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Determine audience essay

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Important determine audience before writing essay

Book Review of the Outliers by Malcolm Gladwell essay. Born in Hampshire, England to a psychotherapist mother and a mathematical and audience essay engineering professor father, Malcolm Gladwell is a renowned author who has not only written several compelling books, but has also written several interesting articles for various newspapers and magazine firms (Shaywitz, 2008,). He is still working at latex the New Yorker as the editor. His critics and supporters concede that his upbringing played a significant role in making him what he is today- a great writer. Determine Audience Essay. One of Gladwell’s compelling literary pieces is the love rita dove book Outlier, which was published by the Little Brown and Company in 2008. Due to its easy to understand writing and comprehensive analysis of the subject matter, the book debuted at number one on the bestseller lists for the Global Mail and New York Times for audience essay, over eleven weeks. Through a series of self-encapsulated, short and engaging histories, Gladwell enlightens the reader on the factors that contribute to people’s success in life. Latex Paper Writing. In this book, Gladwell examines and discusses the phenomena of innate individual talent, hard work, high achievement, and different fantastic stories of success that are often attributed to individuals’ tenacity . Essay. He clearly points out that success can only be achieved through hard work. In the first part, the author introduces the reader to renowned high achievers and various conditions that surround their success. He is able to bring out his arguments by on importance of school, incorporating the 10000 Hour Rule (Gladwell, 2011).

Gladwell holds that for anyone to be a master in any field, be it music, programming, sports, and determine essay chase, he or she must the 10,000 Hour Rule in introduction to an essay yourself, practice to achieve success. Audience. The writer borrowed the term outlier from science and uses it to refer to introduction to an essay about, men and women with special abilities that make them unique from the rest (Shaywitz, 2008). However, the book discusses that millions of these outliers are being ignored by the society and only few with opportunities and have the strength and presence of mind to seize the opportunities. On his website he says that he wrote the outliers out of frustration because he was surprised by people’s definition of determine essay, success he termed people’s way of thinking about success as crude. Thus, he wrote the book to provide newer, better and refined definition of success. The books purpose is to prove that success is not all about personal traits as most books on success put it. Rather, success involves the environment such as culture, family and generation around successful individuals. However, he says that success is can be controlled by an individual despite the fact that it is influenced by his/ her environment. Therefore he is blending the two theories surrounding success. The book has very simple and easy to understand language and the writer avoided the jackson turner's frontier thesis focused jargon in determine essay, the field of discussion. He believes too much in some astrology or stars and he concludes that peoples date of birth play a major role in frederick turner's frontier on, their success either in business or any activity that they perform.

For example, he believes that most successful hockey players were born during the first months of the year. He concludes the book from determine audience, a personal view, which might make his conclusion very wrong as a result of perceptual error. Research Improvement Grants. Though, most critics are fine with that, I do not. By using himself as an example, Gladwell is using limited facts to generalize about whole of the successful humanity (Grossman, 2008). Though, he needs to know that through making people to believe or think in a particular way, it influences their way of life. For example, astrologers put it in determine essay, the newspapers that if you were born on introduction, this date then you are likely to behave in this way (Flanagan, n.d). If people read this from the source that they trust most, the newspaper. They are going to condition themselves in those ways and eventually become one.

This is because the mind sees what it wants. Audience. Moreover, whatever the mind believes and conceives it is education what the mind achieves. Determine Audience Essay. If his theory is correct then what answers does he have to successful parents whose children are failures? Why is it that all people born during a particular period of time are not successful? Secondly, if these people born during this period are successful, are they really outliers? This is because if everybody in doctoral research grants, the society can achieve something then that is not extraordinary but common therefore do they deserve to be called outliers?

How is his book going to help those people who lack families, relatives or inheritance? Are these people doomed to fail or they will never be outliers? The book is totally biased and believes that people from a particular culture cannot be achievers. It is determine audience essay working from most stereotypes, which demonstrate how naïve the writer is and such cases when believed globally might cost people from a given culture or group their fortune and essay of school opportunities. It is audience making other individuals to paper, appear superior to audience essay, others. For The Love. Traits and skills are both learnt. Coming from a given culture has nothing to do with an individual’s success though one should not underestimate the fact that if individuals come from determine, different cultural backgrounds and are not willing to drop some of their attitudes that affect their success, then, there is a probability that they may fail.

He also insists that every successful man or woman always observe the 10,000 hour rule of practice (Grossman, 2008). Dissertation Grants. The writer has shallow understanding of the subject and has mixed it with perceptual errors, which sent him generalizing ideas. This makes his conclusion untrustworthy and after all maybe the book has achieved its purpose, well dedicated to Daisy his grandmother. It was supposed to please the audience family members. The book is fit for entertaining the brain but not to encourage people to work on their success.

For example, how will the book encourage those who it says that their culture does not allow them to for the rita, excel at work places? Therefore, it is unfit material for global consumption.

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le pianiste resume Visitez le site anglais du WSWS. Un survivant du ghetto de Varsovie. Par Fred Mazelis. Le 18 février 2003. Le dernier film de Roman Polanski, Le Pianiste , évoque de façon émouvante la Shoah à travers l'expérience d'un simple survivant du ghetto de Varsovie. Si Polanski n'est pas le premier réalisateur à traiter un tel sujet, il aborde la question de façon intelligente et digne. Essay. Il a largement réussi à montrer à l'écran les mémoires impressionnantes de Wladyslaw Szpilman.

Celles-ci ont été écrites en 1946 mais il a fallu attendre 1999, juste un an introduction about yourself avant la mort de l'auteur, et leur traduction en anglais en 1999, pour qu'elles soient connues du grand public. Determine Audience Essay. Le film, qui vient d'être nommé pour un Academy Award, a déjà reçu la récompense suprême au Festival de Cannes et la Société des Critiques de Cinéma n'a pas tari d'éloges sur Le Pianiste. Szpilman était un personnage intéressant, un pianiste et un compositeur de talent qui a encore vécu 55 ans après avoir échappé de façon miraculeuse à la mort dans la Pologne, alors occupée par les nazis et où des millions de juifs furent assassinés. Pendant les années 30, Varsovie était, avec l'exception probable de New York, peut-être le centre urbain le plus juif du monde. To An Essay. En Pologne, on audience, assistait tous les jours à des manifestations d'antisémitisme, mais celles-ci était moins virulentes dans les grandes villes. Crime And Punishment Redemption. Szpilman est né à Varsovie en 1911, dans une famille bien intégrée de musiciens et d'intellectuels. Determine Essay. Au début des années 30, il a étudié le piano avec le célèbre Artur Schnabel et la composition musicale avec Franz Schreker, un compositeur allemand très important de l'époque.

En 1939, au moment de l'invasion et de l'occupation de la Pologne par les Nazis, Szpilman était déjà bien connu comme pianiste à la Radio polonaise et comme compositeur de chansons populaires. Cette vie professionnelle trépidante s'est brusquement arrêtée avec le début de la guerre. Essay Of School. Moins de trois semaines après l'invasion de la Pologne le 1er septembre, les nazis firent leur entrée dans Varsovie. Determine Audience. Comme le montre le film, les Allemands promirent tout d'abord que les Juifs seraient traités de façon équitable , mais une série de décrets antisémites, comme par exemple l'interdiction faite aux juifs de posséder plus de 2.000 Zlotys en argent liquide, ne tarda pas à suivre. Crime Redemption. On est particulièrement frappé par l'ordre donné aux Juifs de porter un brassard jaune, symbole d'humiliation et d'oppression. La famille de Szpilman, affectueuse et querelleuse , comme l'a souligné à juste titre un critique, lutte pour continuer à vivre comme avant en gardant toute sa dignité.

Le père de Szpilman essaie désespérément de trouver de bonnes raisons d'être optimiste. Audience Essay. Ce n'est pas le cas des autres membres de la famille même si ceux-ci ne tombent pas dans le plus profond désespoir pour autant. Essay On Importance Of School Education. Le père, la mère et le frère de Szpilman font une brève mais touchante apparition dans le film. La grande force du film réside dans sa présentation clairvoyante de la déshumanisation progressive des Juifs de Varsovie. Determine Audience. Avec la construction d'une enceinte autour du ghetto à la fin de 1940, des centaines de milliers de personnes sont déracinées et parquées dans des conditions de surpopulation, de maladie et de désespoir inimaginables. For The Rita Essay. Le scénario, adapté du livre de Szpilman par Ronald Harwood, reproduit de façon vivante de nombreuses scènes exactement comme elles sont décrites dans le livre. Determine Audience Essay. La suite chronologique des événements montrent bien comment la solution finale des nazis s'est mise en place alors que les victimes assistaient à celle-ci avec une horreur croissante. Love Rita Dove Essay. Seules 200 personnes (sur une population juive de plus de 400.000 à Varsovie) ont survécu à ce cauchemar. La vie de tous les jours continue. Essay. Celle-ci est surtout consacrée à trouver la nourriture pour survivre et la force psychologique pour résister. Introduction Yourself. Des dizaines de milliers succombent de pauvreté, de faim et de maladie.

La terreur nazie s'intensifie de jour en jour. Audience Essay. Des enfants sont abattus dans la rue pour des actes de désobéissance imaginaire. For The Love. Un groupe de militaires investit un appartement voisin et la famille de Szpilman assiste avec horreur à une scène où le vieux chef de famille, parce qu'il ne parvient pas à se lever quand il en reçoit l'ordre par les officiers allemands, est arraché de son fauteuil, précipité par la fenêtre et tué dans sa chute. La camera n'hésite pas à montrer ces scènes horribles, mais elle ne vire pas pour autant dans le voyeurisme excessif. Essay. Il n'y a rien de facile, d'exagéré ou de sensationnel. Dissertation Research Improvement. Le résultat n'en est que plus efficace. Cependant, même dans de telles conditions, les divisions de classe à l'intérieur du ghetto ne disparaissent pas.

Pour aider sa famille, Szpilman joue à son corps défendant dans un café qui reçoit les classes les plus privilégiées de la population juive du ghetto. Essay. Les policiers juifs sont recrutés au sein de la classe moyenne et au sein de l'intelligentsia. Latex. Wladyslaw et son frère Henryk refusent cette solution avec mépris. Au bout de presque deux années dans le ghetto, les ordres de déportation pour la famille Szpilman finissent par arriver ­ pour les parents et pour deux de leurs enfants, Wladyslaw et Regina. Determine Audience Essay. Henryk et Halina ne sont pas encore convoqués, mais ils ne veulent pas être séparés de leur famille et ils se dirigent vers l'Umschlagplatz, l'immense place de départ des déportations. Frederick Jackson Thesis Focused. Jusqu'au dernier moment, les discussions continuent au sein des condamnés pour savoir s'ils sont emmenés pour être assassinés ou simplement pour les travaux forcés. Audience. Une femme hurle de façon hystérique : il s'avère qu'afin d'éviter à sa famille d'être décelée au moment du rassemblement des Juifs pour la déportation, elle a tué sa fille en l'étreignant trop fort.

Malgré ceci, ce geste les avait dénoncés aux yeux des Allemands. Au tout dernier moment, alors que la famille Szpilman se dirige vers les wagons pour y être entassés en vue de leur voyage vers Treblinka, un policier juif, cherchant peut-être à racheter son rôle détestable, reconnaît Szpilman, lui crie au visage, le précipite au sol et lui dit de s'échapper. C'est ensuite que commence l'étape suivante de l'odyssée de Szpilman ­ sa survie pendant les deux années et demie qui suivent. Essay On Importance Education. Tout d'abord, il accomplit des travaux forcés à l'intérieur du ghetto. Determine Audience. Il décide ensuite de s'échapper, à la recherche d'une jeune musicienne qu'il a auparavant rencontrée. Latex Writing. Caché par des résistants polonais dans un appartement juste au bord de l'enceinte du ghetto, il assiste en avril 1943 au soulèvement désespéré mais héroïque du ghetto.

Sans cesse en fuite il vit assez longtemps pour être témoin du soulèvement général de Varsovie en août 1944, plus d'une année après. Il n'y a rien d'ennuyeux ni d'artificiel dans la deuxième partie du film. Essay. Alors que se déroule une série apparemment interminable de catastrophes et d'échappées de dernière minute, la survie de Szpilman n'est pas présentée comme quelque chose de simplement miraculeux. Paper Writing. Il est évident que certains éléments de chance devaient intervenir, mais on determine audience essay, ne peut pas parler uniquement de chance. Writing. Tout d'abord, il y avait le travail constant de la résistance au nazisme comme la détermination de Szpilman - ce qu'il appelle dans ses mémoires sa rage de vivre . A l'apogée de l'histoire, dans les semaines qui ont précédé la fin de la guerre, Szpilman est découvert dans un bâtiment abandonné par un officier allemand qui l'interroge, qui l'entend jouer du piano et l'aide à survivre en lui apportant de la nourriture ainsi qu'une couverture pour se réchauffer. Il existe certaines différences subtiles mais en même temps remarquables entre le film et les mémoires de Szpilman. Determine. Ceci peut difficilement être évité car le scénario avec sa description des événements en temps réel , rapporte l'histoire sous un angle plus avantageux que ne le font des mémoires, même si celles-ci n'ont été écrites que quelques mois après les événements décrits.

On peut cependant déplorer que Polanski n'ait pas vraiment essayer de rendre le personnage principal avec plus de profondeur. Writing. Les mémoires montrent un être humain qui pense sans cesse, même dans les circonstances les plus brutales. Audience. Le film introduit un changement subtil dans l'emphase. Introduction To An Essay About. Malgré la performance tout à fait honorable d'Adrien Brody, il y a quelque chose de faussement passif et de vide dans la représentation de Szpilman à l'écran. Ceci est également lié à un certain ramollissement de certains éléments sociaux et politiques du livre. Audience Essay. Le film décrit par exemple les contacts de Szpilman avec Jehuda Zyskind. Crime And Punishment Redemption. Ce dernier est présenté comme un opposant socialiste à l'intérieur du ghetto. Determine. La principale occupation de Zyskind consiste à distribuer des imprimés clandestins ainsi qu'à contribuer à une organisation clandestine. Frederick Frontier Thesis On. Il est qualifié d'exagérément optimiste . Determine Essay. Néanmoins, ceci n'est qu'un aspect de ce qu'a écrit Szpilman dans ses mémoires. For The Love Rita. En parlant de Zyskind, quelques années après son assassinat par les nazis, il écrit : Quand je pense à lui aujourd'hui, à toutes les années d'horreur qui me sépare de l'époque où il était encore en vie et où il pouvait répandre son message, j'admire sa volonté très ferme A chaque fois que je le quittais, j'avais le sentiment d'être plus fort et plus solide.

Ce n'était pas avant d'être rentré chez moi, de me coucher et de revoir encore une fois les événements politiques, que j'ai conclu que tous ses arguments n'avaient pas de sens. Determine Audience Essay. Mais le lendemain matin, je retournais encore une fois chez lui et il réussissait toujours à me persuader que j'avais tort et je partais avec une dose d'optimisme qui durait jusqu'au soir et me donnait la force de continuer Il m'a été difficile de croire en l'avenir après l'assassinat de Zyskind et personne n'était là pour m'expliquer convenablement toutes les choses ! Ce n'est que maintenant que je sais que j'étais dans l'erreur, tout comme pouvaient l'être les sources d'information de l'époque, alors que Zyskind était dans le vrai. Yourself. Contrairement aux prévisions de l'époque, tout s'est passé comme il l'avait prédit. Audience. La prévoyance de Zyskind ne lui a pas permis d'échapper, tout comme de nombreux autres à la Shoah, mais il a bien saisi le caractère profondément malsain du système capitaliste qui avait donné naissance au fascisme. Dissertation Grants. Il savait que les nazis n'atteindraient jamais le but qu'ils s'étaient fixé et en ce sens il avait sans aucun doute raison. Determine Essay. Cette vision précieuse de Szpilman n'apparaît pas du tout dans le film. Ce n'est évidemment pas le but de mémoires, et particulièrement de celles qui ont été écrites dans de telles circonstances, de faire une analyse de la montée d'Hitler et Szpilman n'échappe pas à la règle. Doctoral Dissertation. La nature de la lutte contre le fascisme, néanmoins, est clairement exprimée comme le démontre les réflexions ci-dessus.

Le rôle des Polonais qui ont aidé Szpilman est également présenté de façon plus détaillé. Audience. Et Wilm Hosenfeld, l'officier de la Wehrmacht que le film présente surtout comme un soldat démoralisé, impressionné par les dons musicaux de Szpilman apparaît dans le livre (entre autres à travers des extraits de son journal) comme une personne avec des idées politiques précises. Les faiblesses du film ont sans doute un rapport avec la vision du monde propre à Polanski. Turner's Thesis. Le célèbre réalisateur, dont la carrière a débuté il y a quarante ans, avec Un Couteau dans l'Eau (après son départ de Pologne) et qui s'est poursusivie avec une vingtaine d'autres films tels Le Bébé de Rosemary et Chinatown, est, tout comme son personnage, un Juif polonais, qui a survécu à la Shoah. Determine Essay. Polanski est né à Paris en 1933 (vingt ans après la naissance de Szpilman).

Ses parents sont retournés avec lui à Cracovie en 1936. Introduction About Yourself. Son père a survécu à la guerre mais sa mère est morte pendant celle-ci. Determine Audience Essay. Polanski lui-même a été caché par des familles catholiques dans la campagne polonaise. Les événements tragiques ne manquent pas dans la vie de Polanski, comme par exemple l'assassinat de sa femme, l'actrice Sharon Tate, par les membres de la tribu Manson. Writing. Cependant, jusqu'à maintenant il a toujours voulu éviter de parler des événements qui ont bouleversé son enfance. Determine Audience. En tant que réalisateur il a été principalement connu pour une certaine distance et une certaine austérité frisant le cynisme. Polanski dit qu'il a été ému par le livre de Szpilman, et on about, a toutes les raisons de le croire. Determine Audience Essay. Il a commenté Szpilman était objectif, pas sentimental. For The. Il a montré des Polonais qui étaient bons, des Polonais qui étaient mauvais, des Juifs qui étaient bons et des Juifs qui étaient mauvais, des Allemands qui étaient bons et des Allemands qui étaient mauvais Ce qui importe le plus c'est que le livre est très positif. Essay. Après l'avoir lu, on rita dove, n'est pas déprimé parce que l'on a plus d'espoir.

A la fin, on audience essay, est convaincu que malgré tout, la nature humaine est bonne. Paper. Ces remarques sont tout à fait pertinentes. Audience. Quand on frederick turner's, lit ce que Szpilman a écrit, on determine audience, pense à deux autres mémoires écrites par des survivants de la Shoah : Ma Survie à Auschwitz de Primo Levi et l'étonnant et impressionnant journal de Victor Klemperer où il évoque sa vie de Juif à Dresde pendant le Troisième Reich. Crime Redemption Essay. Toutes ces mémoires, y compris celles de Szpilman, même si elles sont loin de répondre aux questions importantes concernant les causes de la Shoah, ont en commun une grande qualité : leur caractère humain, leur refus de se replier sur l'amertume et sur le désespoir ou de verser dans une certaine forme de nationalisme et de chauvinisme. Determine Audience Essay. Il faut reconnaître que Polanski rend hommage aux nombreux Polonais qui ont contribué à l'existence de ce film, soit en travaillant comme figurants dans des scènes de foule, soit en fournissant une aide technique. Toutefois, Polanski rencontre quelques difficultés à traiter le sujet. Introduction To An About Yourself. Consciemment ou pas, il choisit de mettre l'accent sur un aspect de l'expérience de Szpilman ­ celle d'un homme seul, le survivant solitaire. Audience. Il y a là quelque chose de l'artiste qui persiste à se couper du monde, plutôt que de s'engager dans celui-ci. Thesis Focused. Dans ses mémoires, Szpilman a plus de choses à exprimer que cela.

Le livre de Szpilman a été interdit par le régime stalinien polonais immédiatement après sa publication en 1946. Determine. Même si ce livre était loin d'être politique, les autorités ne pouvaient tolérer quelque chose qui encouragerait une discussion sans tabou sur des questions historiques. Redemption. Le fait qu'apparaisse un bon Allemand , comme l'accent inévitablement mis par Szpilman sur les souffrances des Juifs polonais, étaient en contradiction avec la politique nationaliste des staliniens. La traduction de ce livre en 1999, suivie aujourd'hui par sa version filmée, reflète les changements colossaux qui se sont produits au cours des dernières années. Determine Audience. Des questions historiques qui avaient été enfouies ou déformées pendant longtemps par la guerre froide sont revenues à la surface. Doctoral Dissertation Improvement. La vie de Szpilman ne se contente pas d'évoquer les années qu'il décrit dans ses mémoires, mais elle traite également de sa carrière à la fois modeste et remarquable dans les cinquante années qui ont suivi au cours desquelles il a été directeur de la Radio polonaise, il a été membre fondateur du Quintette de Radio Varsovie, et un compositeur et concertiste très prolifique. Determine Audience Essay. C'est là un exemple concret du potentiel qui a été réduit à néant par la Shoah ­ non seulement les vies des 6 millions de Juifs, mais également de nombreux autres qui sont morts dans la lutte contre le fascisme, et dans de nombreux endroits comme Dresde, comme Hiroshima ou comme Nagasaki.

Dans la mesure où ce film retrace fidèlement certaines expériences douloureuses du siècle dernier, il peut aider les spectateurs à se souvenir du potentiel humain qui est toujours aujourd'hui anéanti par la guerre, la pauvreté et la dictature.

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analysing essay A major change that has occurred in the Western family is an increased incidence in divorce. Whereas in the past, divorce was a relatively rare occurrence, in recent times it has become quite commonplace. Determine Audience. This change is borne out research, clearly in census figures. For example thirty years ago in Australia, only one marriage in ten ended in divorce; nowadays the figure is more than one in three (Australian Bureau of determine Statistics, 1996: p.45). A consequence of this change has been a substantial increase in the number of single parent families and the attendant problems that this brings (Kilmartin, 1997) . An important issue for sociologists, and indeed for all of society, is writing why these changes in audience essay, marital patterns have occurred. In this essay I will seek to critically examine a number of sociological explanations for the #039;divorce phenomenon#039; and also consider the social policy implications that each explanation carries with it. It will be argued that the best explanations are to be found within a broad socio-economic framework. One type of doctoral dissertation research grants explanation for rising divorce has focused on changes in laws relating to marriage.

For example, Bilton, Bonnett and Jones (1987) argue that increased rates of divorce do not necessarily indicate that families are now more unstable. It is possible, they claim, that there has always been a degree of marital instability. They suggest that changes in the law have been significant, because they have provided unhappily married couples with #039;access to a legal solution to pre-existent marital problems#039; (p.301) . Bilton et al. therefore believe that changes in divorce rates can be best explained in terms of changes in the legal system. The problem with this type of explanation however, is that it does not consider why these laws have changed in the first place. It could be argued that reforms to family law, as well as the determine audience increased rate of divorce that has accompanied them, are the product of of books essay more fundamental changes in society. Another type of explanation is one that focuses precisely on these broad societal changes. For example, Nicky Hart (cited in Haralambos, 1995) argues that increases in divorce and marital breakdown are the audience result of economic changes that have affected the family. One example of these changes is the raised material aspirations of families, which Hart suggests has put pressure on both spouses to become wage earners. Women as a result have been forced to latex writing, become both homemakers and economic providers. According to Hart, the contradiction of these two roles has lead to conflict and this is the main cause of marital breakdown. Determine. It would appear that Hart#039;s explanation cannot account for all cases of divorce - for example, marital breakdown is liable to occur in improvement grants, families where only the husband is working.

Nevertheless, her approach, which is to relate changes in family relations to broader social forces, would seem to be more probing than one that looks only at legislative change. The two explanations described above have very different implications for social policy, especially in relation to how the problem of essay increasing marital instability might be dealt with. For The Of Books Dove Essay. Bilton et al. (1995) offer a legal explanation and hence would see the solutions also being determined in determine essay, this domain. If rises in divorce are thought to be the consequence of liberal divorce laws, the obvious way to stem this rise is to make them less obtainable. On Importance Of School Education. This approach, one imagines, would lead to a reduction in divorce statistics; however, it cannot really be held up as a genuine solution to the problems of marital stress and breakdown in society. Indeed it would seem to be a solution directed more at symptoms than addressing fundamental causes. Furthermore, the experience of essay social workers, working in the area of family welfare suggests that restricting a couple#039;s access to divorce would in some cases serve only to exacerbate existing marital problems (Johnson, 1981). In those cases where violence is involved, the essay of school education consequences could be tragic.

Apart from all this, returning to more restrictive divorce laws seems to be a solution little favoured by Australians. (Harrison, 1990). Hart (cited in Haralambos, 1995), writing from a Marxist-feminist position, traces marital conflict to changes in the capitalist economic system and their resultant effect on essay, the roles of men and women. It is difficult to know however, how such an analysis might be translated into frederick jackson turner's thesis on practical social policies. This is because the Hart program would appear to essay, require in the first place a radical restructuring of the economic system. Whilst this may be desirable for some, it is not achievable in the present political climate. Hart is right however, to suggest that much marital conflict can be linked in some way to the economic circumstances of families. Introduction To An Essay About Yourself. This is borne out in audience, many statistical surveys which show consistently that rates of divorce are higher among socially disadvantaged families (McDonald, 1993).

This situation suggests then that social policies need to be geared to providing support and security for these types of for the love of books dove families. It is little cause for determine essay optimism however, that in recent years governments of all persuasions have shown an increasing reluctance to fund social welfare programs of this kind. It is difficult to offer a comprehensive explanation for the growing trend of marital breakdown; and it is for the of books rita dove essay even more difficult to audience, find solutions that might ameliorate the problems created by it. Clearly though, as I have argued in this essay, the most useful answers are to be found not within a narrow legal framework, but within a broader socio-economic one. Finally, it is worth pointing out that, whilst we may appear to be living in a time of increased family instability, research suggests that historically, instability may have been the norm rather than the exception. As Bell and Zajdow (1997) point out, in the past, single parent and step families were more common than is assumed - although the disruptive influence then was not divorce, but the premature death of one or both parents.

This situation suggests that in studying the modern family, one needs to frontier focused on, employ a historical perspective, including the possibility of determine audience looking to the past in and punishment essay, searching for ways of dealing with problems in the present. Australian Bureau of Statistics (1996). Divorces, Australia . Canberra: Australian Government Printing Service. Bell, R. and G. Zajdow (1997) Family and household. Audience Essay. In R. Jureidini, S. Kenny and M. Poole (eds). Sociology: Australian Connections . Love Of Books Rita Essay. St Leonards.

NSW: Allen and Unwin. Bilton, T., K. Bonnett and P. Jones (1987). Introductory Sociology , 2nd edition. London: MacMillan. Haralambos, M. Determine. (1995). Sociology: Themes and Perspectives , 3rd edition. London: Bell and Hyman. Essay On Importance. Harrison, M. (1995). Grounds for determine audience essay divorce.

Family Matters . No 42 pp 34-35. Johnson, V. (1981). Introduction About Yourself. The Last Resort: A Women#039;s Refuge . Ringwood: Penguin. Kilmartin, C. (1997). Children divorce and one-parent families. Family Matters . Determine Audience. No.

48. ( Available On-line ) McDonald, P. Latex. (1993). Family Trends and Structure in Australia . Australian Family Briefings No 3. Melbourne: Australian Institute of Family Studies. Problems? Questions? Comments?

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college paper guide Journal-Style Scientific Paper. The scientific format may seem confusing for the beginning science writer due to its rigid structure which is so different from writing in the humanities. One reason for using this format is determine that it is a means of efficiently communicating scientific findings to the broad community of scientists in a uniform manner. Another reason, perhaps more important than the first, is that this format allows the paper to be read at several different levels. For example, many people skim Titles to for the love of books dove essay find out what information is available on a subject. Others may read only titles and audience Abstracts . Those wanting to essay about go deeper may look at audience the Tables and for the love essay Figures in the Results , and so on. The take home point here is determine audience essay that the scientific format helps to insure that at whatever level a person reads your paper (beyond title skimming), they will likely get the introduction yourself, key results and conclusions.

Most journal-style scientific papers are subdivided into determine essay the following sections: Title, Authors and Affiliation, Abstract, Introduction, Methods, Results, Discussion, Acknowledgments, and on importance education Literature Cited, which parallel the experimental process. This is the system we will use. Audience. This website describes the style, content, and format associated with each section. The sections appear in a journal style paper in the following prescribed order: Section of Paper. What did I do in thesis focused on, a nutshell? What is the problem? How did I solve the problem? What did I find out? What does it mean?

Who helped me out? Whose work did I refer to? Main Section Headings: Each main section of the essay, paper begins with a heading which should be capitalized , centered at the beginning of the section, and introduction to an essay about yourself double spaced from the lines above and determine essay below. Do not underline the section heading OR put a colon at the end. Example of a main section heading: Subheadings: When your paper reports on more than one experiment, use subheadings to help organize the presentation.

Subheadings should be capitalized (first letter in each word), left justified, and either bold italics OR underlined . Example of a subheading: Effects of Light Intensity on the Rate of Electron Transport. Title, Authors' Names, and Institutional Affiliations. 1. Function : Your paper should begin with a Title that succinctly describes the contents of the for the of books dove essay, paper. Determine Audience Essay. Use descriptive words that you would associate strongly with the content of your paper: the molecule studied, the organism used or studied, the on, treatment, the determine essay, location of frederick jackson frontier thesis a field site, the response measured, etc.

A majority of readers will find your paper via electronic database searches and those search engines key on words found in the title. The title should be centered at determine audience the top of page 1 (DO NOT use a title page - it is a waste of paper for crime redemption essay, our purposes); the determine audience essay, title is NOT underlined or italicized . the jackson turner's frontier thesis on, authors' names (PI or primary author first) and determine audience institutional affiliation are double-spaced from and to an yourself centered below the title. When more then two authors, the names are separated by determine essay, commas except for the last which is separated from the previous name by the word and. Ducks Over-Winter in Colorado Barley Fields in Response to. Increased Daily Mean Temperature. Ima Mallard, Ura Drake, and Woodruff Ducque. Department of crime redemption Wildlife Biology, University of audience Colorado - Boulder. The title is not a section, but it is for the love dove necessary and important. The title should be short and unambiguous, yet be an adequate description of the work.

A general rule-of-thumb is that the title should contain the key words describing the determine essay, work presented. Remember that the title becomes the basis for frontier on, most on-line computer searches - if your title is insufficient, few people will find or read your paper. For example, in a paper reporting on an experiment involving dosing mice with the sex hormone estrogen and determine audience watching for a certain kind of courtship behavior, a poor title would be: Why? It is very general, and could be referring to to an essay yourself any of a number of mouse behaviors. A better title would be : The Effects of Estrogen on the Nose-Twitch Courtship Behavior in Mice. Why? Because the key words identify a specific behavior, a modifying agent, and the experimental organism.

If possible, give the key result of the study in the title, as seen in essay, the first example. Similarly, the love of books dove, above title could be restated as: Estrogen Stimulates Intensity of Nose-Twitch Courtship Behavior in Mice. 1. Function : An abstract summarizes, in one paragraph (usually), the major aspects of the entire paper in the following prescribed sequence: the question(s) you investigated (or purpose), ( from Introduction ) state the purpose very clearly in the first or second sentence. the experimental design and determine essay methods used, ( from Methods ) clearly express the yourself, basic design of the study. Essay. Name or briefly describe the research improvement grants, basic methodology used without going into excessive detail-be sure to determine audience indicate the key techniques used. the major findings including key quantitative results , or trends ( from Results ) report those results which answer the questions you were asking identify trends, relative change or differences, etc. a brief summary of your interpetations and conclusions . (from Discussion ) clearly state the implications of the answers your results gave you. Whereas the Title can only make the simplest statement about the content of your article, the Abstract allows you to elaborate more on each major aspect of the paper. The length of jackson turner's frontier thesis your Abstract should be kept to about 200-300 words maximum (a typical standard length for journals.) Limit your statements concerning each segment of the paper (i.e. purpose, methods, results, etc.) to two or three sentences, if possible. The Abstract helps readers decide whether they want to read the rest of the paper, or it may be the only part they can obtain via electronic literature searches or in published abstracts. Therefore, enough key information (e.g., summary results, observations, trends, etc.) must be included to make the Abstract useful to someone who may to reference your work. How do you know when you have enough information in essay, your Abstract? A simple rule-of-thumb is to imagine that you are another researcher doing an education study similar to the one you are reporting.

If your Abstract was the only part of the paper you could access, would you be happy with the audience, information presented there? 2. Style : The Abstract is ONLY text. Use the active voice when possible, but much of latex paper it may require passive constructions. Write your Abstract using concise, but complete, sentences, and get to the point quickly. Use past tense . Maximum length should be 200-300 words, usually in a single paragraph. The Abstract SHOULD NOT contain: lengthy background information, references to other literature, elliptical (i.e., ending with . ) or incomplete sentences, abbreviations or terms that may be confusing to readers, any sort of illustration, figure, or table, or references to them. 3. Strategy : Although it is the first section of your paper, the Abstract, by definition, must be written last since it will summarize the paper. To begin composing your Abstract, take whole sentences or key phrases from essay each section and put them in a sequence which summarizes the paper.

Then set about revising or adding words to redemption make it all cohesive and clear. As you become more proficient you will most likely compose the Abstract from scratch. 4. Check your work : Once you have the completed abstract, check to make sure that the information in the abstract completely agrees with what is written in the paper. Audience. Confirm that all the information appearing the abstract actually appears in essay of school education, the body of the essay, paper. 1. Function : The function of the to an, Introduction is to: Establish the context of the work being reported. This is accomplished by discussing the relevant primary research literature (with citations) and summarizing our current understanding of the problem you are investigating; State the purpose of the work in the form of the hypothesis, question, or problem you investigated; and, Briefly explain your rationale and approach and, whenever possible, the possible outcomes your study can reveal. Quite literally, the Introduction must answer the questions, What was I studying ? Why was it an important question? What did we know about it before I did this study? How will this study advance our knowledge? 2. Style : Use the active voice as much as possible.

Some use of first person is determine audience okay, but do not overdo it. 3. Introduction Essay. Structure : The structure of the Introduction can be thought of as an inverted triangle - the broadest part at the top representing the most general information and focusing down to the specific problem you studied. Organize the essay, information to improvement grants present the more general aspects of the topic early in essay, the Introduction, then narrow toward the more specific topical information that provides context, finally arriving at your statement of purpose and rationale. A good way to get on track is to sketch out the Introduction backwards ; start with the specific purpose and then decide what is the latex writing, scientific context in which you are asking the audience essay, question(s) your study addresses. Once the of school, scientific context is decided, then you'll have a good sense of what level and audience essay type of frederick jackson turner's frontier on general information with which the Introduction should begin. Here is the information should flow in your Introduction: Begin your Introduction by determine audience, clearly identifying the research improvement grants, subject area of interest. Do this by using key words from your Title in audience essay, the first few sentences of the Introduction to get it focused directly on topic at turner's frontier on the appropriate level. This insures that you get to the primary subject matter quickly without losing focus, or discussing information that is too general. For example, in the mouse behavior paper, the words hormones and determine audience essay behavior would likely appear within the first one or two sentences of the Introduction. Establish the context by providing a brief and balanced review of the pertinent published literature that is available on the subject.

The key is to summarize (for the essay, reader) what we knew about the specific problem before you did your experiments or studies. This is accomplished with a general review of the determine audience essay, primary research literature (with citations) but should not include very specific, lengthy explanations that you will probably discuss in greater detail later in the Discussion. Dissertation Improvement. The judgment of audience essay what is general or specific is difficult at first, but with practice and reading of the and punishment redemption, scientific literature you will develop e firmer sense of audience your audience. Frederick Jackson Turner's Frontier Focused On. In the mouse behavior paper, for example, you would begin the Introduction at the level of mating behavior in general, then quickly focus to mouse mating behaviors and determine then hormonal regulation of behavior. Lead the reader to on importance of school your statement of purpose/hypothesis by focusing your literature review from the more general context (the big picture e.g., hormonal modulation of behaviors) to the more specific topic of determine audience essay interest to you (e.g., role/effects of reproductive hormones, especially estrogen, in modulating specific sexual behaviors of mice.) What literature should you look for in your review of what we know about the problem? Focus your efforts on the primary research journals - the journals that publish original research articles. Although you may read some general background references (encyclopedias, textbooks, lab manuals, style manuals, etc.) to get yourself acquainted with the subject area, do not cite these, becasue they contain information that is considered fundamental or common knowledge wqithin the discipline. Cite, instead, articles that reported specific results relevant to your study. Learn, as soon as possible, how to find the primary literature (research journals) and review articles rather than depending on reference books.

The articles listed in jackson turner's thesis on, the Literature Cited of relevant papers you find are a good starting point to determine move backwards in a line of inquiry. Most academic libraries support the Citation Index - an index which is useful for tracking a line of inquiry forward in time. Some of the newer search engines will actually send you alerts of new papers that cite particular articles of essay of school education interest to determine audience you. Review articles are particularly useful because they summarize all the research done on a narrow subject area over a brief period of time (a year to a few years in crime and punishment, most cases). Be sure to clearly state the determine, purpose and /or hypothesis that you investigated. When you are first learning to write in this format it is essay about okay, and actually preferable, to use a pat statement like, The purpose of this study was to. or We investigated three possible mechanisms to explain the . (1) blah, blah..(2) etc. It is most usual to place the statement of purpose near the end of the Introduction, often as the topic sentence of the final paragraph. It is not necessary (or even desirable) to use the words hypothesis or null hypothesis, since these are usually implicit if you clearly state your purpose and expectations. Provide a clear statement of the rationale for determine essay, your approach to the problem studied. For example: State briefly how you approached the problem (e.g., you studied oxidative respiration pathways in isolated mitochondria of cauliflower).

This will usually follow your statement of purpose in the last paragraph of the doctoral dissertation, Introduction. Determine Audience. Why did you choose this kind of experiment or experimental design? What are the scientific merits of this particular model system? What advantages does it confer in answering the essay on importance education, particular question(s) you are posing? Do not discuss here the actual techniques or protocols used in your study (this will be done in the Materials and Methods); your readers will be quite familiar with the usual techniques and essay approaches used in your field. If you are using a novel (new, revolutionary, never used before) technique or methodology, the merits of the new technique/method versus the turner's frontier, previously used methods should be presented in the Introduction. This section is variously called Methods or Methods and essay Materials . 1. Function : In this section you explain clearly how you carried out your study in the following general structure and organization (details follow below): the the organism(s) studied (plant, animal, human, etc.) and, when relevant, their pre-experiment handling and frederick jackson frontier on care, and when and where the study was carried out ( only audience, if location and frederick turner's focused on time are important factors); note that the term subject is used ONLY for human studies. if you did a field study , provide a description of the determine audience, study site , including the significant physical and biological features, and the precise location (latitude and longitude, map, etc); the experimental OR sampling design (i.e., how the experiment or study was structured.

For example, controls, treatments, what variable(s) were measured, how many samples were collected, replication, the final form of the data, etc.); the crime and punishment, protocol for collecting data , i.e., how the experimental procedures were carried out, and, how the data were analyzed (qualitative analyses and/or statistical procedures used to determine significance, data transformations used, what probability was used to decide significance, etc). Organize your presentation so your reader will understand the logical flow of the experiment(s); subheadings work well for determine essay, this purpose. Each experiment or procedure should be presented as a unit, even if it was broken up over frederick turner's focused time. The experimental design and determine procedure are sometimes most efficiently presented as an integrated unit, because otherwise it would be difficult to split them up. Doctoral Dissertation Research Grants. In general, provide enough quantitative detail (how much, how long, when, etc.) about your experimental protocol such that other scientists could reproduce your experiments.

You should also indicate the statistical procedures used to analyze your results, including the probability level at which you determined significance (usually at 0.05 probability). 2. Style : The style in essay, this section should read as if you were verbally describing the conduct of the experiment. You may use the active voice to a certain extent, although this section requires more use of third person, passive constructions than others. Avoid use of the introduction to an about, first person in this section. Remember to use the past tense throughout - the work being reported is done, and was performed in the past, not the essay, future. The Methods section is not a step-by-step, directive, protocol as you might see in your lab manual.

Describe the organism(s) used in the study. This includes giving the (1) source (supplier or where and of school how the orgranisms were collected), (2) typical size (weight, length, etc) , (3) how they were handled, fed, and housed before the experiment, (4) how they were handled, fed, and housed during the determine audience, experiment. In genetics studies include the jackson thesis focused on, strains or genetic stocks used. For some studies, age may be an important factor. For example, did you use mouse pups or adults? Seedlings or mature plants? FOR FIELD STUDIES ONLY : Describe the essay, site where your field study was conducted. The description must include both physical and biological characteristics of the site pertinant to the study aims. Include the date(s) of the study (e.g., 10-15 April 1994) and the exact location of the study area.

Location data must be as precise as possible: Grover Nature Preserve, ½ mi SW Grover, Maine rather than Grover Nature Preserve or Grover. When possible, give the actual latitude and longitude position of the site: these can be obtained using handheld GPS units, OR, from on importance of school education web resources such as Google Earth( TM ) and MapQuest( TM ). It is often a good idea to include a map (labeled as a Figure) showing the study location in relation to some larger more recognizable geographic area. Someone else should be able to go to audience the exact location of your study site if they want to for the rita repeat or check your work, or just visit your study area. NOTE: For laboratory studies you need not report the determine audience essay, date and location of the study UNLESS it is frederick necessary information for someone to audience have who might wish to repeat your work or use the same facility. Most often it is not . If you have performed experiments at crime a particular location or lab because it is the only place to do it, or one of a few, then you should note that in your methods and determine audience identify the crime and punishment, lab or facility. Describe your experimental design clearly. Be sure to include the hypotheses you tested, controls , treatments , variables measured, how many replicates you had, what you actually measured , what form the data take, etc. Always identify treatments by determine audience essay, the variable or treatment name, NOT by introduction to an essay yourself, an ambiguous, generic name or number (e.g., use 2.5% NaCl rather than test 1.) When your paper includes more than one experiment, use subheadings to help organize your presentation by experiment. Audience. A general experimental design worksheet is available to help plan your experiments in the core courses.

Describe the procedures for your study in sufficient detail that other scientists could repeat your work to crime redemption verify your findings. Foremost in your description should be the quantitative aspects of your study - the masses, volumes, incubation times, concentrations, etc., that another scientist needs in order to duplicate your experiment. When using standard lab or field methods and instrumentation, it is not always necessary to explain the procedures (e.g., serial dilution) or equipment used (e.g., autopipetter) since other scientists will likely be familiar with them already. You may want to identify certain types of equipment by determine, vendor name and brand or category (e.g., ultracentrifuge vs. prep centrifuge), particularly if they are not commonly found in most labs. It is appropriate to report, parenthetically, the source (vendor) and catalog number for reagents used, e.g., . poly-L-lysine (Sigma #1309) . When using a method described in another published source, you can save time and words by providing the relevant citation to the source.

Always make sure to describe any modifications you have made of a standard or published method. NOTE : Very frequently the experimental design and data collection procedures for an experiment cannot be separated and must be integrated together. If you find yourself repeating lots of introduction essay yourself information about the experimental design when describing the data collection procedure(s), likely you can combine them and be more concise. NOTE : Although tempting, DO NOT say that you recorded the data , i.e., in your lab notebook, in the Methods description. Determine Audience Essay. Of course you did , because that is what all good scientists do, and it is a given that you recorded your measurements and observations. Describe how the frederick jackson turner's thesis, data were summarized and analyzed. Here you will indicate what types of audience essay descriptive statistics were used and which analyses (usually hypothesis tests) were employed to answer each of the questions or hypotheses tested and determine statistical siginifcance. The information should include:

Statistical software used : Sometimes it is necessary to yourself report which statistical software you used; this would be at the discretion of determine your instructor or the journal; how the frontier focused, data were summarized (Means, percent, etc) and how you are reporting measures of variability (SD,SEM, 95% CI, etc) this lets you avoid having to repeatedly indicate you are using mean ± SD or SEM. which data transformations were used(e.g., to correct for normal distribution or equalize variances); statistical tests used with reference to the particular questions, or kinds of questions, they address. For example, A Paired t-test was used to compare mean flight duration before and after applying stablizers to the glider's wings. One way ANOVA was used to compare mean weight gain in weight-matched calves fed the three different rations. Comparisons among the three pH treatment groups for each variable were done using one way ANOVA (with Tukey's post hoc test) or a Kruskal-Wallis Test (with Dunn's post hoc test).

any other numerical (e.g., normalizing data) or graphical techniques used to analyze the data what probability ( a priori ) was used to decide significance ; usually reported as the Greek symbol alpha. NOTE: You DO NOT need to say that you made graphs and tables. Here is some additional advice on determine audience essay, particular problems common to new scientific writers. Problem : The Methods section is prone to being wordy or overly detailed. Avoid repeatedly using a single sentence to relate a single action ; this results in introduction to an about, very lengthy, wordy passages. Determine Audience Essay. A related sequence of actions can be combined into one sentence to improve clarity and readability: Problematic Example : This is a very long and frederick jackson focused on wordy description of essay a common, simple procedure. Doctoral Research. It is characterized by single actions per sentence and lots of unnecessary details.

The petri dish was placed on the turntable. The lid was then raised slightly. An inoculating loop was used to transfer culture to the agar surface. The turntable was rotated 90 degrees by hand. The loop was moved lightly back and forth over the agar to spread the culture. The bacteria were then incubated at 37 C for 24 hr. Improved Example : Same actions, but all the important information is given in a single, concise sentence. Determine Essay. Note that superfluous detail and otherwise obvious information has been deleted while important missing information was added. Each plate was placed on a turntable and streaked at opposing angles with fresh overnight E. coli culture using an paper inoculating loop. The bacteria were then incubated at 37 C for determine audience essay, 24 hr. Best: Here the author assumes the reader has basic knowledge of microbiological techniques and has deleted other superfluous information.

The two sentences have been combined because they are related actions. Each plate was streaked with fresh overnight E. On Importance. coli culture and incubated at 37 C for determine essay, 24 hr. Problem : Avoid using ambiguous terms to identify controls or treatments, or other study parameters that require specific identifiers to be clearly understood. Designators such as Tube 1, Tube 2, or Site 1 and Site 2 are completely meaningless out of context and difficult to follow in context. Problematic example : In this example the reader will have no clue as to doctoral improvement what the various tubes represent without having to constantly refer back to some previous point in the Methods. A Spec 20 was used to measure A 600 of determine audience essay Tubes 1,2, and 3 immediately after chloroplasts were added (Time 0) and every 2 min. thereafter until the DCIP was completely reduced. Tube 4's A 600 was measured only at Time 0 and at the end of the experiment. Improved example: Notice how the substitution ( in red ) of treatment and control identifiers clarifies the passage both in the context of the paper, and if taken out of context. A Spec 20 was used to measure A 600 of the paper, reaction mixtures exposed to light intensities of 1500, 750, and 350 uE/m2/sec immediately after chloroplasts were added (Time 0) and every 2 min. Audience Essay. thereafter until the DCIP was completely reduced. The A 600 of the no-light control was measured only at crime redemption essay Time 0 and at the end of the experiment. 1. Function : The function of the Results section is to objectively present your key results, without interpretation, in determine audience essay, an orderly and logical sequence using both text and for the dove illustrative materials (Tables and Figures).

The results section always begins with text, reporting the key results and referring to your figures and tables as you proceed. Summaries of the statistical analyses may appear either in the text (usually parenthetically) or in the relevant Tables or Figures (in the legend or as footnotes to the Table or Figure). The Results section should be organized around Tables and/or Figures that should be sequenced to present your key findings in a logical order. The text of the Results section should be crafted to follow this sequence and audience highlight the crime and punishment, evidence needed to answer the determine, questions/hypotheses you investigated. Important negative results should be reported, too. Authors usually write the redemption essay, text of the results section based upon the sequence of Tables and Figures. 2. Style : Write the text of the Results section concisely and objectively. The passive voice will likely dominate here, but use the audience essay, active voice as much as possible. Turner's Frontier Focused On. Use the past tense . Determine Essay. Avoid repetitive paragraph structures. Do not interpret the data here. The transition into crime and punishment redemption interpretive language can be a slippery slope.

Consider the following two examples: This example highlights the trend/difference that the author wants the reader to focus: The duration of exposure to running water had a pronounced effect on cumulative seed germination percentages (Fig. Audience. 2). Seeds exposed to the 2-day treatment had the highest cumulative germination (84%), 1.25 times that of the 12-h or 5-day groups and 4 times that of controls. In contrast, this example strays subtly into doctoral research grants interpretation by determine essay, referring to optimality (a conceptual model) and introduction to an essay tieing the observed result to audience essay that idea:

The results of the germination experiment (Fig. 2) suggest that the optimal time for frederick jackson turner's thesis focused on, running-water treatment is 2 days. This group showed the audience, highest cumulative germination (84%), with longer (5 d) or shorter (12 h) exposures producing smaller gains in germination when compared to the control group. Things to consider as you write your Results section: What are the to an essay yourself, results? : When you pose a testable hypothesis that can be answered experimentally, or ask a question that can be answered by collecting samples, you accumulate observations about those organisms or phenomena. Those observations are then analyzed to yield an determine audience essay answer to doctoral dissertation the question. In general, the determine audience, answer is the key result. The above statements apply regardless of the complexity of the analysis you employ. So, in an introductory course your analysis may consist of visual inspection of figures and simple calculations of latex writing means and determine standard deviations; in a later course you may be expected to apply and interpret a variety of statistical tests. You instructor will tell you the level of analysis that is expected. For example, suppose you asked the question, Is the essay of school, average height of male students the same as female students in audience, a pool of writing randomly selected Biology majors ? You would first collect height data from large random samples of determine audience essay male and female students.

You would then calculate the descriptive statistics for those samples (mean, SD, n, range, etc) and plot these numbers. In a course where statistical tests are not employed, you would visually inspect these plots. Suppose you found that male Biology majors are, on paper writing, average, 12.5 cm taller than female majors; this is the determine audience essay, answer to the question. Notice that the outcome of a statistical analysis is not a key result, but rather an analytical tool that helps us understand what is our key result. Differences, directionality, and magnitude : Report your results so as to provide as much information as possible to of books dove essay the reader about the determine essay, nature of differences or relationships. For eaxmple, if you testing for doctoral dissertation research, differences among groups, and you find a significant difference, it is not sufficient to essay simply report that groups A and B were significantly different. How are they different? How much are they different? It is much more informative to say something like, Group A individuals were 23% larger than those in and punishment redemption essay, Group B, or, Group B pups gained weight at twice the essay, rate of Group A pups.

Report the direction of differences (greater, larger, smaller, etc) and essay on importance of school education the magnitude of differences (% difference, how many times, etc.) whenever possible. Audience. See also below about use of the word significant. Organize the results section based on the sequence of Table and Figures you'll include. Prepare the frederick jackson turner's focused, Tables and Figures as soon as all the determine audience, data are analyzed and arrange them in the sequence that best presents your findings in a logical way. Paper. A good strategy is to note, on a draft of each Table or Figure, the one or two key results you want to addess in the text portion of the Results.

Simple rules to follow related to Tables and Figures: Tables and Figures are assigned numbers separately and in determine, the sequence that you will refer to them from the text. The first Table you refer to is Table 1, the next Table 2 and so forth. Similarly, the first Figure is Figure 1, the next Figure 2, etc. Each Table or Figure must include a brief description of the essay on importance education, results being presented and other necessary information in a legend. Determine Audience. Table legends go above the Table ; tables are read from on importance education top to bottom. Figure legends go below the figure ; figures are usually viewed from bottom to top. Fig. Audience Essay. 1 . Table is never abbreviated, e.g., Table 1 . The body of the paper writing, Results section is determine audience essay a text-based presentation of the key findings which includes references to each of the Tables and Figures. The text should guide the reader through your results stressing the to an essay about, key results which provide the answers to the question(s) investigated. A major function of the text is to provide clarifying information.

You must refer to audience each Table and/or Figure individually and in sequence (see numbering sequence), and clearly indicate for the reader the research improvement grants, key results that each conveys. Key results depend on your questions, they might include obvious trends, important differences, similarities, correlations, maximums, minimums, etc. Some problems to avoid : Do not reiterate each value from a Figure or Table - only the key result or trends that each conveys. Do not present the same data in determine, both a Table and Figure - this is considered redundant and a waste of space and energy. Decide which format best shows the result and go with it. Do not report raw data values when they can be summarized as means, percents, etc. Statistical test summaries (test name, p- value) are usually reported parenthetically in conjunction with the biological results they support. Always report your results with parenthetical reference to the statistical conclusion that supports your finding (if statistical tests are being used in doctoral research, your course).

This parenthetical reference should include the statistical test used and the level of significance (test statistic and DF are optional). For example, if you found that the mean height of male Biology majors was significantly larger than that of determine audience female Biology majors, you might report this result (in blue) and your statistical conclusion (shown in red) as follows: Males (180.5 ± 5.1 cm; n=34) averaged 12.5 cm taller than females (168 ± 7.6 cm; n=34) in the AY 1995 pool of Biology majors (two-sample t-test, t = 5.78, 33 d.f., p 0.001) . If the summary statistics are shown in a figure, the sentence above need not report them specifically, but must include a reference to of school the figure where they may be seen: Males averaged 12.5 cm taller than females in the AY 1995 pool of Biology majors (two-sample t-test, t = 5.78, 33 d.f., p 0.001; Fig. 1) . Note that the report of the key result (shown in blue) would be identical in a paper written for a course in which statistical testing is audience not employed - the section shown in red would simply not appear except reference to the figure. Avoid devoting whole sentences to report a statistical outcome alone. Use and over-use of the word significant : Your results will read much more cleanly if you avoid overuse of the word siginifcant in any of its forms. In scientific studies, the to an, use of this word implies that a statistical test was employed to make a decision about the data; in this case the test indicated a larger difference in mean heights than you would expect to get by chance alone.

Limit the use of the determine, word significant to this purpose only. If your parenthetical statistical information includes a p-value that indicates significance (usually when p 0.05), it is unncecssary (and redundant ) to use the word significant in the body of the sentence (see example above) because we all interpret the p-value the same way. Essay On Importance. Likewise, when you report that one group mean is somehow different from another (larger, smaller, increased, decreased, etc), it will be understood by your reader that you have tested this and found the essay, difference to be statisticallysignificant, especially if you also report a p-value 0.05. Present the results of your experiment(s) in a sequence that will logically support (or provide evidence against) the hypothesis, or answer the question, stated in the Introduction. For example, in reporting a study of the effect of an experimental diet on the skeletal mass of the rat, consider first giving the data on skeletal mass for the rats fed the control diet and then give the doctoral dissertation research improvement, data for the rats fed the experimental diet.

Report negative results - they are important! If you did not get the anticipated results, it may mean your hypothesis was incorrect and needs to be reformulated, or perhaps you have stumbled onto something unexpected that warrants further study. Moreover, the absence of an effect may be very telling in many situations. In any case, your results may be of importance to determine audience others even though they did not support your hypothesis. Do not fall into for the of books essay the trap of thinking that results contrary to what you expected are necessarily bad data. If you carried out the work well, they are simply your results and need interpretation. Determine Audience. Many important discoveries can be traced to on importance of school bad data. Always enter the appropriate units when reporting data or summary statistics.

for an individual value you would write, the audience, mean length was 10 m , or, the frederick jackson turner's thesis focused on, maximum time was 140 min. When including a measure of variability, place the unit after the error value, e.g., . Determine Essay. was 10 ± 2.3 m . Likewise place the unit after the last in essay on importance of school, a series of numbers all having the essay, same unit. For example: lengths of 5, 10, 15, and 20 m , or no differences were observed after 2, 4, 6, or 8 min. of incubation . 1. Function : The function of the Discussion is to interpret your results in light of what was already known about the love rita dove essay, subject of the investigation, and to explain our new understanding of the problem after taking your results into consideration. Determine. The Discussion will always connect to education the Introduction by way of the question(s) or hypotheses you posed and the literature you cited, but it does not simply repeat or rearrange the determine, Introduction. Instead, it tells how your study has moved us forward from the place you left us at and punishment redemption the end of the Introduction. Fundamental questions to answer here include: Do your results provide answers to your testable hypotheses?

If so, how do you interpret your findings? Do your findings agree with what others have shown? If not, do they suggest an alternative explanation or perhaps a unforseen design flaw in your experiment (or theirs?) Given your conclusions, what is our new understanding of the essay, problem you investigated and outlined in the Introduction? If warranted, what would be the next step in your study, e.g., what experiments would you do next? 2. Doctoral Dissertation. Style : Use the determine audience essay, active voice whenever possible in this section. Watch out for wordy phrases; be concise and make your points clearly. Frederick Frontier Thesis Focused On. Use of the first person is audience okay, but too much use of the first person may actually distract the reader from the main points. 3. Frederick Thesis. Approach : Organize the Discussion to address each of the experiments or studies for which you presented results; discuss each in the same sequence as presented in the Results, providing your interpretation of what they mean in the larger context of the problem. Do not waste entire sentences restating your results; if you need to determine audience remind the reader of the result to be discussed, use bridge sentences that relate the result to the interpretation:

The slow response of the lead-exposed neurons relative to controls suggests that. [ interpretation ]. You will necessarily make reference to latex paper writing the findings of others in order to support your interpretations.Use subheadings, if need be, to help organize your presentation. Be wary of mistaking the reiteration of determine audience a result for an interpretation, and make sure that no new results are presented here that rightly belong in the results. You must relate your work to the findings of other studies - including previous studies you may have done and those of other investigators. As stated previously, you may find crucial information in someone else's study that helps you interpret your own data, or perhaps you will be able to reinterpret others' findings in frederick jackson frontier thesis focused, light of audience essay yours. Doctoral Dissertation. In either case you should discuss reasons for essay, similarities and on importance of school differences between yours and others' findings. Audience. Consider how the results of of books rita other studies may be combined with yours to derive a new or perhaps better substantiated understanding of the problem. Be sure to state the audience, conclusions that can be drawn from your results in light of these considerations.

You may also choose to essay briefly mention further studies you would do to clarify your working hypotheses. Make sure to reference any outside sources as shown in determine audience, the Introduction section. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS (include as needed) | FAQs | If, in your experiment, you received any significant help in thinking up, designing, or carrying out the work, or received materials from someone who did you a favor by supplying them, you must acknowledge their assistance and to an essay about the service or material provided. Authors always acknowledge outside reviewers of their drafts (in PI courses, this would be done only if an instructor or other individual critiqued the audience essay, draft prior to evaluation) and any sources of essay funding that supported the research. Although usual style requirements (e.g., 1st person, objectivity) are relaxed somewhat here, Acknowledgments are always brief and never flowery. Place the Acknowledgments between the Discussion and determine essay the Literature Cited. 1. Function : The Literature Cited section gives an alphabetical listing (by first author's last name) of the references that you actually cited in the body of your paper. Crime And Punishment Redemption. Instructions for determine audience, writing full citations for various sources are given in on separate page.

A complete format list for virtually all types of publication may be found in Huth and others(1994) . NOTE : Do not label this section Bibliography . A bibliography contains references that you may have read but have not specifically cited in the text. Bibliography sections are found in frontier on, books and other literary writing, but not scientific journal-style papers. Function : An Appendix contains information that is non-essential to understanding of the paper, but may present information that further clarifies a point without burdening the body of the presentation. An appendix is an determine essay optional part of the paper, and is only rarely found in essay, published papers. Headings : Each Appendix should be identified by a Roman numeral in sequence, e.g., Appendix I, Appendix II, etc. Each appendix should contain different material. Some examples of material that might be put in determine essay, an appendix (not an exhaustive list) : raw data maps (foldout type especially) extra photographs explanation of formulas, either already known ones, or especially if you have invented some statistical or other mathematical procedures for essay yourself, data analysis. specialized computer programs for a particular procedure full generic names of chemicals or compounds that you have referred to in somewhat abbreviated fashion or by some common name in the text of your paper. diagrams of specialized apparati. Figures and Tables in Appendices. Figures and Tables are often found in an appendix. These should be formatted as discussed previously (see Tables and Figures), but are numbered in determine audience, a separate sequence from those found in the body of the paper.

So, the first Figure in the appendix would be Figure 1, the first Table would be Table 1, and latex so forth. In situations when multiple appendices are used, the Table and Figure numbering must indicate the audience essay, appendix number as well (see Huth and to an about yourself others, 1994). Department of Biology, Bates College, Lewiston, ME 04240.

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essay peaceful earth I would begin this article with a story of an ancient Indian King who was obsessed with the audience essay, desire to find the meaning of peace. Frederick Jackson Turner's Thesis On! What is peace and determine how can we get it and when we find it what should we do with it were some of the issues that bothered him. Intellectuals in his kingdom were invited to answer the King's questions for a handsome reward. Many tried but none could explain how to find peace and what to do with it. At last someone said the King ought to consult the doctoral improvement grants, sage who lived just outside the borders of his Kingdom: He is an old man and audience very wise, the King was told.

If anyone can answer your questions he can. The King went to the sage and latex posed the eternal question. Without a word the sage went into the kitchen and brought a grain of determine essay, wheat to the King. In this you will find the frederick, answer to your question, the Sage said as he placed the grain of determine audience, wheat in education, the King's outstretched palm. Puzzled but unwilling to admit his ignorance the determine audience, King clutched the grain of wheat and returned to his palace. He locked the for the love dove, precious grain in a tiny gold box and placed the box in his safe. Each morning, upon determine audience essay waking, the King would open the box and look at the grain to seek an answer but could find nothing.

Weeks later another sage, passing through, stopped to meet the King who eagerly invited him to resolve his dilemma. The King explained how he had asked the eternal question and frontier on this sage gave him a grain of wheat instead. I have been looking for an answer every morning but I find nothing. The Sage said: It is quite simple, your honor. Just as this grain represents nourishment for determine, the body, peace represents nourishment for the soul.

Now, if you keep this grain locked up in a gold box it will eventually perish without providing nourishment or multiplying. Improvement Grants! However, if it is allowed to interact with the elements - light, water, air, soil - it will flourish, multiply and determine soon you would have a whole field of wheat which will nourish not only you but so many others. This is the meaning of peace. It must nourish your soul and the souls of others, it must multiply by interacting with the elements. Peace-a small word with a deeper meaning attached to it. Essay Education! different interpretations, different perspectives and different understandings yet the meaning is one but for one's own self. Setting a yardstick about what peace means to determine audience essay you is introduction yourself your own way of looking at it. When I hear this pure, magical word the first thing I see is a satisfied soul and not just a quiet that has prevailed. But when quiet prevails, it maybe for mourning a death or even remembering someone great or just a quiet night sleep. And as Oscar Romero says- Peace is determine audience essay not the product of terror or fear.

Peace is not the silence of cemeteries. Peace is to an essay yourself not the audience essay, silent result of violent repression. Peace is the turner's thesis on, generous, tranquil contribution of determine, all to the good of all. So peace implies as something quiet yet good-from within and for something outside….. Stillness is frederick jackson turner's focused one of the determine, most important attribute of peace and love rita not just it leads to a quiet environment around but makes us quiet from essay inside. To obtain this peace is for the of books essay not easy. There is a constant fight going on determine, inside you….. White versus Black, Good versus Evil and when we obtain control over our ourselves we can win this war. Consequently, when good prevails over evil within us, can we spread peace to our external elements. Peace comes from living in the moment and looking for the good in others.

Peacefulness comes from for the love facing our fears and letting them - trust that things will turn out all right. While it is true that the world has become so complex and so technologically oriented that individuals no longer believe that they count or that they can do anything to affect world events, it is determine essay precisely the opposite. For only when individuals take total responsibility for their own lives, find within themselves calm and power of ‘good’ and latex paper live in peace with their neighbors and environment, only then will forces be set in motion that will eventually bring about world peace. Nations go to war, often quoting peace as the reason. We must realize peace is determine audience a journey, not an end. Yet, in our efforts to obtain peace, we often do the most unpeaceful things. Instead of seeking inner peace, we seek to enforce peace on others. And that just doesn't work.

Peace is introduction yourself a gift you can give to others and to yourself. If you seek peace with a sincere heart, you can find it. Peace has the determine audience essay, power to move mountains. Mahatma Gandhi had spread peace to the world and this was his power or else how could a frail man like him get India its freedom and Indians their rights. The quality of life depends not upon external development or material progress, but upon the inner development of peace and happiness. We all wish for world peace, but world peace will never be achieved unless we first establish peace within our own minds. Without inner peace, outer peace is impossible. We can send so-called ‘peacekeeping forces’ into areas of conflict, but peace cannot be imposed from the to an essay yourself, outside with guns.

Only by determine, creating peace within our own mind and helping others do the same can we hope to achieve peace in this world. We can see from this that if we want true, lasting happiness we need to develop and for the love maintain a special experience of essay, inner peace. The only way to do this is by of school education, gradually reducing and eliminating our negative, disturbed states of mind and determine audience essay replacing them with positive, peaceful states. Eventually, through continuing to improve our inner peace we will experience permanent inner peace, or ‘nirvana’. Once we have attained nirvana we will be happy throughout our life, and in life after life. When a baby is born, he is innocent and believed to be the purest form of god in this materialistic world and when he dies he ‘Rests in Peace’.

The unpeacefulness is in between these two stages of human life as he gets trapped in the materialistic trap of this world……… So, look for peace in you and to an essay about not when no two nations are at war, or when you are relaxed because you are your biggest challenge and once you win over the evil inside you, no matter whatever happens outside you, you will surely be peaceful……. by Mani Makkar of determine audience, Class-9. THE ART OF LIVING. Hi, I am Mansi. I am a 16-year-old girl.

Let me tell you an interesting story. A man walked on latex writing, the roof of a forty-story building. Determine Audience Essay! He accidentally fell off the roof. As he passed the seventeenth floor, a person inside the building yelled out a question: “How’s it going?” The man answered back: “So far, so good!” We may find this story amusing because we know what is essay of school coming—the ground. One moment, he will be alive, and the next moment, he will be dead. My point in telling this story is we are all falling.

The ground is coming for all of audience essay, us. One moment, we will be alive, and the next moment, we will be dead. This is probably the most sobering fact of conscious existence. The key to happiness in our lives is to learn how to enjoy the trip. To do this, we’d better learn to master the “art of living,” that is, staying in for the of books rita dove essay, the moment. I love to surf the net and explore. Once, I came upon a few words said by Sri Ravi Shankar-“What is the Art of Living? “Be in the present moment. If you live fully now, tomorrow will take care of itself.

If you are happy now, the past will not torment you. That is the art of Living.”. How true! Happy is a person who knows what to remember of the determine essay, past , what to enjoy in the present and what to plan for the future. One of my friends once messaged me as follows-“When you run so fast to get somewhere, you miss the fun of getting there. Life is not a race, so take it slower. Hear the music before the song is over”. To An! I feel that there are five keywords to audience learn the art of living. Firstly, one needs to acquire peace of mind.

Everyone seeks peace and harmony, because this is what we lack in our lives. From time to time we all experience agitation, irritation, dishar­mony. Unhappiness permeates the atmosphere around someone who is miserable, and those who come in for the rita essay, contact with such a person also become affected. Certainly this is not a skillful way to live. We ought to live at peace with ourselves, and at determine audience essay peace with others. The technique of self-observation, is what is called Vipassana meditation, helps to develop the peace of mind. In the language of India in the time of the Buddha, passana meant seeing in the ordinary way, with one's eyes open; but vipassana is observing things as they actually are, not just as they appear to rita dove be. We become liberated from misery and experience true happiness. Secondly, one must always learn to determine audience be happy.

We become unhappy when we find someone behaving in a way that we don't like, or when we find something happening which we don't like. Unwanted things happen and on importance of school we create tension within. Now, one way to solve this problem is to determine audience essay understand that if the pressures in life are crushing you down, think of the for the rita dove, crushed grapes that produce the best wine. Let the pressures in essay, life bring the best in you. Thirdly, one must learn to dissertation grants forgive and keep going on and on. We love ourselves even after doing many mistakes. Then how can we hate others for their one mistake?

Seems strange, but true. Think before you hate someone…. The power of a kind word, a listening ear, an audience essay, honest compliment or the smallest act of caring has the potential to turn a life around. Next, keep yourself going on. When things go wrong, as they sometimes will, when the road you are trudging seems uphill, when stress is pressing you down a bit, rest if you must but never quit. Introduction Essay About! Anyone can give up. Essay! It’s the easiest thing to do. But to hold it together when everyone else would understand if you fell apart, that’s true strength.

Fourthly, one must always keep a positive outlook towards life. Essay Of School! Life is a movie you see through your own eyes .It doesn’t matter what is happening out there. It‘s how you take it that counts. Hope yours is a blockbuster. One should never forget that –“If Winter Comes, Can Spring Be Far Behind?” Remember, smooth roads never make good drivers .A problem free life never makes a person strong. So, never ask life’ Why Me?’ Instead challenge it and say ‘Try Me’. Faith makes all things possible, hope makes all things work and love makes all things beautiful. If you believe you can, you will.

If you believe you can’t, you won’t. Belief is an ignition that gets you off the audience essay, launching pad. Believe in yourself! Last but not the least, set your goal and work hard to love of books dove achieve it. Use our thoughts about the future to set goals and make plans. Then return to the present to determine carry through with our plans.

Let not your aim be like a garden, for people to walk over it, instead let it be like the sky, which everyone wishes to touch. LEARN THE ART OF LIVING AND DO YOUR SHARE TODAY! There is no way to peace; peace is the way. - MAHATMA GANDHI. Peace is a term that most commonly refers to an absence of aggression, violence or hostility.peace such a beautiful word. A word that makes us feel relaxed thinking about those beautiful white doves.When we come to turner's thesis focused imagine it we see the best of both worlds.A place close to nature and a place where happiness i sthe environment.But that world seems to remain a dream now! We talk about global peace and determine hold terrorism as the culprit.But think. For The Love Essay! when we cannot even keep peace with our ownselves , how can we talk about peace at such huge levels? We fight with people , our loved ones for reasons completely unnecessary. It takes less than a second to burst out in determine audience, anger, doesn't it?

There the irony lies. What we must learn as the first step towards peace is SELF PEACE.. inner peace refers to a state of for the love of books rita, mind, body and mostly soul, a peace within ourselves. People that experience inner peace say that the determine, feeling is not dependent on time, people, place, or any external object or situation.When we learn to remain at peace with ourselves we will be at peace with the essay about, rest of the world. Now talking about peace at audience international levels.. We all know how terrorism threatens the essay yourself, very roots of peace. but that does not sem to determine audience essay be the only culprit. since the time nuclear weapons have arrived thw world has not seen peacve and never will unles we make a conscious effort to stop threatening the world with our nuclear power. The most important thing to remember when we talk about peace is love.Love and crime and punishment redemption essay peace are inseparable.We cannot have one without the other.With love achieving peace becomes a cakewalk. Whether it is inner peace or peace anywhere across the globe, love is the basis. love yourself and determine you shall attian inner peace. love others and you shall be at peace with all.

To achieve peace at the global level, we also give NOBEL PEACE PRIZE.The prize has often met with controversy, as it is for the occasionally awarded to determine audience essay people who have formerly sponsored war and paper writing violence but who have, through exceptional concessions, helped achieve peace. With the basic ideas of peace in mind and conscious efforts towards achieving it in our daily life ,I hope we achieve our aim of determine audience, global peace one day. “When the power of love overcomes the love of power , the world will know peace. by Ashima Gujral Class- 10. Peace is something which is vastly misinterpreted and doctoral dissertation research improvement grants misrepresented in today’s world.

Everyone has their own perceptions about it. Audience! out of which only a small portion actually come near in addressing 'peace’. In my personal opinion peace isn’t just a cleaver way of showcasing your imposed superficial friendliness while brewing up violent tendencies from within !As is highlighted by India’s relations with Pakistan………in formal terms we are at peace since the kargil war of 1999. but reality rests in essay yourself, a completely different sphere. I believe peace is determine audience not just stopping wars. its something more. it’s the victory of reality over virtual superiority, the jackson thesis on, realization that everyone in the world is essay nothing but equal. It means to dissertation give the due share of respect to everyone's opinion and thinking before putting your ideas into action. It means forgetting all what happened in the past. Audience! hoping and essay believing that a better day, a better future is possible.

This world has seen so many of the audience essay, traumatizing atrocities in its lifetime ,as we become aware of our mistakes in the past it becomes the duty of each of us as individuals and as youth to change all this and create a better place for our succeeding generations . and yes we can do it!