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History of Political Economy: Physiocracy. Source: Chapter two of research, Keizaigaku shi (History of Political Economy), Tokyo: Iwanami Shoten, 1954; Translated : for essay, marxists.org by Michael Schauerte; CopyLeft : Creative Commons (Attribute ShareAlike) marxists.org 2007. The following is the second chapter from Kurumas book Keizaigaku shi (History of Political Economy) first published in 1948 by Kawade Shob#333; and reissued in an expanded edition in 1954 by Iwanami Shoten. My translation is based on this latter edition. Kurumas history consists of three chapters: Chapter one which provides a short overview of the history of political economy as a science; Chapter two on Quesnay and ratio research the Physiocrats; and Chapter three on the thought of skills, Smith and Ricardo, particularly as it concerns the labor theory of value. Chapter three has been published separately in the 2007 issue of Research in Political Economy as an article entitled: A Critique of Classical Political Economy. Physiocracy is a school of thought founded by François Quesnay (1694-1774), a court physician to King Louis the 15th.
At one point in time Physiocracy constituted a sort of religious movement that attracted a number of outstanding and extremely fervent believers, and exerted no small influence on real politics. The history of the Physiocratic movement is thought to have begun in 1757, when Quesnay met Mirabeau the elder (1715-89), and come to an end in 1776, with the fall of Turgot (1727-81). Paper? The actual members of the of nations Physiocratic school referred to golden ratio research, themselves not as Physiocrats but as économistes . The term physiocracy apparently came into general use after having first appeared in 1767, with the appearance of a collection of Quesnays works published by Pierre du Pont under the title Physiocratie, ou Constitution Naturelle du Gouvernement le Plus Avantageux au Genre Humain . The term is of course a combination of physio (nature) and cracy (rule), thus meaning the respectful essay rule of nature. This expresses the schools fundamental idea that there is a natural order, as opposed to artificial systems, and that the mission of scholarship and politics being to understand this natural order and bring it into existence, thereby bringing about this rule of nature.  Quesnays Tableau Economique , which is the essence of his system of political economy, is a diagram that depicts the research paper process of social reproduction under the essay natural order. It was printed at Versailles in paper 1758, with a print run of just four copies. Initially Quesnay had intended to present it along with Extraits des Economies royals de M. Critical Thinking Skills In Literature? de Sully but gave up this idea on the advice of Madame de Pompadour. But the ratio manuscript containing it, written in essay Quesnays own hand, was discovered among the papers of Mirabeau in 1890 in the Archives Nationales by Professor Stephan Bauer. At that time Bauer also discovered the second edition of the Tableau Economique , which had been published in the spring of 1759, with a print run of three copies.
At the golden ratio paper end of that year a third edition of three copies was published, which was later discovered by Gustave Schelle. History Format? In addition to golden research paper, these editions, there is the Tableau Economique avec ses Explications included in Mirabeaus LAmi des Hommes (1760), as well as the table in Mirabeaus Philosophie Rurale (1763) and LElements de la Philosophie Rurale (1767), and the tables that appear in format other works. The figures in the various tables are somewhat different, but the basic structure is the same. There is one table created by Quesnay himself that was quite different from the others, namely the Formula of the Tableau Economique published in his Analyse du Tableau Economique . To distinguish this table from the others, it is referred to as the Tableau Abrégé (abridged table). Quesnay set out in Analyse du Tableau Economique to clarify the true significance of golden ratio research, his economic table, in a manner accessible to the general public, and of nations the table was revised accordingly. He made a step forward in terms of content compared to the earlier tables. Most importantly, whereas previous tables had depicted the circulation between the three main classes as circulation between individuals belonging to each of those classes, the Tableau Abrégé depicts this from the golden ratio research paper outset as circulation between classes as a whole. And whereas the other tables depict a continually repeating process, the abridged table generally indicates all of the circulation during a year of production in accordance with the particular functions in the national economy. Furthermore, the relations of reproduction for each type of essay on adam smith wealth of nations, advance (capital) are clarified to a much greater extent. Thus, although the Tableau Abrégé , as its name indicates, is much more simplified, Quesnays simplification eliminated the extraneous and held on to the necessary.
For these reasons, my explanation here will focus exclusively on this abridged table. Quesnays Tableau Abrégé in Analyse du Tableau Economique is displayed above (Diagram I), and below it is the revised version of Prof. Golden Ratio Research? Bauer (Diagram II).  . In the Tableau Economique , the country is broadly divided into three classes: the productive class ( classe productive ), the class of proprietors ( class des propriétares ), and the sterile (or unproductive) class ( classe sterile ). The productive class comprises those involved in agriculture. We should note, however, that the term refers to essay on adam smith wealth, capitalist entrepreneurs who rent land and hire workers, so it is premised here that agriculture is conducted under capitalistic methods. This class is said to paper, be productive because it alone is thought to produce the produit net (net product), which is the surplus over and above what is consumed in production.
The class of proprietors includes proprietors in a particular sense, i.e. landowners, as well as the igcse geography rivers lords and the tithe-owners who earn a ten percent tax ( décimateur ). Paper? This class lives by obtaining profit created by the productive class, rather than engaging in productive endeavors themselves. Finally, the sterile class includes those engaged in homework grids affairs outside of agriculture. This class is called sterileor unproductivebecause they were thought to only add to the value of the raw materialswhich are supplied by the productive classthe value of the materials of golden research paper, livelihood that they also received from the productive class. Quesnays economic table seeks to elucidate the manner in which simple reproduction is carried out in a closed-off nation that comprises these three classes. He supposes certain numerical figures as an indispensable means of precise reasoning. These figures were apparently based on the results of homework grids, a survey of research, capitalist-run agriculture in one region of homework grids, France, with Quesnay supposing that the same production methods are carried out research paper nationwide. The important thing for us today, however, is simply the relations between these figures. According to Quesnays assumptions, the productive class first of all engages in agriculture, with ten billion [or milliards in Diagram I] in fixed capital, which he calls original advances ( avances primitives ), and two billion in circulating capital, or annual advances ( avances annuelles ). Of course, the ten billion in fixed capital is not used up every year, and the annual cost of maintaining this fixed capital is estimated to be one-tenth of its total value, or one billion (which Quesnay calls les intérets des avances primitives ). The productive class, therefore, expends a total of custom essay, three billion on golden paper production every year. By expending this three billion, the productive class creates products with an aggregate value of five billion, so every year there is a two billion surplus in value in the form of agricultural products.
This surplus of two billion, or rather the surplus agricultural products valued at two billion, is what Physiocrats call the net product ( produit net ). This net product is subsequently paid to the class of proprietors in the form of rent, the 10-percent tax, etc. It is assumed, however, that this is a monetary, not an in-kind, payment. So it is history format, also supposed that at the end of the year of production, the productive class will have, in addition to an agricultural product with a value of five billion, two billion in money that can be used to pay rent. The explanation above basically covers the value-relation in Quesnays economic table. Turning to its material content, the golden ratio research paper three billion in custom essay help money the ratio research productive class spends during a year of production is made up of critical in literature, two billion in agricultural goods and one billion in manufactured goods, which by the end of the production process has been transformed into five billion in agricultural goods. Research Paper? Thus, comparing the beginning and the end of annual production, we see first of geography rivers, all that the ratio research two billion in agricultural goods has been reproduced in that same form, as agricultural goods, and the one billion in geography manufactured goods has been replaced by one billion in agricultural goods, while there are two billion in newly created agricultural goods as well. Incidentally, for the total product of golden research paper, five billion, the first, two billion component does not enter circulation and is used instead to replenish one part of the capital of the productive class. This does not enter circulation because the economic table only deals with the three main classes, completely setting aside the circulation that takes place within a class.
In contrast, the next, one billion component of the igcse total product cannot, in its form as agricultural goods, again be used by the productive class as productive capital. In order to return this capital of the golden ratio paper productive class to a form that is useful in production, it needs to respectful, be exchanged for one billion in manufactured goods. Ratio? Finally, the remaining two billion component of the product, which represents the papers format surplus, covers the two billion in value that must be paid as rent. Therefore, the golden nature of this two billion in money used to pay rent is critical skills in literature, such that after it has flowed back to the productive class it is exchanged with that other class. Thus, of the five billion in agricultural goods, two billion rests in the possession of the productive class, while the remaining three billion is destined to circulate to other classes.
Next, it is supposed that the class of proprietors receives two billion in income every year. This yearly income, as noted already, represents the net product (surplus in value) created through agriculture in a year, and is payment for the use of golden research paper, land. However, this is not merely land in its natural state, but rather land that is improved through capital investment. Therefore, this two billion in revenue also includes the value to replace the capital invested in the land (which Quesnay calls les avance forcièrs i.e. the capital invested for the initial reclamation of the skills plot of land, the construction of golden paper, buildings needed for cultivation, and the creation of irrigation canals, drainage, and roads). It is assumed that this revenue is paid in money, not in-kind.
Finally, it is assumed that the sterile class invests one billion of capital on homework grids raw materials and consumes one billion in materials of livelihood during the course of the year of production, thereby creating two billion in manufactured goods. Furthermore, because it is also assumed that these raw materials and materials of livelihood are composed of agricultural products, it is necessary for golden paper, the total product of this class to enter circulation and respectful teachers essay be exchanged for the one billion in raw materials and one billion in materials of golden research, livelihood. The circulation depicted in custom the economic table, under the conditions outlined above, begins with two billion in rent being paid by the productive class to the class of proprietors. This rent comes from the research two billion surplus in value created in a year by the productive class, and is paid in money as is suitable to capitalistic production. The class of homework grids, proprietors uses one billion livres, half of the two billion in money it now possesses, to golden ratio, purchase agricultural products from the critical skills in literature productive class which are needed to sustain over the course of a year, including food items and the like. One billion of money is thus returned to the productive class, which has now disposed of one-fifth of its total product (in Bauers diagram the downward I arrow represents the flow of money, while the commodity the money is exchanged for flows in the opposite direction).
With its remaining one billion livres, the class of proprietors purchases manufactured goods from the sterile class, such as furniture, clothing, etc. So the sterile class converts half of paper, its product into custom essay help money. Golden Research Paper? This money is then used by the sterile class to purchase needed agricultural goods, such as food, which results in a further one billion in money returning to the productive class, which has thus disposed of the second fifth of its total product (II 1 and II 2 ). The productive class then spends the homework grids one billion in money received to purchase manufactured goods from the sterile class, such as agricultural implements to replace those worn out in the course of production  . As a result, one billion in money flows to ratio paper, the sterile class, which thus discards the remaining one billion of its total product that was worth two billion. The sterile class then uses the one billion in money to critical in literature, purchase from the productive class the food items needed over the course of a year.
This means that one billion in money again flows to the productive class, which has unloaded the third fifth of its total product (III 1 and III 2 ). If we examine the outcome of this circulation, the entirety of the two billion product of the sterile class and golden ratio research three-fifths of the five-billion product of the productive class have been successfully sold, reaching the hands of the intended consumers. What remains is two-fifths of the productive classs product, worth two billion. As already noted, however, this remaining product is made up of the grain and foodstuffs the productive class itself requires. Instead of geography coursework rivers, entering the circulation between the three main classes, this is used as is straight away in order for the capital of the research paper productive class to again assume a productive form. This means that the entire product of society has been disposed of, with the products flowing to where they needed to go. That is not all, however.
At the same time, two billion in money has returned to the hands of the productive class, and history papers format the two billion in yearly advances and the one billion that is the worn-out part of the golden ratio research original advances are covered and replenished. Turning to the sterile class, one billion in raw materials and one billion in materials of livelihood have been replenished. Finally, the class of proprietors possesses the one billion in thinking skills agricultural goods and one billion in manufactured goods that make up its yearly materials of livelihood. This means that the conditions for a year of ratio research paper, life are fully in place, for each of the critical skills in literature classes of society, thus ensuring their continued existence, while at the same time putting in golden ratio paper place the necessary conditions for production to be carried out on the same scale as initially premised. In other words, the continuation of simple reproduction, which is the repetition of production on the same scale as before, has been guaranteed. Here we have presented the gist of Quesnays economic table.
It is simply astounding how well suited it is to the grandeur of the ideas, and how simple and to the point it is. Mirabeau may miss the mark in various ways when he says that there have been, since the on adam world begancthree great inventions with the first being the invention of writing the second the invention of golden ratio, money and the third the Oeconomical Table ,  but it is an undeniable fact that Quesnays table is one of the most revolutionary achievements within the history of political economy, representing the moment when this field of study finally reaches the point of constituting a scientific system. Not only was the Tableau Economique the homework grids first system of political economy, it is also remarkable in the sense that it was the golden research only attempt, prior to Marx, to depict the reproduction of the total social capital.  Marx appropriately noted that: [Quesnays Tableau Economique ] was an attempt to igcse geography coursework, portray the whole production process of capital as a process of reproduction, with circulation merely as the form of this reproduction process; and the circulation of money only as a phase in the circulation of ratio research paper, capital; at the same time to include in this reproduction process the origin of revenue, the exchange between capital and revenue, the relation between reproductive consumption and final consumption; and to include in the circulation of capital the circulation between consumers and producers (in fact between capital and revenue); and geography coursework rivers finally to present the circulation between the two great divisions of productive laborraw material production and manufactureas phases of this reproduction process; and all this depicted in golden ratio one Tableau which in fact consists of homework grids, no more than five lines which link together six points of departure or returncthis was an extremely brilliant conception, incontestably the most brilliant  for golden ratio research paper, which political economy had up to homework grids, then been responsible.  In Quesnays economic table, instead of each type of economic relation being abstractly observed in isolation, they are observed synthetically. I have just mentioned that Quesnay and Marx were the only ones in the history of political economy to seek to comprehensively consider this issue, but I should note that the former was the creator of political economy as a system whereas the latter brings political economy to its culmination. Is this a mere coincidence or is there some fundamental, underlying social factor? It seems to me that the need to golden research paper, comprehensively consider the economic movement of society is first keenly felt when the economic structure of society as a totality first comes to be an issue.
For this reason, it seems natural that within the history of modern political economywhich begins in papers format the midst of the deadlock of the golden research paper feudal system with the desire to establish capitalism, and comes to respectful essay, an end with a comprehensive critique of capitalism that coincides with the broad unfolding of its contradictionsthe desire to consider the process of reproduction would appear at golden ratio, the beginning and then at the end. I think it could be said this desire gradually recedes from the time of Quesnay to that of Smith, and even further from the time of Smith to in literature, Ricardo, as a reflection of the steady establishment of capitalist production and ratio the situation where the inner contradictions of the capitalist system had yet to be broadly exposed. Contradictions of Physiocracy and the Emergence of the history format Classical school. The previous section introduced the main content of Quesnays economic table, indicating that it was a most remarkable system in terms of considering the reproduction process of social capital; an effort not pursued subsequently until the ratio arrival of Marx. We also speculated as to why this attempt was made by the founder of political economy (Quesnay) and the person who brought it to its culmination (Marx). In other words, we focused primarily on the magnificent way the problem is grasped in homework grids Quesnays economic table, emphasizing the golden ratio points in common between Quesnay and Marx. However, if we compare the content of the two mens theories, the tremendous distance separating them becomes apparent. Just as the trajectory from the sudden rise of capitalism to its period of decline was propelled forward by papers format the real developmental process of research paper, capitalistic relations of format, production, the progress from the golden ratio research paper starting point of political economy to its culmination was made possible by the theoretical development of the English Classical school, based first and foremost on the analysis of exchange-value. If we are to understand the great significance of the theoretical development of the Classical school within the history of political economy, particularly the analysis of exchange-value as the fundamental element, we need to go back to the Physiocratic system, examine its content, and clarify its contradictions.
It is precisely because of golden ratio paper, their value that the products are sold to become two billion in money. This money in respectful teachers essay turn is handed over as rent to the class that enjoys exclusive ownership of the land, which is the fundamental labor requirement for agriculture, and the money makes up the revenue of that class of golden, proprietors. Thus, the net product, which the Physiocrats posited at the center of their doctrine as the sole source of a nations net revenue, is grasped as use-value and as a surplus product, but in the relation above it is understood in custom essay help the sense of value or surplus-value instead. In other words, their net product can be described as value grasped in the form of a material thing, and at the same time as surplus-value cognized in ratio research paper the form of a surplus agricultural product. Surplus-value is of course the pivot of the geography coursework rivers capitalist economy, the ratio paper ultimate objective and homework grids fundamental impetus of capitalist production. From a capitalist perspective, production is above all the production of surplus-value. Thus, Quesnay gets to the heart of modern production when he places net product at the center of his system, making a distinction between productive and unproductive labor on the basis of whether a net product is generated or not.
This basic idea is not particular to Quesnay and his school of thought alone, but rather is a keynote of modern political economy in its various forms. The doctrine of Mercantilism, first of all, which belongs to the prehistory of political economy, advocated the policy of promoting greater exports than imports paid for in gold and silver in order to use the funds generated to subsidize the protection of export-oriented commerce and industry. This position is an expression of the aforementioned view, in its crudest form. The balance of trade, in the form of an golden paper increase of gold and silver, is the most visible form of a national surplus in value, and what brings it about, directly speaking, is export-related commerce and industry. The fact that Mercantilists held fast to this highly visible form, overlooking the ultimate source, reveals their theoretical crudity and that they were unable to shake free of the realm of help, practical affairs. As Quesnay correctly argued, commerce is the exchange of research paper, things whose own values are already determined, so that value exists even before the transaction. In the geography case of commerce, as long as equivalents are exchanged, no surplus of profit can be generated, while in the case where non-equivalents are exchanged, the gain on one side is a loss on the other.
Exchange is merely the realization of already existing value in the form of money, or the transfer of value that is in the hands of another individual or nation. From an overall perspective, the process of circulation certainly cannot account for the original generation of research paper, surplus-value. Herein lies the fundamental defect of Mercantilism as a theoretical system. In order for political economy to constitute itself as a science, it was necessary to wealth, move from a partial, to an overall perspective, advancing from the subjective standpoint of merchants and politicians to an objective and theoretical standpoint, tracing our way back from matters concerning the mere realization and distribution of value, to arrive at its original creation. The focus of attention shifted from the research process of circulation to the process of production. And here we have the groundbreaking significance of the critical skills Physiocrats distinction between productive and unproductive labor.
As Marx notes, The Physiocrats transferred the inquiry into the origin of surplus-value from the sphere of circulation into the sphere of ratio paper, direct production, and history format thereby laid the foundation for the analysis of capitalist production.  The Physiocrats managed to research paper, raise this issue, but at the same time they failed to clarify what constitutes value. So they inevitably fell into remarkable confusion regarding value and use-value. On the one hand, they grasped relations pertaining to value in the form of use-value, while on the other hand they confused problems inherent to use-value with problems that pertain to value. As a result, numerous contradictions and a great deal of essay on adam of nations, confusion arose within their doctrine, as is manifested most clearly in golden their view on the productive character of critical skills, agriculture. First of all, when Physiocrats insist on the productive character of agriculture, this character refers to the production of surplus-value; at the same time, however, as long as it is not made clear what value stems from, it is research paper, impossible for them to essay on adam smith of nations, clarify the general law of the golden paper production of surplus-value. And within agriculture a peculiar situation exists, where agriculture is the department that produces materials of livelihood, so that what the agricultural laborer consumes in production is again reproduced, in the same in-kind form, within the product that they themselves produce.
They consume agricultural products to create agricultural products. Moreover, they create more agricultural products than the given amount they consume. Homework Grids? Therefore, the difference between the golden ratio research paper two amounts, without being mediated by the concept of value, can be recognized as a surplus product. Custom Essay?  This is not the case in the realm of industry, where the things workers consume and what they create are of ratio research paper, a completely different nature. Therefore, the surplus-value created by industrial workers cannot be recognized in its given form of use-value. Just as ten kilograms of wheat cannot be deducted from one carpet, the materials of livelihood of industrial workers are only first replenished through the exchange of their products. The difference between what the industrial workers consume and what they produce is in literature, something abstract and golden ratio research paper hard to pin down, which can only homework grids, first be understood through the value-analysis of simple labor. It is this circumstance that is the primary factor underlying the belief of the ratio research paper Physiocrats that only agriculture is custom essay help, productive. Because the Physiocrats did not clarify the character of value, they only golden research paper, grasped the production of custom, surplus-value in the form of the production of surplus use-values. As a result, they were unable to recognize the productive character of areas of production other than agriculture. Meanwhile, they directly confused matters inherently related to use-value with those related to value, thus generating even more confusion regarding the distinction between the concepts of golden paper, productive and unproductive.
They believed that agriculture occupies a special place within a societys economy, as the sphere that produces the foodstuffs that are the key requirement for human life. Accordingly to this view, without agriculture, and therefore without the papers format production of foodstuffs, people would be incapable of maintaining their existence. This means that agriculture is the golden ratio most fundamental of all the spheres of production, and the reason that some can live without engaging in agriculture is the result of the fact that those engaged in agriculture have created a surplus product in critical excess of their own consumption. In other words, the surplus agricultural product (net product) is the golden foundation for the lives of all the other classes, with the independent existence of commerce, industry, and other endeavors merely being flowers that bloom thanks to those agricultural roots. This view underlies the Physiocrats idea that only agriculture is productive, along with their other motives and reasons. Quesnay also says that the productive class is always independent through the outcome of their own labor, whereas the other classes are isolated because they are unable to obtain the materials of livelihood through their unproductive labor. He sees manufacture as a mere offshoot of papers, agriculture, saying that the expansion of the sterile class that occurs along with the increase in population and national wealth is made possible by the productive class and the wealth it creates. Granted, such views in and of themselves are not mistaken. Indeed, they reflect an extremely interesting viewpoint, both theoretically and historically (although the golden ratio Physiocrats did not developed them in a sufficiently conscious or accurate form). Still, these are problems that clearly pertain directly to igcse rivers, use-value , and cannot be the golden paper direct criteria for a distinction between the concepts of productive and unproductive in terms of value . It is custom essay help, inappropriate and conceptually confusing to ratio research, introduce such a view into the discussion of the distinction between productive and unproductive.
The confusion stems from the fact that the Physiocrats had become hopelessly perplexed about the intrinsic distinction between productive and unproductive labor. But at the same time there is particular significance underlying their view. From the perspective of the historical process of capitalist development, there is great significance in the line Quesnay drew between agriculture (as the production sphere of the fundamental materials of livelihood) and the other spheres of critical skills in literature, production, and in his emphasis on the development of the former being the necessary premise for the development of the golden research paper latter. This historical significance needs to be underscored, in light of the commonly held view that the agriculture-centered position of the Physiocrats was nothing more than a valuing of agriculture for essay on adam of nations, its own sake, attributed as a mere reaction against Mercantilism. Paper? In fact, however, the journey of history is not a sort of meaningless repetition of essay, action and reaction, but rather a developmental journey that unfolds by means of action and reaction. Golden Research? Likewise, the on adam wealth of nations history of schools of thought cannot be understood if this relation of development is golden, overlooked. The agriculture-centered view of the Physiocrats cannot be understood as esteeming agriculture for its own sake or as a reaction against mercantilism.
The true historical significance of Physiocracy can first be grasped in line with the necessity of capitalistic production as a developmental process. We need to consider the exact significance of this agriculture-centered characteristic of the Physiocrats, which may at first glance seems anti-capitalistic, from the perspective of the development of capitalistic production. Since the sphere of production particular to the development of capitalism is industry, not agriculture, what possible relationship could there be between the Physiocrats emphasis on respectful teachers essay agricultural development and the development of capitalistic production? Certainly capitalism did first spring forth within industry, and ultimately achieved its own particular development within industry. But in order for the capitalistic production that sprang forth within industry to achieve its own development therein, it had to make use of agriculture and was able to achieve the capitalistic transformation of agriculture to some extent. Still, the premise and golden indispensable precondition for the large-scale development of custom, capitalistic production in the industrial sector is the existence of large numbers of property-less laborers and the materials of golden research paper, livelihood that their wages are converted into. These human and homework grids material elements only come into existence as the result of the capitalistic transformation of agriculture. This transformation means an increase in the productive power of agricultural labor and at the same time a curbing of the ratio paper consumption of the agricultural laborers themselves. This in turn reduces the number of laborers needed while increasing the surplus product. Moreover, this surplus population and surplus product in turn brings into existence property-less wageworkers emancipated from the coursework land, as well as materials of livelihood that are unshackled from golden research paper, a subsistence economy to take the form of commodities. Thus, the wage-laborers and materials of livelihood that emerging industry requires are separated from agriculture.
We can seen, then, that the Physiocrats emphasis on agriculture, which was the exterior trait of their doctrine, does not signify a mere penchant for agriculture for its own sake as many supporters of this doctrine themselves thought and later historians mistakenly imagined. Essay? Rather, quite contrary to its feudalistic appearance, the Physiocratic position was a manifestation of the need for the capitalistic transformation of agriculture, as a necessary stage in the development of golden ratio, capitalistic production. Indeed, the primary concern of Quesnay was not the particular interests of landed property in the sector of agriculture, nor the interests of the feudal landowning class, but the accumulation of essay on adam wealth of nations, capital within agriculture and the interests of golden paper, capitalist agricultural entrepreneurs. Moreover, capital was not to homework grids, be limited essentially to the domain of agriculture. The accumulation of capital within agriculture merely signified the prelude to the coming general development of capitalistic production. The capitalistic essence of the Physiocratic school is golden research, also manifested in teachers essay the two main policies it advocated: (1) A single tax on rent ( impêt unique ) and (2) and a laissez-faire economic approach. It hardly merits further mention that both of these polices were clear expressions of the pressing demands of capital at the time.  In the discussion thus far, we have analyzed the Physiocrats view that only agriculture is productive, which ultimate led to the collapse of this school of thought. We saw that they considered the character of ratio research paper, being productive in terms of producing surplus-value, and that they were quite correct as far as grasping the gist of surplus-value.
Raising this issue of the creation of surplus-value was clearly a pioneering advance over the Mercantilists. At the same time, though, their understanding was inevitably limited due to the defects in their analysis of value, and of nations their inability to ratio research paper, recognize the production of surplus-value in non-agricultural spheres was the natural outcome of not reducing value to general labor. We have also seen that this same defect led them to confuse problems pertaining to use-values with problems pertaining to essay on adam smith of nations, value, thus introducing, within the fundamental distinction between productive and unproductive, another distinction based upon a separate perspective. The confusion between value and use-value not only muddied the distinction between what is productive and unproductive, but also meant that the particular significance of that separate perspective could not be appropriately developed. Finally, we looked at the historical significance of the Physiocrats viewpoint for their own era, which was the dawn of capitalistic production. Through our analysis I think we were able to clarify a number of points. Namely, it despite external appearances, there are important elements of truth within the Physiocratic doctrine on the productive character of agriculture. However, these elements became entangleddue to golden, confusion between problems pertaining to value and those pertaining to use-valuewith a bias towards agriculture that at first glance seems nonsensical. By disentangling them, from our present-day perspective, we can uncover the following tasks. The first task is the investigation of the production process as the source of surplus-value, while the second task concerns the capitalistic transformation of agriculture as a necessary stage for capitalistic development.
The latter, practical task, was subsequently forcefully achieved on a global scale though the development of history itself, but the first task is inherent to political economy, and therefore its satisfaction remained necessary for the further development of political economy. How was this second task achieved? We have already clarified that the root cause of the Physiocrats failure to solve this problem was the defect in their analysis of value. Thus, the higher development required to solve this problem must of course begin with the analysis of critical thinking, value. Ratio Research? It was the Classical school, developed in geography England, that analyzed value to reduce it to labor and research clarified that surplus-value could be generated in any sphere of smith wealth of nations, production. 1. This fundamental view of Quesnay is expressed in the following passages: Positive legislation consists, then, in golden ratio research paper the enunciation of the custom essay help natural laws constituting the order which is self-evidently the golden ratio paper most advantageous possible to men joined together in custom help societycIt is only the understanding of these supreme laws which can ensure the continuing peace and prosperity of an empire; and the more a nation applies itself to this science, the greater will be the sway of the natural order in it, and the more correct will its positive order be. In such a nation an unwise law would not be put forward, for the government and the people would immediately perceive its absurdity. The foundation of society is the subsistence of men and the wealth necessary to provide the authority required to defend them.
Thus it could only be ignorance which would, for example, approve of the research paper introduction of positive laws which militated against the order of the reproduction and history format the regular annual circulation of the wealth of a kingdoms territory. If the torch of reason illuminates the golden research paper government, all positive laws harmful to society and to the sovereign will disappear. (from Meek, R.L., The Economics of Physiocracy , Harvard University Press, Cambridge, pp. 54-5) It is very much in the interests of the essay on adam smith wealth of nations proprietors, the sovereign, and the nation as a whole that all taxes should be directly laid on the revenue of the land; for any other form of imposition would be contrary to the natural order, since it would be detrimental to reproduction and to taxation, and the taxes would fall on the taxes themselves. Everything in this world is subject to the laws of nature: men are endowed with the ratio research intelligence required to understand and observe them; but the great number of factors involved demands that they should be grouped together in critical thinking in literature comprehensive patterns, which form the foundation of a very far-reaching and self-evident science, whose study is indispensable if we are to golden research, avoid mistakes in policy. (Ibid., p 154) 2. Stephan Bauers table appears in his essay Quesnays Tableau Economique (Economic Journal vol. V. p. Homework Grids? 17) 3. In Bauers table, for this purchase the one billion in money that flows directly back from the class of proprietors is used (money that returns via I) but this does not necessarily have to be the case. Golden Ratio Research Paper? The money that returns from the essay class of proprietors via the sterile class (via II) could likewise be used; it might also be supposed that the other one billion in money the class of proprietors is holding is used; or it could be supposed that the sterile class, rather than the golden research paper productive class, is holding one billion in money which is used at history papers, the outset to buy products from the productive class (Although in this case instead of III 2 following after lines III 1 it would be II 2 following after II 1 . In any of the above cases, however, money flows back into the hands of the research paper class that initially released it into circulation by traveling back and forth between both classes.) It would also be fine to suppose that each of the two classes separately holds one billion in money that is homework grids, then simultaneously used to purchase one billion in goods from the other side. (But in this case, instead of money traveling back and forth to flow back to golden research paper, its starting point, it would be transferred to each side.) In Quesnays own table, this last situation can be said to skills in literature, have been supposed. 4. Quoted in Smith, The Wealth of Nations, Book I-III, Penguin Books, Middlesex, p. 200. 5. Because the economic table at first glance seems to have not six, but rather five points of departure and arrival, some may have doubts about ratio research, what Marx has written, but these doubts should dissolve immediately upon considering that the line expressing the money for homework grids, the advance of rent is omitted. 6. Such praise, needless to say, does not mean that Quesnays economic table is perfect as a diagram of the reproduction process of social capital.
Indeed, it has numerous defects, not only in the technique of presentation but also those reflecting an insufficient economic understanding. The most glaring defects include: (1) Even though it is supposed that the productive class has material advances (constant capital) five times greater than annual advances (circulating capital), this is not said to be the case for the sterile (unproductive) class; (2) Despite the sterile class having annual advances of 2 billion livres, composed of 1 billion in materials of livelihood and 1 billion in raw materials, in the right column under advances only 1 billion is written; (3) Although the total sum of reproduction is 1 billion from the 5 billion of the productive class and 2 billion from the sterile class, in the table this total is listed as 5 billion. All three of these cases are clear contradictions from the perspective of the golden research paper tables premises. But the more fundamental defects are the following: (1) Quesnay does not elucidate what value is, and is thus unable to understand how surplus-value is produced, with the outcome being that in the economic table the non-agricultural production sphere involving the sterile (unproductive) class is said to not produce any surplus-value at all; (2) Related to on adam, this lack of understanding, by only concentrating on the distinction, based on the turnover mode of capital, between original advances (fixed capital) and annual advances (circulating capital), Quesnay overlooks the more fundamental distinction between constant capital (capital invested in golden ratio paper means or production) and variable capital (capital invested to purchase labor-power), and therefore is unable to understand the value of the product of capital in the form of constant capital + variable capital + surplus-value (usually indicated as c+v+s). Furthermore, this distinction between constant and variable capital is a distinction based first of all on the valorization function of capital (i.e. the production of essay, surplus-value), but this also has separate importance when considering the golden research paper reproduction process of social capital. That is, in order for essay, production to be continued on the same scale, the value component of the golden ratio research product of capital that reappears in the value of the constant capital needs to be transformed again into the form of means of production via the circulation process, and therefore represents the demand for the means of history, production; while the component that reappears in the value of the variable capital needs to be retransformed into ratio research paper labor-power after being realized in the money-form, and through ultimately being exchanged with the working class this forms, along with surplus-value, the demand for the materials of livelihood. This has extremely important significance when analyzing the reproduction process of social capital. But this is not something unconditional. For this, the history format production spheres that appear in the supply need to be distinguished, in line with the two major categories of demand just mentioned, into: (a) the production department of means of production and (b) the production department of the research paper materials of consumption. (3) In the economic table, however, as already noted, instead of this making distinction, Quesnay distinguishes between the productive class and the unproductive (sterile) class. This distinction is based on critical in literature his lack of understanding of the production of surplus-value, but even if we look solely at golden research, the content of the distinction between the sphere of agriculture and the sphere of industry, this way of coursework rivers, dividing the production departmentsin a manner unrelated to the distinction of the elements of capital for production and unrelated to golden research, the distinction of the value components of the commodity capital providedis, needless to say, inappropriate to papers, the aim of analyzing the process of reproduction. This point can be further clarified by research comparing Quesnays economic table with Marxs schema of reproduction.
Marx discusses the reproduction and circulation of the total social capital in Part three of the second volume of Capital, where his schema of reproduction appears. In addition to the mode of respectful teachers, simple reproduction, he discusses expanded reproduction, but here I think it is sufficient to only introduce the golden paper former, which is as follows: I 4,000c+1,000v+1,000s = 6,000 (means of production) II 2,000c+500v+500s = 3,000 (means of consumption) In the case above, I. Critical? represents the department for the production of the ratio paper means of production, while II. Critical In Literature? is the golden ratio research department for the production of the materials of consumption, and c, v, and s signify the constant capital, variable capital, and surplus-value, respectively.
The rate of constant capital to variable capital (c/v) is referred to as the organic composition of capital, which differs depending on the level of productive poweralthough here we will assume that it is 4:1 in both departments. The rate of thinking, surplus-value is s/v, and its determination is discussed elsewhere, and here it is supposed here that the rate is 100 percent. The money unit could be 10,000 yen, pounds, dollars, etc., and the 4,000 for constant capital in ratio paper I. is also merely an arbitrary figure chosen for the convenience of calculation. However, once the figure of 4,000 has been chosen, based on the assumptions above, variable capital in I. Teachers Essay? must be 1,000 so that surplus-value in I. will also be 1,000. The same is true for II.
That is, as long as c/v and s/v are fixed, once c has been posited, v and s are decided in turn. Thus the issue ultimately revolves around the paper nature of the relation between the two departments. And this is what forms the crux of Marxs schema, with this relation reducible to: I. (v+s) = II. c. However, since the 4,000c in I. is produced in the form of custom essay help, means of research paper, production, it is possible without exchange with the other department to use this to renew the history format worn-out means of production in this department solely through internal exchange; meanwhile, the v+s in II. is produced in the form of golden research, materials of consumption so this can likewise be used for the consumption of workers and capitalists within the department via exchange within the critical department. Therefore, the needed exchange between the two departments is limited to the exchange between the v+s in I (value component that needs to be expended on the materials of consumption for input but still exists in the form of the means of production) and the c in II (value component that needs to be expended to replenish the ratio paper means of production but still exists in the form of the means of consumption). So a condition of equilibrium between the two departments in simple reproduction would be: I (v + m) = IIc. The schema of reproduction can be explained in the following manner. Suppose that the igcse rivers value of the paper product of the total capital of society is essay on adam wealth, 9,000, with the c/v and s/v as assumed above, and that the total product comprising 6,000c+1,500v+1,500s. Golden Ratio? In the case of simple reproduction, the 6,000c forms the demand for means of coursework rivers, production to replenish those that have been worn out; the total of research paper, 3,000 from the 1,500v and 1,500s forms the demand for means of consumption.
Therefore, in order for supply to meet demand, of 9,000 value of the on adam total product, 6,000 must be the product of department I and 3,000 the product of golden, department II, so thatif the critical skills in literature organic composition of capital and the rate of surplus-value are as assumed abovethe schema would have the same figures we began with. I 4,000c+1,000v 1,000s = 6,000 (means of production) II 2,000c+500v+500s = 3,000 (means of consumption) In this case, the equilibrium condition premised is: I. 4,000c+II. 2,000c = I. (4,000c+1,000v+1,000s); I. (1,000v+1,000s) + II. (500v+500s) = II. (2,000c+500v+500s). Ratio Research Paper? But if we offset the factors that both sides have in common, we arrive, as noted earlier, at the equation I. (1,000v + 1,000s) = II 2,000c. The significance of Marxs schema of reproduction is not limited the explanation above, and it was a means of elucidating fundamental problems that political economy had been unable to solve since the time of Smith. But even setting this aside to just consider the elucidation of the relation of equilibrium just explained, we can see what an enormous, essential advance this was over Quesnays economic table, and therefore what serious defects that table has. Still, it must be considered remarkable that at the outset of the history of political economy Quesnay was able to essay on adam smith wealth, raise the ratio paper issue of the reproduction process of the total capital and that he was able to grasp and express this to essay, some extent. 7. Karl Marx, Marx Engels Collected Works , vol.
31, pp. 239-40. 8. Karl Marx, Marx Engels Collected Works , vol. 30, p. 354. 9. The Physiocrats, who grasped the production of surplus-value solely in such a form, naturally also came to see the net product as the bounty of nature. They believed that in agriculture nature cooperated with man to generate a net product. Needless to golden ratio, say, however, the possibility for surplus-value to be produced in agriculture (as in all spheres of production for that matter) is above all premised on productivity beyond a certain level for smith wealth of nations, the agricultural laborers who are involved in the production of the foodstuffs that comprise the key materials of livelihood, and a high level of productive power of agricultural labor depends in ratio large part on nature. If nature is poor so that even after a days labor a person can only produce enough material things to barely maintain his own life, there is on adam smith wealth of nations, no question from the beginning of producing surplus-value. But, at the same time, even if nature is abundant, so that a person can produce more things than are needed to golden paper, maintain his own life, if that person enjoys all of the product for himself, this will merely raise his own living conditions and the existence of on adam, a net product would be impossible.
And it is also clear that a net product could not exist if this person only worked enough to produce the things needed to golden ratio research paper, maintain his own existence, not laboring beyond this point. In other words, the existence of a new product is premised, on the one hand, on the workers own consumption being restricted to a certain level, and on the other hand to the worker laboring beyond the homework grids labor needed to produce his own materials of livelihood. The Physiocrats, when explaining the production of a new product in golden ratio agriculture, have clearly premised a minimum wage in the theory of on adam smith wealth, wages as the basis of their explanation, and at the same time they have in fact, implicitly, premised a certain working day. Yet they did not conclude that the net product is brought about by a surplus of labor that is the golden ratio labor that exceeds the labor-time needed for the reproduction of labor-power. Papers? Nor, much less, did they conclude that this surplus labor is coerced through the condition where land, which is the fundamental condition within agriculture, cannot be used unless the cultivator pays rent to the certain class that exclusively owns the land. Ratio Research Paper? Instead of concluding this, the Physiocrats say that the use-values consumed by the workers within production are less than the use-values they create, so that there is a surplus of use-values. Instead of focusing attention on teachers essay the fact that if workers only produced what was necessary for their own lives nothing above this would remain, they only golden paper, assert that thanks to the productivity of the land a surplus is possible.
The Physiocrats view nature as the sole basis for teachers essay, the production of a surplus, without looking at the social relations. 10. Golden Research? For example, in 15th of his General Maxims for the Economic Government of an Agricultural Kingdom, Quesnay writes: That the land employed in the cultivation of corn should be brought together, as far as possible, into large farms worked by rich husbandmen ; for in large agricultural enterprises there is less expenditure required for the upkeep and repair of essay, buildings, and proportionally much less cost and much more net product, than in small ones. A multiplicity of small farmers is detrimental to the population. The population whose position is most assured, and which is paper, most readily available for the different occupations and different kinds of work which divide men into different classes, is that maintained by the net product. All economies profitably made use of in work which can be done with the aid of animals, machines, rivers, etc., bring benefit to the population and the state, because a greater net product procures men a greater reward for other services or other kinds of work. ( The Economics of Physiocracy , 1963, p. 235) And in his explanation of the 26th maxim, he writes the following: Nations always believe that they do not have enough men: it is not perceived that there are not enough wages to maintain a larger population, and that men without means are of benefit to a country only to homework grids, the extent that they receive assured gains there which enable them to live by their work. In the absence of gains or wages, it is ratio research paper, true, a section of people in the countryside may generate for igcse coursework rivers, their subsistence certain very low-priced products which do not demand large expenses or protracted labor, and which one does not have to wait a long time before gathering in. But these men, these products, and the land on which they are grown, are worth nothing to the state. In order that the land should yield a revenue, work in the countryside must render a net product over and above the wages paid to the workmen, for it is this net product which enables the other classes of men who are necessary in a state to golden ratio research, subsist.
This should not be expected from poor men who work the land with their hands, or with other insufficient resources; for they can procure subsistence for themselves alone only by giving up the cultivation of corn, which demands too much time, too much labor, and igcse geography too much expense to be carried on by men who are destitute of golden paper, means and reduced to obtaining their food from the land simply by the work of their hands. Thus it is not to these poor peasants that you should entrust the cultivation of your land. It is animals which should plough and on adam smith of nations fertilize your fields; it is research paper, consumption, sales, and free and unobstructed internal and external trade which ensure the market value which constitutes your revenue. Thus it is wealthy men whom you should put in charge of the enterprises of agriculture and rural trade, in order to enrich yourselves, to enrich the state, and to enable inexhaustible wealth to be generated. The more wealth a nation possesses for the purpose of enabling wealth to be annually regenerated, the less men does this annual reproduction employ, the more net product it yields, and the more men the government has at its disposal for services and public works; and the more wages there are to enable them to subsist, the more useful are these men to the state by virtue of their occupations, and by virtue of their expenditure, which causes their pay to be brought back into circulation. ( The Economics of Physiocracy , 1963, pp. 260-1)
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EXCLUSIVE - Life after Rikers: Powerful photo essay captures inmates struggling to re-enter society after doing time on golden research paper, New York City's controversial island jail. Published: 12:15 BST, 22 March 2017 | Updated: 21:51 BST, 31 March 2017. It was once a pit for pigs, then for essay, toxic waste that to golden paper, this day burps poisonous gas. But it wasn't until Rikers Island was crammed with 10,000 humans that it earned the nickname 'Hell on Earth'. New York City's controversial institution, which opened in custom essay help, 1932, is the second-largest in the US after LA County, with 413 acres and nine jail houses. It has come to represent the fundamental flaws of America's justice system at large, with a high proportion of golden paper, minorities, unreported violence, and no functional system to reintegrate inmates after their release. The vast majority of inmates (85 percent) have not been convicted of a crime, but cannot afford to post bail as they await trial. Critical Thinking Skills. Most (90 percent) are black or Hispanic. Ratio Paper. Almost half (40 percent) are mentally ill.
Some are under 18, many are women, dozens are born in the on-site nursery. The jail also has one of the highest rates of mental illness among inmates, and the stifling conditions have been slammed in medical reports as life-threateningly dangerous. The broken system is ironically reflected in its broken walls, cracking as the ground - made from decomposing landfill - struggles to withstand the East Coast's temperamental weather. Rikers Island, the second-largest jail complex in the US, has come to represent the fundamental flaws of America's justice system, with a high proportion of papers format, minorities, unreported violence, and no functional reintegration system. Photojournalist Tomas Mantilla has captured the uneasy transition from inside to outside.
Pictured: Terrell Henley going to his home in Queens on March 4, 2016, after being released. He spent one and a half months inside. Golden. He said he spent the first five nights sleeping on hard floor with no food or water, and it was raining inside. He was eventually bailed out for $200,000. Tanae Jordan, 27, emerged fuming after she was released from respectful, Rikers. 'A CO slammed me against ratio research paper, the wall and cracked my tooth,' she told Mantilla, pushing her mouth into igcse, the lens, lifting her lip, and flashing the damage. A proportion of the inmates do warrant jail time; some end up with years in state prison. But most politicians, both Republican and Democrat, agree that thousands should never have ended up there in the first place.
One incident in particular has brought Rikers back into the national conversation: the death of 22-year-old Kalief Browder in 2015. Browder was sent to Rikers at research, the age of 16 for the baseless accusation that he had stolen a backpack. Custom Help. He spent three years there - two in solitary confinement - waiting for a trial which never happened. A year after his release, he hung himself in his mother's home. His death made national headlines, and prompted President Obama to golden ratio paper, slam Rikers' brutal conditions, banning solitary confinement for juvenile inmates. Kalief became a face for every person that claims to have been robbed of their life, childhood, happiness and freedom because of baseless accusations and a stubborn system. But who are the other Kaliefs? This unflinching collection of never-before-seen-photos offers a glimpse. Photojournalist Tomas Mantilla has spent more than a year chronicling the lives of people in their first few months post-Rikers. A 16-year-old father-of-one who can't lift his gaze from the essay on adam of nations, floor; an innocent 65-year-old Vietnam veteran who was the victim of mistaken identity but struggled for a year to clear his name; a young man whose family didn't know where he was being held for a month. One bleak image lays bare the absence of any attempt to paper, re-integrate former inmates: a woman jailed for doing crack - who makes a beeline straight from the island to her dealer in West Harlem after being released.
Most Rikers inmates (85 percent) have not been convicted of a crime, but stay there to await trial as they cannot afford to post bail. Pictured: Five men ride the Q100 bus from Rikers Island on February 13, 2016. Left to right: Mohamed Ali Sha, 43; Rando Arison, 29; Kern Isaac, 21; Alfredo Gonzales, 36; and Luis Marino, 33. All of them were released after posting bail. A woman, who preferred not to give her name, on the Q100 bus to Queens on April 1, 2016, after being released from format, Rikers Island. Research Paper. She said she didn't eat for four days, since she was a vegetarian and there were no meat-free options. Her lips are cracked from malnutrition. Geography. 'They treat us like dogs, they don't give us anything to ratio, eat,' she told Mantilla. 'THE OVEN': WHY SCIENTISTS SAY THE SWELTERING HEAT ON RIKERS IS LIFE-THREATENING. In August 2013, Susi Vassallo of igcse rivers, New York University published a damning report of the jail's environmental conditions.
Vassallo, a clinical professor in the department of golden ratio research, Emergency Medicine, concluded Rikers Island posed a 'serious health threat' that was 'unsafe for inmates'. In short, she concluded: 'Cardiovascular diseases worsen in such temperatures, death rates in individuals with underlying diseases increase in hot temperatures.' If New York's summer weather is notoriously hot, Rikers' conditions are another level. Known as 'The Oven', hundreds of thousands of inmates have claimed the essay help, summer heat inside has driven them to contemplate suicide. As of 2013, the majority of ratio paper, complexes on respectful teachers essay, the island did not have air conditioning units. The smell is also notorious - a combination of research, gasses from the landfill Rikers sits on, the on-site power station, and papers, the five power stations across the golden ratio paper, river in Queens. Medical experts credit the sweltering, gassy conditions with driving up asthma rates among inmates to around 10 percent of the thinking in literature, population. Speaking exclusively to golden ratio research paper, Daily Mail Online, Mantilla explained he started the project in 2015 out of sheer curiosity to understand the institution which is shrouded in so much controversy, but restricted from view. 'No one outside of Rikers knows what's going on in there,' Mantilla explained. Essay Smith Wealth. 'No journalists get access with a camera. There are some photo of the walls, fences, barbed wire, but they don't show you the sinister soul of this place; what's really happening. 'For this to exist in New York is shameful - and the fact that nobody has been able to reform it says a lot.
'New York wants to be a modern, liberal and free city. But you can't just put all the s*** in the back yard - chuck it on an island and ratio research paper, expect the problems to igcse rivers, go away. 'Violence inside is deep-rooted, and when people come out there are no programs for reintegration. 'New York really has to come to golden research, terms with the past of Rikers if we want to tackle racism, violence and crime in the city.' Until recently, Rikers didn't appear on the subway map. On Adam Of Nations. It sits well within the ratio paper, frame, nestled between Queens and the Bronx. But the water cutting it off from society means it is igcse geography natural and easy for New Yorkers to push it out of sight, out of golden research paper, mind.
That isolation is essay one of the paper, biggest factors in political discussions today about whether Rikers Island could or should be closed down. A decade ago, Martin F Horn, then the commissioner of the respectful essay, city's Department of Corrections, tabled a then-controversial suggestion that Rikers be shut down, replaced with newly-built centers in the Bronx and golden research paper, Brooklyn. Most city politicians agree with the first part. There is bipartisan agreement that closing Rikers would do away with the jail's excessive and critical skills, un-managed budget, while relieving the city of a violence breeding ground. But even current New York Mayor Bill de Blasio - who thrives in promising New Yorkers that he can achieve the impossible - has dismissed the golden ratio, idea as 'a noble concept' but marred by 'logistical issues'. 'The problem is, it would cost many billions of dollars, and I have to look out for what's feasible and I have to look out for the taxpayer,' he told reporters last year. And shifting inmates into neighborhoods? That, he splutters, is too far. Politically, it would certainly be a tough sell to critical thinking in literature, his 8.5 million constituents, who are already fed up with a high rate of ratio paper, crime and homelessness.
From mid-2015, Mantilla started taking daily trips to the island, meeting families and newly-discharged inmates floating in and out. There is teachers only one way to golden research paper, reach Rikers: the essay, Q100 bus which goes every 10 minutes from ratio, Queens Boro Plaza. There is always somebody aboard, Mantilla explained - usually family going to essay on adam smith of nations, visit, sometimes pastors who conduct sessions inside. You won't often see former inmates aboard unless you go around midnight, when they do routine releases. To meet them, Mantilla would arrive on the island at ratio paper, around 9pm or 10pm, waiting for critical skills in literature, people to ratio research, emerge.
'You could tell who had been inside,' he said bluntly. 'They usually had a black plastic bag or a big brown paper bag with belongings in it. They usually looked beat.' 'NAM VET WHO WAS THE VICTIM OF MISTAKEN IDENTITY, ALVIN HAD NEVER EVEN HAD A PARKING TICKET UNTIL HE WAS LOCKED UP FOR 3 MONTHS. Alvin Jeffries, 65, is essay a Vietnam veteran. He retired in ratio paper, New York after the war, living alone, supported by his army pension. 'I never bothered nobody in igcse geography coursework, my life, I don't look for trouble, I'm not violent, only in the war because I had to not even a transit ticket, clean,' he told Mantilla. In May 2016, Alvin was arrested in his neighborhood in downtown Brooklyn, accused of a robbery. Police said he matched the description of a 911 call. After three months inside, he was released, and is now in the midst of clearing his name. Mantilla met Alvin on ratio, the Q100 at around midnight in papers format, early August.
'Alvin's case was one of the worst I saw,' Mantilla said. Vietnam veteran Alvin Jeffries, 65, spent three months on Rikers Island after he was wrongly accused of ratio research, committing a robbery in his neighborhood in downtown Brooklyn. CCTV footage eventually showed him to history format, be innocent, but he had to ratio paper, spend months getting the charges dropped. Skills In Literature. In the meantime he was not eligible for his veterans pension. Pictured: Alvin at home, where he lives alone, on August 25, 2016. Alvin gets off the Q100 bus on ratio research paper, the night of his release from Rikers Island on homework grids, August 18, 2016. In the ratio, months that followed, he was forced to beg on papers, the streets for spare change. Across two days he got just $2, which he used to buy chips. 'I met him one night when I was waiting for the bus outside the jail. There were other people there, they could have been gang affiliated. Ratio Research. I didn't have anyone like that in my project, so I went up and asked them they said no.
Then I saw Alvin, sat alone. 'He was very sad. History. I remember perceiving a huge nostalgic sense from him. I said 'you were inside?' He said 'yes', not looking directly at golden research paper, me. Essay Of Nations. He was completely demoralized.' Over the next few months, Mantilla tracked Alvin's journey to golden ratio, return to normal. CCTV footage has since proven his innocence. However, the charge meant he was no longer eligible to receive state pension, and the legal fees have purged any money he had left. It meant he went days without eating, and custom essay help, within months was actively contemplating suicide.
Once he resorted to begging on the streets for spare change. Across two days he got $2, which he used to research, buy chips. 'He was troubling with money a lot. One day he texted me and said 'I'm going to end it all'. He didn't have friends. I was pretty much the only person in essay on adam smith wealth of nations, his life. 'I went, Alvin was crying, and research, I hugged him.
What really frustrated him was that he'd given his life to smith wealth, his country, but was treated like a criminal. 'He said, 'Tomas, I've played by ratio the rules my whole f***ing life'. 'He was a very dignified person but he didn't want to custom essay, live that way any more.' Although Rikers has a 'mental illness observation center', its presence has done little to alleviate the golden ratio paper, pressures elsewhere on the island. Rates of wealth of nations, serious mental illnesses have rocketed among inmates in the last two decades. Today, almost half of the Rikers population (around 4,000 inmates a day) is mentally ill. That figure is research higher than the history papers, entire number of people in mental institutions across the entire state put together. Prisoners are now two to four times more likely to suffer from life-threatening paranoia, depression or psychosis than the research paper, general population. VICIOUS CIRCLE: YAHAIRA WENT TO RIKERS FOR SMOKING CRACK IN THE STREET - WHEN SHE LEFT PRISON SHE WENT STRAIGHT BACK TO HER DEALER. Yahaira de Jesus caught Mantilla's eye on March 11, 2016, when she rolled out of Rosie's - i.e. Rose M Singer Center, the women's jail - after a night inside. She'd been locked up for doing crack cocaine in the street.
Agreeing to be part of Mantilla's project, she invited him to photograph her on her way back to igcse geography, the city, all the way to her housing project in West Harlem, where her dealer was waiting. Told to wait outside, Mantilla captured the moment Yahaira, spitting and cursing, stormed out of the ratio research paper, door begging for 50 cents. Yahaira de Jesus spent a night in Rosie's (Rose M. Critical Skills In Literature. Singer Center, the women's jail) for doing crack cocaine on the street in Harlem in March 2016. After her release she went directly to her housing project in golden research, West Harlem to respectful essay, meet her dealer. This is the moment Yahaira stormed out of the building fuming that she was 50 cents short. Golden Paper. Khalil Cumberbatch, a senior manager of the #CloseRikers campaign, says this shows in essay on adam smith wealth of nations, a nutshell how futile Rikers is for tackling crime and rehabilitating inmates. INSIDE: VIOLENCE, GANGS, CORRUPTION, STARVATION. One of Mantilla's photo shows Tanae Jordan, a 27-year-old girl who emerged fuming.
'A CO slammed me against the wall and cracked my tooth,' she told Mantilla, pushing her mouth into the lens, lifting her lip, and flashing the damage. Mantilla couldn't corroborate her story, nor could DailyMail.com despite repeated attempts. It would hardly be breaking news. A lack of resources and an excess of inmates means violence is extreme, frequent, and often undocumented. One of Mantilla's images captures Margaret Burton, the mother of research paper, Jahmal Lightfoot, a former member of the Bloods, who was brutally beaten up by Correctional Officers in 2012.
He was set upon after security chief Eliseo Perez ordered wardens to attack him. He suffered a broken nose and broken eye sockets. His case was one of many that led to Perez and custom essay help, five other officers being convicted of assault in February 2016. Indeed, the last five years have seen a surge in reports of ratio research paper, violent altercations between correction officers and igcse, inmates, as well as inmate-inmate violence. Years of interviews and government reports have exposed the deeply-rooted gang culture which runs Rikers. Many correction officers have deals with certain groups for smuggling, sex, or an escape from punishment. Some gangs openly run sections of the island. Golden Ratio. The Bloods (one of the East Coast's two most important gangs, alongside the Crips) reign supreme. Essay. The sheer scale of inhabitants, however, means many have splintered off into paper, new sub-groups. One of the island's 10 jail units (the North Infirmary Command) even cares for inmates at history, risk of harm after breaking off from golden ratio research, a certain gang - a move which can be perilous. After Kalief Browder's death, New York Mayor Bill de Blasio declared it was one of his top priorities to rid Rikers of corruption, among other reform ideas.
It started in 2015 with an overhaul of papers format, how correction officers are monitored, tracking those that have a record of run-ins with inmates. That led to a purging of the ratio research, old guard, bringing in squeaky clean recruits, many of whom are college educated and rose through the ranks of various police departments. However, while potentially sound in theory, in smith wealth, practice critics claim it has only made matters worse, with inmates targeting the street-naive newbies. 'I'm short 50 cents, give me 50 cents or you can't any more pictures of ratio paper, me,' she told him. That was where the igcse geography coursework, story came to a close. 'I couldn't give her 50 cents,' Mantilla explains. 'It's a shame, I really wanted to speak to her more, and golden paper, this is the papers format, kind of story that tells so much about Rikers. 'The first 24 hours after someone is released are so important for golden ratio paper, their reintegration process.
Really, there aren't any programs for addicts or people with mental health issues.' Khalil Cumberbatch, a senior manager of JustLeadershipUSA which runs the #CloseRikers campaign, was far from surprised when Daily Mail Online recounted this story to essay, him. 'The system doesn't work,' he said bluntly. 'How has Rikers helped this woman? The first thing is golden research paper we all know re-entry is not one silver bullet.
But the essay, New York City DOC is not investing in paper, this side of the equation.' One of the main issues, Cumberbatch explains, is essay on adam wealth of nations Rikers' transient population. Unlike inmates sentenced to a set amount of time in state prison, most people in golden research paper, Rikers have no specific end date. Aside from stable housing, there is little else the city offers. 'When you leave the system, there's no way we can know that you actually went to that class or that program.
Once you're gone, I'm not following up on you if I'm from the geography coursework rivers, DOC.' Cumberbatch, who was sentenced to 11 years in prison for a robbery in ratio paper, his teens, has now worked in reintegration for history, 10 years. The key problem, he says speaking from golden, experience, is igcse geography rivers that New York rules make it very difficult for reformed inmates to golden ratio research, come back as a relatable volunteer. Speakers cannot come in until they have spent at least seven years out essay wealth of nations, of the golden, justice system - i.e. seven years after the papers format, end of their parole, not their sentence. 'That's probably the golden, most asinine thing ever,' Cumberbatch says. 'If the respectful, city isn't going to partner with reintegration programs, and have difficulty keeping track of when inmates are leaving, the one thing they can do is connect inmate with someone who has done re-entry successfully. 'They could show the people in there 'If I did, you can do it, I'm not one special case - and more importantly: here's how I did it'.' MISSING: CARL, WHOSE FAMILY COULDN'T LOCATE HIM FOR WEEKS AFTER HE WAS PICKED UP AFTER AN I.D. CHECK.
Mantilla's most intimate shots are of ratio paper, Carl Kelly, an uneasy story, but ultimately the most successful reintegration of the essay on adam wealth of nations, lot. Kelly met Mantilla walking in Chinatown after his first stint in Rikers. Weeks later, he seemed to have disappeared. Ratio Research. He was back on the island. His second stint came about somewhat accidentally. Police were in his building dealing with someone else. Homework Grids. While they interviewed residents, they asked for his ID. Since Kelly was already on probation for another offence, he was barred from any police contact. Ratio. That ID check earned him a month in Rikers, without access to a phone. It's a classic road to Rikers: red tape funneling thousands into the already overcrowded jail. Politicians, including Gov Andrew Cuomo, concede that this is an igcse coursework, incredibly flawed system, gobbling up much of the city's coffers.
Rikers absorbs 80 percent of the city's penal budget. With 10,000 inmates on any given day, most of research, that is poured into geography coursework, basic admin. A recent spate of high-profile deaths, attacks, and corruption scandals on the island shone a light on the severely disorganized system. In a landmark 79-page report in 2014, District Attorney Preet Bharara slammed the excessively high rate of violence towards teenage inmates - and in golden, doing so, revealed documentation is slack on Rikers, to say the least. If the government is two steps back on admin, family members are even further behind. Carl Kelly gets ready with his girlfriend (now wife) 'Cookie' to go and visit his mother after being on Rikers Island. Lenora Kelly on her porch in East New York. When this photo was taken on March 28, 2016, she didn't know where her son Carl Kelly was. Homework Grids. It transpired he was on Rikers Island for golden paper, having police contact after being released from a previous conviction. For Kelly's mother, Lenora Kelly, that meant she had no idea where her son was until he turned up at her porch in East New York weeks later.
Speaking to Mantilla, she was exasperated. She said she had called the Department of Corrections' information line repeatedly for days, each time told they had no information for her. For family members, reaching incarcerated relatives can be complicated. Calling an inmate directly is history papers format not possible, and golden research, jail staff do not take messages. They have to wait for the inmate to be allowed a phone call after the booking process - including physical and mental examination - which can sometimes take days or weeks, and homework grids, depends on them knowing phone numbers. Mantilla captured the days after Kelly's release. He plodded home, exhausted, spent time with his girlfriend Cookie, then went over to his mother's house.
'After coming home, Carl struggled at paper, finding ways to make money and stay out of trouble and out of the homework grids, streets,' Mantilla said. 'He is an amazing person, he really just wanted to get a job, marry Cookie, and get out of this situation. But it's hard; getting a job isn't easy when you've been on Rikers. He had been working as a leaf picker before but lost that job when he was arrested the second time.' After a few weeks looking for golden paper, work, he eventually found a job at teachers essay, a construction company in Manhattan. He celebrated by proposing to golden research paper, Cookie, and getting married in the Town Hall. CLOSING RIKERS: A POLITICAL HEADACHE FOR BILL DE BLASIO. New York Mayor Bill de Blasio has a personal dilemma. He has not fared well pushing his liberal agenda in New York, and has failed to win over on adam wealth of nations, the police who are, in general, loyal to former Mayor Rudolph Giuliani, who took an iron fist apporach to crime. Giuliani's stop-and-frisk campaigns drove Rikers' population up to a record 24,000-a-day in the early 90s. However, the other figures don't look so good for de Blasio.
Pro-Giuliani/anti-de Blasio supporters point out that under Rudy's watch, the golden ratio research, number of violent attacks in the jail dropped 93 percent, and annual spending on the jail was brought down from $112 million to $50 million. Today, slashings are reaching a record high, and the budget is $1.2 billion. As de Blasio endeavors to present himself as a fair, pragmatic leader, some say he has lost his appetite for costly, noble political adventures. Closing Rikers is essay another costly, noble idea that may be one too many for de Blasio to shoulder politically. It would involve years of work to ratio research paper, reform the criminal justice system as a whole to restrict the number of inmates held to await trial, before they are able to move a more manageable population to format, new centers in the Bronx. It would likely cost billions of golden research paper, dollars - another political knock de Blasio is reluctant to take. New York State Gov Andrew Cuomo has weighed in, urging de Blasio to close the jail. Cuomo claims the budget difficulties are a necessary blow that New Yorkers will have to stomach to put an end to Rikers swallowing billions of dollars of taxpayers money on a yearly basis. GRIEVING: KALIEF BROWDER TOOK HIS OWN LIFE AFTER SPENDING THREE YEARS IN RIKERS - TWO IN SOLITARY CONFINEMENT - NOW HIS FAMILY ARE SPEARHEADING A CAMPAIGNING TO CLOSE THE ISLAND JAIL. Kalief Browder (pictured) took his own life after spending three years awaiting trial on coursework rivers, Rikers Island. In that time, he spent a total of two years in solitary confinement.
Mantilla's project touches on the biggest story borne out of Rikers in recent years: Kalief Browder, documenting his brother Akeem picking up the golden ratio, fight to close the homework grids, jail after Kalief took his own life and their mother Venida died of a heart attack. In one photo, Mantilla captures Akeem kneeling in tears at their joint grave. It is golden ratio a quiet moment amid the furious national debate over Kalief's life, incarceration, and help, death. Kalief was arrested in May 2010 on the baseless accusation that he had stolen a backpack. Already on golden ratio, probation for joy-riding a delivery truck, the 16-year-old was packed off to homework grids, Rikers. His family couldn't afford the $900 bail.
By the time they collected the funds, it was too late: Kalief had been charged with robbery, grand larceny and golden, assault, pushing up the figure to $3,000, far beyond the Browder family's means. Kalief spent 1,100 days (three years) on the island waiting for a trial that never materialized. In total, there were 14 trials planned, all pushed back by the city. He had the chance to on adam, get out after two years if he pleaded guilty, but he refused. And so, as he waited it out, Kalief had the full Rikers experience that has broken so many and drove him to golden paper, take his own life. Akeem Browder visits the grave of his brother Kalief and of his mother, Venida Browder, who died on critical skills in literature, October 14, 2016, from a heart attack.
Venida was devastated after Kalief took his own life. Research. She championed the cause of reforming the essay help, criminal justice system and made her case known nationwide. He spent two of the three years in 'the bing' - or, solitary confinement. That involved spending 23 or 24 hours a day inside a 6-by-8-foot cell, with limited food and water and no bathroom. Golden Paper. Often he was starved, sometimes for days on end.
Outside his cell, he was beaten by inmates and format, correction officers alike - many attacks caught on surveillance cameras, but without any repercussions for the officers. In one, he starts speaking to an officer as he is being escorted, handcuffed, into golden ratio research, the shower. Smith Of Nations. The officer slams him to the ground. In another, a gang member spits in Kalief's face in an open break room filled with cameras. Kalief swings back. Dozens of inmates pile on him, punching and ratio research paper, kicking his face, his body.
An officer joins in, flexing his biceps as he prepares to lay one on Kalief. The footage, which was later obtained and published by homework grids the New Yorker, triggered a national debate about ratio research paper corruption in history papers, jails. Kalief later revealed he tried to ratio paper, commit suicide six times inside - once trying to hang himself by ripping up his bed sheets and attaching them to on adam of nations, the light in his cell. Model Chloe Ayling defends herself against kidnap fakery claims. Hero security guard stands to direct crowd as shots fly past.
Chilling moment 'ghost' throws books out of Cork school's lockers. Poor pug gets pranked with terrifying Halloween bowl. EasyJet flight abandons Madeira landing due to strong winds. Trump says Las Vegas shooter 'sick,' will discuss gun laws later. Dramatic moment 'boy racer' drags his friend from wreckage of golden paper, crash. Disgruntled attendant puts cigarette out history format, with fire extinguisher. Las Vegas massacre victim stands to golden, shake hands with Trump. Talented dog impressively calls his owner 'mama' without training. Dramatic dashcam shows double killer fleeing scene and crashing. CCTV shows killer crawling through garden before double murder.
RIKERS ISLAND: OUT OF SIGHT, OUT OF MIND. Rikers Island absorbs 80 percent of New York City's Department of Corrections' budget. It has hosted some big names over time - notably Dominique Strauss-Kahn and Bobby Shmurda. But they are a subplot to the saga that has been branded 'the shame of America'. Ninety percent of the critical thinking skills in literature, population is research paper Hispanic or black. Specifically, around 55.7 percent of inmates are black, and 33.1 percent Hispanic.
New York City's records say the igcse geography, rest is made up of 7.5 percent white, 1.1 percent Asian, 2.4 percent 'other/unknown', and 0.2 percent Native American. Though the vast majority (86 percent) is aged over 22, there remains a high proportion of kids. Twelve percent of inmates are aged 18 to 21, while two percent are aged between 16 and 17 years old. The only women's jail has 1,139 beds, as well as a nursery for women who give birth in jail or get permission to paper, bring their infants in after being admitted. Around 85 percent of the island's 10,000 inmates have not been convicted as a crime. Rikers is a 'temporary facility' for people awaiting trial or sentenced to serve less than a year behind bars. (Any more time warrants a transfer to a state facility upstate). Those who can afford to homework grids, post bail can leave before their trial date. The vast majority of inmates - African Americans and Latinos from working class backgrounds in New York - do not have the resources to clobber together hundreds or thousands of dollars. It means many will stay confined for golden ratio research paper, years on end without seeing a judge. In many cases, they may be offered a plea deal to get out early if they admit to the crime. For many, that could mean admitting to a crime they didn't commit.
Kalief Browder famously refused to do so. His stance came as a shock to prosecutors and fellow inmates: few resist the homework grids, chance to escape the violent, overcrowded, isolated island that has a notoriously foul smell and ratio research, unbearable heat that has driven many inmates to attempt suicide. 1. Custom Help. OTIS BANTUM CORRECTIONAL CENTER. Solitary confinement (aka: 'the bing') Approx. 400 beds. 2. NORTH INFIRMARY COMMAND. Medical center Treats those with diseases like HIV Haven for people in ratio research paper, danger e.g.: after leaving a gang. 3. ANNA M. KROSS CENTER. Mainly houses drug addicts, and offers mental observation Approx. 2,300 beds. 4. BENJAMIN WARD VISIT CENTER.
Where visitors and inmates check-in. 5. ERIC M TAYLOR CENTER. Reputation for being the least volatile Shortest term sentences (in theory) Approx. 1,800 beds. 6. GEORGE MOTCHAM DETENTION CENTER. 18- to 21-year-olds Therapy for young people Approx. 2,000 beds. 7. ROSE M. SINGER CENTER.
8. History. ROBERT N DAVOREN CENTER. Youths (16 to 17 years old) High rate of golden ratio, violent attacks. 9. GEORGE R VIERNO CENTER. Solitary confinement: inside for more than 23 hours a day (lessened in the case of good behavior) Approx. Format. 1,300 beds. Share what you think. The comments below have not been moderated. The views expressed in ratio, the contents above are those of our users and do not necessarily reflect the views of homework grids, MailOnline. We are no longer accepting comments on this article.
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