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The Bird Flu: A New Emerging Pandemic Threat And Its Pharmacological Intervention. Bird flu is an infection caused by avian influenza viruses, which are of thesis theme customisation different types A, B and C. Type A avian influenza viruses are the most frequently associated with avian influenza epidemics and pandemics. There are 16 hemagglutinin (H1 to english papers H16) and 9 neuraminidase types (N1 to thesis theme N9) identified till date. A peculiar characteristic of influenza A viruses is their propensity for strengths genetic change by theme customisation two main processes: antigenic drift (small, gradual changes) and antigenic shift (abrupt, major change producing a novel influenza A virus subtype). There are various modes of transmission of papers human influenza including inhalation, direct or indirect (fomite) contact etc., can have manifestations ranging from mild to severe or fatal disease, depend on the viral subtype causing the disease. Avian influenza A (H5N1) results in high death rate amongst infants and thesis theme, young children. The first outbreak of human infection by avian influenza viruses (H5N1) was observed in 1997 in Hong Kong. Since then a large number of of business in economic development essay outbreaks have been reported in different parts of the theme world. In fact, the spread of avian influenza H5N1 in various species including humans has lead to a current pandemic threat. Human avian influenza infections in sats ks2, persons at high risk of exposure can be prevented by adopting a series of protective measures, anti-viral vaccination and thesis, health monitoring.

Drugs currently available for the treatment or prophylaxis of influenza infections include the adamantanes (amantadine and my robot essay, rimantadine) and the newer class of neuraminidase inhibitors (zanamivir, oseltamivir and peramivir). However, vaccines are considered the first line of defense for reducing the excess morbidity and mortality that invariably accompany pandemics and a number of thesis theme customisation clinical trials are under way to test them. Avian influenza (bird flu), an infection caused by avian influenza viruses has emerged as the primary public health concern of the 21st century. There are three types of role of business in economic development essay influenza viruses, designated A, B and C. Variants of theme this species are sometimes named according to the species the strain is endemic in or adapted to for example, human flu, swine flu, horse Flu, dog flu etc. Influenza virus belongs to cause and effect a family of thesis theme viruses called orthomyxoviridae, a group of single stranded minus-sense RNA viruses with a segmented genome.

The eight RNA segments of the influenza A virus genome encode 11 viral proteins. These include the sats ks2 polymerase proteins (PB1, PB2, PA, PB1-F2), nucleocapsid protein, hemagglutinin, neuraminidase, matrix proteins (M1, M2), and nonstructural proteins (NS1, NS2). Hemagglutinin and neuraminidase are the major antigenic determinants of theme customisation influenza A viruses and serve as the basis for their subtype classification. There are 16 hemagglutinin (H1 to of business essay H16) and 9 neuraminidase types (N1 to N9).Hemagglutinin mediates attachment to and entry of the virus into host cells by binding to sialic acid receptors at the cell surface, which partly accounts for the host specificity of the various influenza A virus subtypes. However, a change of one amino acid of the H5 protein is sufficient to change the receptor binding specificity of thesis theme A/H5N1 viruses. Thus, the barrier to in economic development essay interspecies infection can be overcome easily. Hemagglutinin also forms the main viral target of protective humoral immunity by neutralizing antibody. Neuraminidase facilitates the spread of the virions in the host by cleaving the thesis theme glycosidic linkages to sialic acid on host cells and the surface of the viral particles and is the target of neuraminidase inhibitors. M2 is an ion channel crucial for the pH-dependent dissociation of matrix proteins from the nucleocapsid during viral uncoating and pH changes across the trans-Golgi network during maturation of hemagglutinin molecules. Of Business Development Essay? M2 is the thesis customisation target of the adamantanes (amantadine and rimantadine). Mutation in the M2 from serine to asparagine at residue 31 invariably confers resistance to adamantanes.

PB1-F2 causes cellular apoptosis by acting on the host mitochondria. The hemagglutinin and write structure, PB2 proteins appear to be important in determining host specificity and virulence. (1) Types of thesis customisation bird flu viruses infecting birds and humans (2) Influenza A H5: Nine potential subtypes of H5 are known. H5 infections, such as HPAI H5N1 viruses currently circulating in Asia and Europe, have been documented among humans and essay, sometimes cause severe illness or death. Influenza A H7: Nine potential subtypes of H7 are known. H7 infection in humans is rare but can occur among persons who have direct contact with infected birds. Symptoms may include conjunctivitis and/or upper respiratory symptoms.

H7 viruses have been associated with both LPAI (e.g., H7N2, H7N7) and HPAI (e.g., H7N3, H7N7), and thesis customisation, have caused mild to severe and fatal illness in humans. Influenza A H9 Nine potential subtypes of H9 are known; influenza A H9 has rarely been reported to infect humans. However, this subtype has been documented only in a low pathogenic form. Influenza Type B These are usually found only in humans. Unlike influenza A viruses, these viruses are not classified according to subtype. Influenza B viruses can cause morbidity and personal, mortality among humans, but in general are associated with less severe epidemics than influenza A viruses. Although influenza type B viruses can cause human epidemics, they have not caused pandemics. Influenza Type C viruses cause mild illness in humans and do not cause epidemics or pandemics. These viruses are not classified according to subtype. Low vs Highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (2) On the basis of specific molecular genetic and pathogenesis criteria that require specific testing, influenza virus A are classified into low pathogenic (LPAIA) and thesis theme customisation, high pathogenic (HPAIA) viruses. However, low pathogenic can evolve into high pathogenic viruses.

H5, H7- H5N1, H7N7, H7N3 are HPAIA viruses and human infections with these viruses have ranged from mild (H7N3, H7N7) to severe and fatal disease (H7N7, H5N1). LPAIA viruses causing infection in humans include H7N7, H9N2, H7N2. A constantly mutating virus: 2 consequences. A notable feature of past ks2 influenza A viruses is their propensity for genetic change, which occurs by thesis theme two main processes: antigenic drift and antigenic shift. Antigenic drift refers to small, gradual changes that occur through point mutations in the two genes that contain the genetic material to produce the main surface proteins, hemagglutinin, and neuraminidase. These point mutations occur unpredictably and result in minor changes to these surface proteins.

Antigenic shift refers to an abrupt, major change to produce a novel influenza A virus subtype in humans that was not currently circulating among people. It can occur either through direct animal (poultry)-to-human transmission or through mixing of human influenza A and animal influenza A virus genes to role of business in economic development essay create a new human influenza A subtype virus through a process called genetic reassortment. (2) Human infections with avian influenza. The first ominous sign that avian influenza viruses (H5N1) could directly infect humans from avian species in a large scale occurred in 1997 in Hong Kong, resulting in 18 documented cases and six fatalities. 1 Year 2003 saw change in the strains of virus, resulting in thesis theme, emergence of #x02018;novel#x02019; Z strain and, infection to human beings by this virus, contrary to write essay structure earlier belief that avian influenza virus can not infect human beings due to differences in receptors. February 2006 saw outbreaks of bird flu in 13 new countries including many parts of India. (6) H5N1 is the most virulent subtype in a long list of highly pathogenic avian viruses that have emerged in recent years. (3) Nations with Confirmed Cases H5N1 Avian Influenza (May 2007) (10) Outbreaks of thesis theme customisation human avian influenza (3,8) H5N1; Hong kong, H7N7; Netherlands, H9N2; Hong kong. 2004/05 H5N1; H7N3; Canada, H10N7; Egypt H5N1 in 13 new countries including India H5N1 in China, Egypt, Indonesia, Nigeria. Cumulative Number of Confirmed Human Cases of Avian Influenza A/(H5N1) Reported to and effect WHO (11) (as on theme 11 April 2007) Clinical features and prognosis of avian influenza infection in humans. Avian influenza A virus is shed in the feces of healthy-appearing waterfowl (primarily ducks), which in turn infect chickens and other poultry with which they come in contact. Conditions for transmission and jumping species barriers often are ideal in Asia, where poultry, ducks, pigs, and humans live in crowded conditions. (3) Human influenza is transmitted by inhalation of infectious droplets and and effect world war 1 essay, droplet nuclei, by direct contact, and perhaps, by indirect (fomite) contact, with self-inoculation onto the upper respiratory tract or conjunctival mucosa. (4) The main clinical manifestations of avian influenza infections depend on the viral subtype causing the disease. Thesis Theme Customisation? (1) The incubation period of avian influenza A (H5N1) is quite variable and cases occurring within 2#x02013;4 to up to 8#x02013;17 days after exposure have been reported. Most patients have initial symptoms of high fever (#x0003e;38#x000b0;C) and lower respiratory tract symptoms.

Diarrhea, vomiting, abdominal pain, pleuritic pain, and bleeding from the nose and my robot essay, gums have also been reported early in the course of illness in some patients. Infections caused by thesis theme avian influenza A (H7) viruses also present with conjunctivitis commonly. Various complications associated with avian influenza include Multi-organ failure with signs of renal dysfunction and cardiac compromise, ventilator-associated pneumonia, pulmonary hemorrhage, pneumothorax, pancytopenia, Reye#x02019;s syndrome, and sepsis syndrome without documented bacteremia. (4) Avian influenza A (H5N1) results in high death rate amongst infants and essay you spent, young children with case fatality rate at 89% among under 15 years of age. Deaths occur at an average of thesis theme customisation 9 or 10 days after the onset of strengths paper illness and most patients die of progressive respiratory failure. (5) The optimal specimen is a nasopharyngeal aspirate obtained within 3 days of the onset of the symptoms although nasopharyngeal swab may also be obtained. Rapid antigen assays, virus culture, real time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) are various methods available for detection. Theme Customisation? (5) The current spread of avian influenza H5N1 in domestic poultry flocks and wild birds across the world, as well as the demonstrated ability of this virus to cross the of business in economic essay species barrier and infect humans, has lead to a high level of concern that a pandemic may develop. For a pandemic to arise, three pre-requisites have been identified: a new virus subtype to which the population has little or no immunity must emerge; the new virus must be able to replicate in thesis, humans and essay on how you spent your last, cause serious illness; and the new virus must be efficiently transmitted from one human to another. (6) Unlike most pandemics, which emerge randomly, H5N1 has been recognized as a likely pandemic candidate for almost 10 years.

Experts from the World Health Organization consider the current pandemic alert level to thesis theme be stage 3. (3) Guidance on Public Health Protection (7) WHO recommends a series of protective measures aimed at preventing human avian influenza infections in persons at high risk of exposure. These measures are particularly important during veterinary investigations and extensive and urgent culling operations. Protection of persons at analytical risk of occupational exposure with the help of personal protective equipment like protective clothing, heavy-duty rubber work gloves, standard well-fitted surgical masks, goggles, rubber or polyurethane boots. Pharmaceutical prophylaxis and treatment. Antivirals should be readily available for the treatment of theme customisation suspected and confirmed cases. Vaccination for english papers ks2 public health purposes. Health authorities may consider vaccination against thesis theme, seasonal influenza for persons at risk of world occupational exposure to the H5N1 virus. Vaccination against seasonal influenza will not protect people against infection with the H5N1 virus; no vaccine against H5N1 is presently available. Health monitoring.

Those at risk of occupational exposure should be aware of the early clinical signs of H5N1 infection, check for these signs (especially fever) each day during potential exposure and for 14 days after last exposure and communicate any symptoms to a designated local physician. Suspected cases should be placed in thesis customisation, isolation and managed according to recommended procedures for infection control. Drug therapy for bird flu Two groups of drugs are currently available for the treatment or prophylaxis of influenza infections: the adamantanes and personal strengths, the newer class of neuraminidase inhibitors. The adamantanes (amantadine and rimantadine) interfere with viral uncoating inside the cell. They are effective only against influenza A and are associated with several toxic effects and with rapid emergence of drug-resistant variants. Adamantane-resistant isolates of influenza A are genetically stable, can be transmitted to theme customisation susceptible contacts, are as pathogenic as wild-type virus isolates, and can be shed for prolonged periods in immunocompromised patients taking the sats papers ks2 drug. This potential for theme customisation the development of resistance especially limits the use of the adamantanes for the treatment of influenza, although the drugs still have a place in planning for prophylaxis during an epidemic. Role? The neuraminidase inhibitors (zanamivir and oseltamivir) interfere with the release of progeny influenza virus from infected host cells, a process that prevents infection of thesis theme new host cells and thereby halts the spread of infection in the respiratory tract. (8) These have activity against both influenza A and B viruses. A key advantage of the my robot essay neuraminidase inhibitors, and thesis customisation, a major difference from the adamantanes, is that development of resistance is very rare. Zanamivir is approved for papers ks2 treatment of influenza among children aged #x02265;7 years. Theme Customisation? Oseltamivir is personal strengths paper, approved for thesis treatment and chemoprophylaxis among persons aged #x02265;1 year.

Recommended treatment and chemoprophylaxis dosages of oseltamivir for role of business children vary by the weight of the child. Thesis Customisation? (2) Peramivir, a newer agent in clinical trials, has also been shown to be a potent and selective inhibitor of influenza A and B neuraminidases. (9) Ribavirin, a nucleoside analogue has been used in the treatment of a narrative essay your human influenza A virus infections, usually administered orally or by aerosolization, and occasionally by the IV route for severe infections or in customisation, immunocompromised hosts. A consistent benefit has not been observed in clinical studies, and currently ribavirin is not considered to be a drug of choice for influenza A infection. (1) Vaccines are considered the write analytical essay structure first line of defence for reducing the theme customisation excess morbidity and mortality that invariably accompany pandemics. Manufacturing capacity for personal strengths influenza vaccines is overwhelmingly concentrated in Europe and North America. Thesis Customisation? Current production capacity #x02013; estimated at around 300 million doses of trivalent seasonal vaccine per year #x02013; falls far below the demand that will arise during a pandemic. Also, little knowledge exists to write analytical guide formulation of an influenza vaccine that is both effective and economizes on the use of antigen. However, clinical trials are under way to test different formulations. WHO has launched a programme #x0201c;WHO Global Influenza Programme#x0201d; in order to reduce death and disease due to annual influenza epidemics and prepare for the next influenza pandemic. The objective of this programme is to increase and strengthen global epidemic and pandemic preparedness through: Improved quality and global coverage of influenza surveillance. Improved understanding of health and economic burden of thesis customisation influenza including benefits from epidemic control and pandemic preparedness.

Increased national epidemic and pandemic preparedness including vaccine and pharmaceutical supplies. Expanded use of existing vaccines particularly in developing countries and in high-risk groups and accelerated introduction of personal new vaccines. More rapid communication and information exchange between WHO Influenza Network Members and key partners and customisation, stakeholders. The bird flue infection in human is strengths, recent pandemic threat and introduction of thesis theme neuraminidase inhibitors was an a narrative essay you spent your last holiday important step for effective control of infection, however experience from thesis theme customisation, past demand more newer and better drugs to tackle this problem and personal strengths paper, if possible may be even super-vaccine for future.

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nih dissertation Department of thesis theme customisation Health and Human Services. National Institutes of Health (NIH) (http://www.nih.gov) Components of Participating Organizations. National Institute of Mental Health (http://www.nimh.nih.gov) This Funding Opportunity Announcement replaces PAR-03-110, which was previously released April 21, 2003. Update: The following update relating to this announcement has been issued: NOTICE : Applications submitted in response to this Funding Opportunity Announcement (FOA) for Federal assistance must be submitted electronically through Grants.gov (http://www.grants.gov) using the SF424 (RR) forms and Application Instruction Guide. APPLICATIONS MAY NOT BE SUBMITTED IN PAPER FORMAT.

This FOA must be read in conjunction with the application guidelines included with this announcement in Grants.gov Apply for Grants (hereafter called Grants.gov/Apply). A registration process is necessary before submission and should be started at write essay structure, least four weeks in advance of the planned submission. Two steps are required for on time submission: 1) The application must be submitted to grants.gov by thesis, 5:00 p.m. local time (of the applicant institution/organization) on the submission date (see Key Dates below) 2) Applicants must complete a verification step in the eRA Commons within two business days of notification from NIH. Note: Since email can be unreliable, it is the responsibility of the applicant to periodically check the Commons. Program Announcement (PA) Number: PAR-06-217. Release/Posted Date : March 3, 2006.

Opening Date: March 3, 2006 (Earliest date on my robot essay, application may be submitted to Grants.gov) Letter of Intent Receipt Date(s): Not applicable. Application Submission Date(s): April 22, 2006; August 22, 2006; December 22, 2006; April 22, 2007; August 22, 2007; December 22, 2007; April 22, 2008; August 22, 2008; December 22, 2008 (including resubmissions). Expiration Date: January 8, 2009. The purpose of this funding opportunity is to increase the diversity of the mental health research workforce. It will enable qualified doctoral candidates to pursue research careers in any area relevant to the research mission of the thesis theme customisation National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH).

These awards are available to US citizens or permanent residents who are predoctoral students advanced to candidacy in accredited research doctoral programs in my robot essay, the United States (including Puerto Rico and other U.S. territories or possessions). The total amount to be awarded and theme the number of cause and effect world war 1 essay anticipated awards will depend upon the quality, duration, and costs of the applications received as determined by the peer review process, available funds, and program priorities. This funding opportunity will use the NIH Dissertation Research Award (R36) mechanism. Grants to support dissertation research will provide up to $35,000 per year in direct costs for a maximum period of two years. Eligible principal investigators are (a) students from underrepresented racial and ethnic groups who have been determined by the grantee institution to thesis be underrepresented in biomedical or behavioral science; (b) individuals with disabilities; or (c) individuals from socially, culturally, economically, or educationally disadvantaged backgrounds that have inhibited their ability to pursue a career in health-related research. Eligible organizations include domestic, public or private colleges, universities or professional schools with an accredited doctoral degree-granting programs. Applicants may not submit more than one application to the awarding Institute for sats english papers ks2, this mechanism. Applicants may not simultaneously submit an application for a National Research Service Award (NRSA) fellowship. Theme Customisation. Only one resubmission is structure allowed in response to this FOA. Thesis Theme. See Section IV.1 for application materials.

The SF424 (RR) Application Guide for this FOA is located at these Web sites: https://grants.nih.gov/grants/funding/424/SF424_RR_Guide_General_Ver2.doc (MS Word) https://grants.nih.gov/grants/funding/424/SF424_RR_Guide_General_Ver2.pdf(PDF). My Robot Essay. For general information on SF424 (RR) Application and Electronic Submission, see these Web sites: SF424 (RR) Application and Electronic Submission Information: https://grants.nih.gov/grants/funding/424/index.htm General information on Electronic Submission of Grant Applications: http://era.nih.gov/ElectronicReceipt/ Special Receipt/Submission dates are listed under “Key Dates.” The initial merit review group is customisation convened by the Division of Extramural Activities, NIMH. Telecommunications for the hearing impaired is available at: TTY 301-451-5936. Table of past sats english papers Contents. 1. Research Objectives. 1. Mechanism of Support. 2. Funds Available. 1. Eligible Applicants.

A. Eligible Institutions. B. Eligible Individuals. 2.Cost Sharing or Matching. 3. Other - Special Eligibility Criteria. 1. Request Application Information. 2. Content and Form of Application Submission. 3. Submission Dates and Times. A. Submission, Review and Anticipated Start Dates.

1. Letter of Intent. B. Sending an Application to thesis theme customisation the NIH. C. Application Processing. 4. Intergovernmental Review. 5. Funding Restrictions. 6. Other Submission Requirements.

2. Review and Selection Process. A. Additional Review Criteria. B. Paper. Additional Review Considerations. C. Sharing Research Data. D. Sharing Research Resources. 3. Anticipated Announcement and Award Dates. 1. Award Notices. 2. Administrative and National Policy Requirements. 1. Scientific/Research Contact(s) 2. Peer Review Contact(s)

3. Financial/ Grants Management Contact(s) Section I. Funding Opportunity Description. 1. Research Objectives. The primary objective of this Funding Opportunity Announcement (FOA) issued by the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH), is to increase the diversity of the mental health research workforce by stimulating and supporting the dissertation research of: students from customisation racial and ethnic populations that are underrepresented in biomedical and behavioral science; students with disabilities; or students from socially, culturally, economically, or educationally disadvantaged backgrounds that have inhibited their ability to pursue a career in health-related research. Eligible students must have the objective of becoming successful investigators in areas of biomedical or behavioral science relevant to the mission of the personal strengths paper NIMH. A dissertation represents the most extensive research experience formulated and carried out by doctoral candidates, with the advice and guidance of mentors. Customisation. Dissertation research involves a major investment of the doctoral student's time, energy, and interest and its substance is often the basis for and effect war 1, launching a research career. Lack of financial support during this phase of training can delay completion of the dissertation project. The Mental Health Dissertation Research grant will provide full-time salary support and research funds for thesis, up to two years for eligible students to facilitate completion of their doctoral research project and my robot essay dissertation in a research area relevant to the NIMH mission and research priorities.

The NIMH, as part of the NIH, recognizes a unique and compelling need to promote diversity in the biomedical, behavioral, clinical and social sciences research workforce. The NIH expects efforts to theme customisation diversify the workforce to lead to: the recruitment of the most talented researchers from all groups; an improvement in the quality of the educational and training environment; a balanced perspective in the determination of sats english papers research priorities; This dissertation research award announcement is intended to stimulate the participation of thesis theme individuals from the following groups: A. individuals from underrepresented racial and ethnic groups; B. individuals with disabilities; and. C. individuals from socially, culturally, economically, or educationally disadvantaged backgrounds that have inhibited their ability to write essay you spent pursue a career in theme, health-related research. The NIMH is organized in five scientific divisions.

Each division’s research priorities can be found on the following web pages: Division of role in economic development essay Neuroscience and Basic Behavioral Science (DNBBS); Division of Adult Translational Research and Treatment Development (DATR); Division of Pediatric Translational Research and Treatment Development (DPTR): Division of AIDS and Health and Behavior Research (DAHBR); and thesis theme Division of paper Services and Intervention Research (DSIR). Potential applicants are encouraged to visit these Web and to contact the Scientific/Research Contact listed in Section VII to gain more information on the relevance of the proposed dissertation research topic to the NIMH mission. 1. Mechanism of Support. This funding opportunity uses the just-in-time budget concepts. It also uses the non-modular budget format.

This budget is found in the SF424 (RR) Budget Component described in the SF424 (RR) Application Package and Instructions Guide. Dissertation awards are not renewable nor may they be transferred to thesis another PD/PI. 2. A Narrative Essay Holiday. Funds Available. A project period of up to two years and a budget for direct costs of up to $35,000 per year may be requested. The sponsoring institution should provide salary and thesis theme customisation fringe benefits to the graduate student, consistent with its own established policy for funding individuals in similar positions, regardless of the source of funds. Write On How You Spent. Funds may also be use for customisation, relevant travel to scientific meetings, as well as research costs of the dissertation in accordance with institutional policies. No funds may be used to pay tuition or fees associated with completion of doctoral studies.

Likely start dates for awards are December 2006, July 2007, December 2007, July 2008 and sats english December 2008. Award periods are for thesis theme customisation, one or two years. Although the financial plans of the my robot essay NIMH provides support for this program, awards pursuant to this funding opportunity are contingent upon the availability of funds and the receipt of customisation a sufficient number of meritorious applications. Facilities and administrative costs requested by my robot essay, consortium participants are not included in the direct cost limitation, see NOT-OD-05-004. 1. Eligible Applicants. Public or private institutions, such as universities, colleges, hospitals, and laboratories Eligible agencies of the Federal Government Domestic Institutions.

In addition, eligible institutions must have an accredited doctoral degree-granting program in the candidate’s area of study. A. Individuals from racial and ethnic groups that have been shown by the National Science Foundation to be underrepresented in thesis customisation, health-related sciences on a national basis (see http://www.nsf.gov/sbe/srs/women/start.htm). In addition, it is recognized that underrepresentation can vary from setting to setting and individuals from racial or ethnic groups that can be convincingly demonstrated to be underrepresented by the applicant institution are eligible for support under this program. B. Individuals with disabilities, who are defined as those with a physical or mental impairment that substantially limits one or more major life activities. C. Past English Papers Ks2. Individuals from disadvantaged backgrounds who are defined as: 1. Individuals who were raised in a family with an annual income below established low-income thresholds.

These thresholds are based on family size; published by the U.S. Bureau of the Census; adjusted annually for thesis, changes in the Consumer Price Index; and adjusted by the Secretary of Health and Human Services for analytical essay, use in all health professions programs. Thesis. The Secretary periodically publishes these income levels at essay, http://aspe.hhs.gov/poverty/index.shtml. For individuals from theme low income backgrounds, the institution must be able to a narrative essay on how holiday demonstrate that such candidates have qualified for Federal disadvantaged assistance or that they have received any of the following student loans: Health Professions Student Loans (HPSL), Loans for Disadvantaged Student Program, or they have received scholarships from the U.S. Department of thesis customisation Health and Human Services under the Scholarship for Individuals with Exceptional Financial Need. 2. Come from a social, cultural, or educational environment such as that found in certain rural or inner-city environments that have demonstrably and recently directly inhibited the individual from obtaining the knowledge, skills, and abilities necessary to develop and participate in a research career. Eligibility related to predoctoral and dissertation-eligible status. Provided that you meet the a narrative essay on how you spent your eligibility criterion just above, you are eligible to apply for this award if: you are registered in thesis customisation, an accredited research doctoral degree program; you are in good-standing in that program; you will have completed all non-dissertation requirements for your degree by the anticipated start date of the award (except a clinical internship where that is write a narrative your required to follow the dissertation phase); your doctoral committee has approved your dissertation proposal; you are a U.S. citizen, non-citizen national (e.g., residents of U.S. territories), or permanent resident by the time of thesis theme customisation award. The applicant must be a citizen or non-citizen national of the United States or have been lawfully admitted for permanent residence (i.e., in possession of an Alien Registration Receipt Card) at the time of award. Of Business. Individuals on student or temporary visas are not eligible to apply. Academic institutions are encouraged to facilitate submission of applications from qualified doctoral candidates.

Eligible individuals with the skills, knowledge, and resources necessary to thesis theme carry out the proposed research are invited to work with their institution to develop an past english papers application for support. A student applying for a Mental Health Dissertation Research Grant must be enrolled in an accredited doctoral degree program in an area or discipline relevant to the mission of the NIMH, and thesis theme must be conducting dissertation research relevant to on how you spent your last holiday that mission. The student applicant must be a doctoral student who has advanced to theme customisation candidacy and my robot essay who has completed all requirements for the doctoral degree (excluding the thesis clinical internship requirement) other than the dissertation by the time of the award. Documentation of the cause and effect world applicant’s advancement to candidacy for thesis theme customisation, the doctoral degree and an approved dissertation project must be provided at the time of application (see section IV.2 and IV.6). Applicants for the Mental Health Dissertation Research Grant are expected to role of business in economic development pursue full-time research and career development activities directly relevant to the mission of the NIMH. Applications with marginal or no relevance to the NIMH mission will be considered unresponsive and will not be accepted for review. Therefore, prior to preparing and submitting an application, it is imperative that prospective applicants contact the NIMH staff listed under section VII. to discuss this program and their dissertation research project.

Note that individuals supported under Ruth Kirschstein National Research Service Award (NRSA) mechanisms including F30 and customisation F31 predoctoral fellowships and predoctoral trainees on NIH institutional research training grants are eligible to apply for past english papers, an NIMH dissertation award. Such candidates may not receive concurrent support from an NRSA fellowship or traineeship and a R36 Dissertation Award. Customisation. The dissertation award may only be used when NRSA eligibility has been exhausted or is cause and effect world war 1 no longer available. 2. Cost Sharing or Matching. Section IV. Application and Submission Information. Registration and Instructions for Submission via Grants.gov. To download an thesis Application Package and Application Guide for completing the essay holiday SF424 (RR) forms for this FOA, link to theme customisation http://www.grants.gov/Apply/ and follow the my robot essay directions provided on that Web site. PD/PIs should work with their institutions/organizations to thesis customisation make sure they are registered in and effect war 1 essay, the NIH eRA Commons.

Several additional separate actions are required before an applicant institution/organization can submit an theme electronic application, as follows: 1) Organization/Institutional Registration in Grants.gov/Get Started. Your organization will need to obtain a Data Universal Number System (DUNS) number and register with the role of business in economic development essay Central Contractor Registration (CCR) as part of the Grants.gov registration process. If your organization does not have a Taxpayer Identification Number (TIN) or Employer Identification Number (EIN), allow for extra time. Thesis. A valid TIN or EIN is necessary for CCR registration.

The CCR also validates the EIN against Internal Revenue Service records, a step that will take an and effect war 1 essay additional one to two business days. Direct questions regarding Grants.gov registration to: Contact Center Phone: 800-518-4726. Business Hours: M-F 7:00 a.m. - 9:00 p.m. Eastern Time. Direct questions regarding the Commons registration to: eRA Commons Help Desk.

Phone: 301-402-7469 or 866-504-9552 (Toll Free) Business hours M-F 7:00 a.m. – 8:00 p.m. Eastern Time. 3) Project Director/Principal Investigator (PD/PI) Registration in the NIH eRA Commons: Refer to the NIH eRA Commons System (COM) Users Guide . The individual designated as the PD/PI on theme, the application must also be registered in the NIH eRA Commons. It is not necessary for PDs/PIs to register with Grants.gov. The PD/PI must hold a PD/PI account in the Commons and write a narrative holiday must be affiliated with the applicant organization. This account cannot have any other role attached to it other than the PD/PI. This registration/affiliation must be done by theme customisation, the Signing Official (SO) or their designee who is already registered in the Commons. Both the my robot essay PD/PI and theme customisation SO need separate accounts in the NIH eRA Commons since both are required to verify the application.

Note that if a PD/PI is also an and effect world essay NIH peer-reviewer with an customisation Individual DUNS and CCR registration, that particular DUNS number and CCR registration are for the individual reviewer only. These are different than any DUNS number and CCR registration used by an applicant organization. Individual DUNS and CCR registration should be used only for the purposes of essay you spent last holiday personal reimbursement and should not be used on any grant applications submitted to the Federal Government. Several of the steps of the registration process could take four weeks or more. Therefore, applicants should immediately check with their business official to determine whether their institution is already registered in both Grants.gov and the Commons. The NIH will accept electronic applications only from organizations that have completed all necessary registrations.

1. Thesis Theme. Request Application Information. For further assistance contact GrantsInfo, Telephone (301) 710-0267, Email: [email protected] The SF424 (RR) Application Guide is critical to submitting a complete and accurate application to NIH. There are fields within the personal paper SF424 (RR) application components that, although not marked as mandatory, are required by NIH ( e.g., the “Credential” log-in field of the “Research Related Senior/Key Person Profile” component must contain the PD/PI’s assigned eRA Commons User ID ). Agency-specific instructions for customisation, such fields are clearly identified in the Application Guide. For additional information, see “Tips and Tools for in economic development essay, Navigating Electronic Submission” on customisation, the front page of “Electronic Submission of cause war 1 essay Grant Applications.” The SF424 (RR) application is comprised of data arranged in separate components. Some components are required, others are optional. The forms package associated with this FOA in customisation, Grants.gov/APPLY will include all applicable components, required and optional. A completed application in essay structure, response to thesis customisation this FOA will include the following components: SF424 (RR) (Cover component) Research Related Project/Performance Site Locations.

Research Related Other Project Information. Research Related Senior/Key Person. Research Related Budget. PHS398 Cover Page Supplement. PHS398 Research Plan (Including Letters of Support, Letter of Certification of Applicant Eligibility, and Academic Transcript attachments) R R Subaward Budget Attachment (s)Form.

Research Related Project/Performance Site Locations Component: Respond to all required fields. Paper. This section identifies the primary site(s) where the research will be carried out. If multiple sites are involved, each location must be identified . Research Related Other Project Information Component: Respond to thesis customisation all required fields. This is where Human/Animal subject information is given; and where the Abstract, Project Narrative, Bibliography References Cited, Facilities and Other Resources and Equipment information are attached. The information in write a narrative essay last holiday, Items 9 and 10 must include descriptions of the research setting(s), the facilities, resources, tools and equipment available to the investigator. Provide in adequate detail, descriptions of the research environment, including unique or special resources, experimental organisms, patient/subject populations, tools, or instrumentation that are relevant to the feasibility of the project.

Research Related Senior/Key Person Profile(s) Component: This section will be automatically populated with information provided in previous components. Check each section to make sure all required information is provided. The “Credential, e.g. agency login” refers to theme customisation your eRA Commons Login ID. Your application will be rejected if this element is on how you spent last holiday not provided for you, the PD/PI.

The Key Persons for theme, whom Profiles must be provided include the Doctoral Candidate (the PD/PI), the role in economic development essay Faculty Advisor, Dissertation Committee Chair and/or Supervisor. Other committee members and individuals who contribute significantly to the development or execution of the proposed research should be listed as “Other Significant Contributors (OSCs)”. A biographical sketch must be provided as attachments for each Senior/Key Person. Follow the recommended format in the 424 RR Guide. For the “doctoral candidate” the attached Biographical Sketch must also contain a scientific autobiography that states her/his career goals, including reference to his/her interest in thesis, the specific area of mental health/mental disorders-related research, and that describes their intended career trajectory. Research Related Budget Component: ***Level of Effort: It is expected that students will devote 12 calendar months to the dissertation.

Any level of effort that is less than full time must be fully justified, and the student's salary must be prorated accordingly. FA costs are limited to eight percent of approved direct costs, less any equipment costs. PHS 398 Components. Cover Page Supplement Component: This is required. My Robot Essay. Follow the instructions in the PHS 424 RR Guide. PHS 398 Research Plan Component: Do not exceed a total of 10 pages for items 2 to 5 of the thesis customisation Research Plan. It is recommended that sections 2-5 be prepared as one document and then subsequently split into a separate PDF for each item. Plans for Instruction in the Responsible Conduct of Research (see Section IV.6 Other Submission Requirements) should immediately follow the Research Plan and should be submitted as part of the Research Plan component.

The items of the Research Plan are as follows: Item 1. Introduction to Application, Limited to one (1) page (For Resubmission Only) Item 2. Personal Strengths Paper. Specific Aims. This section must identify the research questions to be answered or hypotheses to be tested by the project and must also address the relevance of the project to NIMH research priorities. This section must identify the questions to be answered or the hypotheses to be tested by the project. Item 3. Background and Significance. This section must provide a summary of related published research that addresses the identified problem(s)

Item 4. Preliminary Studies/Progress Report. This section may include descriptions of ongoing work conducted in the laboratory or section in which the student is based and which is relevant to the proposed project. The doctoral candidate does not have to have been involved directly in this prior work for thesis theme, it to ks2 be described here. The candidate should indicate their level of involvement in thesis, such work and their accomplishments in the specific research setting, especially as they relate to the dissertation project. Item 5. Research Design and Methods. Describe the experimental design and methodological procedures to be followed and, whenever applicable, provide information on such matters as sampling procedures, including the size and composition of the population to be studied and the size and composition of the sample and control groups, as well as a description of the types and sources of data to be gathered, methodological problems that may be encountered, specific statistical analyses to be made, expected and alternative outcomes and role development essay their interpretation, and steps that will be taken to protect human subjects or research animals as appropriate. In addition, the management of the thesis theme customisation project, including a schedule or time-line of the main steps of the proposed investigation should be provided. Items 6-10. Human Subjects Sections: If Human Subjects will be involved in the project, follow the instructions in the Supplemental Instructions for Preparing the Human Subjects Section of the Research Plan that are included in the PHS 424 RR Guide (Section II). Add appropriate attachments.

Other Research Plan Sections: follow the instructions in the PHS 424 RR Guide to complete the sections relevant to the dissertation project. Item 11. Vertebrate Animals Section. Item 12. Consortium/Contractual Arrangements. Item 13. Letters of Support: A letter from the faculty advisor, dissertation committee chair or university official directly responsible for supervising the dissertation research must be submitted with the application to demonstrate the PD/PI has advanced to candidacy.

The letter must (a) list the members of the dissertation committee and of business in economic essay certify their approval of the dissertation proposal; (b) certify that the thesis customisation applicant is eligible for this grant mechanism and that all requirements for the doctoral degree, except the dissertation and, if necessary, the clinical internship, are completed or will be completed by personal strengths, the time the thesis theme customisation award starts; (c) confirm that the university official or faculty committee expects the my robot essay doctoral candidate to proceed with the approved project proposal with or without NIMH support and thesis customisation that the supervisor will provide time as needed to the student to allow timely completion of the dissertation; (d) certify that the institution's facilities and general environment are adequate to conduct the proposed research; and (e) describe the advisor’s or committee’s role in advising, guiding, training or mentoring the doctoral student in conducting the project. The faculty advisor and at least one other member of the dissertation committee must submit letters that address (a) their perceptions of the doctoral candidate’s progress to in economic essay date; and (b) the candidate’s commitment to mental health-related research and her/his prospect of becoming an independent investigator in this area. All letters must be submitted in one attachment. Item 14. Resource Sharing Plan. Item 15. Appendix: The doctoral candidate must provide an academic transcript of her/his record in the doctoral program to date. Theme Customisation. The appendix may include photographs or color images of gels, micrographs, etc. provided that the image (may be reduced in size) is also included within the 10-page limit of Items 2 -5 of the Research Plan. Personal. No images may be included in theme customisation, the Appendix that are not also represented within the Research Plan.

No publications or other printed material, with the my robot essay exception of preprinted questionnaires or surveys, may be included in the Appendix. PHS 398 Checklist Component: This is a Required Component. Follow the instructions in the PHS 424 RR Guide. PHS 398 Cover Letter File : This is an optional but recommended component. Follow the instructions in the PHS 424 RR Guide to attach a cover letter. Note: While each section of the Research Plan needs to be uploaded separately as a PDF attachment, applicants are encouraged to construct the Research Plan as a single document, separating sections into distinct PDF attachments just before uploading the customisation files. This approach will enable applicants to development essay better monitor formatting requirements such as page limits. All attachments must be provided to NIH in PDF format, filenames must be included with no spaces or special characters, and a .pdf extension must be used.

The NIH requires the PD/PI to thesis fill in his/her Commons User ID in the “PROFILE – Project Director/Principal Investigator” section, “Credential” log-in field of the english ks2 “Research Related Senior/Key Person Profile” component. Thesis Theme Customisation. The applicant organization must include its DUNS number in its Organization Profile in the eRA Commons. This DUNS number must match the DUNS number provided at CCR registration with Grants.gov. My Robot Essay. For additional information, see “Tips and Tools for Navigating Electronic Submission” on the front page of “Electronic Submission of Grant Applications.” 3. Submission Dates and Times. Application Submission Date(s): April 22, 2006; August 22, 2006; December 22; 2006; April 22, 2007; August 22, 2007; December 22; 2007; April 22, 2008; August 22, 2008; December 22; 2008 (including resubmissions). Letter of theme Intent Receipt Date(s): Not applicable. A letter of intent is not required for the funding opportunity. PAPER APPLICATIONS WILL NOT BE ACCEPTED.

There will be an acknowledgement of receipt of applications from Grants.gov and the Commons. Information related to the assignment of an application to the Scientific Review Group is also in the Commons. Renewa l (formerly “competing continuation” or “Type 2”) applications are not permitted. Resubmissions: If the first submission is not awarded the applicant may submit one resubmission. The submission dates for war 1 essay, resubmissions are the same as for new applications. Customisation. The resubmission must include an Introduction (limited to 1 page) that addresses the concerns and criticisms raised in and effect world essay, the summary statement. Refer to specific instructions on theme customisation, the preparation of an Introduction to a revised application in the SF424 Instruction Guide. The Introduction page is not included in the 10-page limit for write essay on how last, the Research Plan narrative for the Dissertation Research Grant Application. Scope of Awards : A Mental Health Dissertation Research Grant will be awarded for a period of up to 24 months.

Within this time frame the applicant may request support for the amount of time necessary to complete the dissertation. Expenses usually allowed under PHS research grants will be covered by the NIMH dissertation research grant but may not exceed $35,000 per year in direct costs for the project for a maximum period of thesis two years. An application that exceeds this period and cost will not be accepted for review. Additional Required Material: As noted in the Research Plan instructions above, s pecific information must be included as Appendix attachments to the Research Plan. The following items are required documents for a Dissertation Research Award. Letter of write you spent holiday Certification: A letter from the faculty advisor, dissertation committee chair or university official directly responsible for thesis theme, supervising the dissertation research certifying that the applicant meets the eligibility criteria for this award. Letters of Support. The transcript of the essay on how you spent your holiday applicant's graduate school record.

Instructions in the Responsible Conduct of Research : Applications must include the student-PD/PI’s plans for obtaining instruction in the responsible conduct of thesis customisation research, including the rationale, subject matter, appropriateness, format, frequency and duration of instruction. The amount and nature of faculty participation must be described. No award will be made if an write analytical application lacks this component. Plan for Sharing Research Data. 1. Criteria ( Update: Enhanced review criteria have been issued for the evaluation of research applications received for potential FY2010 funding and thereafter - see NOT-OD-09-025). Applications that are complete will be evaluated for scientific and technical merit by an appropriate review group convened by the NIMH in accordance with the review criteria stated below. Undergo a selection process in which only those applications deemed to have the highest scientific merit, generally the top half of applications under review, will be discussed and assigned a priority score. Receive a written critique. The goals of NIH supported research are to advance our understanding of biological systems, to customisation improve the control of my robot essay disease, and to thesis theme enhance health. In their written critiques, reviewers will be asked to comment on each of the following criteria in order to judge the likelihood that the proposed research will have a substantial impact on the pursuit of these goals. Each of these criteria will be addressed and considered in assigning the overall score, weighting them as appropriate for my robot essay, each application.

Note that an application does not need to be strong in all categories to thesis customisation be judged likely to have major scientific impact and thus deserve a high priority score. For example, an past sats english investigator may propose to carry out important work that by its nature is not innovative but is essential to move a field forward. Significance: Does the proposed project address an important problem relevant to theme customisation the NIMH mission and research priorities? If the aims of the application are achieved, how will scientific knowledge or clinical practice be advanced? What will be the effect of write essay on how you spent these studies on the concepts, methods, technologies, treatments, services or interventions that drive this field? Will the results have heuristic value? Innovation: Within the context of theme dissertation research, does the proposed project employ or develop novel concepts, approaches or methods? Within the same context, are the aims original and innovative?

Instruction in the Responsible Conduct of Research : Quality and appropriateness of proposed training in the responsible conduct of research. Budget: The reasonableness of the proposed budget and the requested period of support in relation to the proposed research may be assessed by the reviewers. My Robot Essay. Is the theme customisation effort listed for the PD/PI appropriate for the work proposed? Is each budget category realistic and of business development essay justified in terms of the aims and methods? 2.D. Sharing Research Resources. 1. Award Notices. If the application is thesis under consideration for funding, NIH will request just-in-time information from the applicant. For details, applicants may refer to the NIH Grants Policy Statement Part II: Terms and write structure Conditions of NIH Grant Awards, Subpart A: General. A formal notification in the form of a Notice of Award (NoA) will be provided to the applicant organization. The NoA signed by the grants management officer is the authorizing document.

Once all administrative and thesis theme programmatic issues have been resolved, the NoA will be generated via email notification from the awarding component to the grantee business official. Selection of an application for award is not an write authorization to begin performance. Any costs incurred before receipt of the NoA are at the recipient's risk. These costs may be reimbursed only to the extent considered allowable pre-award costs. See Also Section IV.5., “Funding Restrictions.” 2. Administrative and National Policy Requirements. Continuation of support without additional funds: under expanded authorities, the grantee institution may extend this grant up to one year without additional funds. However, notification of an customisation extension to the NIMH staff must include information documenting the progress of the awardees during the role first two years of customisation support and write a narrative essay your holiday the circumstances leading to the extension. The grantee institution may provide a one-year extension of the grant, without additional funds, only if there is evidence of thesis theme acceptable progress and the need for additional time. This report requires the principal investigator to my robot essay provide a review of the theme customisation progress made towards completing the role development essay objectives of the dissertation grant, including important or significant findings and list any publications submitted for review or published that were directly supported by the grant.

Confirmation of theme customisation completion, filing and acceptance of the dissertation constitutes the final report of the grant. As a part of the closeout process, documentation of the filing and and effect world war 1 acceptance of the dissertation must be submitted to the NIMH within 90 days of the termination of the grant. Documentation of acceptance of the dissertation must include the signatures of the faculty committee or university official responsible for the candidate's dissertation, and thesis theme customisation the Dissertation Abstracts citation. The final report should also indicate where the doctoral recipient is continuing their research career. Section VII. My Robot Essay. Agency Contacts. We encourage your inquiries concerning this funding opportunity and thesis welcome the opportunity to answer questions from potential applicants. Inquiries may fall into sats ks2 three areas: scientific/research, peer review, and financial or grants management issues: 2. Peer Review Contacts: Division of theme customisation Extramural Activities. National Institute of Mental Health.

6001 Executive Blvd, Room 6138, MSC 9609. Bethesda , MD 20892-9609. Telephone: (301) 443-3534. 3. Financial or Grants Management Contacts: Grants Management Branch. Division of Extramural Activities. National Institute of cause and effect essay Mental Health. 6001 Executive Blvd , Room 6122, MSC 9605.

Bethesda , MD 20892-9605. Section VIII. Other Information. Required Federal Citations. Recipients of PHS support for activities involving live, vertebrate animals must comply with PHS Policy on Humane Care and Use of theme customisation Laboratory Animals (https://grants.nih.gov/grants/olaw/references/PHSPolicyLabAnimals.pdf) as mandated by development, the Health Research Extension Act of 1985 (https://grants.nih.gov/grants/olaw/references/hrea1985.htm), and the USDA Animal Welfare Regulations (http://www.nal.usda.gov/awic/legislat/usdaleg1.htm) as applicable.

Federal regulations (45CFR46) require that applications and proposals involving human subjects must be evaluated with reference to the risks to thesis customisation the subjects, the adequacy of protection against these risks, the potential benefits of the research to sats english ks2 the subjects and others, and the importance of the knowledge gained or to theme customisation be gained (http://www.hhs.gov/ohrp/humansubjects/guidance/45cfr46.htm). The Office of Management and Budget (OMB) Circular A-110 has been revised to personal strengths paper provide access to research data through the Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) under some circumstances. Data that are (1) first produced in thesis, a project that is supported in whole or in part with Federal funds and (2) cited publicly and officially by essay, a Federal agency in support of an thesis theme action that has the force and effect of law (i.e., a regulation) may be accessed through FOIA. It is important for applicants to understand the basic scope of this amendment. NIH has provided guidance at https://grants.nih.gov/grants/policy/a110/a110_guidance_dec1999.htm. Applicants may wish to place data collected under this funding opportunity in a public archive, which can provide protections for the data and manage the distribution for an indefinite period of past sats english ks2 time. If so, the application should include a description of the archiving plan in the study design and include information about this in the budget justification section of the application. In addition, applicants should think about how to theme customisation structure informed consent statements and other human subjects procedures given the potential for wider use of data collected under this award.

NIH is committed to support efforts that encourage sharing of important research resources including the sharing of model organisms for biomedical research (see https://grants.nih.gov/grants/policy/model_organism/index.htm). At the same time the NIH recognizes the past sats papers ks2 rights of grantees and contractors to elect and retain title to subject inventions developed with Federal funding pursuant to thesis theme the Bayh Dole Act (see the NIH Grants Policy Statement https://grants.nih.gov/archive/archive/grants/policy/nihgps_2003/index.htm). Of Business Essay. All investigators submitting an theme NIH application or contract proposal, beginning with the October 1, 2004 receipt date, are expected to include in the application/proposal a description of a specific plan for sharing and distributing unique model organism research resources generated using NIH funding or state why such sharing is restricted or not possible. This will permit other researchers to benefit from the cause world resources developed with public funding. Customisation. The inclusion of a model organism sharing plan is not subject to a cost threshold in any year and is expected to be included in a narrative on how your, all applications where the development of model organisms is anticipated. It is the policy of the thesis theme customisation NIH that women and members of role of business minority groups and their sub-populations must be included in all NIH-supported clinical research projects unless a clear and theme customisation compelling justification is my robot essay provided indicating that inclusion is inappropriate with respect to thesis the health of the subjects or the purpose of the research. This policy results from the NIH Revitalization Act of role of business development essay 1993 (Section 492B of Public Law 103-43).

All investigators proposing clinical research should read the NIH Guidelines for theme, Inclusion of Women and paper Minorities as Subjects in Clinical Research (https://grants.nih.gov/grants/guide/notice-files/NOT-OD-02-001.html); a complete copy of the theme customisation updated Guidelines is available at https://grants.nih.gov/grants/funding/women_min/guidelines_amended_10_2001.htm. Write Essay On How Your Last. The amended policy incorporates: the use of an NIH definition of clinical research; updated racial and ethnic categories in compliance with the new OMB standards; clarification of language governing NIH-defined Phase III clinical trials consistent with the SF424 (RR); and updated roles and responsibilities of NIH staff and the extramural community. The policy continues to require for all NIH-defined Phase III clinical trials that: a) all applications or proposals and/or protocols must provide a description of plans to conduct analyses, as appropriate, to address differences by sex/gender and/or racial/ethnic groups, including subgroups if applicable; and b) investigators must report annual accrual and progress in thesis, conducting analyses, as appropriate, by sex/gender and/or racial/ethnic group differences. The NIH maintains a policy that children (i.e., individuals under the age of 21) must be included in all clinical research, conducted or supported by the NIH, unless there are scientific and ethical reasons not to include them. NIH policy requires education on the protection of war 1 essay human subject participants for customisation, all investigators submitting NIH applications for research involving human subjects and individuals designated as key personnel. The policy is available at cause world, https://grants.nih.gov/grants/guide/notice-files/NOT-OD-00-039.html. Criteria for federal funding of research on hESCs can be found at http://stemcells.nih.gov/index.asp and at https://grants.nih.gov/grants/guide/notice-files/NOT-OD-02-005.html. Only research using hESC lines that are registered in thesis theme customisation, the NIH Human Embryonic Stem Cell Registry will be eligible for Federal funding (http://escr.nih.gov). It is the responsibility of the personal strengths applicant to provide in theme customisation, the project description and elsewhere in the application as appropriate, the official NIH identifier(s) for the hESC line(s)to be used in the proposed research. Applications that do not provide this information will be returned without review. NIH-funded investigators are requested to submit to the NIH manuscript submission (NIHMS) system (http://www.nihms.nih.gov) at PubMed Central (PMC) an electronic version of the past sats author's final manuscript upon acceptance for publication, resulting from research supported in whole or in part with direct costs from customisation NIH.

The author's final manuscript is defined as the final version accepted for journal publication, and includes all modifications from the publishing peer review process. The Department of Health and past ks2 Human Services (DHHS) issued final modification to the Standards for Privacy of Individually Identifiable Health Information, the Privacy Rule, on August 14, 2002. Theme. The Privacy Rule is a federal regulation under the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) of 1996 that governs the protection of write you spent last individually identifiable health information, and theme is administered and enforced by the DHHS Office for Civil Rights (OCR). All applications and proposals for NIH funding must be self-contained within specified page limitations. Unless otherwise specified in an NIH solicitation, Internet addresses (URLs) should not be used to provide information necessary to personal strengths the review because reviewers are under no obligation to view the theme Internet sites. Write Essay On How Your. Furthermore, we caution reviewers that their anonymity may be compromised when they directly access an thesis theme Internet site. The Public Health Service (PHS) is committed to essay structure achieving the health promotion and thesis disease prevention objectives of Healthy People 2010, a PHS-led national activity for sats english ks2, setting priority areas.

This PA is related to one or more of the theme customisation priority areas. Potential applicants may obtain a copy of Healthy People 2010 at http://www.health.gov/healthypeople. This program is described in the Catalog of Federal Domestic Assistance at http://www.cfda.gov/ and is not subject to the intergovernmental review requirements of Executive Order 12372 or Health Systems Agency review. Awards are made under the authorization of Sections 301 and 405 of the write you spent your holiday Public Health Service Act as amended (42 USC 241 and 284) and under Federal Regulations 42 CFR 52 and 45 CFR Parts 74 and 92. All awards are subject to the terms and thesis customisation conditions, cost principles, and english ks2 other considerations described in the NIH Grants Policy Statement . The NIH Grants Policy Statement can be found at https://grants.nih.gov/grants/policy/policy.htm. NIH encourages applications for thesis customisation, educational loan repayment from qualified health professionals who have made a commitment to pursue a research career involving clinical, pediatric, contraception, infertility, and health disparities related areas. The LRP is an important component of NIH's efforts to recruit and retain the next generation of researchers by providing the means for developing a research career unfettered by the burden of student loan debt. Note that an structure NIH grant is not required for thesis theme, eligibility and past sats english concurrent career award and LRP applications are encouraged. The periods of career award and LRP award may overlap providing the theme LRP recipient with the a narrative on how required commitment of time and effort, as LRP awardees must commit at least 50% of theme customisation their time (at least 20 hours per week based on a 40 hour week) for two years to the research. For further information, please see: http://www.lrp.nih.gov. 9000 Rockville Pike.

Bethesda, Maryland 20892. and Human Services (HHS) Note: For help accessing PDF, RTF, MS Word, Excel, PowerPoint, Audio or Video files, see Help Downloading Files.

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Easy Words to Use as Sentence Starters to Write Better Essays. VirginiaLynne has been a University English instructor for over 20 years. She specializes in thesis theme customisation, helping people write essays faster and easier. Word or phrase used at the start of a sentence to show the relationship between ideas. Can you quickly and easily improve your writing? Yes.

For over english, 20 years, I've been teaching the thesis theme, tips I share below to my students and every time they apply these tips, their writing gets dramatically better. Why? Three reasons: These tips and transition words help you resist the my robot essay, old habit of thesis theme, simple subject-verb sentence structure and develop richer and more nuanced ideas. By adding transitions to your sentences, you link your ideas more effectively. These words make your writing sound more professional and less like spoken language. How To Use Sentence Starter Lists. The most important tip for improving your writing quickly is to follow one rule: Start every sentence in a paragraph with a different word.

How? Here is my step-by-step guide: Use the transition list as you write: Think about how the sentences in personal, your paragraph are related to thesis theme customisation, one another. If you are comparing and contrasting two ideas, then use the Showing Contrast transition words (see list below). Are you writing about steps in in economic, a process? Then use the Adding to an Idea transition words below. Theme Customisation! When writing about something that happened, use the Sequence/Time transitions I've provided. Past English! Using the transition list while you are revising : Sometimes, it is easier not to worry about these words until your final draft stage, especially if you are a beginning writer. Thesis Theme! How do you do this? Use the following tips: Go through your first draft and circle the first word in every sentence.

If you use the same word to past sats english papers ks2, start a sentence twice in theme customisation, a paragraph, then you need to choose another transition word and world war 1 re-word the sentence. How to choose transition words? Think about how each sentence fits with the one before it. Does this sentence add information? Then use moreover, furthermore, or another word that adds to thesis theme, the idea. If this sentence contrasts with the previous sentence, you might use however or on the other hand. If it is a time sequence, use next, then, or consider using first, second, etc.

Don’t use the same transition too often. Also, don't forget the comma after the transition word and don't forget to put the subject of the sentence after the write structure, comma. What makes using transitions improve your writing is thesis theme that it forces you to explain the connections between your ideas. Ask yourself: What does the sentence before this one say? How does this sentence relate to that one? Scan the list for a transition that seems to fit best. You can also use these questions for write structure help: Does this sentence add information? Then use: moreover, furthermore, additionally, or another addition transition.

Does the sentence contrast or contradict? Use: however, on thesis theme customisation, the other hand, in contrast, or another contrasting transition. Are you writing something that happens in order? Use: next, then, or consider using time order like first, second,etc. Does this sentence add evidence? Use: for example, consequently, for development essay this reason, or another consequence transition. Does the thesis customisation, sentence emphasize an idea? Use: obviously, especially, as a rule, particularly or another emphasizing transition . 1. Use a variety of transition words, not the same one. 2. My Robot Essay! Put a comma after the transition word.

3. Put the subject of the sentence after the comma. 2. Use a Variety of Words When Citing Examples. 3. Use Different Words to Order Events and Sequence Time. 4. Use Interesting Words When Summarizing. Short paragraph without transition words:

Cell phones have changed our family communication for thesis the worse. Parents complain their teenagers spending too much time on their phone. Teenagers are annoyed that they can't get the attention of their parents who are always working or shopping on their phones. My Robot Essay! We need to make some changes. Generally speaking, cell phones have changed our family communication for the worse. Obviously, parents complain about their teenagers spending too much time on their phones. Moreover, teenagers are annoyed that they can't get the attention of theme, their parents who are always working or shopping on their phones.

Unquestionably, we need to make some changes. Just following my tips to my robot essay, add transition words to your essay can often make your essay much better and will probably improve your grade. Theme Customisation! Inevitably, as soon as I tell my classes about this technique their writing improves dramatically. Better yet, the more you use transition words in revision, the more you begin to write you spent your, add that technique to your writing during the first draft. Why does that help? It begins training you to think about thesis theme how your ideas relate to one another and helps you to write essays that are deeper, more connected and logical. If you've found this technique helpful, or if you have another sentence starting technique, please add your comments below to on how, help out other writers.

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Virginia Kearney 8 hours ago from United States. Hi Harni--I have lots of help for writing essays of all sorts. Just follow the links to the side of this article, or look at the links to different kinds of analytical essay structure, essays on my profile page. This helped me sooo much Thank You. I was just wondering how to start an essay like the introduction. Virginia Kearney 22 hours ago from thesis theme United States. Hi Ryan, You can use any of the past sats english ks2, words here in front of the I or you can use a phrase from the end of the sentence. Here is an example: I am going to the store because I need to buy groceries.

Because I need groceries, I'm going to thesis customisation, the store. Frankly, I need groceries, so I'm going to the store. Hi, I was just wondering easy ways to replace I at the beginning of a sentence. Sometimes, I struggle with this, and the replacements I find sound unnatural. This is a great article though. Virginia Kearney 8 days ago from United States. Hi Sepphora, you want to start by underlining all the write you spent your last holiday, first words in theme customisation, your sentences.

When you find you are using the same word to war 1 essay, start a sentence (especially in the same paragraph) you should use one of these ideas instead. my problem is the theme customisation, different word to use or replace . This helps me so much. Virginia Kearney 2 weeks ago from United States. Hi Mimi--To avoid the world essay, passive sentence, you want to put the thesis customisation, actor first. In your example, one way to paper, fix this is to ask who considered Mimi? Then instead of was given consideration you would use the more direct considered. Example: The orchestra director considered Mimi for the position of first chair but thought she would be too nervous.

How do you write non-passive sentences? For example, Mimi was given consideration. thank you very much, it really helped me :) Already bookmarked it. This article helped me for my entire 2 years masters. Thanks a lot for writing such informative post. Also, do write update us with more of this awesome posts.

Thank u very much ,the info really created an impact in my essay writing. Thanks it really helps me while writing. I'm very thankful for this article. It really helps my essay. Great advice well laid out. Awesome Article, no words for your well-crafted words. Virginia Kearney 2 months ago from thesis theme customisation United States.

Hi, Thomas--I'm glad you asked. I have over 100 articles to a narrative essay last, help people improve their writing, including ideas for proofreading your own essay and questions you can use to thesis, have other people evaluate your essay to write, help you improve your writing. I also have an thesis article on effective sentences and write a narrative on how you spent grammar help for using punctuation marks. Customisation! You can find these articles by looking at my profile page or following the my robot essay, links on theme, the side with my name. In working with non-native writers, I find the past papers ks2, most important editing technique is to have several people look at your essay carefully and to thesis theme, read the essay out loud as you proofread. My final best tip is to focus on one or two rules a time as you go through the paper. Then you can make sure that you have corrected for personal strengths that error carefully.

Hopefully, your instructor can help guide you to know which rules are most important for you to focus on first. Thesis! I'm afraid I don't know of any websites where you can submit your work to and effect world war 1 essay, get help. Hey, great article! Do you have any suggestions for non-native english speakers that are working on an english essay? Especially regarding proof reading? Are there any platforms where one can get help from others?

Virginia Kearney 2 months ago from customisation United States. Hi Mahmoud! I have over role in economic development essay, 100 articles on writing that are published here on thesis theme, Letterpile. You can find help with grammar and also on write, how to structure sentences and thesis essays. Look at my profile or follow the links to the side that have my name. Thanks. That was great and useful. Of Business In Economic! Since I'm not a native i encounter with more problem than you mentioned what i am gonna do? Absolutely amazing tips! Nice article Virginia, I have gained from it a lot especially the transition words. being a newbie at thesis theme customisation, content writing this article helps.

Hi Virginia Kearney, Thank you so much for the quick response. Virginia Kearney 5 months ago from sats english United States. Hi, Himabindu- So, is generally used as a coordinating conjunction (others are and, but, or, and yet) and therefore would generally not be used correctly to start a sentence, but rather as a way to join two sentences. Example: The bookstore didn't have what we wanted, so we went elsewhere. However, in thesis theme, your example, you are using so as an interjection in a conversational style sentence. Strengths! You could vary this by saying: Actually, I don't.

In reality, I don't. Furthermore, I really don't. The truth is that I really don't. In the second example, you are using as in theme, an introductory phrase, which is another way to and effect war 1, vary your sentences besides just using a sentence starter transition word. When you are trying to decide how to thesis, write a sentence differently, you need to past english ks2, decide what that sentence is doing.

Is it adding to customisation, what you've already said? Then use words like Additionally or Furthermore. Role Of Business In Economic Development! Is it contradicting or changing the direction? Use However, In contrast or On the other hand. In your two examples, you are talking about the cause, so the best choices are Because, Since: Since this book is not useful to theme, me, I really don't want it on my shelf. Because this book wasn't useful to me, I don't want it on my shelf. You can also vary the meaning a bit with sentences like this:

In general, this book wasn't really useful to me, so I don't want it on my shelf. hi.. this post is very useful. If I have to use transition words that means, 'so' or 'as' or 'that's why' what I have to use? For example, I say So, I don't want to use this in write analytical structure, my book or As this book is thesis customisation not useful to me, I don't want to see this on in economic, my shelf. If I have to say the same sentences in a different way, how can I say? Fatima Roque 5 months ago. Thank you so much, this will help me in thesis customisation, my IELTS preparation especially in writing and speaking as well. :) Ronald Cole 5 months ago.

This information has helped me a great deal. I have never been one to write much using transition words has always been a weakest. Virginia Kearney 5 months ago from United States. Hi Hannah Baker, I'm so glad to hear that you are writing a book. My teenage daughter is also a writer and I think it is really wonderful that anyone can now write something and post it online for others to read. I might have become a fiction writer if that had been available to me as a teen. Cause World War 1 Essay! Thank you for spending the thesis theme, time to know that I've helped you. I teach college students but I have found many younger people are also looking at my articles and I'm thinking about creating some information just for them.

I'd love to hear what younger people want to know about how to write better. Hannah Baker 5 months ago. My name is a narrative essay on how you spent last not really Hannah Baker though, just a cover up. Thesis Customisation! I'm a teen I and love writting. I'm recently stuck on a book that I'm writting, called The Chosen One, and I was getting for frustrated because I kept using the same words or phrases. My Robot Essay! I ended up finding this website and customisation it really helped me, so thank you very much. Virginia Kearney 5 months ago from United States. Hi Jodah! I'm often trying to my robot essay, force myself to theme customisation, use some new transition words in paper, my writing as well. Along with the words I put in this article, you can also use different kinds of phrases at the start of a sentence.

I especially like gerund phrases like Walking down the street, Thinking about my children, or Writing in a new way. John Hansen 5 months ago from customisation Queensland Australia. This is very helpful Virginia. I never start sentences in a paragraph with the same word, and do use transition words, but I probably only my robot essay, use the same favourites over theme customisation, and over (about 10) as you mentioned in write analytical essay structure, your comment to Bianca. Solved my biggest problem as I always tend to use same transitions again and again in a paragraph. Thanks, I appreciate your effort.

this really helped thanks. Virginia Kearney 6 months ago from United States. Bianca--I generally find the adding and contrasting words are the most useful for me. In fact, I think that when you start to use this technique that most people pick 6-10 favorite words and use them most of the time. Bianca di'Angelo 6 months ago. Thank you for this. Theme! I'm writing an essay on how advertising affects youth but I keep needing to sats, pause every few words to thesis, try and of business in economic development find just the right one. Another or additionally. overall or in conclusion.

I think the theme customisation, most helpful ones for me were the words to add ideas. This is a lifeline for me.thank you. Virginia Kearney 6 months ago from United States. Michaela--Whether this will work as a subject for your paper depends on your assignment. My Robot Essay! You could do legends about elves and find evidence on that.

Virginia Kearney 6 months ago from United States. Hi, Liv-I have two articles that could help you. One is about writing a thesis sentence and the other is about writing topic sentences in paragraphs. Often, these sentence starters can be used to theme, write better topic sentences because they can help you link your ideas and show how one topic sentence either adds or contrasts to the ideas before. I don't understand how to start the papers ks2, topic sentence of the paragraph, so I suggest that this page should include starting words for topic sentences in paragraphs. Jorge Oliveira 7 months ago. Thank you so much for showing me how to use transitions with accuracy! Kendall Kincaid 8 months ago. Thank you for theme the help! Kayla Miller 8 months ago.

Thank you soo much for the Article! That will come in handy in writing assignments. Russell Morrison 8 months ago. Reading this has given me some new words to start my paragraphs with. Thank you! This helped me improve my writing.Thanks :) wrong your all wrong im a book writer 9 months ago. your all wrong im a book writer. Thanks soo much I have be having the worst time with passing my essay for a state board exam and I am going to write analytical, use your effective strategies to make some improvements. Virginia Kearney 9 months ago from United States. Hi Daniel--Transition words like these sentence starters are used as the first word in a sentence.

Often, they have a comma after them, just as I show in this sentence. Here is a sample using some really simple sentences: Global warming is increasing. Scientists say ice caps are melting quickly. The CO2 levels around the world are much higher than just fifty years ago. We need to do something now. With transition words: Unfortunately, global warming is theme customisation increasing at a rapid rate.

In fact, scientists say ice caps are melting quickly. Additionally, the CO2 levels around the world are much higher than just fifty years ago. With this in mind, we need to do something now. I have a question. I don't understand how to use transitions still and my paper is due after Winter Break. Cause World! Please help? Virginia Kearney 9 months ago from United States. Hi Dustin! I'm happy that my work has helped you.

Please check out customisation my other articles on different types of write on how you spent your last holiday, essays for more help. Thx this helped me out for thesis theme customisation my essay you will be the only site I will use . Awesome article, I printed it out to my robot essay, use as a reference. Venkatachari M 11 months ago from theme customisation Hyderabad, India. Very useful article for improving one's style of paper, writing. Thanks for sharing this wonderful knowledge. This is a good website for thesis customisation kids. Thanks u helped me with my assignment.

Emily 12 months ago from Oregon. I love the charts; they really lay things out concisely. Thanks for role development essay the helpful information. I'm glad to add another specific tool to my writing toolbox! Virginia Kearney 12 months ago from United States. Sirin, It is optional to put a comma after a short transition or introductory element.

For example, I can put a comma in theme customisation, this sentence after example but the analytical essay structure, meaning is clear if I don't, so it is all right to leave the customisation, comma out. However, you are not wrong to structure, add the thesis, comma and my robot essay it often makes the sentence clearer. Here are some examples and you can decide whether the comma is helpful or not: Nevertheless, I believe she is correct in thesis theme customisation, her assumption. On the other hand, what they think is sats english also correct.

Hello,you said that it is thesis customisation important to put a comma after each transition word,but i found in a book i have read that, of Macdwell about British history,he uses no commat after each transition he put.I want to know please :is this permmited in and effect essay, writing or no.And,in the same time, we can't say he is wrong since he is an auther and he publishes books.thank you in thesis, advance. Virginia Kearney 13 months ago from personal strengths United States. Hi, Ahmed! To go to a new idea, you could use a contrasting transition, such as on the other hand, or however. It might be possible to use the sequence transition words first, next, etc. if you are doing something that happens in time or in space. If you are adding a new idea to support the main point, then you can do additionally, moreover or in fact.

Interesting, but which words used to start new topic / idea . thank you so much for doing this it helped me a lot and I'm sure I'll be visiting this page in thesis theme, the future. Virginia Kearney 13 months ago from United States. Congratulations on starting to learn English, Maria! I have almost 100 articles to and effect war 1 essay, help you and there are other writers on HubPages who have articles especially for ELS learners. Good luck! Learning English takes work but I know you can do it!

I'm beginners .I wanna to learn English as second language . Ithink these words help me a lot. Omg this helps/helped me so much with writing my essays.So happy I found this website and thank you for creating it. Virginia Kearney 14 months ago from United States. So glad this helps you Jackie. Check out thesis my other articles for even more help and past ks2 ideas! Every year, I get more ideas from my students to thesis customisation, incorporate into my site. Teaching is always about learning as well as giving out information.

Brilliant, I have hit a plateau tonight writing an assignment for uni, and now this has given me a whole heap of ideas. John Hansen 15 months ago from cause war 1 essay Queensland Australia. Very professional article, Virginia. Your wise advice and list of words is very helpful. Thanks for this post it really helped me. Virginia Kearney 16 months ago from theme customisation United States. Tina--thanks so much for and effect war 1 essay your comment!

I'm always so happy when someone tells me that what I've worked so hard to put together has helped them learn to thesis customisation, write better. Now that all of write essay, us communicate so much through the Internet, I think learning to write clearly is even more important than ever. Tina Kozma 16 months ago. This website is the only website I use when writing essays. In fact, I have this website on thesis theme, my desktop so I can easily access it. Thank you so much for putting this information together! Asher Socrates 19 months ago from Los Angeles, CA. This is a very informative and my robot essay helpful write up with straight to the point instructions. I will be book marking this to help me break away from my many bad habits when it come to writing.

Thank you very much! This really helped thanx. Virginia Kearney 20 months ago from United States. So glad that you think these will help your friend JG. I have a lot of second language readers. I've taught students from many different countries and, in customisation, fact, that is how I've come up with some of my material. I would see something that my students were having trouble doing and past sats papers ks2 then tried to figure out a way to help them write better in that area. jgshorebird 20 months ago from Southeastern U.S. Great information. Not that I am any good, but I have a friend who is having trouble in college (she is theme Spanish -- having a difficult time) and your hubs are a gold mine. Thanks.

Thank you so much. This will help me with my AP class. (: Virginia Kearney 21 months ago from United States. Thanks so much! All of write a narrative essay on how your last, my articles were written first as notes for lectures for my students. They are the theme customisation, ones who taught me what students want to know. Write On How Holiday! My whole goal is to make writing easier and theme customisation more accessible. I'm especially glad when it helps English learners from other countries. Kamaraju Pulugurtha 21 months ago from Khammam, India. I like this Post, mainly it doesn't sound look like a Page out of a Grammar Text, creating a feeling of horror.

I find it hospitable, offering bits and bits of advice. Virginia Kearney 2 years ago from United States. The idea for past papers this list was one I was given by thesis theme customisation, an older professor when I was in graduate school. It was definitely some of the best advice I had ever gotten about writing. I love the fact that the idea is so simple but it really makes a huge difference in the sound of personal strengths paper, a person's writing. I've added a lot of words to customisation, the list over past ks2, the years and added the theme, rules of how to use these in sentences. This post is very helpful and of business essay practical! I have often struggled with starting sentences the same way and I think this will make me a much better writer. This is great information. Theme! I cannot count how many times I have been stuck using the same starter over an over and wishing I could add more variety to my writing.

Extremely helpful ideas and lists of words. Gary Malmberg 2 years ago from my robot essay Concon, Chile. Love this. I'm saving it for theme customisation the future. Two thumbs yup. Cheryl Simonds 2 years ago from Connecticut. Great hub! The reference lists are going to be a favorite of mine from now on.

Very helpful hubs, I will certainly use transitions words in all my further revisions. Virginia Kearney 3 years ago from United States. Just Rodney--You are right about the differences in essay structure, language. What I teach at customisation, my University is standard American English. Since I was born and raised in California, I speak and personal strengths paper write in the standard dialect of the U.S. movie and T.V. culture, which has become standard English in thesis customisation, America through that medium. One of the reasons that English has become such a universal language is that it is very adaptable and tends to allow people to my robot essay, add words from other languages, as well as add different ways of expressing thoughts.

I now live in the Southern United States and love some of the different expressions here. Rodney Fagan 3 years ago from thesis theme customisation Johannesberg South Africa, The Gold Mine City. Well written Hub, although English is spoken and written in paper, a vast number of Countries; there are various grammatic, spelling and other subtle usages that come into play! RTalloni 3 years ago from the short journey. As always, great stuff from customisation you. I enjoy your hubs and like learning from them. The comments here reflect the usefulness of past papers, your work to a wide range of readers. Virginia Kearney 3 years ago from United States. Thanks Lynette! I'm so glad you are working for your GED.

It is not easy to theme, finish everything but it will certainly be worth it. Lynette Scott 3 years ago. I have just been given your list in world war 1 essay, my GED class. Quickly browsing the article, I am sure it will help my sentence structure. Here is one suggestion I would like to add for thesis you. Use Remember, instead of Don't forget, As in analytical structure, from your article Remember, the comma after the transition word, and remember to put the subject of the thesis customisation, sentence after the comma. Virginia Kearney 3 years ago from United States. Hi Jade--Your example shows another way of starting sentences effectively, and my robot essay that is by thesis customisation, using a descriptive phrase.

From reading your comment, I'm guessing that English is not your first language because the way you have phrased your sentences is not quite correct for a native speaker. However your point is excellent. Instead of putting the subject first in a sentence all the time (which English speakers generally do when talking because that makes the meaning of the sentence clearer), you can put a descriptive phrase or even part of the predicate of the sentence at the beginning. My Robot Essay! I will reword your sentence a bit to make it more correct in thesis, standard English: One bright, sunny summer day, the son shone brilliantly through the clear class window. Here are some other examples (notice how these short sentences jump out!): Flashing an angry eye at me, the horse ran quickly past and jumped over a fence. Darting about the flower, the bee finally settled down to gather some pollen. It's really good, but on the other hand you should add more sentence starter like: One bright sunny summer day the sun shone on the glass clear window.

Also do you think that was good? Virginia Kearney 3 years ago from paper United States. Glad to know this helped you Daily--I find that my students start writing better immediately when they use this list. Virginia Kearney 3 years ago from customisation United States. So glad to role in economic, know this helps you devsmilez. I always teach this to my classes as a quick and easy way to improve your essays.

I see dramatic improvement when students use these. Joey Keefe 4 years ago from Albuquerque, New Mexico. Interesting article. Using transition words like the ones you listed can be a great way to start a sentence. Theme! However, I've noticed in my own writing I can fall into paper, the habit of theme customisation, using transition words as a crutch. So while I definitely agree that transition words are useful and effective, they can spoil an otherwise good piece of writing if used too flippantly. AngPow 4 years ago from North Cali. Wow. Thank you for the list of transition words, VirginiaLynne. This hub will help a lot for the multiple essays and papers that I have to write this semester.

Thank you for sharing. I have to development essay, write an essay on sports and my first paragraph has to include the author, title, publisher, etc, as well as a summary of the main points and ideas. I cannot figure out how I should start this essay. Please help! Virginia Kearney 4 years ago from thesis customisation United States. Good point Tex. What emphasize in my class is that you need to pay attention to strengths, how your ideas connect with one another. Usually you are adding, contrasting or comparing.

Transition words help you make that distinction clear. In spoken language we often use tone, voice and gestures to make those connections, but in written language we need to use transition words and punctuation. texshelters 4 years ago from Mesa, Arizona. Certainly, paying attention to transitions is theme customisation important. However, when a writer uses a transitional phrase or word just because they should and not because it fits, the writing can come out even worse.

Virginia Kearney 4 years ago from english papers United States. Good question aya. Here are some ideas: On Saturday and thesis customisation Sunday; add another transition word like, Sometimes on cause, the weekend; change the on to another transition word like During the weekend; switch your sentence around so that on the weekend comes at thesis, the end, such as We love to go sailing on the weekend instead of role essay, On the theme customisation, weekend, we love to world essay, go sailing; and theme customisation try a variation like Weekends. Write Analytical Essay Structure! Hope that helps! Copyright 2017 HubPages Inc. and respective owners. Other product and company names shown may be trademarks of their respective owners. Theme Customisation! HubPages ® is a registered Service Mark of HubPages, Inc. HubPages and Hubbers (authors) may earn revenue on and effect war 1, this page based on affiliate relationships and advertisements with partners including Amazon, Google, and others.

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