officially it is a federal constitutional republic, located in best company that papers for you, West . A Formal Analytical That. Africa and shares land borders with the company write papers Republic of write essay that addresses the following situation Benin in the west, Chad and Cameroon in the east, and Niger in the north. Its coast in that, the south lies on the Gulf of Guinea on a formal essay that, the Atlantic Ocean. Its three largest and most influential ethnic groups are the Hausa, Igbo and best company write Yoruba. The name Nigeria was taken from the Niger River running through the country. Africa , Benin , Niger 1819 Words | 8 Pages. How to Write a Descriptive Essay More than many other types of essays , descriptive . essays strive to create a deeply involved and vivid experience for the reader. Great descriptive essays achieve this affect not through facts and statistics but by using detailed observations and descriptions.
What do you want to describe? As you get started on a formal analytical addresses the following situation, your descriptive essay , it's important for you to identify exactly what you want to describe. Often, a descriptive essay will focus on portraying one of. Essay , Odor , Sun 988 Words | 3 Pages. ? English 9A, Unit 2 Descriptive Portfolio Your second portfolio will be a descriptive essay about your . favorite location. You will not be focused on building characters or telling a story in this paper - Your paper will purely describe. How To Write A Good Essay For Pharmacy School. Remember that your descriptions should use imagery and sensory details, meaning that it should appeal to the five senses. While reading your paper, I should be able to picture your location. Your favorite room of your house Your favorite location.
Essay , Object-oriented programming , Sense 858 Words | 4 Pages. Essay Examples Four types of write that addresses the following essays exist including: narration, description, exposition, and essays comparing argument. Each type has a unique . purpose: some tell a story, some are descriptive and others prevent viewpoints. One of the best ways to better understand each type of analytical addresses the following situation essay is to how to write a good essay school review examples. Types of Essays Narrative Narration is telling a story from a certain viewpoint, and analytical addresses the following situation there is how to write essay for pharmacy, usually a reason for write analytical essay addresses the telling. All narrative essays will have characters, setting, climax, and for pharmacy most importantly. Essay , Essays , Exposition 1903 Words | 6 Pages. ?HURICANE ESSAY Discuss the ways in which the director of a formal essay that the following situation your set text develops the main character in this movie to population essay convey the write analytical that the following situation messages of . this film.
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What was the writing assignment? (Use your teacher’s words or attach the assignment.) Assignment- Descriptive Essay The idea here is to write a formal essay that the following find a place that has a function then decide whether or not it serves its purpose. The main idea should center on how well the place works relative to its intended function. The description must be. Essay , Essays , Garden 731 Words | 3 Pages. Descriptive Essay 1) Definition: Descriptive essay is essay lists, one of the many types of writing styles . that provides a detailed description for a particular person, place, memory, experience or object.
Descriptive essay is purposely created so readers can readily imagine its particular subject matter. It focuses on the five senses which are sight, smell, touch, sound and taste. 2) Example: Spring Everyone has a comfortable place to escape to for relaxation. Write A Formal Essay Addresses. They go there when they need to be. Hearing , Odor , Olfaction 1017 Words | 4 Pages. Compare and Contrast Essay: Narrative and Descriptive Essays. Compare and good for bullying essay Contrast Essay Name Institutional Affiliation Introduction Academicians argue that, a powerful reader paints a picture . on a reader’s mind. Writing effective different types of essays is increasingly becoming a critical organ of academic success (Feng Checkett, 2014, p. 152). Analytical Essay That Situation. There are two major types of comparing essays , narrative and descriptive . While the write a formal essay that two might be appropriate in academic writing, one is arguably effective that the other. Essay Lists. Narrative essays tells a story from write a formal analytical essay that addresses the following situation, personal. Essay , I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings , Maya Angelou 1036 Words | 6 Pages.
Composition Essay Hurricane Katrina. causing havoc and how to write essay for pharmacy school panic, and can leave a lasting impression on write a formal that the following situation, the nation. Best Rated That. Hurricane Katrina was a powerful storm that struck fear throughout . many towns and cities. Write A Formal That. One city that was majorly impacted was the town of New Orleans in Louisiana. Write Essay For Pharmacy School. With a population of 1,337,726 pre Katrina. New Orleans was a thriving city and was host to the festival well known as Mardi Gras. Bringing in a lot of write analytical addresses situation tourist from all around the world. Hurricane Katrina started as a tropical depression over of fine arts creative online, the Bahamas and a formal analytical essay situation as it made. Florida , Hurricane Katrina , Louisiana 783 Words | 4 Pages.
Hurricanes A hurricane is a type of write a good essay for pharmacy school cyclone. A hurricane is an analytical that addresses the following situation, organized collection of thunderstorms . that pumps in the air near the earth’s surface and exhaust it out to the top. Hurricanes are tropical storms that are formed in the southern Atlantic Ocean, Caribbean Sea, Gulf of population distribution in china Mexico, and eastern Pacific Ocean. Hurricanes gather heat and energy through the contact with the warm ocean waters. Write A Formal That The Following. The power of the hurricane can increase by the evaporation from the population distribution in china essay seawater.
Hurricanes rotate. Atlantic Ocean , Caribbean , Ocean 853 Words | 3 Pages. May 2007 Hurricanes A hurricane is one of the a formal analytical that the following most severe storms the country has to endure. A hurricane can . easily damage millions of dollars of property and online even kill anyone in their paths. A hurricane is a local name for a formal situation tropical cyclones in the Caribbean, Nnorth Atlantic and Eeastern Nnorthern Pacific. On average there are about a good essay for pharmacy six hurricanes in a season and of those about write a formal analytical essay 2 reach become a major hurricane . Population. Hurricane season starts in June and ends in November. A hurricane is a low press.
Beaufort scale , Cyclone , Hurricane Katrina 1658 Words | 5 Pages. Hurricane Katrina On the early morning of August 29th, 2005 on the Gulf Shore near New Orleans a treacherous hurricane struck . with one hundred and write analytical that addresses the following situation forty mph winds. Hundreds of thousands of residents near the area evacuated days before the storm was supposed to master of fine arts writing hit. Katrina was one of the most powerful storms to ever form in the Atlantic Ocean and affected the Bahamas, Florida, Louisiana, Mississippi and many other areas. Nearly six months after the hurricane , more than 1,300 bodies were found and.
Atlantic Ocean , Hurricane Katrina , Louisiana 896 Words | 3 Pages. Hurricanes Hurricanes can cause damage that can last a life time. For example, Hurricane Katrina has affected . hundreds of families till death with the loss of their loved ones. On the other hand when someone hears the word hurricane in Florida he or she immediately turns on the television or radio to see where the hurricane is going to go. This means to analytical essay Floridians, here comes two weeks without power, gas, and most importantly air conditioning. In 2004 Florida was a magnet for hurricanes ; this has. Florida , Hurricane Andrew , Hurricane Katrina 1385 Words | 4 Pages.
converge on the Northeast to restore electricity.” (The Atlantic; In Focus with Alan Taylor.) Many people may be asking, what is this horrible thing that . happened to descriptive the East coast? But unfortunately thousands of people are living this tragedy today. Write A Formal That Situation. Hurricane Sandy struck on October 29, 2012 and destroyed most of the North East Shoreline, especially New Jersey. Descriptive Topic Lists. We need help from everyone, especially you, to write a formal that addresses situation rebuild the Jersey shore where millions of memories are lost. Living in of fine arts writing, a place my whole life.
Asbury Park, New Jersey , Atlantic County, New Jersey , Bruce Springsteen 1115 Words | 3 Pages. The Hurricane (Viewing Task) How well does the write analytical essay addresses composer manipulate the audience to believe that Rubin Carter was wrongly accused based on how to write for pharmacy school, . Write Analytical That Situation. racial discrimination (1000-1500 words) There are many ways the composer of the 1999 movie ‘ The Hurricane ’ manipulates the audience to believe that Rubin Carter was wrongly accused based on racial discrimination. How To. The key ways in which the composer does this is through the structure of the movie and the use of techniques such as non-linear structure and foreshadowing. African American , Bob Dylan , Denzel Washington 1081 Words | 3 Pages. Close Viewing In the film The Hurricane by Norman Jewison, the scene we studied in class was when Rubin Carter is in prison for a crime he . committed when he was a kid. He began to write that addresses situation educate himself in prison and started to do boxing and later he was released from master of fine arts creative online, prison.
The director’s purpose was to show the audience how Rubin Carter overcame his challenges of a formal analytical essay situation racism and prejudice. Racism was a huge challenge for rated company write papers Rubin Carter as he was wrongfully convicted due to racism. He spent half of his life. Denzel Washington , High-angle shot , Life imprisonment 1401 Words | 4 Pages. How does Jewison educate and a formal inform the audience about important ideas in his film “The Hurricane ”? Introduction In the film, “The . Rated Company That For You. Hurricane ”, Jewison uses camera, dialogue, music, and lighting techniques to essay the following educate and inform the best rated company that for you audience about important ideas within the a formal context of political protest in America during the sixties. Jewison also uses live footage and protests songs from the freedom fighters of that era to connect with the population distribution essay audience. The main ideas that Jewison conveys to the audience. Audience theory , Bob Dylan , Education 867 Words | 3 Pages.
? What is a Hurricane ? A hurricane is an intense, rotating oceanic weather system that possesses maximum sustained . winds exceeding 119 km/hr (74 mph). It forms and intensifies over tropical oceanic regions. A Formal Essay That. Hurricanes are generally smaller than storms in master, mid-latitudes, typically about 500 km (311 miles) in write a formal essay that, diameter. At the population distribution essay ocean’s surface, the air spirals inward in a counterclockwise direction. A Formal That Addresses. This cyclonic circulation becomes weaker with height, eventually turning into comparing two people clockwise (anticyclonic).
Atlantic Ocean , Cyclone , Flood 941 Words | 4 Pages.
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Essay: T. Write Essay That The Following? S. Eliot: The Man in the Mirror. “For I saw with own my eyes the Sibyl hanging in a jar at Cumae, and when acolytes said, ‘Sybil, what do you want’? she replied, T.S. Eliot was an American poet living in England, forced to Oxford University because of the outbreak of World War I (Ramazani 460). Several factors, such as Eliot’s new, foreign home, as well as the fact that Eliot had to suffer firsthand through a war-torn Europe, increasingly influenced his poetry and writing style; Eliot’s poetry directly mirrors not only his surroundings during the time of population essay World War I, but his poetry also mirrors how all of the turmoil in his life were affecting him.
Eliot used his poetry as a self-reflection; poems such as The Waste Land and write a formal essay addresses The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock are two examples that mirror Eliot’s own fears and anxieties, and allowed him an outlet from his sorrowful life. T.S. Eliot sought to create a world in his poetry that mimicked his own somber reality, something that author Carolyn Holber points out. ‘The ‘metaphoric structure’ of’ The Waste Land’ uses ‘bits and pieces of history, myth and literature to create a dismal contemporary world” (Holber 2). As reviewer Eloise K Hay has said of Eliot’s Life, from the works of Peter Ackroyd, noting that Eliot often considered himself a ‘resident alien’, whom was often viewed as someone who was ‘not merely compensating for his undefined tradition but overcompensating on the side of a factitious Englishness’ (Hay 486). Eliot was always in a good, a situation he was unfamiliar with, he was always in a metaphorical wasteland. ‘Perhaps Eliot alone understood the complex fate of being an American poet in a formal analytical essay, an era when no one was sure if such a thing as ‘American Literature’ existed’ (486). So not only was Eliot constrained by trying to find his way in a world that was seemingly imploding upon itself, but he was also constrained in the fact that he hadn’t a clue where his place was in the world of literature.
Even though The Waste Land is arguably Eliot’s most famous poem, the Norton Anthology of Modern and Contemporary Poetry, first presents Eliot’s The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock (Ramazani 463). From the start, the essays two people poem exhibits ideas of time, distance and a formal analytical essay that addresses an internal suffering in an attempt to placate Eliot’s inner feelings of dread and detachment from the world. Let us go then, you and I. When the evening is population distribution in china, spread out against the sky. Like a patient etherised upon a table;
Let us go, through certain half-deserted streets (Prufrock 1-4). Every poet is always seeking something, and a formal essay addresses the following these four very poignant lines mirror exactly what Eliot is feeling during his stay in England. For Bullying Essay? ‘Lets us go then, you and I’ demonstrates an a formal analytical that addresses overwhelming desire of Eliot to find something, because when a person goes somewhere, they are always seeking something; however, Eliot is good conclusion essay, a helpless patient that has been administered ether upon an operating room table. This ether that Eliot talks about, is the write essay addresses situation exact same feeling he has in real life – a loss of sensation, a loss of how to write for pharmacy being able to feel because he doesn’t know who or what he needs to be in life, and this numbing sensation is only intensified by the fact that everywhere Eliot turns, he sees lifeless, war torn, ‘half-deserted’ streets (4). Eliot wants to find his way into the world of a formal essay poetry, but because of descriptive topic lists a medium that was heavily English, coupled with the fact that Eliot has been etherised through the constant turmoil in his life, and analytical essay the following situation living in a country that is fighting for its proverbial life, the task is seemingly impossible. Also ether is highly flammable, and not only does this mirror the fiery world in which Eliot lives, but it also shows how incendiary the elements of his life had become. To further expound upon the ideas illustrated in write a good school, The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock, a backtracking to a formal analytical essay addresses situation the very beginning of the poem is needed. Comparing? Eliot first starts out by quoting a part of Dante’s Inferno, using the quote to draw parallels between not only a formal analytical situation himself and his own inferno, but one between Prufrock and Dante, which ultimately ties back to Eliot. Dante is a good essay for pharmacy, similar to Prufrock in the fact that both are paralyzed, or etherised, by write a formal analytical that situation, a cowardice in best rated write, the beginning of each piece, mirroring the same feelings Eliot has with his place in modern poetry. ‘But for this one moment, he is similar to Prufrock in his doubt and fear, and in justifying his weakness by contrasting himself with recognizable heroic figures’ (Hollahan 93). So not only do we see how Eliot seems to use archaic figures to illustrate a point he is trying to make, but we also see how Eliot tries to justify his own hesitance in the world by pointing fingers at Dante as one who has had the very same timid feelings that he had felt. ‘Both men find themselves unworthy in their own eyes as well as in others’ eyes. Both fearfully anticipate failure and shame’ (93). T.S.
Eliot’s most famous poem, The Waste Land, is a summation of analytical addresses everything that has been presented so far; The Waste Land represents Eliot’s feeling of being an outside not only in country but also in profession, doing so by using his archaic examples as well as his environment to shape this epic poem. As the Norton Anthology implies, The Waste Land was the poem that was the child from all of Eliot’s personal problems. The main problems, aside from the constant strain with trying to descriptive essay topic fit into some sort of niche, include the mental problems he faced, as well as with his family. In 1932, Eliot and his wife separated, and was eventually sent to write a formal addresses the following situation a mental asylum, and died several years later. The passing of write school Eliot’s father in 1919 also contributed to a formal analytical essay that addresses the following this barrage of negative emotions, especially since his father ‘died thinking that Eliot had wasted his ability’ (Ramazani 461). One of Eliot’s closest acquaintances, Jean Verdenal, also died during World War I, and how to write a good essay was the person he dedicated his first set of poetry books to (461). The Waste Land is such a somber and magnificent poem, because it reflects everything that Eliot was feeling during his lifetime, all wrapped up into one epic story. Write Essay That Situation? The Waste Land is a collection of everything that he was seeking, everything that had happened to him, and his way of trying to mirror his reflection outwards towards the comparing two people world in a negative manner. ‘To me it was only the relief of a personal and a formal the following wholly insignificant grouse against how to essay life; it is just a piece of rhythmical grumbling’ (Ramazani 474). Even Eliot himself recognized that this poem was a mirror for write analytical essay the following situation his emotions. The Waste Land starts out with more archaic symbolism, this time from an conclusion ancient Greek myth in which the Sibyl is granted eternal life, yet fails to ask for eternal youth and ends up shriveling and living forever in a decrepit form (474).
This idea of eternal life mirrors what Eliot desires, especially after the analytical that situation death of his father, the war and also the descriptive condition of his mentally declining wife. The forgetfulness of the Sibyl directly correlates to what Eliot seeks; the estranged poet wants to forget the a formal analytical essay that addresses terrors he has had to face during his time on essays, earth, which to him, feel like an eternity. April is the cruelest month, breeding. Lilacs out of the dead land, mixing. Memory and desire, stirring. Dull roots with spring rain. Winter kept us warm, covering. Earth in a formal analytical essay that addresses, forgetful snow, feeding. A little life with dried tubers. (Waste Land 1-7).
These first few lines in the first part of The Waste Land, which bear the title, The Burial of the Dead, shows the pain Eliot suffered in population distribution in china essay, the past few years before the finishing of the poem. A Formal Analytical Essay Addresses The Following Situation? The death of his father and essays Verdenal outline the first act of this epic, brought together by the desire of Eliot to forget these terrible memories and attempt to write analytical addresses the following ‘breed lilacs out descriptive topic lists of the dead’. Another desirous idea that Eliot inserts in this first section is write a formal analytical essay that the following situation, dealing with the hardships of dealing with his sickening wife, and how her mental illness brought him suffering and yet a desire to that papers fight through. And I was frightened. Analytical Essay Addresses The Following? He said, Marie, Marie, hold on rated company that write papers, tight.
And down we went. (15-16). ‘The first female whom we encounter in the final edition of write a formal analytical essay addresses the following The Waste Land is Marie, whom the European speaker recalls from distribution in china, his childhood in a mingling of memory and desire’ Marie is linked with the ‘awful daring of a moment’s surrender’ that the speaker invokes near the essay that addresses situation end of the poem. Write A Good School? She describes overcoming her fear, holding on tight” (Sicker 421). This desire can be related back to Eliot’s estranged wife, and times when her sickness brought on moments of surrender for a formal addresses the following situation him, and it seems as if this point of view is her’s, and how she is urging him to conclusion hold on tight and overcome his fear. Even the write a formal analytical that addresses the following situation others sections of this epic poem can be deduced and master writing online interpreted as allusions to Eliot’s own life. First, Eliot undergoes a stage in write a formal analytical that addresses, which he has to physically and emotionally bury his dead: his father, Jean and his mentally declining wife. Eliot then plays a game of chess with himself, a game in which he desires to cover over the burial of his dead with lilacs, and cover himself in a forget layer of allusionary snow. Eliot seeks a rebirth much like the rebirth Philomel takes on in the best rated that write for you second part: The change of Philomel, by the barbarous king.
So rudely forced; yet there the nightingale. Filled the desert with inviolable voice. And still she cried, and addresses situation still the world pursues (Waste Land 99-102). Eliot had terror forced upon him many times in his life, and now he just wants to fill his deserted life with beauty, yet he still manages to realize that even though he may find inner peace, that the world will still be there to tear him down in the end. The third section, The Fire Sermon, relates back to The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock, with fire representing the fiery surroundings in which Eliot lives his life, and the incendiary life that is constantly burning him at every turn. Yet, fire has another important purpose: cleansing. Eliot seeks a cleansing from his past and a rebirth through the emotional chess game he’s faced. To Carthage then I came. Burning burning burning burning. O Lord Thou pluckest me out. O Lord Thou pluckest.
burning (Waste Land 307-311). Eliot seeks rebirth, to essay topic lists be plucked into write a formal that, life after burning and burning, much as ‘Phlebas’s drowning has been read as a sacrificial death before rebirth’ (Ramazani 483). The Waste Land is Eliot’s step-by-step guide to essay lists himself, on how to gain some sort of catharsis from the analytical that the following tumultuous life he has had to best rated company endure. But, Eliot realizes that in the end, the chess game never ends, and the pain will always pursue him. ‘And still she cried, and still the world pursues (Waste Land 102). This is where the final section comes into analytical essay that addresses, play, Death by Water. The cycle finally comes full circle, and after burying his dead, struggling with desires and hardships throughout his life, the chess match is over, and life once again takes ahold of T.S. Eliot. A current under the sea. Picked his bones in whispers. For Bullying? As he rose and fell. He passed the stages of his age and youth.
Entering the whirlpool (Waste Land 315-318). T.S. Eliot was a master of mirroring his own emotions and life through such works as The Love Song of J Alfred Prufrock, and write analytical essay that addresses situation most notably, The Waste Land. He endured many harsh realities during his life, such as the passing of his father and one one his best friends, Jean Verdenal, and he even had to witness the mental breakdown of his wife, reflecting this idea heavily in the latter piece. Every author is seeking something, an idea that Eliot tried to express through the use of archaic symbolism, and a reflection of his own ordeals in his poetry. Hay, Eloise K. Conclusion Essay? “T. S. Eliot: A Life.” Rev. of T. S. Eliot: A Life by Peter Ackroyd, by Peter Ackroyd. T. Write A Formal Essay That The Following Situation? S. Eliot: A Life by Peter Ackroyd Sept. 1985: 485-90.
JSTOR. Essays Comparing Two People? Web. 2 Mar. 2015. Holbert, Carolyn. “”Stranded in the Wasteland:” Literary Allusion in The Sharpest Sight.” Studies in American Indian Literatures 2nd ser. 14.1 (2002): 1-25. JSTOR. University of a formal that addresses the following situation Nebraska Press, 2002. Web. 02 Mar.
2015. Hollahan, Eugene. “A Structural Dantean Parallel in Eliot’s “The Love Song of J. Write A Good Essay For Pharmacy? Alfred Prufrock”” American Literature 42.1 (1970): 91-93. JSTOR. Duke University Press. Web. A Formal Essay That Addresses The Following Situation? 02 Mar. Rated Company Write Papers? 2015.
Ramazani, Jahan, Richard Ellmann, and Robert O’Clair. The Norton Anthology of Modern and a formal that situation Contemporary Poetry. 3rd ed. New York: W.W. Topic Lists? Norton, 2003. Print. Sicker, Philip. “The Belladonna: Eliot’s Female Archetype in The Waste Land.” Twentieth Century Literature 30.4 (1984): 420-31. JSTOR. Hofstra University. Web. 02 Mar.
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