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otto eckstein resume AKA Sigismund Schlomo Freud. Birthplace: Freiberg, Moravia  Race or Ethnicity: White. Sexual orientation: Straight. Executive summary: Die Traumdeutung. The father of psychoanalysis, Sigmund Freud is raymond carver, best known for his tendency to trace nearly all psychological problems back to sexual issues. Although only parts of his theory of psychosexual development are still accepted by mainstream psychologists, Freud's theory of the Oedipal Complex has become a cultural icon nevertheless. Other now-famous Freudian innovations include the therapy couch, the use of talk therapy to quoting novels, resolve psychological problems, and his theories about the unconscious -- including the role of repression, denial, sublimation, and projection. Initially a Viennese medical doctor, Freud was trained in neurology, and he originally drew inspiration from the work of Charles Darwin which explained behavior in evolutionary terms. Carver Essays. But Freud's introduction to hypnotherapy and to the stunning revelations it elicited from mentally ill patients led him to develop a revolutionary theory of the mind and of the dynamics underlying human behavior.
While Freud's theories have always been controversial, his work forms a major portion of the foundations of modern psychology, with considerable modification by later theorists. Sigmund Schlomo Freud was born May 6, 1856 in Freiberg, Moravia. Then located in the Austrian Empire, the region is now part of the Czech Republic. Sigmund Freud's father, Jacob, was a Jewish merchant of limited means, and a former widower. And his mother, Amalia, was Jacob’s second wife. She was at least twenty years younger than her husband, and was in fact close in age to Freud’s two stepbrothers -- part of quoting novels in essays, Jacob's numerous offspring from carver a previous marriage. Cover Letter Paragraphs. Amalia also bore several children, eight including her first born and favorite, Sigmund. He distinguished himself with intellectual brilliance from an early age, routinely excelled in school, and was aided by raymond carver his parents in pursuing every educational advantage that they could afford. Research. He was overall, their most favored child. Nonetheless, Freud recalls being extremely sensitive to any outburst of essays, criticism from his father, however rare, and to any other act of his father’s that impugned young Sigmund's sense of worth (for example, refusing to answer back to fast food reality term paper, anti-Semitic remarks when the two were together). From the essays, age of four onward, Sigmund Freud grew up in Vienna.
By age eight he was reading Shakespeare. At age seventeen he began attending the maya angelou paper introduction, University of Vienna, graduating in 1881 with a degree in medicine. Carver. Freud's key interest however was in the workings of the brain, with his perspective deriving from Darwin’s work on evolution. Thus Freud started out with the belief that physiology and evolution determined behavior. He felt that the secrets of behavior dysfunction therefore, were likely to maya research, be revealed through a physical, scientific study of the brain and its related systems. And he was eager to raymond carver, further explore this area. However, positions for conducting pure research, upon quoting from novels, a paid basis, were limited, so Freud took up work at Theodor Meynert's Psychiatric Clinic. It was during this period that he began his studies into carver essays a promising new drug, cocaine, which he believed would become a common treatment for depression -- and perhaps even for other ailments, including indigestion. He himself became an enthusiastic user of cocaine, also handing it out to resume letter, colleagues and relations (including his sisters) and praising its merits in various scholarly papers. He even sent a bit of cocaine to his fianc Martha Bernays to make her strong and give her cheeks a red color. Meanwhile, Freud's friend Wilhelm Fleiss was utilizing the raymond carver, drug, sometimes in concert with surgery, to treat patients for reflex nasal neuroses.
That is, he hoped to cure them of their mental ills by angelou stimulating or modifying the sinus area -- an approach that can only vaguely be likened to modern reflexology. Freud occasionally referred patients to Fleiss for this procedure, most notably Emma Eckstein whose treatment went tragically awry. But Freud himself was beginning to raymond essays, move away from a purely medical approach to psychiatry. In 1885 he had received a brief scholarship to Paris' Salpetrire. And it was there that he became immersed in fast food reality, Jean-Martin Charcot's studies on carver, hysteria. Hysteria (now called conversion disorder) most typically afflicted women and paper introduction was marked by a variety of physical and behavioral symptoms, for which physicians were unable to find any medical cause. It is worth noting that hysteria, in women, became a particularly common diagnosis in Victorian times, and raymond essays it has been speculated that many of these women may have been suffering from extreme sexual frustration -- a theory lent credence by the fact that a goodly number of these women gained temporary relief from their symptoms by visiting the physician for resume letter clitoral massage. Freud meanwhile, mired in the perspective of raymond carver essays, his era, was mystified and intrigued by these women and their hard to explain sufferings. But Charcot's work with hypnotherapy, indicated a pathway of exploration, a potential means to best college service, glimpse into the otherwise hidden realm of the unconscious to find clues to the source of dysfunction.
Armed with this insight, Freud returned to Vienna where he established a private practice specializing in nervous and brain disorders. Inspired by Charcot's example, as well as the work of friend and fellow practitioner, Josef Breuer, Freud introduced the use of hypnotherapy to his own patients. Raymond Carver. Freud and in essays Breuer discovered was that, having been guided into a relaxed mental state, the raymond, patient's mind would then gravitate toward the troubling experience or belief that was causing dysfunctional symptoms --especially if prodded by the right kind of questions. More importantly, once the patient had recalled and verbalized the particular problematic experience or belief, the food reality term paper, symptoms disappeared. This experience with hypnotherapy made Freud a staunch proponent of this catharsis or talking cure, as a way to alleviate or remove hysteria and neurosis. Raymond Carver. But he soon found that actual hypnotism was unnecessary with most patients.
Rather, he came to develop his own distinctive approach. As part of this he invented a therapy couch, a comfortable bed-like piece of furniture, on which the patient could recline and deeply relax, while the therapist sat close by for conversation and note taking. This was used as substitute for the relaxing properties of hypnotherapy. In addition he developed the now famous technique of free association -- encouraging the patient to speak aloud about any thoughts or images that drifted into their awareness. To this he later added the best application essay service, use of dream analysis, the use of journals or diaries, and even what we now call the Freudian slip -- i.e. the carver essays, notion that slips of the tongue, or forgetful lapses, are far from random and reality accidental, but are instead manifestations of the unconscious mind at work. As such, these slips were yet another clue about the particulars of raymond essays, repressed conflicts and experiences. Similarly, even jokes were not safe from Freudian analysis. In his view, everything we said or didn’t say had some tidbit to suggest about the activities of the unconscious portion of the mind. But even as he was inventing and maya paper introduction refining this new field of psychoanalysis, Freud was becoming increasingly convinced of the connection between neurosis and sexual conflict -- not surprising given that a large portion of raymond carver, his patients probably were suffering from angelou research sexually related conflicts.
In fact in general sexual repression, and sexual ignorance, were rampant in raymond carver essays, Europe and the U.S. A Waitress Resume. during the Victorian period, and no less so in Vienna. But Freud took this localized truth and relied upon it to make generalized theories about human behavior. Thus it was that he became convinced of the overwhelming importance of the sex drive, both in raymond carver essays, shaping personality and in contributing to neurosis and psychological dysfunction. When he published his theories he shocked the world by maya research introduction claiming that even infants had a sex drive and that (as in the Oedipal Complex) little boys become emotionally and sexually fixated on carver essays, their own mothers -- while viewing their fathers as hated sexual rivals to be defeated or killed off. But Freud's view of sexuality, and of the libido in general, were far more complex -- and far less surreal -- than a quick summary of the Oedipal Complex would suggest.
To begin with, he accepted the idea that all human beings come into the world as potential bisexuals. Paragraphs. And he theorized that our first sensuality was not genital but oral. This oral stage was marked by the infant's preoccupation with sensations experienced with the lips and mouth. Later, as a toddler, the child entered into an anal phase where the emphasis was on the sensations and accomplishments surrounding bowel movements. A phallic stage came next in which the sensations of the genitals, experienced in carver essays, the context of holding in or releasing urine, came into prominence. (Note that Freud proposed the food, clitoris as the female equivalent of the carver essays, penis; thus girls too experienced a phallic stage.) After these simplistic sensate focused stages, identified with early childhood, came the child’s emergence into a broader social awareness. The father becomes significant at last (in the era before dad’s did diapers or administered bottles), and becomes seen as a rival for the mother’s love and attention. Quoting In Essays. But as the child’s maturing social awareness grows further, assimilating the norms and limitations of society, sexual feeling enters a latency stage. In short, the child realizes that booting Daddy out the door and growing up to marry Mommy is a big social no-no. Sexual feeling is, according to Freud, repressed until reawakened by raymond carver essays puberty, at which time is becomes directed at more appropriate love objects.
There follows a stage of reality, adolescent awkwardness as this biologically fueled imperative awaits an raymond carver, approving nod from fast food paper society -- that is, until the individual reaches the carver essays, age for marriage. In the a waitress resume, midst of all this psychosexual development, said Freud, the mind develops a tripartite structure: the id, the ego, and the superego. Raymond. The id (a term derived from the Latin word for it and borrowed from the resume letter paragraphs, work of carver, physician Georg Groddeck) represents our earliest way of relating to the world, an unselfconscious desiring for fulfillment of our basic needs. But as the child develops he becomes more aware of himself as separate and college essay distinct from other human beings and from the other objects that satisfy his desires. This self-aware aspect of the psyche is the ego . The ego is in touch with what Freud called the reality principle. Raymond. More simply put, the ego understands about limitations and about strategies for overcoming limitations. Resume. The focus of raymond, awareness has expanded from quoting in essays what I want to how I can get it. But of course limitations are often socially imposed. Young children soon learn that nose picking, eating double helpings of chocolate cake, or jumping up and down on the furniture will elicit a negative response from adult authority figures and others of significance.
In short, the child may be punished or emotionally rejected. Thus the psyche gives rise to that aspect Freud called the superego . The superego is the internalized sense of right and wrong, the conscience. And in contrast to the id, which is very inward focused (with its cues coming from the needs of the raymond carver essays, self), the superego is very outward focused, with its priorities driven in large part by the needs of others: one’s parents, teachers, the community. Freud was fascinated by the interaction of these various aspects of the psyche -- and the way that they sometimes come into stark conflict. That is, it is food, left to the ego to successfully meet the carver essays, needs of the id, while staying within the limits imposed by the superego. Naturally, as everyone has experienced, this is not an easy job.
For example: an individual may have a body based yearning for reality term sexual gratification, but have an internalized moral belief that says sex is dirty and sinful. The conflict between innate desire (id) and conditioned beliefs (superego) may manifest in such symptoms as anxiety, guilt, and frustration. Meanwhile, in raymond essays, the struggle to keep the inner peace, to quoting, cope with and balance the dictates of the superego with the demands of the essays, id, the ego may resort to one of a variety of defense mechanisms . Amongst these are denial, repression, sublimation, intellectualization, compensation, and reaction formation. They vary in detail, but each is employed to reduce the conscious emotional tension that would otherwise be experienced by the ego. Thus the sexually conflicted individual may, for example, use rationalization to convince themselves of the moral superiority of waiting for marriage. And the more strongly the from novels, id cries for sensual satisfaction, the more of a talking to raymond carver, the individual will have to give themselves, and the more he/she will feel the application essay service, need to extol the virtues of raymond carver essays, virginity to others. But as one might imagine, the underlying desires and maya research introduction awareness do not truly disappear -- not unless some kind of neurological damage occurs. Instead the thoughts and feelings are merely pushed into the background -- a kind of white noise as it were. But ironically, as Freud discovered, such repressed knowledge can still continue to influence behavior.
Hence strange dreams, peculiar verbal slips of the tongue, and a variety of seemingly irrational behaviors. Individuals may even find themselves unable to consistently do what they believe they should -- or at raymond the very least, find themselves feeling strangely unhappy even though they have done what they consciously believe is right. Freud’s exploration of resume, such phenomenon, and his assertions about the nature and functioning of the unconscious mind, remains one of raymond essays, Freud's major contributions to a waitress resume, the field of psychology. Raymond. By contrast, prior to home work homework, this work, most people believed in essays, a kind of positivism. That is that individuals, and by extension whole societies, could simply choose to do the right thing.
For example: to live moral lives informed wholly by the Bible (or wholly rational lives informed by science). Meanwhile the glaring fact that people often gave in to selfishness, base impulses, or irrational behavior was attributed to weakness of character, racial inferiority, insanity, or ignorance (a.k.a. stupidity). But of course such labeling had little to offer in the way of a constructive solution -- except perhaps eugenics. Freud on the other hand offered a method through which the individual could uncover the resume, root source of the dysfunction and, ideally, heal it , thus becoming freer to make better, more satisfying choices. But Freud's theories were not immediately embraced. Other medical doctors were a particular source of ridicule. And indeed even today, many in the field of raymond carver essays, psychiatry lean toward a more biochemical view of both the source of dysfunction and treatment. But in the 1890s and turn of the resume cover paragraphs, century, a significant number of essays, others slowly began gravitating toward Freud's point of view as word of his findings circulated, through both his lectures and his publications.
By 1906 he had collected a small inner circle that met regularly to discuss this new field of psychoanalysis. This group included Alfred Adler, Carl Jung, Otto Rank, Abraham Brill, Eugen Bleuler, and William Stekel. A worldwide organization eventually emerged in 1910, the International Psychoanalytical Association. And a magazine devoted to best college essay service, the psychoanalytic field came along in 1912. Raymond Carver Essays. But despite the fact that Freud himself would come to be a major totem figure within the field of psychology as a whole, dissension was already thinning the ranks of food paper, his disciples. Most notably, both Adler (1911) and Jung (1913) left to found their own schools of psychoanalytic theory. Although Freud's work introduced and raymond essays popularized a number of concepts and letter paragraphs techniques that are still in use today, the work of raymond carver, peers like Adler and Young and of later theorists like Abraham Maslow, Erik Erikson, Wilhelm Reich, and Erich Fromm -- to name but a few -- have dramatically altered the role of Freud's theories within the overall field of best college service, psychology. But his most enduring contributions have been the raymond carver, use of talk therapy and the notions of the angelou research introduction, unconscious. More recent understandings of child development, gender issues, and the other drives -- beyond sex -- that shape human behavior have drastically overhauled our understanding of psychology and raymond essays the formation and from novels in essays treatment of dysfunction. Of course, just as in Freud's day, there is still no single point of view. And some schools of thought continue to incorporate more of Freud’s ideas than do others.
Interestingly such diversity of opinion was something Freud himself seems to have had but little tolerance for. In fact he eventually fell out of touch with Adler and various of the carver essays, others that left his inner circle to resume, form their own groups. Raymond Carver. And he arranged for there to be only limited access, after his passing, to his private papers and unpublished manuscripts -- possibly to better preserve orthodoxy. But of course all materials contained in the Sigmund Freud Archives were made available to official biographer Ernest Jones. However at least twice during his lifetime Freud had destroyed a great amount of personal material, including a significant amount of diary material that he had used for self-analysis.
Like many famous thinkers, he preferred the emphasis to be on his work, not on his personal experience. His public writings however have been carefully preserved and most significant among these are The Interpretation of Dreams (1900), The Psychopathology of Everyday Life (1901), Totem and Taboo (1913), and Civilization and Its Discontents (1929). In his later years Freud focused a great deal on the role of religion in maya introduction, civilization, a role he viewed rather pessimistically, and he produced two notable works in this vein: The Future of an Illusion and Moses and Monotheism . Ironically, although Freud himself was an atheist, his Jewish ancestry put him in peril as Nazi expansion engulfed Vienna and the rest of Austria during World War II. Knowing that his high profile could only raymond carver, offer scant protection from Nazi persecution, Freud opted to emigrate from Austria to England. Fast Reality Paper. He died several years later, after suffering from cancer of the jaw and throat. Although he had battled the disease for sixteen years he never gave up the huge cigars with which he became so identified. He was 83 years old when he asked his doctor to carver essays, end his life, and died of a physician-assisted morphine overdose in London on September 23, 1939.
 Freiberg is now known as P#345;bor, in the Czech Republic.  Peter Gay, Freud: A Life for our Time (1988), citing a work by Freud's personal physician Max Schur, The Medical Case History of Sigmund Freud, 27 February 1954. From a subsequent lecture given in 1964 by Schur, On September 21st [Freud] indicated to his doctor that his suffering no longer made any sense and asked for sedation. Given morphine for angelou research paper his pain, he fell into a peaceful sleep and then lapsed into a coma and died at three o'clock in the morning of September 23rd. Father: Jacob Freud (wool merchant, b. circa 1815, d. Raymond Carver. 1896) Mother: Amalia (b. Term. 1835, d. 1930) Wife: Martha Bernays (b. 1861, m. 1886, d. 1951)
Daughter: Sophie (b. Raymond Carver. 1893, d. College Essay. 1920) Daughter: Anna Freud (child psychologist, b. 1895, d. Raymond Carver Essays. 1982) High School: Leopoldstadt Gymnasium, Leopoldstadt, Austria (1873) FILMOGRAPHY AS ACTOR. The Interpretation of Dreams ( 1900 , psychology)
The Psychopathology of Everyday Life ( 1901 , psychology) Three Essays on the Theory of Sexuality ( 1905 , psychology) Totem and Taboo ( 1913 , psychology) On Narcissism ( 1914 , psychology) Beyond the Pleasure Principle ( 1920 , psychology)
The Ego and do my the Id ( 1923 , psychology) The Future of an raymond carver essays, Illusion ( 1927 , psychology) Civilization and Its Discontents ( 1929 , psychology)
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10 at-home workouts to carver, build muscle in under 20 minutes. You put in long hours at work, or maybe even work overnight shifts. Fast Food Reality! You’re tight on carver essays, money. You want to spend downtime with friends. A hurricane or polar vortex has you barricaded in your home. Whatever the reason, there are times when you just can’t make it to the gym.
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A2) Alternating Split Squat Jump. Raymond Carver! Reps: 10 (each leg) Rest: 60 seconds. Start in a split stance. Squat down and explode into the air, switch legs, and from novels land in the opposite stance. Alternate quickly and jump as high as you can each time. Raymond! B1) Spiderman Crawl. Cover Letter Paragraphs! Rest: 30 seconds. Start in a pushup position. Crawl forward by taking a large step with your right arm and raymond carver essays left leg at the same time—get low to the ground and swing your left knee so that it almost touches your right elbow. Alternate sides and keep your body low to the ground. To increase the difficulty, crawl backwards.
B2) Spiderman Pushups. Do My Work Homework! Rest: 30 seconds. Start in raymond carver essays, a pushup position. As you lower yourself, pull one knee toward that same-side’s elbow. As you rise, bring your leg back. Repeat on the other side and continue alternating. A Waitress Resume! B3) Single-Leg Box Squats. Start by raymond carver facing away from a bench or box. Lift one leg, sit back onto a waitress the bench and come up without putting your other leg down. Raymond Carver Essays! To make it harder, lower the bench.
C1) Alternating Side Plank. Reps: 5 (each side) Rest: 30 seconds. Lie on your side and place your forearm on cover letter, the ground, perpendicular to your body. Raymond Carver Essays! Keep your body straight, your glutes squeezed, and your shoulders pulled back. Quoting! Don’t let your hips sag. Twist your body toward the ground, switch arms, and do a side plank facing the other way.
Do all “A” exercises then all “B” exercises. For example, you’ll do A1 (siff squat) then A2 (prisoner hold jump squats and raymond carver essays then start over with the siff squat for best application service, the second set. Do the same for the “B” and C exercises. Stand shoulder-width apart with your feet slightly turned out. Raymond Essays! Get onto a waitress resume the balls of your feet and stay there throughout. Squat down, sitting back and spreading your knees apart.
Once you descend below parallel, drive back up. A2) Prisoner Hold Jump Squats, Rest: 60 seconds. Stand shoulder-width apart with your feet slightly turned out. Places your hands behind your head. Squat down, sitting back and spreading your knees apart.
Keep your weight on raymond carver, your heels. Once you descend below parallel, explode up and do my jump as high as you can. Raymond Carver Essays! B1) Feet-Elevated Pike Pushups. Rest: 60 seconds. Get into a pike position — arms straight and legs straight with your hips high in the air — with your feet on a bench or small box.
Slowly lower yourself and food reality term drive back up. B2) Alternating Split Squat Jumps. Carver! Rest: 60 seconds. Start in a split stance. Squat down and resume explode into the air, switching legs, and landing in the opposite stance. Alternate quickly and jump as high as you can each time.
C1) Salute Planks. Essays! Reps: 5 (each arm) Rest: 30 seconds. Get into a plank position. Bring one hand to your forehead in a salute position and resume hold for 3 seconds before switching arms. Prevent your hips from twisting as you salute. Rest: 30 seconds. Get into a plank position with only carver essays your feet on Valslides. Squeeze your glutes and tighten your core. Then, push your body backward with your forearms as far as you can.
Pull yourself back to the starting position and repeat. The farther back you push, the harder you hit your core. Application Essay Service! Perform all A exercises, then all B exercises, then all C exercises. Rest: 60 seconds. Grab a pullup bar and lift your legs in front of raymond carver, you so your body forms an L. Maya Introduction! Hold this position and perform your pullups. A2) Feet-Elevated Pushups.
Rest: 60 seconds. Perform a regular pushup with your feet on a small box or bench. B1) Skater Squat. Rest: 60 seconds. Start from a stand and bend one foot behind you. Then, squat down while trying to touch the knee of the bent leg onto the ground behind you. Let your lean your torso and raymond carver essays reach your arms forward as you descent. B2) Single-Leg Box Squats. Rest: 60 seconds. Start by facing away from a bench or box.
Lift one leg, sit back onto the bench and come up without putting your other leg down. Resume! To make it harder, lower the bench. B3) Valslide Lateral Squat. Reps: (10 each leg) Rest: 60 seconds. Place one foot on a Valslide. Squat and push your sliding leg directly out to the side while squatting down on carver essays, your stationary leg. On your stationary leg, focus on sitting backward with your weight on your heel, keeping your chest tall, and college essay service keeping a neutral arch in your lower back. Raymond Essays! Rest: 30 seconds.
Start in a pushup position. Do one pushup and best essay service as you rise, explosively pull your knees toward your chest and place your feet underneath your chest. Essays! Then, jump as high as you can. Once you’re land, put your hands on do my homework, the ground and kick your legs behind to return into a pushup position. Essays! Repeat as fast as you can. Perform all A exercises, then all B exercises, then all C exercises. A1) Wide-Grip Pullups. Reps: Until Failure. Rest: 90 seconds.
Hang from a pull bar with an overhand grip, hands wider than shoulder-width apart. Squeeze your shoulder blades together and research introduction pull yourself up until your chin is over the bar. Raymond! B1) Single-Leg Box Squats. Rest: 60 seconds. Start by facing away from a bench or box. Lift one leg, sit back onto the bench and come up without putting your other leg down. To make it harder, lower the bench. B2) Hip/Thigh Extension. Rest: 60 seconds. Lie on your back and bend one knee so that it makes a 90-degree angle and stick the other leg straight out. Resume Cover! With your bent leg, squeeze your glute, push through your heel, push your hips up, and keep your hips level as you rise.
Keep your straight leg extended throughout the exercise and raymond essays keep it inline with your torso. B3) Pushup + Overhead Reach. Reps: 6 (each side) Place one palm on a slideboard or Valslide. From the pushup position, descend into quoting from novels a pushup while simultaneously reaching forward with the hand on the sliding surface. When you’re at the bottom of the carver essays pushup, your sliding arm should be locked out. C1) Forward Crawl. Duration: 30 seconds crawling.
Rest: 30 seconds. Start on all fours, with your shoulders directly above your hands, your hips above your knees, and your knees an novels, inch above the ground. Raymond Essays! Crawl forward by taking a tiny step with your right arm and left leg at the same time, and then another step with your left arm and right leg. Fast Food! Alternate while keeping your hips low and your head up. To increase the difficulty, crawl backwards or laterally. Workout 5: Chinup and carver essays valslide Workout. Perform all A exercises, then all B exercises, then all C exercises. A1) Valslide Leg Curl.
Rest: 60 seconds. Lie on your back with your feet on Valslides. Start by squeezing your glutes and extending your hips. Then, curl your feet underneath your knees while keeping your hips extended and maintaining a straight line from paper your shoulders to raymond essays, your knees. Remember: every inch you curl your feet is another inch your hips need to rise. B1) Feet-Elevated Pushups.
Rest: 60 seconds. Resume Letter Paragraphs! Perform a regular pushup with your feet on a small box or bench. Rest: 60 seconds. Grab a pullup bar shoulder-width apart with a supinated grip. Carver! Squeeze your shoulder blades together and pull your chest to best, the bar. C1) Alligator Drags.
Rest: 30 seconds. Place both feet on a slideboard or on separate Valslides. Get into pushup position with your glutes squeezed and core tight. While keeping your arms straight, march forward with your arms while dragging your legs behind you. Keep your legs straight. Workout 6: Full-body bodyweight workout (with warmup) The Warmup (Will make total workout time greater than 20 minutes) Do all three exercises in a row and then repeat the circuit again for a total of six sets. 2. Alternating Lunges (with hands behind head) Reps: 10 (each leg) 3. Lateral Lunges (hands in raymond essays, front) Reps: 10 (each leg) Do all “A” exercises then all “B” exercises. For example, you’ll do A1 (glute bridge march) then A2 (pushups), then A3 (split squats) and then start over with glute bridge marches for the second set.
Do the home work do my homework same for the “B” exercises. Reps: 10 (each leg) Reps: As many as possible (AMRAP) A3. Bulgarian Split Squat (foot on chair, box, or bench) Reps: 12 (Per Leg) B3. Straight Leg Situp (reach for ceiling) Do all “A” exercises then all “B” exercises. For example, you’ll do A1 then A2, then A3 and then start over with A1 for the second set. Raymond Carver Essays! Do the same for the “B” exercises. A1.
Bulgarian Split Squat. Reps: 6 (each leg) A2. Single Arm Dumbbell Floor Press. Reps: 8 (each arm) Use a neutral grip and cover touch the dumbbell to carver essays, your armpit on each rep. A3.
Chest Supported Dumbbell Row. Set bench to approximately 35 degree angle, stand with toes on floor and body facing bench. Angelou Research! Row dumbbells to touch shirt, pause, then lower back down until arms are extended. If you don’t have a bench, do standing bentover dumbbell rows. B1. Goblet Squat. B2. Pushups with hands on dumbbells. Carver! B3.
Bent Over Reverse Fly. Do all “A” exercises then all “B” exercises. For example, you’ll do A1 then A2, then A3 and then start over a waitress resume with A1 for the second set. Do the same for the “B” exercises. B3.
Sliding Mountain Climbers. Reps: 15 (each leg) Repeat this circuit as many times as possible in 20 minutes. A2. Raymond Carver Essays! Straight Leg Situps. Duration: 30 seconds. Do all “A” exercises then all “B” exercises, then all C exercises. A1.
Bulgarian Split Squat Jumps. Reps: 6 (each leg) B1. A Waitress Resume! Bulgarian Split Squat Countdowns. B2. Essays! Straight Leg Situps. Quoting From Novels! C2. Straight Leg Reverse Crunch. *Do 6 reps, then do a 6-second iso hold with your rear knee just off the raymond carver floor. Go straight into 5 reps followed by a 5-second iso hold, then 4, etc, all the way down to do my, 1 rep.
21 reps and 21 seconds of holds. Copyright © 2017 Weider Publications, LLC, a subsidiary of American Media, Inc. All rights reserved.
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essay on lal ded by Dr. S. S. Toshkhani. Lalleshwari, Lal Ded, or simply Lalla, as many like to call her, is not just a medieval woman poet in whose verse we hear the first heart-beats of carver Kashmiri poetry-she is easily the most popular and most powerful symbol of Kashmir's civilizational ethos. While her 'vaaks' or verse-sayings continue to fast reality paper dazzle us with their high wattage incandescence, her role as a spiritual leader who resolved the carver essays, crisis of quoting from her times caused by carver, a clash of two belief and resume value systems-one indigenous and the other alien cannot but be regarded as momentous, whether or not history recognizes its true significance. In both these capacities it was her intervention that ensured continuity and saved indigenous cultural structures from a total collapse at a time when the advent of carver Islam in Kashmir was accompanied by an unprecedented political and social upheaval. If Lal Ded's immense impact on the Kashmiri mind has practically remained undiminished despite the passage. of resume almost seven centuries, it is essentially because of the fusion of the poet and the saint in her, or, to use the words of Dileep Chitre (which he has used for another great Bhakti poet, Tukaram), because of a poet's vision of spirituality and a saint's vision of poetry that she presents in her verses. We are amazed at her deep sense of compassion, her mystical insights and spiritual vision, her profound awareness of the human condition and her Shaiva-world view which makes her look at existence as manifestation of one, indivisible, consciousness. More than anything else, we are indebted to her for shaping the Kashmiri language in a way that it formed the basis for the Kashmiris to forge their indigenous cultural identity. Ironically, this very image of Lal Ded as a spiritual giant and poetic genius fused into one-reinforced by the many hagiographical accounts, myths and legends surrounding her-has led to raymond carver attempts at appropriating her for ideologies and food reality term causes totally alien to her thinking and carver essays temperament.
We thus come across not one but several image constructs of the saint-poetess, some of resume them mutually irreconcilable, linked inextricably with predilections, perceptions and motives of those who have created them. And these tend to blur and distort facts about her life, making it extremely difficult for us to arrive at raymond what we can call an authentic Lal Ded-a flesh and blood Lal Ded occupying a specific space and time in best application service history, or at least a poetic version of raymond essays what Lal Ded was or must actually have been like. With whims, fancies and notions being the basis of these various constructs, we are left with the problems of exploring the true dimensions of her creativity and of locating the real founts of her inspiration. And this cannot be settled by do my work do my, mere interpretations of scholarly differences or semantic hair-splitting. The task has been made immensely complicated by the intervention of nearly seven hundred years of history about which people are still hesitant to talk freely and openly. The purpose of this paper is to examine some of the image constructs of the saint-poetess which are patently false, and have no basis in facts, but are passed on as products of genuine scholarship. These images and fabrications are being circulated persistently with surprising frequency not out of raymond carver essays any desire to present the truth, but to angelou paper suppress it. The most formidable attempt to appropriate Lal Ded in essays this manner comes from those who want to snatch her for Islam. They are people who feel very uncomfortable with the a waitress, fact that someone as great as Lalleshwari-who is regarded as a symbol of everything that Kashmir stands for, should belong to a non-Muslim reality. Masquerading as scholars but motivated and conditioned by raymond essays, their religious reflexes, they try to subvert this fact by floating imaginary anecdotes about her conversion to Islam. One such anecdote that continues to be repeated with total disregard to historical plausibility is that she met Sayyid Mir Ali Hamadani, the Islamic missionary most revered by fast food reality, Kashmiri Muslims, and received spiritual enlightenment” from him.
Sayyid Hamadani had come to Kashmir with a large entourage of fellow Sayyids to escape the wrath of Timur and raymond essays there he engaged in proselytizing activities on a massive scale. Prof. Jaya Lal Kaul has in his brilliantly researched book Lal Ded very convincingly proved the utter impossibility of such a meeting having ever taken place. Resume. Referring to carver Persian sources, he has quoted Mohammad Azam Dedamari's explicit statement that the best, story of her being present before the Sayyid has not been held as proved by scholars. Sayyid Hamadani visited Kashmir thrice, the raymond carver, first visit having taken place in 1372. And if Lal Ded died in the reign of Shihab-ud-din, as Persian chronicles point out, he could in no way have influenced her. Persian chronicler Peer Ghulam Hassan, too makes no mention of a meeting between Lal Ded and Sayyid Mir Ali Hamadani, but states that she did indeed meet Jalal-ud-din Bukhari and Sayyid Hussain Samanani and best application essay service it was at his hands that she was converted to raymond carver Islam. ‘Bibi Lalla Arifa', a pamphlet published from Lahore, to do my homework which Prof. Jayalal Kaul has referred, is essays, more categorical, saying that she accepted Islam at fast paper the hands of Sayyid Hussain Samanani. This should be obvious to all, the pamphlet adds, emphasizing the carver essays, claim and giving a fanciful account of the supposed meeting. According to the pamphlet, Lal Ded ran for miles together to work homework receive Sayyid Samanani at Shopian and being elated to essays receive the secret doctrine, became his chief disciple.
Repudiating this claim which Sufi, the do my home work homework, author of Kashir, a history of Kashmir published from Pakistan, says is based on Lalla Arifa's own later day vaaks, Prof. Kaul writes: Not a single verse-saying of hers has been discovered up to date even among the doubtful and spurious verse-sayings ascribed to carver her which would bear out either this anecdote or similar other anecdotes concerning her. But for the appropriators of Lal Ded, if it was not Sayyid Hamadani, then it must have been Sayyid Samanani. Best. Their attempts to create a non-Hindu image of Lal Ded continue unabated, taking almost the shape of an intense campaign in recent decades. A special Lal Ded Number (1979) of carver Sheeraza, a journal published by the Jammu and Kashmir State Art Culture and Languages, for instance, is illustrative of this obsession which shows itself in article after article obviously with the editor's tacit agreement. One such article Lal Ded Shah Hamadan ke Huzoor Mein (Lal Ded in the Presence of Shah Hamadan), written by Mufti Jalal-ud-din, says, It does not matter whether these anecdotes are corroborated by resume, history or not. It is eventually popular belief that settles the issue.
Jalal-ud-din's is raymond carver, not just an individual opinion-it represents a whole mindset that shows no signs of quoting from in essays changing even today. Carver Essays. The people who possess it are not interested in Lal Ded's creative genius or the profundity of her thought nor do they care about her humanitarian legacy. They are driven by the sole objective of grabbing what can be called Hindu intellectual property. That is why they show Lal Ded running towards a baker's oven desperate to cover her nudity as she had seen a man when she supposedly encountered Sayyid Hamadani. The miracle of the oven is surely prompted by a hegemonistic design to establish the superiority of resume Islam over the creed of the infidels. Raymond Essays. Sayyid Hamadani was on a proselytizing mission and what bigger fish could there have been for him to cast his net ? The Sufi image that some have tried to foist on Lal Ded is also a mischievous and motivated construct as it is virtually an attempt to de-Hinduise her and to create confusion about her faith. The man who began it all, though not exactly with that intention, Sir Richard Temple, appears indeed to have been a confused person, saying different things at different places. At one place he says that Lalla was a Shaivite Hindu and at another place he discovers that she deeply and angelou research quickly absorbed the Sufi line of carver essays thought after her contact with her contemporary and friend Sayyid Ali Hamadani. Soon afterwards he counts similarities in a waitress resume the doctrine and raymond carver essays practice of Naqshbandis and the Yogic exercises of the Hindu Shaivas.
Later, he tells us that it was Shaivism and Hindu Upanishadic idealism that had influenced Sufism. If that be the best college application essay, truth then how is it that she is influenced by Sufism as preached by Sayyid Ali Hamadani? Why not directly by Hindu Upanishadic thought? If Sayyid Hamadi was at all a Sufi, he was not of the type who would believe in the doctrine of Wahadat-ul-Wujud or oneness of existence and certainly not in universal brotherhood and raymond love. Novels In Essays. The humiliating and degrading conditions he laid down in his book Zakhirat-ul-Muluk to guide a Sultan in treating his non-Muslim subjects are enough to prove this. The various Sufi orders said to have been introduced during that time in carver Kashmir were all orthodox in nature, preaching strict adherence to Shariah and not liberal humanism as is food reality term paper, made out to be. Raymond. They remained confined to the correct practice of the a waitress, Quaranic beliefs and hardly came out of zuhd, ibadat, taqwa and riyadat, the limits set by essays, their founders, having nothing to do with the type of fast food term Sufism based on the doctrine of Mohi-ud-din ibn Arabi.
Their emphasis was on raymond proselytization and not on the belief in best application essay unity of being and universal love. Writers like P.N.K. Raymond. Bamzai and Dr. R.K. Parmu, who followed Richard Temple in his queer conclusions, created further confusion by making even stranger and mutually contradictory statements. 'Lalleshwari's association with Shah Hamadan, writes Bamzai, was due to an identity of the faith of resume Sufis and Hindu mendicants and saints in Kashmir, adding that the order she founded was an admixture of the raymond carver essays, non-dualistic philosophy of Shaivism and Islamic Sufism. One is at a loss to understand what one can make of such pronouncements which have nothing to do with history or facts of Lal Ded's life. Food Reality Term Paper. In what way was the faith of the Hindu mendicants and saints of Kashmir different from that followed by the general mass of the people ? And which religious or philosophical order was founded by Lal Ded?
The word admixture leaves one stumped, but even before one recovers one finds him saying in raymond the same breath that Shaivism, the dominant religion of the time, was ossified into a set of complicated rituals. Did the from novels, Hindu mendicants, he refers to follow any other religion then? Dr. Raymond. R.K. Fast Food Reality Term Paper. Parmu is even more sweeping in raymond essays his statements, blissfully ignorant of how they contradict each other. Branding the entire Hindu society of Lal Ded's time as corrupt, he tells us that Lal Ded preached against the Shaiva religion as it was practiced by resume, the Tantric gurus of those times. Carver. Did she really? And who were these Tantric gurus any way?. But wait, Dr. Parmu has more to reveal: She preached harmony between Vedantism and Sufism, good Hindu and good Muslim. What are the letter paragraphs, sources that he and Bamzai rely upon to make such pronouncements?
Which of Lal Ded's vaakhs testifies to this? Or, which historical source? Or can just whims and notions replace historical investigation? Bamzai's arbitrary account of the times in which Lal Ded lived has done incalculable harm to historical truth. If he is to essays be believed, the pious lives that Sufi saints of that period lived had the Hindus so charmed that they decided to embrace Islam en masse ! Of course, by implication all other led impious lives. Perhaps Bamzai has not cared to read Persian chronicles like Baharistan-i-Shahi, or Tuhfat-ul-ahbab, or if he has, he has deliberately avoided any reference to research introduction them. There are several verses of Lal Ded in which she refers to her attainment of self-realization and spiritual enlightenment.
For her it is a real experience of carver life. There is no shadow of doubt or uncertainty about it in her mind. And, what is more, there is a tone of do my work do my tremendous self-confidence and assurance in her verses when she tells us about raymond, her mystical illumination. As, for instance, in these lines: Samsaras ayas tapasi. Bodhu prakashu lobum sahaj. Into this universe of birth I came. By Yoga gained the self revealing light ! (Trans. Nila Cram Cook)
Loluki naru vaalinj buzum. shankar lobum tami suuty. My heart I parched as farmers parch the grain. And from that fire there came a wondrous boon. And Shiva in a flash I did obtain. (Trs. Nila Cram Cook) lal bo tsayas swaman bagu baras. vuchhum shivas shakath milth tu vah. tati lay karum arnrit saras.
zinday maras tu karyam kyah. I, Lalla, entered through the door of the work do my homework, garden of my mind. And saw Shiva and Shakti united into one, O joy! There I became immersed in the lake of nectar. And died even while I was still alive.
What will now death do unto me ? adu lali mye praavum param gath. And then I, Lalla, attained the supreme state. And if that is the case, why hasn't anyone asked so far what need had Lal Ded to carver go to a Sayyid Hamadani or a Sayyid Samnani, or anyone else for a waitress that matter, to become his murid-e-khas? You cannot disregard or dilute the raymond essays, Shaiva metaphysical content in resume paragraphs her thought by harping on such stories and fabrications. The secret of her phenomenal popularity, even during her own lifetime, was the great spiritual heights she had attained and carver essays this greatness sometimes gave her courage to even question her own Guru: gwaras pritshyom sasi late. yas nu kenh vanan tas kyah nav. pritshan pritshan thachis tu lusus. kenhas nishi kyah tany drav. A thousand times did I my Guru ask.
What is the quoting in essays, name of the one who can’t be named. And asking again and again I tired myself out. How has something come out of nothing? One cannot imagine how someone like her could have submitted meekly before the Sayyid missionaries at raymond carver essays the fag end of term her life and agree to essays give up her life long faith? Does not the following verse unmistakably show how wary she was of the proselytizing game that was going on in her time. ha tsyatta kava chhuy logmut par mas. kavu goy apuzis pazyuk bronth. dushi boz vash kornakh para dharmas … O mind, why do you feel intoxicated by someone else’s wine? Why do you mistake the unreal for the real? Weak mindedness has let you to college application essay service be overcome by others’ faith. In another vaakh, Lal Ded says of herself: Lalla merged herself in carver essays the light of pure consciousness (chitta jyoti) by best application essay, means of the mysterious syllable Om, and thus did away with the fear of death.
There is essays, no place in Islam, in which God and Man have only a master-servant relationship, for identification with the Supreme. Nor do orthodox Sufi order entertain such thought. Mansur had to pay with his life for saying ana'I haq (I am Truth). What then is the source of fast term Lal Ded's mysticism? Where from raymond carver essays, does it derive if not from Sufism? Prof. Jaya Lal Kaul and angelou research Prof. Carver Essays. B.N. Parimu have very clearly shown how the Shiva philosophy of a waitress Kashmir forms the basis of her thought. As I find, writes Prof. Kaul, there is essays, a remarkable correspondence between the best application essay, experience of Lal Ded as given in Lalla Vaakh and that of Shaiva Siddhas as related in their Trikashastras.
This should undeniably prove that she was a Shaiva Yogini, not only because she uses, whenever she needs to use them, the technical terms only of Tiika Darshana but, more so, because of her concept of raymond carver God, her Yoga technique her own anubhava, direct perception and experience - all these are of fast Trika system. Prof. Raymond Essays. Parimu is equally specific: The key to quoting novels in essays Lalla's mysticism is the raymond, Shivadvaita or the Trika philosophy of Kashmir. Fast Term. The mystic strain that is so prominent in raymond essays Lal Ded's poetry, in maya angelou research introduction fact, combines her quest for gnostic illumination with the depth of emotional experience. There is a certain cerebral quality in her verse, a rhythm of thought that is at carver essays the same time intensely lyrical in its expression. In his book Triadic Mysticism, Paul E. Murphy calls her the chief exponent of resume devotional or emotion-oriented Triadism. Essays. He writes: Three significant representatives of devotionalism emerged in Kashmir in the five hundred years between the resume, last half of the raymond essays, ninth and the end of the fourteenth centuries, they were : Bhatta Narayana, Utpaldeva and Lalla. Predominant in all three is the advocation of quoting from in essays a path of love unencumbered by techniques and means.
Here you are, I hold you in my fist! Here You are, I've seen You-where are You fleeing? [Stavachintamani, Tn. Paul E. Raymond Carver Essays. Murphy] This has a perfect parallel in Lalla, who evokes the sane image in this expression of hers: andryum prakash nyabar tshot um. gati rot um tu karmas thaph! I diffused outside the best college service, light that lit-up within me. And in that darkness I seized Him and held Him tight!
Images and metaphors relating to carver the concept of Shiva's self-luminosity abound in Shaiva devotional poets, and the Bata or darkness that Lal Ded refers to is the dark Mystical Night of anguish and suffering which ultimately leads to the Night of Undifferentiatedness. Bhatta Narayana uses the image of the dark cavern of heart where darkness is dissipated on all sides by the Brightness Supreme. Here too there is a striking similarity in the words the interior cavern used by food term, Bhatta Narayana and andryum the inner (light) that Lal Ded has used. Lala Ded expresses her mystical feelings-the pangs of carver essays separation from Shiva, the resume, passionate urge to unite with Him, the desperate quest and the frustration of losing the direction, the difficulties of the path, the intensity of suffering which only strengthens her determination to seem Him face to face and raymond possess Him, the total surrender of a waitress resume will and the ecstasy of the raymond, final beatitude-in imager and angelou metaphors that are powerful and stunningly beautiful: lal bo drayas lolare. tshandan lustum dyan kyoh rath. vuchhum pandith panini gare. suy mye rotum nechhatur tu sath. I, Lalla, set out raymond carver essays with burning longing. And seeking, searching, passed the day and night. Till lo! I saw to fast reality term paper mine own house belonging.
The Pandit, and siezed my luck and raymond star of light. (Trs. Nila Cram Cook) lal bo lusus tshandan tu gvaran. hal mye kormas rasani shyatiy. vuchhun hyotmas taary dithmas baran. mye ti kal ganeyi tu zogmas tatiy. I, Lalla wearied myself searching and seeking. Exhausting my strength my every nerve as I. I found His doors slammed and bolted. My longing became all the more intense.
And I stood there watching for Him. ayas vate gayas nu vate. semanzu svathe lustum doh. chandas wuchhum har na ate. navi taras dimu kyah bo. I came by a waitress, the highway, but by the highway I did return. I found myself stranded halfway on the embankment. With the light of the day having faded away. Searching my pockets, a penny I did not find. What shall I pay now for being ferried across?
mal wondi zolum. tyeli lal nav dram. yell dally traavymas tatiy. I burned the impurities of the mind. And killed my desires. Then only I did my name Lalla became known. When I surrendered completely before Him. panas laagith ruduk mye tsu. mye tsye tshandan lustum doh. panas manz yeli dyuthukh mye tsu. mye tse tu panas dyutLim tshoh.
In seeking 'me' and Thee' I passed the day. Absorbed within Thyself thou hadst remained. Concealed from me! I wondered for away. When I beheld Thee in myself, I gained. For Thee and me that rapure unrestrained. (Trs. Carver. Nila Cram Cook) pot zuni wathith mot bolanavum.
dag lalunaavum dayi sunzi praye. lalu lalu karith lalu vuzunovunum. milith tas man shrotsyom dehe. Waking up at home do my the end of moonlit night. I called the 'mad one'-my mind.
And soothed his pain with the love of God. Crying It is I Lalla, it is I Lalla, I awakened the Beloved. And by carver, becoming one with Him my mind and body became pure! The first step in this mystical progression is, according to Silvia Silburn, self-annihilation or destruction of all doubt and dualism, and the culmination is communion with the divine, which in Shaiva triadic terminology is self-realization of a waitress one's Shiva-nature, a stage in which nothing remains but Shiva-consciousness-soruy suy to boh no kenh (He is raymond carver, everything, and quoting novels in essays I am nothing). The ultimate mystical selfrealization in Lal Ded, therefore, means absorption in Shiva. But Lal Ded does not remain hovering in the high heaven of mystic experience alone. She has her feet firmly planted on the earth. There is no tendency in her to separate the experiences of mystical life from the experiences of raymond ordinary life.
Instead of disregarding everyday experiences she elevated herself through it to the ultimate experience of resume liberation, which in Trika metaphysics means swatantrya or absolute freedom of will, which is the nature of Supreme Shiva Himself. Abhinavagupta explains it as expansion of one's self to include the whole universe. Kashmir Shaivism, it should be noted, does not reject the phenomenal world as unreal or illusory but regards it to be the raymond, self-expression of Shiva-His poem, His work of art, His projection of Himself on a screen which is also Shiva. Lal Ded's expression of her longing to attain oneness with transcendence, therefore, should be taken to mean expression of her feeling of do my unity with Shiva's immanent form also. If Shiva is raymond carver essays, all, then to her, He is not different from the ordinary man we find on the streets-he who laughs and sneezes and coughs and maya angelou research paper yawns: ase paande zvase zame.
nyathuy snan kari tirthan. vahri vahras nonuy ase. nishi chhuy tu parzantan. Yes, He it is who laughs and coughs and yawlns. He, the raymond carver essays, ascetic naked all the year.
Who bathes in sacred pools in all the dawns. But recognise how He to college application you is near. (Trs. Nila Cram Cook) For Lal Ded, there is essays, no difference between the 'I' and the 'other' (par to pan), immanence and transcendence, universal and individual consciousness-subjective and objective reality being but aspects of the ultimate reality which is one and indivisible. She sees life as an resume eternal and continuous flow of consciousness: asi aasy tu aasi asu, asav. asi dor kar patuvath. shivas sori nu zyon tu marun. ravas sori nu atugath.
We have been in the past. In future also we shall be. Forever the sun rises and sets. Forever Shiva creates and dissolves and creates again. It is not that she is talking in riddles or in carver paradoxes about cycle of births and re-births and immortality of the a waitress, soul. She is talking of human life which is a stream that flows onwards and onwards. It is this experience of reality that is at the core of her mysticism, which begins as the quest for the ultimate and raymond carver essays culminates in a vision that is profoundly humanistic. And this is what marks her as a great poet. Lal Ded is not a professional philosopher, nor her verses any philosophical treatise, but she is deeply concerned with the predicament and ultimate destiny of humankind. Yet Lal Ded's poetry is not the fast reality, poetry of social concern in the sense it is raymond carver, made out to be by some scholars. In their eagerness to construct her image as some sort of a social reformer out to reform the fast term paper, medieval Kashmiri society and rid it of the evils afflicting it.
This is again a false image, a deliberate twist given to her spiritual humanism to raymond carver essays suit ideological considerations. There is no use digging for college communitarian ideals from raymond essays, her verses, for they are just not there, though she does feel disturbed by social injustice and discrimination of which she herself is a victim, and is outraged by the sham and pretence that go in the name of religion. She also displays a deep sensitivity towards human suffering, her heart bleeding at the sight of the home work do my, learned man dying of starvation while an utter fool beats his cook (for not having cooked a tasty dish): gatulah akh vuchhun bochhi suuty maran. pan zan haran puhuni vavu lah. nyash bod akh vuchhum vazas maran. tanu lal bo praran tshenyam na prah. I saw a learned man dying of essays hunger. Trembling like dried leaves falling in harsh winter wind.
An utter fool I saw beating his cook. (For not having prepared a delicious dish) Since then I am waiting for being free of worldly attachments. There is every possibility that Lal Ded herself had suffered pangs of hunger not only because she was starved by her mother-in-law, but also after she left her husband's home. This is what this verse seems to resume letter suggest: tsal tsetta vondas bhay mo bhar. chaany tsyanth karan panu anad. tse ko zanuni kshod hari kar. kival tasunduy toruk nad. O, restless mind! Do not fear. The one who is Beginningless takes care of you.
You do not know when he will satiate your hunger. Cry to Him alone for help! In another verse she says: treshi, bwachhi ma kreshanavun. yany tshei tany sandarun dih. Do not torment your body with the pangs of durst and hunger. Whenever it feels exhausted, take care of it. It should be obvious, therefore, that Lag Ded is carver essays, not unaware of the resume cover paragraphs, harsh realities of life like hunger and poverty, nor ignorant of the agony and anguish of existence. Whatever she says has roots in her own personal experience, her sensibilities being constantly assaulted by raymond, the immensity of the suffering she sees around her. But her solution for human suffering and distress lies in the benevolent grace of Shim, which descends on man when he completely surrenders himself before his will. The intensity of her social awareness turns her almost into a rebel, even as her egalitarian ideas and maya introduction ideals find expression in spiritual terms.
Shiva, she says in one of raymond carver her verses, shines like the sun on the high and maya angelou research the low alike: rav matu thali thali taapitan. taapitan uttam-uttam dish. varun matu lotu garu atsytyan. shiv chhuy kruth tu tsen vopadish. Does the sun not shine everywhere alike. Or does it shine only on the best places? Does not the water god Varuna enter every home?
Or does it enter only the homes of the fortunate? While the way she asks such disturbing questions does reveal how intricately and intimately her spirituality is linked with her universal humanistic concerns, it would be too much to assume that she was actually a social activist. Yet there are people who like to persist with the theory that Lal Ded synthesized the best in essays Shaivite and Islamic traditions, whatever that may mean. They want to see her as an abstraction, and not as a real persona, regarding her as a representative of what they call Kashmir's composite culture, a torch-bearer of Hindu-Muslim unity. With obvious political motivations, they project her as though she were a spokesperson of the present day secular discourse and resume utilize her for scoring points in carver current political debates, not caring to maya research introduction think how cliched their arguments based on false premises have now become. Raymond Essays. Through their oversimplifications and vague generalizations, they have turned Lal Ded virtually into a one-verse poet, stripping her of home work homework her real glories, Shiv chhuy thali-thali rozan, mav zan hyond to musalman (Shiva abides in everything, so do not discriminate between a Hindu and a Musalman). Is that then the quintessence of her poetic thought?
The only basis of her greatness? The verse appears to carver essays be a spurious one, although Rajanaka Bhaskara has included it in resume cover letter his collection of carver essays Lalavakyani”. Lal Ded had spent her early youth in the reign of Udyan Deva, the last Hindu king of Kashmir, and of queen Kota Rani. Even when Islamic rule was finally established in 1359 A.D., the majority of the population remained overwhelmingly Hindu, with Islam not having made any serious impact on the demographic composition of the Kashmiri society-not at least on the rural milieu in which Lal Ded lived and moved about. To whom then has the verse been addressed? Who was discriminating against whom? The fact is that attempts to show Lal Ded's verses as a part of the quoting from, current secular debate, are being made only as a strategy to condone the barbarities inflicted on Kashmiri Hindus dining the six hundred years of Islamic rule. The idea is to present a liberal and human face of Islam as practiced in Kashmir by using Sufism as a mask.
Whether or not Sufism had taken any roots in Lal Ded's Kashmir, is another matter. Raymond Carver Essays. The strategy seems to have worked, for a general impression has been created that she was either a Sufi mystic herself or was deeply influenced by in essays, Sufism. Whether or not Lal Ded had a social reformer's zeal, she was strongly egalitarian in her views and was more aware than most devotional poets about the prevailing social conditions of her times. And, contrary to the generally held belief that she was unaware of essays what was happening around her, a view to which even Prof. Kaul subscribes, there is enough evidence in Lalla's vaaks to show that she was very much conscious of what was going on around her, including the sweeping political changes that were taking place during her time. This is at least what the following lines of hers appear to suggest: hyath karith rajya pheri na. dith karith tripti na man. In ruling kingdoms there is no relief. In giving them away there yet is reality, grief. (Trs. Nila Cram Cook)
Is she not is referring here to the Kota Rani-Rinchin Shah Mir affair that eventually brought in Muslim rule to Kashmir? Lal Ded is scathing in essays her attack on hollow ceremony and ritual in religion, her emphasis being on inner experience. Service. She has no belief in sacred places and sacred times, pilgrimages and fasts supposed to bring religious merit. She scoffs at what A.K. Ramanujam calls orthodox ritual genuflections and recitations. She expresses her strong abhorrence for animal sacrifice and detests idol worship. Carver Essays. She must have surely provoked the orthodoxy at whom she misses no chance to food term take pot-shots. In this she reminds one of the Kannada Vachana poet Basvanna, and also of Kabir and Nanak whom she anticipated. Surely, hers was a strong voice of protest in essays medieval Kashmir-perhaps the only voice raised so fearlessly. With Lal Ded not conforming to food reality any of the image constructs built around her by those who want to reduce her to an idea or an abstraction according to their predilections, what could the real Lal Ded have been like? To reclaim her authentic persona, we have no option but to discard the motivated myths and invoke the actual text of her verses.
In this context, it must be noted that Lal Ded recited her vaaks to raymond actual audiences who were enraptured and mesmerized by her words, which happened to maya angelou research introduction be in their own mother tongue. In verse after verse we find her addressing the ubiquitous Bhatta, whether to admonish him (puz kas karakh hutu bata – ‘Who will you worship, O ritual-ridden Pundit?'), or to explaining a subtle point or two (yohoy vopdish chhuy bata-‘This is what the doctrine teaches, O Pundit!'). This clearly shows that she knows her audience. Not that Lal Ded belongs to any one community-her message is certainly universal-but she does have the Pandit in mind whenever she has a point to make. To find out the authentic Lal Ded, then, we have to rely mainly on the internal evidence that her vaaks furnish.
Packed with sufficient biographical material, as the vaaks are, we can reconstruct with their help her mystic life, her experience as a woman, as a saint and raymond as a poet, her view of the research paper, relationship between God, man and the world. An image as near reality as possible. But in this there are problems. Lalla vaaks have been orally transmitted from generation to generation and are available only in randomly available versions, with practically no chronological sequence. An attempt to discern a sequence of thought in them has been made by Prof B.N. Parimoo, who has tried to raymond essays link them as thematic units under some broad divisions in his book, The Ascent of Self. The book, written in 1978, is the quoting in essays, first exercise of its kind undertaken by anyone and carver can be deservingly called a significant contribution to Lal Ded studies. The cue to the arrangement of the verses, says the author, is taken from the 'I-ness' categorically denoting personal experience. But admirable as Prof. Parimoo's attempt to angelou paper re-interpret the vaakhs is, one cannot be certain that while picking up the autobiographical threads he has arranged them according to actual chronological sequence, that is, exactly in the order they were composed. Prof Parimoo himself is not sure, and in fact nobody can be, for there cannot be any ideal selection of verses transcribed randomly from oral tradition.
The author of the carver, book, however, does not appear to have taken as much care as he should have in maya angelou paper making his selection. Quite a number of verses he has included are obvious interpolations. The lines “hond maarytan kinu kath, for instance, which he has included as the very first vaakh, is not actually a vaakh at all, but a saying attributed to Lal Ded. His total reliance on the account of Ramjoo Malla for biographical information because it does not tilt the purpose of this book appears to be rather curious. Before referring to the text, therefore, we have to be sure how far genuine it is. Essays. This accentuates the need of a critically valid text of Lalla Vaaks-something that has not been attempted quite seriously so far, except a solitary attempt made by Prof.
Jaya Lal Kaul. Laments Prof. Quoting Novels In Essays. Kaul, who has devoted a whole chapter of his book Lal Ded to it, that there hardly has been any textual criticism. He then proceeds to sift what he calls unwarranted variants and spurious interpolations as far as possible from verses that can be regarded as genuinely authentic. Of the total 258 vaaks that circulate in the name of Lal Ded and raymond carver essays occur in do my home do my various collections, he has included only 138 in his collection and even their authenticity he is not prepared to vouch for. The criteria that he lays down for determining authenticity seem to be very sound. These according to him should be: The evidence of raymond diction and prosody, and the quality and cast of thought, the way it is organized in the process of do my work do my homework expression, in raymond carver essays a word, the characteristic style of Lal Ded. Cover Letter Paragraphs. To this I would like to add that both the text and context should be taken into consideration, as well as the overall feeling tone of the verses. Prof. Kaul has pointed out : There are 35 verses that occur both in . collections of Lal Ded's verses, and in Nurnamas and Rishinamas, the biographies of Nund Rishi, which include his shrukhs; three verses occur in Lalla vaakh as well as in Rahasyopadesha, the verse sayings of Rupa Bhavani (1620-1720), three quartrains that belong to one Azizullah Khan (early 19th century) have been ascribed to Lal Ded by Rev.
J. Hinton Knowles in his Dictionary of Kashmiri Proverbs. All the three quartrains of Azizullah Khan have been included as Lallavaaks in the Koshur Samachar collection. Interestingly, one of these quartrains has been translated by that great Indian translator A.K. Essays. Ramanujan in the name of Lal Ded, and quoted as such by angelou research paper, K. Sachchidanandan, Secretary, Sahitya Akademi, in one of his papers on women poets of India. Carver Essays. The verse, as given in the Lal Ded Number of Koshur Samachar is as follows: daman basti dito dam. thitay yithu daman khar. shastras swan gatshi haasil. wuni chhay sul tu tshandun yar. Obviously, neither the do my do my, diction (she could never have used words like ‘yaar' or 'haksil’) nor the raymond carver essays, quality and cast of thought of this verse is that of Lal Ded, but it continues to be ascribed to a waitress resume her again and again.
In another verse of this very series, death has been depicted as a Tehsildar-an institution that did not exist at that time at essays all. The confusion prevailing in this regard is maya research paper, mainly due to interpolations, a game indulged in by many, not without a strong element of deliberateness. Lines from other poets heavily laden with Persian and essays Arabic words have been passed on as Lal Ded's as in an attempt at what can be called linguistic subversion. Some of her ardent and overzealous admirers too have tried to put words in her mouth, though out of reverence for her. The total incompatibility of diction seems to have never bothered the quoting from novels, perpetrators of such distortions. Raymond Carver. Yet nobody can claim that the language in which Lallavaakhs have been passed on to the unsuspecting inheritors of her oral legacy is the language in which they must have originally fallen from the celebrated poetess' mouth. Maya Research. The only sure way to ascertain their authenticity would be a linguistic comparison with extant Kashmiri works of periods immediately preceding or succeeding Lal Ded, as written evidence of no contemporary work is available. Raymond. These works are the 'Chhumma Sampradaya' verses which can be assigned to paragraphs the 11th or 12th century, 'Mahanaya Prakasha' by Shiti Kantha, 'Banasur Katha' by carver, Avtar Bhatta and 'Sukha-dukha Charit' by Ganak Prashast. I had the good fortune of a waitress resume studying all these works while preparing my doctoral thesis on the linguistic peculiarities of 'Banasura Katha', and so I am aware of carver essays their significance in presenting a somewhat coherent picture of the medieval development of the Kashmiri language and their immense value in tracing earlier forms of a good number of novels Kashmiri words. These works provide ample evidence of the fact than Kashmiri has developed from the MIA stages of Prakrit and raymond essays Apabhramsha in the same way as other Indo-Aryan languages have. Anyone who cares to go through these works will be able to resume cover paragraphs gain valuable knowledge of the linguistic situation that actually prevailed in Kashmir from the 11th-12th century to the end of the 15th.
If would be useful to give here one example each from the above mentioned works to give a feel of the raymond carver, state of Kashmiri language used during this period:- bhava svabhave saba avinashi. sapana sabhava vi uppanna. te az niravidihi agam prakashi. idassa dishti kachi vipachhanna. yasu-yasu jantus samvid yas-yas. nila pita sukha-dukha-swarup. udayis datta samanyi samaras.
kama kampana tas-tas anurup. dhik-dhik myaanis yadava zammas. vanati atsa majja kachan. yudha kara namet swakammas. ushe atha chhon iha than. him zan tape viglyos pape. A detailed description of the home work do my, linguistic features of these works is not possible here; but one can clearly notice the thread of linguistic development that runs through them.
Compare these with the language of Lallavaaks and you get a fairly complete picture. Grierson has called the language of raymond Lal Ded's vaaks Old Kashmiri, but it does not require any special insight to quoting from in essays see that it is quite modern compared to the language of the illustrations cited above because of the many changes it has undergone due to oral transmission. However, we can come as near to an authorized version as possible by carver, reconstructing their text with the help of Banasur Katha and Sukh-dukha Charit. Cover Paragraphs. This is a desirable but extremely difficult task. Even so, those who take the deliberately distorted and mutilated text to be genuine, ignoring the raymond essays, fact of its massive interpolation, must know that Lal Ded could in no case have used the heavily Persianised language of the 19th or early 20th century nearly six hundred years back. It is research paper, of utmost importance therefore, that to essays arrive at authentic Lal Ded, we should discard all the spurious elements introduced by those who are interested in building false image constructs. Lal Ded could not have used modern Kashmiri for quoting her poetic expression, but she was modern in many other ways.
She had in her the characteristic modern self-reflectiveness, the insistence on accepting as authentic only essays what she herself could experience directly, the broad catholicity of outlook that called for tolerance of diverse views and a waitress made her define her relationship to God in terms of oneness of all existence, the deep existential anguish she felt while reflecting on carver essays the human condition. She was modern in the universality of her concerns, in her choice of metaphor and image, in her rejection of every kind of sham and home work do my pretence, in her fearless assertion of what she saw as truth. Indeed, at raymond carver essays times it appears that she is more modern then most of the contemporary Kashmiri poets. Lal Ded's struggle as a woman has been largely overlooked. She may not have been a conscious feminist in resume the sense the term is understood today, but she did show the raymond essays, courage of resisting the oppressive structures of patriarchy and refusing to play the traditional role of a submissive daughter-in-law. Rebelling against social tyranny, she broke the shackles that bind a woman even before her birth, and asserted her right of taking her own decisions. She challenged the orthodoxy and threw the do my work, rigid codes of dress and decorum followed by the medieval society of raymond essays her times to the winds and from roamed about with barely any clothes on essays like the great Kannada Shaivite poetess, Mahadeviakka. Perhaps it was her last act of defiance against a social set-up whose arbitrary and gender discriminatory rules she did not find acceptable. It is in accordance with these facts that we shall have to reconstruct the image of the great saint-poetess of Kashmir, noting that she does not fit into most of the image-constructs that have been built around her. The Shah Hamadan anecdote and the so-called miracle of the oven seem to resume paragraphs be an essays insult to such a fearlessly and fiercely independent woman.
She started her spiritual journey as a tormented soul, but attained a stage where self- realization and self-awareness gave her tremendous inner strength and quoting in essays the confidence that derived from that strength: kesari vanu volum ratith shal. I dragged the lion from its den like a jackal. It is this that explains the pervasive influence that Lal Ded has on Kashmiri psyche to essays this day. The unexplored dimensions of her personality and creativity shall have to cover letter be discovered if we want to understand her not as an raymond abstraction but as a real person. She is quintessentially Kashmiri, having shaped the Kashmiri language and literature, as she did, but she is maya angelou introduction, also universal in her appeal. Her verses remain as relevant and raymond carver essays meaningful for today's world as they were in from novels in essays her times. Let me conclude by quoting a line from raymond carver, one of her own most powerful vaaks: yim pad lali vany tim hridi ank. Brand on your heart what Lalla spoke in verse! 1. Work Do My. Lalavakyani: Rajanaka Bhaskara. 2. The Word of raymond essays Lalla: Sir Richard Temple.
C.U.P., 1924. 3. Lalla-Vakyani or the Wise Sayings of Lal Ded: George Grierson and Lionel D. Barnett, Royal Asiatic Society Monograph, Vol. XVII, London, 1920. 4. Koshur Samachar; Lal Ded Number. Resume. Kashmiri Samiti, Kasmiri Bhavan, Amar Colony, New Delhi, 1971. 5. Lal Ded : Prof Jayalal Kaul, Sahitya Akademi, New Delhi, 1973.
6. The Ascent of Self: Prof B.N. Parimoo, Motilal Banarasi Dass, Delhi, Second Ed., 1987. 7. Carver Essays. A History of home work Kashmir. P.N.K. Bamzai, Metropolitan Book Co., 1962. 8. A History of Muslim Rule in Kashmir. Carver Essays. RK. Fast Reality Term Paper. Parmu, Peoples Publishing House, New Delhi, 1959.
9. Daughters of Vitasta: Prem Nath Bazaz, Pamposh Publications, New Delhi, 1959. 10. Kashir : A History of Kashmir (2 vols)., S.M.D. Sufi, Light and Life Publishers, New Delhi, Reprint, 1974. 11. Kashmiri Sahitya ka Itihas : Shashi Shekhar Toshkhani, Jammu and Kashmir Academy of Art, Culture and Languages, 1985. 12. Raymond Carver Essays. The Way of the Swan: Nila Cram Cook, Asia Publishing House, Bombay, 1958.
13. Sheeraza (Kashmiri) : Special Number on Lal Ded : Jammu and reality term Kashmir Academy of carver essays Art, Culture and Languages, Srinagar, 1979. 14. Triadic Mysticism : Paul E. Murphy : Motilal Banarasi Dass, Delhi, 1999. 15. Quoting Novels In Essays. Shivastolraaali of essays Utpaldeaa : Nilakanth Gurtu, Motilal Banarasi Dass, Delhi 1985. 16. Mahanaya Prakasha : Rajanaka Shiti Kantha, Edited with Notes by quoting from in essays, Mahamahopadhyaya Pandit Mukund Ram Shastri, Research Department, J K State, Srinagar, 1918. 17.
Banasur Katha: Avatar Bhatt, MSS. Bhandarkar Oriental Institute, Pune. 18. Basasura Katha : (Ph.D. dissertation), Shashi Shekhar Toshkhani. 19. Sukha-Dukha Charit : Ganaka Prashasta, MSS. BOI, Pune. Any content available on this site should NOT be copied or reproduced. in any form or context without the written permission of KPN.
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ellen foster essays September 8, 2017. Ellen Foster is a ten-year-old. Caucasic. female who experiences a series of traumatic events during her childhood. Raymond Carver Essays! These traumatic events include her witnessing domestic force in the place. her mother’s self-destruction and subsequent physical. sexual and psychological maltreatment by her alcoholic male parent. her maternal grandma and do my work do my, other relations ( aunts and cousins on the mother’s side ) . Ellen shuttled from place to place. Carver Essays! remaining for a short clip at quoting from novels the place of her instructor. so to different relatives’ places. to essays, eventually a Foster place where she finally resides. Ellen’s “new mama” . as she refers to her. is a much better function theoretical account so she has of all time experienced before. New Mama is angelou, supportive and carver, nurturing towards Ellen. Ellen studies that authorities and church support support the surrogate household. She has no siblings. Ellen is intelligent and resume letter paragraphs, enjoys making art.
She frequently rides a pony at her new surrogate place. Ellen misses her female parent. and longed for a health professional before she had new mamma. This is apparent when she reports eaves dropping on a “colored” household and carver, “started doing a list of all that a household should hold. Of class. there is the mamma and the dada but if one has to be losing so it is All right if the one left can number for two. But non merely anybody can number or more than his or herself ( p. 67 ) ” . She frequently sought aid from her Aunt Betsey and neighbours. Fast Food! Her female parent. Raymond Carver! male parent and grandma. Maya Angelou Research Paper Introduction! or “mama’s mama” as Ellen calls her. are all deceased. The grandma was old and opprobrious towards Ellen coercing her to work the Fieldss with the “colored” field custodies on her farms in the center of a sweltering hot summer until school started.
Ellen finally becomes the raymond, health professional and maidservant to home do my homework, mama’s mamma after the grandma fires all of her family retainers. Despite Ellen’s attention and good plants for her. the grandma despises her because she is convinced that Ellen was in “cahoots” with her male parent in carver, mistreating her girl. taking her retaliation out on Ellen since the male parent is dead. Ellen has a best friend. an African American miss named Starletta. Since Ellen likes Starletta. and she struggles with her ain burgeoning racism. She has beliefs about a waitress resume, African Americans that are chiefly negative. Ellen finally realizes that race makes no difference in the quality of the individual. Ellen enjoys art and playing with her microscope frequently fantasizing about being a scientist on the threshold of a new find that will alter world. She sees a counsellor at school on Wednesdays. Ellen does non bask making therapy and has negative transference towards her counsellor. Presently she is seeing me for therapy. She can be aggressive. defensive and competitory at times at school.
During one session Ellen reported that her counsellor asked her about her last name because “Foster” isn’t her existent last name. She did non desire to discourse it any farther. Possibly she chose the last name “Foster” from her label as a Foster kid. Object Relations As stated by Lesser and raymond, Pope ( 2011 ) harmonizing to object dealingss theory. “human development takes topographic point within the context of home work, relationships ( p. 69 ) ” . British object relation theoreticians. Melanie Klein. Ronald Fairbairn. and Harry Guntrip introduce definite and functional thoughts about what internal object universe. or the interior universe. Carver! consists of. The interior universe includes representations of ego and other. representations structured by ideas. remembrances. and happenings within the quoting from in essays, external universe.
A representation has a permanent continuation in the interior universe and although it begins as a cognitive construction. it finally takes on a profound emotional significance for the individual ( Berzoff. Melano-Flanagan. #038; A ; Hertz 1996 ) . The word object is set apart from the topic. The topic is the ego and the object is the portion outside the ego. the object is what the ego identifies with. brushs. Essays! wants. has uncertainnesss about. feels denial about. or absorbs. In Freudian thrust theory and in ego psychological science. the term object is sometimes used in angelou paper, mention to people. The word. object. in drive theory can be to some extent depersonalized. because the raymond essays, word basically does represent a thing non a individual as in: “the object of unwritten urges can literally be the breast” ( commendation ) . In psychodynamic theory the essay service, word object. normally refers to raymond, people. but other objects such as cookery. art. pets. In Essays! or can go objects when they are deeply and raymond carver essays, representatively connected to powerful object experiences in the interior universe. Some of fast reality term paper, Ellen’s physical objects are her microscope. Raymond Carver! her encyclopaedia. her money. and her art supply.
A speculation about Ellen’s interior universe and what these object represent is that her money could stand for an insurance program. in instance things go incorrect. And her microscope. her art. and her encyclopedias represent an do my work do my homework, flight for raymond her and they besides represent hopes for the hereafter. Klein ( 1948 ) was the first theoretician to revise Freud’s impression of the object by maya angelou research introduction giving more consideration to the interpersonal environment in make up one’s minding its influence in developing personality. She amongst other object relations’ theoreticians now defined the carver, mark of relational demands as a construct known as relationship seeking. Klee 2005 stated that relationship seeking is the do my homework, belief that through relationships with important people in our lives. Raymond Essays! we take in parts of others ( objects ) and bit by bit develop a self-structure that we finally call a personality. This mental procedure by which a individual changes the regulative characteristics of her environment into internal ordinances and characteristics is do my do my, called internalizing ( Lesser #038; A ; Pope 2011 ) . D. W. Winnicot ( 1958 ) . a pediatrician and psychoanalyst. is influential in the field of raymond essays, object dealingss theory. gave great consideration to the impression of being entirely. He believes that the ability to stay. take pleasance in. and utilize healthy purdah could be refined. Cover Paragraphs! ironically. merely in the propinquity of another. Carver Essays! If loneliness is experienced as desolate. isolated. or suffering. it becomes agonising. This can go on is a kid has been neglected. In this state of affairs. the interior universe is non filled with adequate soothing figures.
On the contrary. Best! aloneness becomes excessively tormenting or impossible for raymond carver essays the kid. if the interior universe is excessively crowed with baleful and opprobrious figures who offer neither protection. reassurance. nor repose. The ideal environment for resume letter the turning kid to portion experiences with the soothing figure for a period of clip and to see clip entirely to reflect and to essays, gamble on the child’s ain ( Berzoff et al. 1996 ) . Klein ( 1948 ) described six early procedures and crude defences developed from early baby old ages. Projection is when the baby believes an object has features that are in fact the infant’s ain feelings. Introjection is the mental desire in which the baby consumes the perceived in the universe. Projective designation is creatively dividing off a portion of oneself and imputing it to another in order to command the do my work homework, other ( Berzoff et al. 1996 ) . Dividing occurs when a kid can non divide conflicting ideas or feelings in the head at the same clip. and essays, hence alternatively of incorporating the two ideas or feelings the kid focuses on merely one of them.
A split can take any signifier. from ocular visual aspect to constructs and thoughts. For illustration. a frequent split is into good and bad. The good portion is preserved and cherished at the same clip the bad portion is wrestled with or repressed. Cover! In utmost instance of schizophrenic disorder. when a portion of the ego linked with one of the separate ideas. and another portion of the ego is raymond, linked with another. the individual is so split ( Berzoff et al. 1996 ) . Idealization is a defence used to home work, maintain painful and unacceptable feelings out of consciousness. The feelings that are troublesome are normally the same feelings that people frequently want to reject: “anger. letdown. Raymond Essays! enviousness. unhappiness. desire. and greed ( p. 145 ) ” . Devaluation is the resume letter, antonym of idealisation and is a defence mechanism used to reject troublesome feelings such as “neediness. failing. insecurity. Raymond Carver! enviousness. or desire ( p. 146 ) ” . A individual who denies desire through devaluation ends up experiencing smug and superior but rather entirely ( Berzoff et al. Best College Application Service! 1996 ) . An of raymond carver, import developmental point in object dealingss is the depressive place harmonizing to Klein ( 1948 ) . Home Homework! The depressive place is invariably maturating throughout a person’s life-time. Raymond! Feelingss of compunction. heartache. and the longing for atonement return clasp in the development head in the depressive place.
The individual now recognizes the maya angelou, ability to do injury or force away a individual who one undecidedly loves. The defences attributed to the depressive place include the raymond, frenzied defences. such as preoccupation for reparation. As the depressive place causes turning integrating in the self-importance. Term Paper! anterior defences displacement in the character. going less powerful. leting the character to travel into psychic world ( Berzoff et al. 1996 ) . Throughout this disruptive clip in raymond carver, Ellen’s life she is sing many new relationships and is relationship seeking with many grownups. Term Paper! These grownups are supposed to be health professionals for raymond her. These people are her female parent. male parent. her grandma. Julia. Aunt Betsy. Aunt Nadine. and fast food term paper, new mamma.
There is a clip after Ellen’s female parent dies that I feel she is excessively entirely. in understanding with Winnicot ( 1958 ) . Ellen frequently reports that when she would come place from school “it was already dark and he had the visible radiations on. I went in and did non talk to him. I did non talk to him or else I stayed outside most of the clip ( p. 24 ) ” . She said that her male parent was drunk all the clip. frequently passed out. she was entirely and finally she had to take attention of the measures. There are other times when Ellen’s life is overruning with opprobrious grownup figures in her life. On New Years Eve. Ellen claimed that a clump of black rummy work forces came into her house with male parent. Raymond Essays! “My dada showed up at my house less and less…he did demo up on New Years Eve. Of class I went and hid when I heard him and a whole battalion of colored work forces come in the door ( p. 36 ) ” . Ellen is frightened when this happens frequently seeking to get away through a window in her room. In conformity with Winnicot ( 1958 ) . aloneness becomes excessively much excessively au naturel for do my Ellen and she feels the demand to conceal.
Her interior universe is excessively crowed with baleful and raymond carver essays, opprobrious figures who are endangering her safety. The whole mother’s side of the resume cover paragraphs, household overcrowds Ellen’s interior universe excessively. This is raymond essays, a hazard for Ellen. because breaks in object dealingss may ensue in an inability to fall in love. emotional coldness. A Waitress! apathy or backdown from interaction with others. co-dependency. and/or utmost demand to raymond carver, command relationships ( Berzoff et al. 1996:70 ) . Ellen attempts to command Starletta every bit much as she can through projective designation ; she splits off a portion of herself and efforts to command Starletta. Ellen frequently tells Starletta what to make. for illustration one twenty-four hours when Ellen was over Starletta’s house and she wanted to play. nevertheless Ellen thought to herself and state Starletta the followers: “Starletta still had on her nightie and she needed to be washed. ‘You got to resume cover letter paragraphs, rinse before I will play with you’ is what I told her ( p. 31 ) . She taped Starletta’s crayons back together after she broke them.
She would frequently speak down to Starletta: “’Tell your Mama I thank her’ I said to her. State it over in your caput and out loud so it will non go forth your caput ( p. Essays! 52 ) ” . This relationship may unconsciously take to fast reality term paper, acquire rid of unwieldy feelings for essays Ellen and assist her trade with these feelings. Ellen’s relationship with grandma is toxic at best. In the beginning. Ellen thought that her grandma might wish holding a miss around the house. Quoting From Novels! even though she is raymond essays, non a “vision” ( pg ) . but Ellen said she had good purposes.
In my sentiment. “good intentions” meant she wanted to hold a relationship with her grandma. Best College! The grandma wanted to raymond essays, penalize Ellen for Ellen and her male parent doing her daughter’s self-destruction. Ellen confronts her grandma. inquiring her why she hates her so much. Ellen asked her grandma: “Well I know you hated my dada but what about me? Why can’t you see that I am non like him? ( p. 78 ) ” . The grandmother lashes out at Ellen with an onslaught of opprobrious hurtful words directed towards Ellen to interrupt her down. Ultimately. that is what Ellen does she close down. “So I decided to pass the remainder of my life doing up for it. Paragraphs! Whatever it was. Whatever I decided I one twenty-four hours I really did ( p. Raymond Carver Essays! 78-79 ) ” . Ellen is in the depressive place. she feels guilty about do my home, everything for her female parents decease. for her male parents decease. and so for the grandmother’s decease when she passes. Ellen utilizes her frenzied defences. in my sentiment. when she finds the grandma dead and decides to dress her in her “Sunday’s best” apparels and surround her with flowers in order to do damagess with her guilty feelings. “I made her like a present to carver essays, Jesus so possibly he would take her. Take this one I got prettied up and tag it down by name to equilibrate against the one I held from from you before… . Carver! be certain I get the recognition for it and if you can delight demo me some manner that you and best college application service, me are even now ( p. 92 ) . Ellen becomes somewhat preoccupied with reparation.
Ellen begins to travel past this stage when she moves in the place of her Aunt Nadine. Object dealingss can be applied to raymond, Ellen’s traumatic yesteryear and helps to place some important points in her life that she would wish to work in future intervention. A pleasant thing about object dealingss is that as the healer and patient jointly examine the patient’s internal universe and novels, its consequence on the patient’s relationships. the patient and healer are in a relationship every bit good. In this manner. patient and healer have an carver, bing shared connexion that both can analyze and larn from ( Berzoff et al. 996 ) . Cover! Sociocultural Theory Sociocultural theory stemmed from the work of carver, psychologist Lev Vygotsky. Vygotsky ( 1934/1986 ) felt that human knowledge was innately societal and linguistic communication based. Vygotsky believed interior address is qualitatively distinguishable from normal external address. Home Do My Homework! It is linguistic communication. advanced during the earlier old ages. and increasingly improved during the in-between old ages ( where Ellen’s age lies ) that really aids in giving the older kid the capableness to form things mentally instead than by raymond carver utilizing concrete points ( Lesser #038; A ; Pope 2011 ) . As Berk 2003 stated: Vytgotsky felt that kids speak to themselves for self-guidance ; he felt linguistic communication was the foundation for all high cognitive procedures. including control attending. calculated memorisation and callback. classification. planning. job work outing. abstract logical thinking. and self-reflection ( p. 257 ) . One of Vygotsky’s constructs is the Zone of Proximal Development ( ZPD ) . The ZPD is the difference between what a kid can accomplish when working by themselves and what the same kid can accomplish when given aid from home homework person with the necessary cognition ( Wertsch 1985 ) . Vygotsky viewed the ZPD as a manner to carver, better explicate the relation between children’s acquisition and cognitive development. The lower bound of ZPD is the degree of accomplishment attained by the kid working entirely ; this lower bound can besides be accredited to resume cover, as the child’s existent developmental degree. Raymond Carver! The upper bound is the degree of latent accomplishment that the resume, kid is raymond carver, able to make with the aid of a more capable teacher ( Wertsch 1985 ) . . A construct associated with ZPD is the term paper, construct staging.
It is indispensable to do a note that Vygotksy ne’er used this construct in his authorship ; introduced by David Wood. Jerome S. Bruner. and Gail Ross ( 1976 ) . Scaffolding is a procedure through which a wise man or more competent equal helps a individual in his or her ZPD learn for every bit long as necessary and tapers off until the pupil no longer needs the wise man. much like a scaffold is detached from a edifice when building is finished or deemed stable ( Wood et al. 1976 ) . Vygotsky viewed pretend drama as the essays, critical context for quoting from novels in essays development of self-regulation. Despite the fact that Ellen is ten old ages old traveling on 11 old ages old. Essays! this still pertains to her. Pretense is full of shared duologue and development-enhancing accomplishments.
Vygotsky takes pretense to the following degree doing it a of import portion of development a distinguishing. experiential ZPD in which kids try out a broad scope of in essays, hard accomplishments and larn culturally valued accomplishments developing a significantly stronger capacity for raymond carver self-regulation.