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Dartmouth Writing Program Thesis …
asc11 resume Over the years, the recruiting protocols have changed due to constant advancement in technology. This has created a need for many resume formats and their methods of program delivery. Here are some of the most commonly used resume formats. ASCII or Text Resume Formatted Resume Portable Document Format (PDF) Resume Posted Resume Web Resume Web Portfolio. Copy Essay Without! This is the simplest form of program online resumes. All the questions ado about, formatting is stripped off so it is dartmouth writing thesis, compatible with all systems. This resume format is most commonly used when posting resumes on online job boards or sending resumes by email. All you have to do is copy and pomona questions paste it to the email messages.
You have to make sure you format your resume in dartmouth thesis, ASCII text before sending it. To do that just copy your resume into the text editor like Not Pad and format it. You can also save it as a text file from your word processor and the format it in the text editor. What you don#8217;t want to family essay, do is just copy your resume from writing program thesis your word processor and paste it into copy essay without your email message or eforms to submit. Best resume format to program thesis, submit electronically Saves time as you don#8217;t have to print, scan, photocopy or mail the traditional resume.
Employer can one and access it quickly Highly compatible with all the applications so no compatibility issue. You have no control over the look and feel of the resume as there is no formatting Looks inferior to the formatted resume as it is very plain to look at and maybe not as easy to read The appearance degrades when the recipients forward it to copy essay without, multiple destinations No capability to include graphics or images. This is the resume format that you create in a word processor like MS Word and send it out thesis, as an attachment. This resume is well formatted with indentations, bold or italicized text, columns and graphics. Essay Questions! These types of resumes are more likely to carry viruses and could become a liability but employers still prefer them because of the convenience and accessibility.
Retains formatting so it is pleasing to look and easy to read You has a full control of the dartmouth program, look and feel of the essay, document Looks very similar to the traditional paper resume format Can easily be forwarded to multiple recipients with out dartmouth writing thesis, loosing the formatting. Prone to virus attacks so some recipients might not even open hence compromising your visibility There might be an incompatibility issue because of the family systems, different file formats More work for the recipients as they have to open, download, and print Formatting can be compromised depending on what systems the recipient is using. Portable Document Format (PDF) Resume. This resume writing format is very popular. It can only be created with an add on from Adobe Corporations. This format creates a snapshot of dartmouth thesis your resume and is highly compatible with all systems.
This resume format can be emailed, posted on the web, printed, searched and viewed as long as you have the Adobe Acrobat Reader installed in your computer. Works with all the systems It is human torture essay, a digital image of the traditional resume so all the formatting is retained Increase reader accessibility and increases legibility No risk of viruses Can not be altered so you have the complete control over the appearance and feel of the writing, resume. More work for the recipient as they would have to open, view, or print Recipients need to have the Adobe add on essay questions, to view the resume You would have to dartmouth program, have the human torture, PDF writer software or you might have to pay someone to convert the resume into the PDF file. Not all recipients will be familiar with PDF. Just like the name, posted resumes are posted on the job sites like dice.com or monster.com. Writing Program Thesis! These resumes are stored in the database of these job sites and you are provided with the user name and a password to access it. Posted resume is text only. Posted resume is posted on job sites so it makes you visible to a larger recruiting community By the help of for much keywords your resume can easily be discovered You get exposed to other career opportunities you might not have considered before Your resume stays in the database foe long period of time giving you extended exposure. Your resume could still be online even after you found your dream job Some paid job sites limit access only to their employees and the subscribers Posted resumes are text only so they are plain and difficult to read. Some site mandate predefined formats so you have no control over the appearance of your resume If you are conducting a private job search it might not be as private as you hoped. Rich Text Format (RTF) Resume.
Rich Text Format resumes are very similar to dartmouth writing program thesis, the ASCII format resumes. Introduction Help! However, they are formatted with codes to enable you to see bold, italic and indentations. In other words it allows you to use the writing thesis, visual tools to make it more appealing and captivating. No threats of virus as it is text only family essay Easy to read No compatibility issue Better presentation with the formatting. You have to send it as an attachment so threat of virus is there Not all recipients will be familiar to RTF Additional work for the recipient. Web resumes are created on dartmouth, the single web page. They have their on narrative unit plan, web address and all the content is within this page. different content can be accessed by dartmouth writing thesis, navigating through the hyperlinks. Web resume is copy essay, more robust because you can include all the supporting documents like references, degrees, certificates and so on.
It is exactly like a web page that has all the content from your resume and dartmouth program thesis maybe more. Essay! Unlimited access from anywhere no compatibility issue You can include more documents than the traditional resume Capacity for dartmouth writing program thesis incorporating audios, videos, links Full control of the appearance and family systems essay freedom to be creative No need for photocopy, email, fax or mail. Web resumes can not be accessed with out an internet access Bad design will impart a poor impression to the recipients Your URL could be overly complicated depending on what kind of service you used to build your web resume Different browsers can display your resume differently so the appearance might be compromised. Web Portfolio is built on a web page with its own web address. It provides an dartmouth writing thesis, avenue to copy without, showcase your credentials and achievements in writing program, a visually captivating manner. It could be compared with a small commercial web site. It has everything a properly running website should have. It proves that you are technically savvy You can have unlimited content You can easily modify to unit plan, make it look any way you like No virus Capacity for powerful graphic presentation Constantly evolving Gives employers bigger picture about you than just the words.
Some cost might be involved Need to have a web development knowledge or pay to dartmouth program, get it done Can only be accessed through the internet.
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Dartmouth Writing Program Thesis …
Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Philosophers are interested in dartmouth program a constellation of rights, issues involving the concept of thesis, truth. A preliminary issue, although somewhat subsidiary, is to decide what sorts of things can be true. Is truth a property of essay for much nothing, sentences (which are linguistic entities in some language or other), or is truth a property of propositions (nonlinguistic, abstract and dartmouth writing, timeless entities)? The principal issue is: What is truth? It is the pomona essay questions problem of being clear about what you are saying when you say some claim or other is dartmouth program true. The most important theories of truth are the Correspondence Theory, the Semantic Theory, the Deflationary Theory, the Coherence Theory, and the Pragmatic Theory.
They are explained and essay ado about, compared here. Whichever theory of truth is advanced to dartmouth writing program, settle the principal issue, there are a number of additional issues to be addressed: Can claims about the future be true now ? Can there be some algorithm for finding truth – some recipe or procedure for deciding, for any claim in the system of, say, arithmetic, whether the claim is true? Can the predicate is true be completely defined in other terms so that it can be eliminated, without loss of meaning, from any context in which it occurs? To what extent do theories of truth avoid paradox? Is the goal of scientific research to systems therapy essay, achieve truth? The principal problem is to offer a viable theory as to what truth itself consists in, or, to put it another way, What is the nature of thesis, truth? To illustrate with an example – the essay questions for much problem is not: Is it true that there is extraterrestrial life?
The problem is: What does it mean to say that it is true that there is extraterrestrial life? Astrobiologists study the former problem; philosophers, the dartmouth program thesis latter. This philosophical problem of truth has been with us for a long time. In the first century AD, Pontius Pilate ( John 18:38) asked What is truth? but no answer was forthcoming. The problem has been studied more since the turn of the twentieth century than at any other previous time. In the last one hundred or so years, considerable progress has been made in solving the problem.
The three most widely accepted contemporary theories of essay for much ado about nothing, truth are [i] the Correspondence Theory ; [ii] the Semantic Theory of Tarski and program, Davidson; and [iii] the Deflationary Theory of Frege and Ramsey. The competing theories are [iv] the Coherence Theory , and [v] the Pragmatic Theory . These five theories will be examined after addressing the following question. 2. What Sorts of Things are True (or False)? Although we do speak of essay introduction, true friends and false identities, philosophers believe these are derivative uses of dartmouth program thesis, true and false. Copy Essay! The central use of true, the more important one for philosophers, occurs when we say, for example, it's true that Montreal is north of Pittsburgh. Here,true is contrasted with false, not with fake or insincere. When we say that Montreal is north of Pittsburgh, what sort of thing is program thesis it that is true? Is it a statement or a sentence or something else, a fact, perhaps? More generally, philosophers want to know what sorts of things are true and what sorts of introduction, things are false. Dartmouth Program! This same question is expressed by asking: What sorts of questions for much ado about, things have (or bear) truth-values?
The term truth-value has been coined by logicians as a generic term for truth or falsehood. To ask for the truth-value of P, is to ask whether P is true or whether P is false. Dartmouth Writing Thesis! Value in truth-value does not mean valuable. It is being used in a similar fashion to numerical value as when we say that the value of x in x + 3 = 7 is 4. To ask What is the truth-value of the statement that Montreal is north of Pittsburgh? is to ask whether the statement that Montreal is north of Pittsburgh is essay true or whether it is false. Dartmouth Writing! (The truth-value of that specific statement is true .) There are many candidates for the sorts of things that can bear truth-values: statements sentence-tokens sentence-types propositions theories facts. assertions utterances beliefs opinions doctrines etc.
What sorts of things are these candidates? In particular, should the bearers of truth-values be regarded as being linguistic items (and, as a consequence, items within specific languages), or are they non-linguistic items, or are they both? In addition, should they be regarded as being concrete entities, i.e., things which have a determinate position in space and time, or should they be regarded as abstract entities, i.e., as being neither temporal nor spatial entities? Sentences are linguistic items: they exist in some language or other, either in a natural language such as English or in an artificial language such as a computer language. However, the term sentence has two senses: sentence-token and sentence-type . Plan! These three English sentence-tokens are all of the same sentence-type: Saturn is the sixth planet from the writing program thesis Sun. Saturn is the essay sixth planet from the Sun. Dartmouth Writing! Saturn is the sixth planet from the copy essay without Sun.
Sentence-tokens are concrete objects. They are composed of ink marks on paper, or sequences of dartmouth program, sounds, or patches of light on a computer monitor, etc. Sentence-tokens exist in therapy essay space and time; they can be located in space and writing program thesis, can be dated. Questions! Sentence-types cannot be. They are abstract objects. (Analogous distinctions can be made for letters, for dartmouth writing program thesis words, for numerals, for musical notes on a stave, indeed for any symbols whatsoever.) Might sentence- tokens be the bearers of truth-values?
One reason to favor tokens over types is to solve the problems involving so-called indexical (or token reflexive) terms such as I and here and now. Essay! Is the writing program claim expressed by the sentence-type I like chocolate true or false? Well, it depends on pomona questions, who I is referring to. If Jack, who likes chocolate, says I like chocolate, then what he has said is true; but if Jill, who dislikes chocolate, says I like chocolate, then what she has said is false. If it were sentence-types which were the bearers of truth-values, then the sentence-type I like chocolate would be both true and false – an unacceptable contradiction. The contradiction is avoided, however, if one argues that sentence-tokens are the program thesis bearers of truth-values, for in this case although there is only one sentence-type involved, there are two distinct sentence-tokens.
A second reason for arguing that sentence-tokens, rather than sentence-types, are the bearers of truth-values has been advanced by nominalist philosophers. Nominalists are intent to allow as few abstract objects as possible. Insofar as sentence-types are abstract objects and sentence-tokens are concrete objects, nominalists will argue that actually uttered or written sentence-tokens are the proper bearers of truth-values. But the theory that sentence-tokens are the bearers of truth-values has its own problems. One objection to the nominalist theory is essay that had there never been any language-users, then there would be no truths. (And the same objection can be leveled against arguing that it is dartmouth writing program beliefs that are the bearers of truth-values: had there never been any conscious creatures then there would be no beliefs and, thus, no truths or falsehoods, not even the truth that there were no conscious creatures – an unacceptably paradoxical implication.) And a second objection – to human rights torture, the theory that sentence-tokens are the writing program bearers of truth-values – is that even though there are language-users, there are sentences that have never been uttered and pomona essay, never will be. (Consider, for example, the distinct number of different ways that a deck of playing cards can be arranged. The number, 8?10 67 [the digit 8 followed by sixty-seven zeros], is dartmouth writing thesis so vast that there never will be enough sentence-tokens in essay the world's past or future to writing program thesis, describe each unique arrangement.
And there are countless other examples as well.) Sentence-tokens, then, cannot be identified as the bearers of truth-values – there simply are too few sentence-tokens. Thus both theories – (i) that sentence-tokens are the bearers of truth-values, and (ii) that sentence-types are the bearers of systems therapy, truth-values – encounter difficulties. Might propositions be the bearers of truth-values? To escape the dilemma of choosing between tokens and types, propositions have been suggested as the primary bearers of truth-values. The following five sentences are in writing different languages, but they all are typically used to express the same proposition or statement. The truth of the proposition that Saturn is the sixth planet from the Sun depends only on the physics of the solar system, and not in any obvious way on human convention. Torture! By contrast, what these five sentences say does depend partly on human convention. Program Thesis! Had English speakers chosen to adopt the word Saturn as the essay nothing name of a different particular planet, the first sentence would have expressed something false. By choosing propositions rather than sentences as the bearers of truth-values, this relativity to human conventions does not apply to truth, a point that many philosophers would consider to be a virtue in a theory of truth. Propositions are abstract entities; they do not exist in space and time.
They are sometimes said to dartmouth thesis, be timeless, eternal, or omnitemporal entities. Family Therapy! Terminology aside, the essential point is that propositions are not concrete (or material) objects. Nor, for that matter, are they mental entities; they are not thoughts as Frege had suggested in the nineteenth century. The theory that propositions are the bearers of truth-values also has been criticized. Nominalists object to the abstract character of dartmouth writing program, propositions. Another complaint is that it's not sufficiently clear when we have a case of the essay help same propositions as opposed to similar propositions. This is much like the complaint that we can't determine when two sentences have exactly the same meaning.
The relationship between sentences and propositions is a serious philosophical problem. Because it is the more favored theory, and for the sake of expediency and consistency, the theory that propositions – and not sentences – are the program bearers of essay ado about nothing, truth-values will be adopted in program this article. When we speak below of truths, we are referring to true propositions. But it should be pointed out that virtually all the claims made below have counterparts in nominalistic theories which reject propositions. b. Essay! Constraints on Truth and Falsehood. There are two commonly accepted constraints on truth and falsehood: These constraints require that every proposition has exactly one truth-value. Dartmouth Program! Although the point is controversial, most philosophers add the further constraint that a proposition never changes its truth-value in space or time. Consequently, to say The proposition that it's raining was true yesterday but false today is to equivocate and not actually refer to just one proposition.
Similarly, when someone at noon on January 15, 2000 in Vancouver says that the proposition that it is questions for much ado about raining is true in dartmouth writing thesis Vancouver while false in Sacramento, that person is really talking of questions, two different propositions: (i) that it rains in Vancouver at noon on January 15, 2000 and (ii) that it rains in Sacramento at dartmouth program, noon on January 15, 2000. The person is saying proposition (i) is true and pomona questions, (ii) is false. c. Which Sentences Express Propositions? Not all sentences express propositions. The interrogative sentence Who won the World Series in 1951? does not; neither does the imperative sentence Please close the window. Declarative (that is, indicative) sentences – rather than interrogative or imperative sentences – typically are used to express propositions.
But do all declarative sentences express propositions? The following four kinds of declarative sentences have been suggested as not being typically used to express propositions, but all these suggestions are controversial. 1. Sentences containing non-referring expressions. In light of the fact that France has no king, Strawson argued that the dartmouth writing program sentence, The present king of France is bald, fails to express a proposition. In a famous dispute, Russell disagreed with Strawson, arguing that the sentence does express a proposition, and more exactly, a false one. 2. Predictions of future events.
What about declarative sentences that refer to events in the future? For example, does the sentence There will be a sea battle tomorrow express a proposition? Presumably, today we do not know whether there will be such a battle. Because of pomona, this, some philosophers (including Aristotle who toyed with the idea) have argued that the sentence, at the present moment, does not express anything that is now either true or false. Another, perhaps more powerful, motivation for dartmouth writing thesis adopting this view is the belief that if sentences involving future human actions were to express propositions, i.e., were to express something that is essay now true or false, then humans would be determined to perform those actions and so humans would have no free will. To defend free will, these philosophers have argued, we must deny truth-values to predictions.
This complicating restriction – that sentences about the future do not now express anything true or false – has been attacked by program Quine and others. These critics argue that the restriction upsets the logic we use to reason with such predictions. For example, here is a deductively valid argument involving predictions: We've learned there will be a run on the bank tomorrow. If there will be a run on the bank tomorrow, then the CEO should be awakened. So, the CEO should be awakened.
Without assertions in copy essay without this argument having truth-values, regardless of whether we know those values, we could not assess the argument using the canons of deductive validity and invalidity. We would have to say – contrary to deeply-rooted philosophical intuitions – that it is not really an argument at program thesis, all. (For another sort of rebuttal to the claim that propositions about the future cannot be true prior to the occurrence of the events described, see Logical Determinism.) This very sentence expresses a false proposition and I'm lying are examples of narrative essay unit plan, so-called liar sentences. A liar sentence can be used to generate a paradox when we consider what truth-value to dartmouth, assign it. As a way out of paradox, Kripke suggests that a liar sentence is questions one of those rare declarative sentences that does not express a proposition. Dartmouth Writing! The sentence falls into the truth-value gap. See the article Liar Paradox. 4. Sentences that state moral, ethical, or aesthetic values.
Finally, we mention the so-called fact/value distinction. Throughout history, moral philosophers have wrestled with the issue of moral realism. Do sentences such as Torturing children is wrong – which assert moral principles – assert something true (or false), or do they merely express (in a disguised fashion) the speaker's opinions, or feelings or values? Making the latter choice, some philosophers argue that these declarative sentences do not express propositions. We return to narrative essay, the principal question, What is truth? Truth is dartmouth writing program presumably what valid reasoning preserves. It is the goal of scientific inquiry, historical research, and business audits.
We understand much of what a sentence means by understanding the conditions under which what it expresses is true. Family Systems Essay! Yet the exact nature of truth itself is not wholly revealed by these remarks. Historically, the most popular theory of truth was the writing thesis Correspondence Theory. First proposed in a vague form by Plato and by essay ado about nothing Aristotle in dartmouth thesis his Metaphysics , this realist theory says truth is what propositions have by corresponding to a way the world is. The theory says that a proposition is questions ado about true provided there exists a fact corresponding to it. Writing Program Thesis! In other words, for any proposition p, p is true if and extended help, only if p corresponds to dartmouth, a fact. The theory's answer to therapy, the question, What is truth? is that truth is a certain relationship—the relationship that holds between a proposition and program, its corresponding fact. Perhaps an analysis of the relationship will reveal what all the truths have in common.
Consider the proposition that snow is white. Remarking that the proposition's truth is its corresponding to essay questions, the fact that snow is white leads critics to request an acceptable analysis of this notion of correspondence. Surely the dartmouth writing program thesis correspondence is not a word by rights word connecting of a sentence to its reference. It is some sort of writing, exotic relationship between, say, whole propositions and facts. In presenting his theory of logical atomism early in the twentieth century, Russell tried to show how a true proposition and its corresponding fact share the same structure. Inspired by the notion that Egyptian hieroglyphs are stylized pictures, his student Wittgenstein said the relationship is that of a picturing of facts by propositions, but his development of essay questions nothing, this suggestive remark in his Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus did not satisfy many other philosophers, nor after awhile, even Wittgenstein himself. And what are facts? The notion of a fact as some sort of ontological entity was first stated explicitly in dartmouth program thesis the second half of the essay nineteenth century.
The Correspondence Theory does permit facts to be mind-dependent entities. McTaggart, and perhaps Kant, held such Correspondence Theories. The Correspondence theories of Russell, Wittgenstein and Austin all consider facts to be mind-independent. But regardless of their mind-dependence or mind-independence, the theory must provide answers to questions of the following sort. Canada is north of the U.S. Dartmouth Writing Program Thesis! can't be a fact. A true proposition can't be a fact if it also states a fact, so what is the ontological standing of a fact? Is the essay fact that corresponds to Brutus stabbed Caesar the same fact that corresponds to Caesar was stabbed by dartmouth program thesis Brutus, or is it a different fact? It might be argued that they must be different facts because one expresses the human torture relationship of stabbing but the other expresses the relationship of being stabbed, which is different. In addition to writing, the specific fact that ball 1 is on the pool table and the specific fact that ball 2 is on the pool table, and so forth, is there the specific fact that there are fewer than 1,006,455 balls on rights essay, the table? Is there the general fact that many balls are on the table? Does the existence of general facts require there to be the Forms of Plato or Aristotle?
What about the negative proposition that there are no pink elephants on the table? Does it correspond to dartmouth thesis, the same situation in the world that makes there be no green elephants on the table? The same pool table must involve a great many different facts. These questions illustrate the difficulty in counting facts and distinguishing them. The difficulty is well recognized by advocates of the Correspondence Theory, but critics complain that characterizations of facts too often circle back ultimately to saying facts are whatever true propositions must correspond to in order to be true. Davidson has criticized the notion of fact, arguing that if true statements correspond to anything, they all correspond to the same thing (in True to the Facts, Davidson ). Davidson also has argued that facts really are the true statements themselves; facts are not named by them, as the Correspondence Theory mistakenly supposes. Defenders of the Correspondence Theory have responded to these criticisms in a variety of ways. Sense can be made of the term correspondence, some say, because speaking of propositions corresponding to facts is merely making the general claim that summarizes the remark that.
(i) The sentence, Snow is white, means that snow is white, and (ii) snow actually is white, and so on for all the systems therapy other propositions. Therefore, the Correspondence theory must contain a theory of means that but otherwise is not at fault. Other defenders of the Correspondence Theory attack Davidson's identification of facts with true propositions. Snow is program thesis a constituent of the fact that snow is essay help white, but snow is dartmouth thesis not a constituent of a linguistic entity, so facts and extended introduction help, true statements are different kinds of dartmouth writing thesis, entities. Recent work in possible world semantics has identified facts with sets of questions, possible worlds. The fact that the writing program thesis cat is on the mat contains the possible world in copy which the cat is on the mat and Adolf Hitler converted to Judaism while Chancellor of Germany. The motive for this identification is that, if sets of possible worlds are metaphysically legitimate and dartmouth writing, precisely describable, then so are facts.
To capture what he considered to be the essence of the Correspondence Theory, Alfred Tarski created his Semantic Theory of Truth. In Tarski's theory, however, talk of correspondence and of facts is eliminated. (Although in early versions of his theory, Tarski did use the term correspondence in trying to explain his theory, he later regretted having done so, and dropped the term altogether since it plays no role within his theory.) The Semantic Theory is the rights essay successor to the Correspondence Theory. It seeks to preserve the core concept of that earlier theory but without the problematic conceptual baggage. For an illustration of the theory, consider the German sentence Schnee ist weiss which means that snow is thesis white. Tarski asks for the truth-conditions of the proposition expressed by narrative essay unit plan that sentence: Under what conditions is that proposition true? Put another way: How shall we complete the following in English: 'The proposition expressed by the German sentence Schnee ist weiss is true . '? His answer: We can rewrite Tarski's T-condition on program thesis, three lines: The proposition expressed by the German sentence Schnee ist weiss is true if and only if snow is essay questions for much ado about white. Line 1 is about truth.
Line 3 is not about truth – it asserts a claim about the dartmouth writing program nature of the world. Thus T makes a substantive claim. Moreover, it avoids the main problems of the earlier Correspondence Theories in that the essay terms fact and correspondence play no role whatever. A theory is a Tarskian truth theory for language L if and only if, for each sentence S of L , if S expresses the writing thesis proposition that p, then the theory entails a true T-proposition of the extended introduction bi-conditional form: In the example we have been using, namely, Schnee ist weiss, it is quite clear that the T-proposition consists of a containing (or outer) sentence in English, and writing program, a contained (or inner or quoted) sentence in German: There are, we see, sentences in two distinct languages involved in this T-proposition. If, however, we switch the inner, or quoted sentence, to an English sentence, e.g. to essay questions ado about nothing, Snow is white, we would then have:
In this latter case, it looks as if only one language (English), not two, is thesis involved in expressing the T-proposition. But, according to Tarski's theory, there are still two languages involved: (i) the language one of whose sentences is pomona questions being quoted and (ii) the language which attributes truth to the proposition expressed by that quoted sentence. The quoted sentence is program said to be an element of the object language , and the outer (or containing) sentence which uses the family systems predicate true is in the metalanguage . Tarski discovered that in order to avoid contradiction in his semantic theory of truth, he had to restrict the object language to a limited portion of the metalanguage. Among other restrictions, it is the metalanguage alone that contains the truth-predicates, true and false; the dartmouth writing thesis object language does not contain truth-predicates. It is essential to see that Tarski's T-proposition is torture essay not saying: This latter claim is certainly true (it is a tautology), but it is no significant part of the analysis of the concept of truth – indeed it does not even use the words true or truth, nor does it involve an dartmouth thesis object language and a metalanguage. Tarski's T-condition does both. a. Extending the Semantic Theory Beyond Simple Propositions. Tarski's complete theory is intended to work for (just about) all propositions, expressed by non-problematic declarative sentences, not just Snow is introduction white.
But he wants a finite theory, so his theory can't simply be the infinite set of T propositions. Also, Tarski wants his truth theory to dartmouth writing program thesis, reveal the logical structure within propositions that permits valid reasoning to preserve truth. To do all this, the theory must work for systems therapy essay more complex propositions by showing how the truth-values of these complex propositions depend on program, their parts, such as the truth-values of their constituent propositions. Truth tables show how this is done for the simple language of Propositional Logic (e.g. the complex proposition expressed by A or B is human torture essay true, according to the truth table, if and dartmouth writing program thesis, only if proposition A is true, or proposition B is true, or both are true). Tarski's goal is to plan, define truth for even more complex languages. Tarski's theory does not explain (analyze) when a name denotes an object or when an object falls under a predicate; his theory begins with these as given. Dartmouth Program Thesis! He wants what we today call a model theory for quantified predicate logic.
His actual theory is very technical. It uses the notion of Godel numbering, focuses on satisfaction rather than truth, and approaches these via the process of recursion. The idea of using satisfaction treats the truth of a simple proposition such as expressed by extended essay introduction help Socrates is mortal by writing saying: If Socrates is a name and is mortal is a predicate, then Socrates is mortal expresses a true proposition if and essay, only if there exists an object x such that Socrates refers to x and dartmouth writing program thesis, is mortal is satisfied by x. For Tarski's formal language of predicate logic, he'd put this more generally as follows:
If a is a name and Q is a predicate, then a is Q expresses a true proposition if and only if there exists an object x such that a refers to x and Q is human essay satisfied by x. The idea is to define the predicate is true when it is applied to the simplest (that is, the non-complex or atomic) sentences in the object language (a language, see above, which does not, itself, contain the dartmouth program thesis truth-predicate is without true). The predicate is writing program true is a predicate that occurs only in the metalanguage, i.e., in the language we use to rights torture, describe the object language. Thesis! At the second stage, his theory shows how the family systems truth predicate, when it has been defined for propositions expressed by sentences of a certain degree of grammatical complexity, can be defined for propositions of the next greater degree of complexity. According to writing thesis, Tarski, his theory applies only to artificial languages – in particular, the classical formal languages of symbolic logic – because our natural languages are vague and unsystematic. Other philosophers – for example, Donald Davidson – have not been as pessimistic as Tarski about analyzing truth for natural languages. Davidson has made progress in extending Tarski's work to human essay, any natural language.
Doing so, he says, provides at the same time the central ingredient of a theory of writing thesis, meaning for the language. Davidson develops the original idea Frege stated in his Basic Laws of Arithmetic that the meaning of essay for much nothing, a declarative sentence is given by certain conditions under which it is true—that meaning is dartmouth program given by truth conditions. As part of the larger program of research begun by Tarski and Davidson, many logicians, linguists, philosophers, and cognitive scientists, often collaboratively, pursue research programs trying to elucidate the truth-conditions (that is, the logics or semantics for) the propositions expressed by such complex sentences as: Each of these research areas contains its own intriguing problems. All must overcome the difficulties involved with ambiguity, tenses, and indexical phrases. b. Can the Semantic Theory Account for Necessary Truth? Many philosophers divide the class of propositions into two mutually exclusive and exhaustive subclasses: namely, propositions that are contingent (that is, those that are neither necessarily-true nor necessarily-false) and those that are noncontingent (that is, those that are necessarily-true or necessarily-false). On the Semantic Theory of Truth, contingent propositions are those that are true (or false) because of some specific way the world happens to narrative unit, be. For example all of the following propositions are contingent : The contrasting class of propositions comprises those whose truth (or falsehood, as the case may be) is dependent, according to the Semantic Theory, not on some specific way the world happens to be, but on any way the world happens to be.
Imagine the world changed however you like (provided, of course, that its description remains logically consistent [i.e., logically possible]). Even under those conditions, the truth-values of the following (noncontingent) propositions will remain unchanged: However, some philosophers who accept the Semantic Theory of Truth for contingent propositions, reject it for writing program thesis noncontingent ones. Human Essay! They have argued that the truth of noncontingent propositions has a different basis from the truth of contingent ones. The truth of dartmouth writing, noncontingent propositions comes about, they say – not through their correctly describing the way the world is – but as a matter of the definitions of terms occurring in the sentences expressing those propositions. Essay Questions For Much Nothing! Noncontingent truths, on this account, are said to be true by definition , or – as it is sometimes said, in dartmouth writing program thesis a variation of this theme – as a matter of conceptual relationships between the concepts at play within the propositions, or – yet another (kindred) way – as a matter of the meanings of the sentences expressing the propositions. It is apparent, in this competing account, that one is invoking a kind of essay help, theory of dartmouth program, linguistic truth. Rights! In this alternative theory, truth for a certain class of propositions, namely the writing thesis class of noncontingent propositions, is to be accounted for – not in their describing the way the world is, but rather – because of certain features of our human linguistic constructs.
c. The Linguistic Theory of Necessary Truth. Does the Semantic Theory need to be supplemented in this manner? If one were to questions for much, adopt the Semantic Theory of Truth, would one also need to adopt a complementary theory of truth, namely, a theory of dartmouth, linguistic truth (for noncontingent propositions)? Or, can the Semantic Theory of Truth be used to explain the truth-values of all propositions, the essay questions ado about contingent and noncontingent alike? If so, how? To see how one can argue that the Semantic Theory of Truth can be used to thesis, explicate the truth of noncontingent propositions, consider the following series of propositions, the first four of which are contingent, the fifth of which is noncontingent: There are fewer than seven bumblebees or more than ten. There are fewer than eight bumblebees or more than ten. There are fewer than nine bumblebees or more than ten. There are fewer than ten bumblebees or more than ten.
There are fewer than eleven bumblebees or more than ten. Each of these propositions, as we move from the second to the fifth, is slightly less specific than its predecessor. Each can be regarded as being true under a greater range of variation (or circumstances) than its predecessor. When we reach the fifth member of the introduction series we have a proposition that is true under any and all sets of dartmouth writing program thesis, circumstances. (Some philosophers – a few in pomona essay questions the seventeenth century, a very great many more after the mid-twentieth century – use the idiom of possible worlds, saying that noncontingent truths are true in dartmouth thesis all possible worlds [i.e., under any logically possible circumstances].) On this view, what distinguishes noncontingent truths from contingent ones is not that their truth arises as a consequence of facts about our language or of meanings, etc.; but that their truth has to do with the scope (or number) of possible circumstances under which the proposition is copy true. Writing Thesis! Contingent propositions are true in some, but not all, possible circumstances (or possible worlds). Noncontingent propositions, in family contrast, are true in all possible circumstances or in none.
There is writing thesis no difference as to the nature of truth for the two classes of propositions, only in the ranges of possibilities in which the propositions are true. An adherent of the Semantic Theory will allow that there is, to be sure, a powerful insight in the theories of linguistic truth. Copy Essay! But, they will counter, these linguistic theories are really shedding no light on the nature of writing program thesis, truth itself. Rather, they are calling attention to how we often go about ascertaining the pomona truth of noncontingent propositions. While it is certainly possible to ascertain the truth experientially (and inductively) of the noncontingent proposition that all aunts are females – for example, one could knock on a great many doors asking if any of the residents were aunts and if so, whether they were female – it would be a needless exercise. Program! We need not examine the world carefully to figure out the truth-value of the proposition that all aunts are females. We might, for example, simply consult an English dictionary.
How we ascertain , find out , determine the truth-values of noncontingent propositions may (but need not invariably) be by nonexperiential means; but from that it does not follow that the nature of truth of noncontingent propositions is extended help fundamentally different from that of contingent ones. On this latter view, the Semantic Theory of program, Truth is questions for much nothing adequate for both contingent propositions and noncontingent ones. In neither case is the writing program Semantic Theory of Truth intended to be a theory of how we might go about finding out what the extended essay introduction truth-value is of any specified proposition. Indeed, one very important consequence of the Semantic Theory of dartmouth writing program, Truth is that it allows for the existence of propositions whose truth-values are in principle unknowable to human beings. And there is a second motivation for promoting the Semantic Theory of extended essay help, Truth for noncontingent propositions. How is it that mathematics is able to be used (in concert with physical theories) to explain the nature of the world? On the dartmouth Semantic Theory, the answer is that the noncontingent truths of mathematics correctly describe the world (as they would any and every possible world). The Linguistic Theory, which makes the essay truth of the noncontingent truths of mathematics arise out of features of language, is writing usually thought to have great, if not insurmountable, difficulties in grappling with this question. The Correspondence Theory and unit plan, the Semantic Theory account for the truth of dartmouth program, a proposition as arising out of a relationship between that proposition and features or events in the world.
Coherence Theories (of which there are a number), in contrast, account for the truth of a proposition as arising out of a relationship between that proposition and questions for much ado about nothing, other propositions. Coherence Theories are valuable because they help to reveal how we arrive at our truth claims, our knowledge. We continually work at fitting our beliefs together into dartmouth program, a coherent system. For example, when a drunk driver says, There are pink elephants dancing on the highway in front of us, we assess whether his assertion is true by for much ado about considering what other beliefs we have already accepted as true, namely, Elephants are gray.
This locale is writing program not the habitat of elephants. There is neither a zoo nor a circus anywhere nearby. Essay! Severely intoxicated persons have been known to experience hallucinations. But perhaps the dartmouth program most important reason for rejecting the drunk's claim is this: Everyone else in the area claims not to see any pink elephants. In short, the pomona questions drunk's claim fails to cohere with a great many other claims that we believe and have good reason not to abandon. We, then, reject the drunk's claim as being false (and take away the car keys). Specifically, a Coherence Theory of writing thesis, Truth will claim that a proposition is true if and only if it coheres with ___ . Essay! For example, one Coherence Theory fills this blank with the beliefs of the majority of persons in one's society.
Another fills the blank with one's own beliefs, and yet another fills it with the beliefs of the intellectuals in one's society. The major coherence theories view coherence as requiring at dartmouth program, least logical consistency. Questions! Rationalist metaphysicians would claim that a proposition is true if and only if it is consistent with all other true propositions. Some rationalist metaphysicians go a step beyond logical consistency and claim that a proposition is dartmouth thesis true if and only if it entails (or logically implies) all other true propositions. Leibniz, Spinoza, Hegel, Bradley, Blanshard, Neurath, Hempel (late in his life), Dummett, and copy essay, Putnam have advocated Coherence Theories of dartmouth program thesis, truth. Coherence Theories have their critics too. The proposition that bismuth has a higher melting point than tin may cohere with my beliefs but not with your beliefs. Unit! This, then, leads to the proposition being both true for writing thesis me but false for essay questions for much ado about nothing you.
But if true for me means true and false for program thesis you means false as the human rights Coherence Theory implies, then we have a violation of the law of non-contradiction, which plays havoc with logic. Writing! Most philosophers prefer to preserve the law of non-contradiction over any theory of narrative essay unit, truth that requires rejecting it. Dartmouth Writing Program Thesis! Consequently, if someone is making a sensible remark by therapy saying, That is true for me but not for you, then the person must mean simply, I believe it, but you do not. Truth is not relative in the sense that something can be true for you but not for me. A second difficulty with Coherence Theories is that the beliefs of any one person (or of any group) are invariably self-contradictory. A person might, for example, believe both Absence makes the heart grow fonder and Out of sight, out of mind. But under the main interpretation of cohere, nothing can cohere with an inconsistent set. Thus most propositions, by failing to cohere, will not have truth-values. This result violates the law of the excluded middle. And there is a third objection.
What does coheres with mean? For X to cohere with Y, at the very least X must be consistent with Y. All right, then, what does consistent with mean? It would be circular to say that X is consistent with Y means it is possible for X and Y both to dartmouth, be true together because this response is presupposing the very concept of torture, truth that it is supposed to be analyzing. Some defenders of the Coherence Theory will respond that coheres with means instead is harmonious with. Opponents, however, are pessimistic about the prospects for explicating the concept is harmonious with without at some point or other having to invoke the writing program concept of joint truth . A fourth objection is introduction that Coherence theories focus on the nature of verifiability and dartmouth thesis, not truth. Narrative Plan! They focus on the holistic character of verifying that a proposition is true but don't answer the writing principal problem, What is truth itself? a. Postmodernism: The Most Recent Coherence Theory. In recent years, one particular Coherence Theory has attracted a lot of attention and some considerable heat and fury.
Postmodernist philosophers ask us to carefully consider how the statements of the most persuasive or politically influential people become accepted as the common truths. Although everyone would agree that influential people – the movers and shakers – have profound effects upon the beliefs of other persons, the controversy revolves around whether the acceptance by pomona essay questions others of dartmouth, their beliefs is wholly a matter of their personal or institutional prominence. The most radical postmodernists do not distinguish acceptance as true from narrative essay unit being true ; they claim that the social negotiations among influential people construct the truth. The truth, they argue, is not something lying outside of human collective decisions; it is not, in particular, a reflection of an objective reality. Or, to put it another way, to the extent that there is an objective reality it is nothing more nor less than what we say it is.
We human beings are, then, the ultimate arbiters of what is true. Consensus is truth. Dartmouth Program! The subjective and extended, the objective are rolled into one inseparable compound. These postmodernist views have received a more sympathetic reception among social scientists than among physical scientists. Social scientists will more easily agree, for example, that the proposition that human beings have a superego is a construction of (certain) politically influential psychologists, and writing program thesis, that as a result, it is (to be regarded as) true. In contrast, physical scientists are – for the most part – rather unwilling to regard propositions in their own field as somehow merely the product of consensus among eminent physical scientists. They are inclined to believe that the extended introduction help proposition that protons are composed of three quarks is true (or false) depending on writing program thesis, whether (or not) it accurately describes an objective reality.
They are disinclined to believe that the truth of such a proposition arises out of the pronouncements of eminent physical scientists. Copy! In short, physical scientists do not believe that prestige and social influence trump reality. A Pragmatic Theory of Truth holds (roughly) that a proposition is true if it is useful to writing, believe. Peirce and James were its principal advocates. Utility is the essential mark of truth. Beliefs that lead to the best payoff, that are the family therapy best justification of our actions, that promote success, are truths, according to the pragmatists. The problems with Pragmatic accounts of truth are counterparts to the problems seen above with Coherence Theories of truth. First, it may be useful for someone to believe a proposition but also useful for someone else to disbelieve it. For example, Freud said that many people, in dartmouth program order to avoid despair, need to believe there is a god who keeps a watchful eye on everyone. Human Torture Essay! According to writing program, one version of the Pragmatic Theory, that proposition is true . However, it may not be useful for other persons to believe that same proposition. They would be crushed if they believed that there is a god who keeps a watchful eye on human rights torture essay, everyone.
Thus, by dartmouth program symmetry of argument, that proposition is false . In this way, the Pragmatic theory leads to family systems therapy, a violation of the law of non-contradiction, say its critics. Second, certain beliefs are undeniably useful, even though – on other criteria – they are judged to be objectively false. For example, it can be useful for some persons to believe that they live in a world surrounded by people who love or care for dartmouth program them. According to this criticism, the Pragmatic Theory of Truth overestimates the strength of the essay connection between truth and usefulness. Truth is what an ideally rational inquirer would in the long run come to believe, say some pragmatists. Truth is the ideal outcome of rational inquiry. The criticism that we don't now know what happens in the long run merely shows we have a problem with knowledge, but it doesn't show that the meaning of true doesn't now involve hindsight from the perspective of the future. Yet, as a theory of truth, does this reveal what true means? What all the theories of truth discussed so far have in writing common is the assumption that a proposition is true just in case the copy without proposition has some property or other – correspondence with the thesis facts, satisfaction, coherence, utility, etc.
Deflationary theories deny this assumption. The principal deflationary theory is the Redundancy Theory advocated by Frege, Ramsey, and Horwich. Pomona! Frege expressed the idea this way: It is worthy of notice that the sentence I smell the scent of violets has the same content as the sentence It is true that I smell the scent of program thesis, violets. Human Rights Torture! So it seems, then, that nothing is added to the thought by my ascribing to it the property of truth. Thesis! (Frege, 1918) When we assert a proposition explicitly, such as when we say I smell the scent of rights torture, violets, then saying It's true that I smell the writing program thesis scent of extended essay introduction, violets would be redundant; it would add nothing because the writing thesis two have the same meaning.
Today's more minimalist advocates of the Redundancy Theory retreat from this remark about meaning and say merely that the two are necessarily equivalent. Where the concept of truth really pays off is when we do not, or can not, assert a proposition explicitly, but have to human essay, deal with an program indirect reference to it. For instance, if we wish to say, What he will say tomorrow is true, we need the truth predicate is true. Admittedly the proposition is an indirect way of saying, If he says tomorrow that it will snow, then it will snow; if he says tomorrow that it will rain, then it will rain; if he says tomorrow that 7 + 5 = 12, then 7 + 5 = 12; and so forth. But the phrase is true cannot be eliminated from What he will say tomorrow is true without producing an unacceptable infinite conjunction. The truth predicate is true allows us to generalize and say things more succinctly (indeed to make those claims with only a finite number of utterances). Introduction! In short, the Redundancy Theory may work for certain cases, say its critics, but it is writing thesis not generalizable to all; there remain recalcitrant cases where is essay true is not redundant.
Advocates of the Redundancy Theory respond that their theory recognizes the essential point about needing the concept of truth for indirect reference. The theory says that this is all that the dartmouth writing thesis concept of truth is essay needed for, and that otherwise its use is redundant. The Performative Theory is a deflationary theory that is not a redundancy theory. It was advocated by Strawson who believed Tarski's Semantic Theory of Truth was basically mistaken. The Performative Theory of Truth argues that ascribing truth to a proposition is not really characterizing the proposition itself, nor is it saying something redundant. Rather, it is telling us something about the speaker's intentions . Writing Program Thesis! The speaker – through his or her agreeing with it, endorsing it, praising it, accepting it, or perhaps conceding it – is licensing our adoption of (the belief in) the proposition. Instead of saying, It is true that snow is white, one could substitute I embrace the claim that snow is white. The key idea is that saying of some proposition, P, that it is true is to say in a disguised fashion I commend P to you, or I endorse P, or something of the sort.
The case may be likened somewhat to that of promising . Human Rights Torture! When you promise to pay your sister five dollars, you are not making a claim about the proposition expressed by I will pay you five dollars; rather you are performing the dartmouth writing thesis action of copy essay without, promising her something. Dartmouth Writing Program! Similarly, according to the Performative Theory of Truth, when you say It is true that Vancouver is north of Sacramento, you are performing the act of essay introduction, giving your listener license to believe (and to act upon the belief) that Vancouver is north of Sacramento. Critics of the Performative Theory charge that it requires too radical a revision in our logic. Program Thesis! Arguments have premises that are true or false, but we don't consider premises to be actions, says Geach. Other critics complain that, if all the ascription of is true is doing is gesturing consent, as Strawson believes, then, when we say. Please shut the door is true, we would be consenting to the door's being shut. Essay Introduction Help! Because that is dartmouth program absurd, says Huw Price, something is wrong with Strawson's Performative Theory. The Prosentential Theory of copy without, Truth suggests that the grammatical predicate is true does not function semantically or logically as a predicate.
All uses of is true are prosentential uses. When someone asserts It's true that it is snowing, the person is asking the hearer to consider the sentence It is snowing and dartmouth, is saying That is true where the remark That is true is taken holistically as a prosentence, in analogy to a pronoun. A pronoun such as she is a substitute for copy the name of the person being referred to. Similarly, That is true is a substitute for the proposition being considered. Likewise, for the expression It is true. According to dartmouth thesis, the Prosentential Theory, all uses of copy, true can be reduced to uses either of That is true or It is true or variants of these with other tenses. Because these latter prosentential uses of the dartmouth word true cannot be eliminated from our language during analysis, the Prosentential Theory is not a redundancy theory. Critics of the theory remark that it can give no account of what is common to pomona, all our uses of the word true, such as those in the unanalyzed operators it-will-be-true-that and it-is-true-that and it-was-true-that. For generations, discussions of truth have been bedeviled by thesis the question, How could a proposition be true unless we know it to be true? Aristotle's famous worry was that contingent propositions about the future, such as There will be a sea battle tomorrow, couldn't be true now, for fear that this would deny free will to pomona essay, the sailors involved. Advocates of the Correspondence Theory and the Semantic Theory have argued that a proposition need not be known in order to dartmouth program thesis, be true.
Truth, they say, arises out of a relationship between a proposition and torture essay, the way the world is. No one need know that that relationship holds, nor – for that matter – need there even be any conscious or language-using creatures for that relationship to dartmouth, obtain. In short, truth is an objective feature of a proposition, not a subjective one. For a true proposition to be known, it must (at the very least) be a justified belief. Justification, unlike truth itself, requires a special relationship among propositions. For a proposition to be justified it must, at the very least, cohere with other propositions that one has adopted. On this account, coherence among propositions plays a critical role in the theory of knowledge. Nevertheless it plays no role in a theory of rights torture essay, truth, according to dartmouth writing thesis, advocates of the narrative essay plan Correspondence and Semantic Theories of Truth. Finally, should coherence – which plays such a central role in theories of knowledge – be regarded as an thesis objective relationship or as a subjective one?
Not surprisingly, theorists have answered this latter question in divergent ways. But the essay nothing pursuit of that issue takes one beyond the theories of truth. An account of what true means does not have to tell us what is true, nor tell us how we could find out dartmouth program what is true. Similarly, an account of what bachelor means should not have to narrative unit plan, tell us who is a bachelor, nor should it have to tell us how we could find out dartmouth writing thesis who is. However, it would be fascinating if we could discover a way to tell, for any proposition, whether it is rights essay true. Perhaps some machine could do this, philosophers have speculated. For any formal language, we know in principle how to generate all the thesis sentences of that language. If we were to build a machine that produces one by one all the many sentences, then eventually all those that express truths would be produced. Extended Essay! Unfortunately, along with them, we would also generate all those that express false propositions. We also know how to build a machine that will generate only sentences that express truths. For example, we might program a computer to generate 1 + 1 is writing program thesis not 3, then 1 + 1 is not 4, then 1 + 1 is not 5, and introduction, so forth.
However, to thesis, generate all and only those sentences that express truths is quite another matter. Leibniz (1646-1716) dreamed of rights, achieving this goal. By mechanizing deductive reasoning he hoped to build a machine that would generate all and only truths. As he put it, How much better will it be to bring under mathematical laws human reasoning which is the most excellent and useful thing we have. This would enable one's mind to be freed from having to program thesis, think directly of nothing, things themselves, and yet everything will turn out correct. His actual achievements were disappointing in this regard, but his dream inspired many later investigators. Some progress on the general problem of capturing all and only those sentences which express true propositions can be made by limiting the focus to a specific domain. Dartmouth Program Thesis! For instance, perhaps we can find some procedure that will produce all and only the truths of arithmetic, or of chemistry, or of Egyptian political history. Here, the key to family essay, progress is to appreciate that universal and probabilistic truths capture or contain many more specific truths. Dartmouth Program Thesis! If we know the universal and probabilistic laws of quantum mechanics, then (some philosophers have argued) we thereby indirectly (are in a position to) know the systems therapy more specific scientific laws about chemical bonding.
Similarly, if we can axiomatize an dartmouth writing thesis area of human rights, mathematics, then we indirectly have captured the infinitely many specific theorems that could be derived from those axioms, and we can hope to find a decision procedure for the truths, a procedure that will guarantee a correct answer to the question, Is that true? Significant progress was made in the early twentieth century on the problem of axiomatizing arithmetic and other areas of mathematics. Let's consider arithmetic. In the 1920s, David Hilbert hoped to represent the sentences of arithmetic very precisely in writing program thesis a formal language, then to generate all and narrative essay, only the thesis theorems of arithmetic from uncontroversial axioms, and systems essay, thereby to writing program, show that all true propositions of arithmetic can in principle be proved as theorems. This would put the concept of truth in arithmetic on a very solid basis. Family! The axioms would capture all and only the truths. However, Hilbert's hopes would soon be dashed. In 1931, Kurt Godel (1906-1978), in his First Incompleteness Theorem, proved that any classical self-consistent formal language capable of expressing arithmetic must also contain sentences of arithmetic that cannot be derived within that system, and hence that the propositions expressed by those sentences could not be proven true (or false) within that system.
Thus the concept of truth transcends the concept of dartmouth program, proof in classical formal languages. This is a remarkable, precise insight into essay without, the nature of writing program, truth. Can is true be defined so that it can be replaced by its definition? Unfortunately for the clarity of this question, there is no one concept of definition. A very great many linguistic devices count as definitions. Pomona Essay Questions! These devices include providing a synonym, offering examples, pointing at objects that satisfy the term being defined, using the term in sentences, contrasting it with opposites, and contrasting it with terms with which it is often confused. (For further reading, see Definitions, Dictionaries, and Meanings.) However, modern theories about writing definition have not been especially recognized, let alone adopted, outside of certain academic and specialist circles. Many persons persist with the earlier, naive, view that the role of a definition is only to offer a synonym for human rights torture the term to be defined. These persons have in dartmouth writing program thesis mind such examples as: 'hypostatize' means (or, is a synonym for) 'reify' . If one were to adopt this older view of definition, one might be inclined to demand of a theory of truth that it provide a definition of is true which permitted its elimination in all contexts in the language. Tarski was the first person to show clearly that there could never be such a strict definition for is true in its own language.
The definition would allow for a line of reasoning that produced the Liar Paradox (recall above) and thus would lead us into self contradiction. (See the discussion, in the article The Liar Paradox, of Tarski's Udefinability Theorem of 1936.) Kripke has attempted to avoid this theorem by using only ado about nothing a partial truth-predicate so that not every sentence has a truth-value. In effect, Kripke's repair permits a definition of the truth-predicate within its own language but at dartmouth, the expense of allowing certain violations of the law of excluded middle. d. Can a Theory of Truth Avoid Paradox? The brief answer is, Not if it contains its own concept of help, truth. If the language is made precise by being formalized, and if it contains its own so-called global truth predicate, then Tarski has shown that the language will enable us to reason our way to dartmouth writing thesis, a contradiction. That result shows that we do not have a coherent concept of truth (for a language within that language). Some of our beliefs about truth, and about related concepts that are used in the argument to the contradiction, must be rejected, even though they might seem to be intuitively acceptable.
There is no reason to essay unit, believe that paradox is to be avoided by rejecting formal languages in favor of natural languages. Writing Program Thesis! The Liar Paradox first appeared in natural languages. And there are other paradoxes of truth, such as Lob's Paradox, which follow from extended introduction principles that are acceptable in either formal or natural languages, namely the program thesis principles of modus ponens and conditional proof. The best solutions to essay, the paradoxes use a similar methodology, the dartmouth program systematic approach. Human! That is, they try to remove vagueness and be precise about the ramifications of their solutions, usually by showing how they work in a formal language that has the program thesis essential features of our natural language. The Liar Paradox and Lob's Paradox represent a serious challenge to understanding the essay logic of dartmouth writing program thesis, our natural language. The principal solutions agree that – to resolve a paradox – we must go back and systematically reform or clarify some of our original beliefs.
For example, the extended help solution may require us to thesis, revise the meaning of is true. However, to be acceptable, the solution must be presented systematically and be backed up by an argument about the rights general character of our language. In short, there must be both systematic evasion and dartmouth writing program thesis, systematic explanation. Also, when it comes to developing this systematic approach, the goal of establishing a coherent basis for a consistent semantics of natural language is much more important than the goal of explaining the naive way most speakers use the terms true and not true. The later Wittgenstein did not agree. He rejected the systematic approach and elevated the need to preserve ordinary language, and our intuitions about it, over the need to create a coherent and pomona questions, consistent semantical theory. e. Is The Goal of Scientific Research to Achieve Truth?
Except in special cases, most scientific researchers would agree that their results are only approximately true. Dartmouth Program Thesis! Nevertheless, to make sense of pomona essay questions, this, philosophers need adopt no special concept such as approximate truth. Instead, it suffices to say that the researchers' goal is to achieve truth, but they achieve this goal only approximately, or only to some approximation. Other philosophers believe it's a mistake to say the researchers' goal is to achieve truth. These scientific anti-realists recommend saying that research in, for program thesis example, physics, economics, and meteorology, aims only for usefulness. When they aren't overtly identifying truth with usefulness, the instrumentalists Peirce, James and Schlick take this anti-realist route, as does Kuhn. They would say atomic theory isn't true or false but rather is useful for predicting outcomes of experiments and for explaining current data. Giere recommends saying science aims for questions for much ado about the best available representation, in the same sense that maps are representations of the dartmouth writing program thesis landscape. Maps aren't true; rather, they fit to a better or worse degree. Similarly, scientific theories are designed to fit the world.
Scientists should not aim to extended essay help, create true theories; they should aim to construct theories whose models are representations of the world.
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A Better DBA Job Description For Everyone. Here is writing, a typical job description that you can find online just about anywhere. It lists almost everything possible and imaginable. And it, well…I’ll just let you read it all for yourself and make up your own mind. Essay Unit Plan. Enjoy. This is a MS SQL Server DBA role largely responsible for writing providing operational database services to the organization. Pomona. Some of the primary responsibilities of this role would include owning, tracking and resolving database related incidents and requests, fulfilling requests and resolving incidents within SLAs, reviewing service related reports (e.g: database backups, maintenance, monitoring) on a daily basis to ensure service related issues are identified and resolved within established SLAs, responding to database related alerts and escalations and dartmouth program working with database engineering to come up with strategic solutions to recurring problems. This MS SQL Server DBA role requires a service oriented mentality, high sense of ownership of the problems and requests assigned, focus on managing and copy essay without resolving issues in dartmouth writing thesis alignment with the SLAs, establishing and maintaining communication with technology customers to keep them updated with status of their requests, initiating and performing changes on rights, production systems and proactively escalating any issues that cannot be resolved within the established timeframes. Program Thesis. We are looking for a person who: Has 8+ years of experience in extended introduction help database development and support in MS SQL Server environments.
Strong experience in Database Administration in SQL Server ( 2005 and 2008 ) Experience in troubleshooting and resolving database integrity issues, performance issues, blocking and deadlocking issues, replication issues, log shipping issues, connectivity issues, security issues etc. Writing Thesis. Experience in Performance Tuning, Query Optimization, using Performance Monitor, SQL Profiler and other related monitoring and troubleshooting tools. Ability to detect and troubleshoot SQL Server related CPU,memory,I/O, disk space and other resource contention. Strong knowledge of family systems backups, restores, recovery models, database shrink operations, DBCC commands, Clustering, Database mirroring, Replication. Expert experience in implementing operational automation. Strong knowledge of how indexes, index management, integrity checks, configuration, patching. Program. How statistics work, how indexes are stored, how they can be created and managed effectively. Knowledge of help SQL Server tools ( Profiler, DTA, SSMS, SAC, SSCM, PerfMon, DMVs, system sprocs) SQL Development – ability to writing thesis write and family troubleshoot SQL Code and design ( stored procs, functions, tables, views, triggers, indexes, constraints ) Solid acquaintance with windows server, security delegation, SPNs, storage components. Documentation skills for processes and dartmouth procedures ( creating KBs, runbooks, topology etc ) SQL Database Operational support to tech users. Preferred candidates would also meet the following criteria: Solid acquaintance with windows server, security delegation, SPNs, storage components.
Documentation skills for processes and pomona questions procedures ( creating KBs, runbooks, topology etc ) Knowledge of 3rd party DBA tools and applications ( e.g redgate, idera, SCOM, Erwin ) MCDBA / MCT certification Knowledge in dartmouth thesis a scripting language like Powershell, VBScript, WSH. OK, now let’s break this thing down. My comments are inline to systems therapy essay the original: This is a MS SQL Server DBA role largely responsible for providing operational database services to the organization. Some of the primary responsibilities of this role would include owning, tracking and resolving database related incidents and requests, fulfilling requests and resolving incidents within SLAs, reviewing service related reports (e.g: database backups, maintenance, monitoring) on a daily basis to ensure service related issues are identified and resolved within established SLAs, responding to database related alerts and escalations and working with database engineering to come up with strategic solutions to recurring problems. Nothing wrong with this paragraph, sounds good so far. Dartmouth Writing. This MS SQL Server DBA role requires a service oriented mentality, high sense of ownership of the problems and requests assigned, focus on managing and essay questions resolving issues in alignment with the SLAs, establishing and maintaining communication with technology customers to keep them updated with status of their requests, initiating and performing changes on production systems and writing program thesis proactively escalating any issues that cannot be resolved within the established timeframes. Again, this sounds great, I am ready to hit the apply button myself.
Position Requirements: OK, that means everything here is required . Pomona Questions. We are looking for a person who: Has 8+ years of experience in writing database development and support in MS SQL Server environments. For Much. OK, first warning shot. They say they want a DBA, but here they mention database development. That’s OK, we’ll keep reading, but it warrants mentioning. Preferred candidates would also meet the following criteria: Solid acquaintance with windows server, security delegation, SPNs, storage components. Wasn’t this a requirement? Documentation skills for processes and writing program procedures ( creating KBs, runbooks, topology etc ) The hell? Wasn’t this also a requirement? Seems strange to list it here as well, either every applicant needs this skill or not.
Knowledge of 3rd party DBA tools and applications ( e.g redgate, idera, SCOM, Erwin ) Interesting. It would appear they use a variety of tools, and they consider SCOM to be a DBA tool. I wonder how they are using it as such. Wait a minute, I am now wondering if I will also be the SCOM admin. MCDBA / MCT certification Well, MCDBA is for SQL 2000, but they want me to be focused on extended essay help, SQL 2005/8, which would be MCITP.
So, which version did they want me to be certified in? And does being an MCT really qualify you to do everything that is listed above? Knowledge in a scripting language like Powershell, VBScript, WSH I will assume this is for dartmouth thesis the automation requirement, but I can’t imagine that they would be using all three, or expect me to know all three well enough. So, there you go, that’s how I read a job ad before I decide to not apply. There are a possible five jobs listed above and what would appear to be roughly 60 hours or more a week worth of work.
Unless the rights essay job starts at about $400k a year, it is not even worth my time. Writing Program. So I will pass. I am also curious to know how many of you would pass on this particular job as well. If you want to apply I will give you the pomona essay questions link to dartmouth program thesis the actual job. Feel free to pomona essay make yourself miserable. So what would be a better job description for a DBA? Let’s assume that you needed everything that was listed in the above description. If your goal is to entice as many SQL Server Experts to apply then how should you present the same information?
I am glad you asked. Here is what I would do: This is dartmouth writing program, a MS SQL Server DBA role largely responsible for providing operational database services to the organization. We are looking to fill a need to family systems therapy have a highly competent and highly motivated individual in this role. This is a production DBA role, as such it will require a commitment on your part as well as ours. Some of the primary responsibilities of this role would include owning, tracking and resolving database related incidents and dartmouth writing program thesis requests, fulfilling requests and copy resolving incidents within SLAs, reviewing service related reports (e.g: database backups, maintenance, monitoring) on a daily basis to ensure service related issues are identified and resolved within established SLAs, responding to database related alerts and escalations and working with database engineering to dartmouth writing thesis come up with strategic solutions to recurring problems. This MS SQL Server DBA role requires a service oriented mentality, high sense of ownership of the essay problems and writing requests assigned, focus on managing and human rights resolving issues in alignment with the dartmouth thesis SLAs, establishing and maintaining communication with technology customers to keep them updated with status of their requests, initiating and performing changes on production systems and proactively escalating any issues that cannot be resolved within the established timeframes. During your interview you will be asked to discuss a project or particular piece of technology that excites you.
We will ask you questions on that project or piece of essay questions technology in order to get a better understanding of the depth of writing thesis your knowledge. This role requires good communication skills. Human. If you have a blog then please pass along the URL so we can review your work. If you do not actively blog that is fine, but you should be prepared to show us an example of something you have written previously if we should happen to ask. We are looking for a person that has: Experience with Database Administration for MSSQL Server. Experience in dartmouth writing troubleshooting and resolving database problems. Experience in Performance Tuning and Optimization (PTO), using native monitoring and troubleshooting tools. Experience with backups, restores and recovery models.
Knowledge of rights torture essay High Availability (HA) and Disaster Recovery (DR) options for MSSQL Server. Experience in implementing operational automation using scripts. Knowledge of indexes, index management, and statistics. Experience working with Windows server, including Active Directory and proper disk configurations. Good communication and thesis documentation skills. Preferred candidates would also meet the following criteria: Involvement with the copy without MSSQL Server Community; membership in PASS, active in program thesis forums or newsgroups. Certification is a plus; MCTS, MCITP, MVP Previous experience in either a teaching or volunteer role. Be honest.
I can handle the truth. If you believe the first job description is better, that’s fine. The reason I like my version (and I hope others would as well) is that it is not overloaded with buzzwords and phrases. It also doesn’t list five different jobs explicitly. That means you are more likely to get one of those elusive SQL Server Experts to systems therapy essay actually be interested in applying. Lastly it stresses the importance of dartmouth writing program thesis communication. Every successful DBA I have met is always a good communicator to some degree. Not everyone blogs, but most everyone uses email.
Certification is a preference, as that shows you can communicate some technical aptitude. And the teaching or volunteering is a way to display that you have an idea as to what to expect in the DBA role. Every DBA I know needs to take time to explain things to essay questions others, or to take on some extra work for little to dartmouth thesis no benefit (just like a volunteer). All of those traits help to define what I would consider a SQL Server expert (or at narrative essay unit plan, least someone on their way to becoming an expert). Now, I understand that the original job description is supposed to be the starting point for a conversation. Thesis. You will often hear people say “just apply anyway”, because we all know the job description is family systems therapy, loaded with buzzwords. So people will build a resume to match the dartmouth writing thesis description so that they can have a chance at having the conversation.
How, exactly, is this not the same thing that happens on Match.com when people fill out their profiles? You put in information about essay, yourself (which is embellished to a degree) and then you put in dartmouth program thesis information about the person you are looking for. And then you are shocked (SHOCKED!) that you don’t get a match? The same thing is happening with the standard hiring practice. Family Essay. That’s why we need better job descriptions.
If you want a SQL Server Expert to be interested in your open position then you need to change how you are advertising for them. Oh, one last thing. Look again at that original job description. They are looking for a top notch SQL Server expert. Everyone else is as well. But how much do you think they are willing to pay for that expert? That’s the other problem. Companies want the dartmouth writing thesis very best talent for essay questions the very lowest cost. And then they are shocked (SHOCKED!) that they can’t find someone good enough. This ain’t rocket surgery, it’s quite simple. Scale back on the job descriptions.
Focus on people with good technical skills (not great, but good), are trainable, have good communication skills, and a willingness to dartmouth thesis serve others. You’ll be happier with the results. Man, you are genius. I was there in questions nothing your SQL Saturday meeting and I still remember your quote Task Manager is a filthy lier ;). Dartmouth Writing Program. I am looking for DBA opportunity and came across your page. Good stuff. ha. Family Systems. this was funny. Writing. these job skills weed in the same people that put all of this bs on their resume and lie when they are interviewed. you are right and i'm glad someone pointed out these stupid job descriptions. Essay. Yes, it would seem that there is dartmouth writing program thesis, a tendency to human rights essay embellish quite a bit these days. I've seen this a lot as well. Why don't these companies try to guage aptitude and attitude instead of specific skills? If you have someone applying who has done mature development in dartmouth program Java, well then with a little investment they can probably learn C# as well. If they have been successfully working for years as a dba, then they are likely capable of systems adding a specific skill to their skillset.
Many hiring companies think they need to find someone who knows x, y, z and a, b, c, and dartmouth program d instead of someone who knows x, y and c is capable of learning the rest. I have seen postings that REQUIRE that the candidate have experience in a specific industry, experience with a specific CRM product, experience as a SQL DBA, AND specific languages and frameworks. Why? Hire someone competent and TRAIN them in the specifics. I believe the hiring process is human rights torture, very, very broken. IT has essentially been outsourced to recruiting firms and the result is that you hear managers complain how hard it is to find good talent.
It really isn't hard, if you know where to look, and who to look for. Writing Program. Actually, LOL - that job description (sans the TLA overload for search engine sensationalism) describes my job to a T. Our company has many contracts - we inherit applications that need to be maintained and at times partially or completely rewritten (or the client needs to narrative plan be cajoled into paying to dartmouth thesis have the poor things rewritten). Some of them are truly problem children and yes, you need to therapy be able to spot this by looking at writing, database architecture and application code and family rendering an assessment of the problems that might be expected. It is also part of the job to code babysitters to writing thesis keep these databases from systems behaving too badly or in dartmouth writing program ways that are detrimental to the other server denizens. These applications are based on databases running on multiple OS and currently span versions from SQL 2000 - 2008 (with some Oracle and MySQL thrown in for good measure). Human Rights. So, again, I'm not finding the requirements strange. put together by a non-IT HR to fit in thesis some online jobs site input area - definitely. Completely beyond the pale?
Nah. I live this job every day. (for nearly the last 2 decades ) The pay is great. The hours are lousy. The benefits and the challenges are awesome and retirement is just around the corner. Extended Essay Introduction Help. I understand completely. However. Writing. if you were to leave your position, do you think they are going to be able to hire someone to fit the role you currently have? Probably not. Family Systems Therapy Essay. To me, the hiring process is broken. It is outsourced to thesis HR, and therapy HR has no idea what is thesis, realistic. They simply go by copy without whatever the manager lists for dartmouth writing thesis requirements, and the manager simply lists the laundry items that you are doing at the time, not the items you did when you first started. I believe that the better option is to essay forget the list of TLAs and dartmouth thesis instead focus on pomona essay, finding a good person with some experience and a demonstrated ability to grow.
That's the point of the writing thesis description I offered as an essay unit, alternative above. (As an aside, the person who wrote the original job description above contacted me recently to say they didn't even realize it could be interpreted so poorly and have since rewritten their descriptions to be similar to the suggestion I offered. I was humbled to hear that my blog post had such a positive impact!) a basset hound - lol. Program. As a person that's sat on both sides of the interview table, I have to say a lot of what is in a job description should be considered fluff and more there for HR-related purposes as they control the contents of the description almost as much as the Hiring Manager. The brass tax is plan, that Hiring Managers want good people and prospective DBAs want a good job. I suggest potential candidates look for dartmouth writing thesis key things in a job description such as the number of years of required experience (not that it matters for the candidate, rather it will better define the potential pay-grade) and the majority of essay unit essential job duties. Are they operational in dartmouth writing nature or developer-related? Job descriptions are, at best, a rough draft of what the hiring manager wants, but if a great candidate comes along with a different skillset, it can be rewritten and regraded to get that person in extended essay the door.
As I'm sure all DBAs with even a minor amount of experience would understand, any DBA role is writing, one that requires you wear many hats. One day you're a pure operational DBA, another you're developing code, sometimes you're pulled in for performance tuning, recovery, etc. It's truly a it depends job, which is why I love doing it so much. I appreciate the perspective you have here, but if a potential candidate is therapy, this critical of a job description, how critical will that person be under pressed deadlines or if faced with a difficult project? You can interpret a crappy job description as either a warning sign or the first test, and dartmouth writing program thesis frankly I doubt those that are overly critical of it would not be someone I would welcome to my team.
My advice is if the job is available in a location that suits you and looks to be within the extended essay introduction help pay-grade you're looking for, apply. Writing Thesis. You can ALWAYS walk away from a bad potential job, but you can NEVER accept a job that's not offered to you. Great feedback, thanks for the comment! And I love the part at copy essay, the end. Program Thesis. I could not agree more with the narrative unit idea that you can not accept a job that is thesis, never offered! I swear I just saw a posting on LinkedIn that matched your 'Goofus' posting word-for-word. I am putting together a job post for a DBA position and this post helped a lot. Thanks. For Much Nothing. Very Great Inforamtion, I was looking for the DBA information I have just landed to your blog I got the right solutions, Great Job. Very Great Inforamtion, I was looking for the DBA information I have just landed to dartmouth program thesis your blog I got the right solutions, Great Job http://www.vaysinfotech.com/job/oracle-application-database-administrator/ For years The Stack was inside a desk drawer in my cubicle. Narrative. It followed me This post isn't really for you.
It's for Future Tom. A note for me to dartmouth thesis At least once a week I read or hear the narrative essay plan familiar refrain, “SQL Server is writing, a
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essay of blackmail The Crime of Blackmail: A Libertarian Critique. There is something deeply paradoxical about writing thesis, laws that criminalize blackmail. How is it that, as Glanville Williams put it, two things that taken separately are moral and legal whites together make a moral and human rights torture essay, legal black?  For the program, crime of blackmail involves the criminalization of extended introduction help, two otherwise legal acts when they occur in combination- for example, the threat to disclose damaging information about another, and the offer to dartmouth program, refrain from disclosing it for some valuable consideration. Were Alfred to (threaten to) disclose damaging information concerning Bi11's extramarital affairs, no offense recognized by law would be involved (even if there were something distasteful about such gossip); were Alfred to ask Bill for $5000, again there would be no contravention of any proper law (even if it displayed a degree of chutzpah). But were Alfred to threaten Bill that he would disclose information concerning Bill's extramarital affairs unless Bill paid him $5000, his two-part act would – under current laws-constitute the crime of systems therapy essay, blackmail. Why should the conjunction of dartmouth program, such otherwise legal acts have an entirely different legal status?  The paradox is essay without heightened when we consider the reverse situation. Writing Program? Bill learns that Alfred is in possession of damaging information concerning him. He seeks Alfred out, and offers him $5000 to keep silent. If Alfred accepts Bill's offer, and subsequently keeps mum, he should not be held to have blackmailed Bill.
Why should the situation be different when Alfred approaches Bill, and tells him that his silence will cost $5000? This is the heart of the libertarian critique of blackmail laws, and in this essay I propose to defend that critique against a number of arguments that have been advanced to justify them. Although my critique of such laws depends ultimately on my belief that criminal prohibitions are justified only when some material threat is posed to another (by means of force, fraud, or theft), my arguments here will show that various attempts to avoid or account for the paradox do not succeed, even on their own terms. Blackmail (along with other victimless crimes) should be decriminalized. [3,4] Some Definitional Preliminaries. Although standard instances of blackmail involve a threat to disclose damaging information if some monetary payment is not made, the range of narrative essay, possibilities is somewhat wider. Leo Katz, for example, suggests as alternative threats:
Pay me $10,000- or I will: cause some really bad blood at the next faculty meeting, . . . seduce your fianc, . . . persuade your son that it is dartmouth program thesis his patriotic duty to volunteer for combat in Vietnam, . . . give your high-spirited, risk-addicted 19-year-old daughter a motorcycle for Christmas, hasten our father's death by leaving the Catholic church. Family Systems Therapy?  Demands as well as threats may vary: usually it is for writing thesis money, but it could also be for rights torture sexual favors or some other valued consideration. And usually it is for the blackmailer's private and undeserved gain, though it need not be. Imagine, writes Eric Mack, that you can deter a factory owner from (safely) burning his plant to the ground (and thus thoroughly eliminating many employment opportunities) for the sake of dartmouth thesis, destructive glee only by threatening to human rights torture essay, reveal his secrets. Dartmouth Program? Or imagine a case in which one party, by legally permissible trickery and Underhanded dealing, acquired what another party truly deserves. Wouldn’t it be perfectly moral for the morally deserving party to blackmail the first party into transferring that valued good- especially if what was threatened was precisely the [revelation] of the trickery and underhandedness?  In this essay, however, our concern will be largely with paradigmatic informational blackmail in which money is without sought for silence. Blackmail should not be confused with extortion. In the latter, a threat to do something that would otherwise be illegal is writing program thesis made in demanding something from another: If Charles threatens to break David's knees or burn down his house if David does not give him $5000, Charles is guilty of extortion, not blackmail, Extortion is properly considered illegal. Is There Really a Paradox of questions for much, Blackmail? One might argue that there is nothing particularly paradoxical about blackmail.
George Fletcher, for one, claims that the supposed paradox is not untypical of many acts that are regarded as criminal: many good acts are corrupted by doing them for a price.  Fletcher instances bribery, prostitution, and payment for confessing to a crime. Dartmouth Thesis? And Wendy Gordon notes that, our right to vote can neither be transferred gratuitously nor sold. For Much?  But are these plausible counter instances? The problem with bribery is that it fosters inappropriate motivations in thesis those who are otherwise duty-bound to provide certain services. Were bribes no more than tips for services- openly given and received- there would be nothing wrong with them. What makes bribery problematic is not the conjunction of service and essay, money, but the fact that money given secretly becomes an incentive to forgo duty and/or to do it only when more is giver than one is contractually obliged to accept. Prostitution is a classic victimless crime and should not have been criminalized in the first place. The problem with paid-for confessions is writing program that needy people- and not necessarily guilty people- will be induced into confessing to offenses, with no guarantee that those who are convicted will be those who have offended. An offender may still be on the loose, and those paid to essay, apprehend criminals will have no incentive to look for him. As for the right to vote, it could have been otherwise. The only reason that political votes (unlike votes in publicly traded corporations) cannot be sold is dartmouth thesis that a majority has agreed not to commodify them.
Blackmail and Other Commercial Transactions. At first blush, blackmail is like any other commercial transaction: Alfred has a product to for much nothing, sell (secrecy) that Bill wishes to buy. However, some writers have claimed that blackmailers differ significantly from other sellers since, unlike other sellers, they would give away their product were they not able to dartmouth writing program thesis, sell it.  Perhaps so, perhaps not!  In any case it is not easy to see any significance to the difference. For other sellers, perhaps, the copy, product to be sold represents all investment on their part, and dartmouth writing thesis, therefore something they would be unlikely to give away, whereas the incriminating information that the blackmailer possesses is much more likely to have been gained without significant investment. May be the difference lies in motivation, Wendy Gordon suggests that blackmail should be outlawed because the blackmailer acquires information for essay the sole purpose of obtaining money or advantage from the victim, and thesis, . . , has no intent or desire to publish the information, except as an instrument toward this purpose. Essay Nothing?  But why should the blackmailer's intent be of any interest to the law unless the conduct in question has independently infringed another's rights? It is not generally of writing program, legal concern why we conform our behavior to what the law allows or requires. Intent only becomes an issue once the law is broken. Copy? But since Alfred's disclosure of Bill's infidelities does not constitute conduct of a kind the law would ordinarily prohibit, it should not be of any legal interest to know why Alfred may or may not choose to dartmouth writing program, disclose the information he has about Bill.  Scott Altman suggests a further difference: whereas in ordinary commercial transaction, both buyer and seller will be beneficiaries, in blackmail the primary beneficiary is the blackmailer. Ado About?  But why should the dartmouth writing program thesis, person who buys silence not also be seen as benefiting from the transaction? He has purchased another's silence, something that presumably, benefits him. It is true that, antecedent to the blackmailer's approach, the essay, blackmailee was not seeking to purchase the silence of others, but that was because he believed that his secret was safe, and did not need to be secured through purchase.
Blackmail and Coercion. Defenders of laws against blackmail often claim that blackmail is coercive: by threatening to disclose certain damaging information if Bill does not pay $5000, Alfred coerces Bill.  Or so it is dartmouth said. However, the idea of coercion cannot clearly be extended to such cases. In paradigm cases, Alfred coerces Bill into pomona, parting with $5000 if he tackles Bill and steals his wallet containing $5000, or if he puts a gun to Bill's head and threatens to pull the dartmouth program thesis, trigger should Bill refuse to hand over $5000. But if Alfred simply tells Bill that he will disclose his extramarital affairs unless Bill pays $5000, nothing is threatened except Bill's reputation. And one's reputation is extended essay help not something one owns as one might own one's body or a piece of property. Reputation is a form of social recognition to which one does not have a right as one might have a right to dartmouth writing, one’s property  Should Alfred spread the pomona essay questions, information without making any claim for writing thesis money, he will have done nothing illegal. Why should it become illegal just because Alfred tells Bill that he will keep quiet if Bill pays him $5000? Perhaps the human, argument from coercion can be expressed as follows: The blackmailer's act is coercive because he proposes to reveal information that he is obligated not to disclose. Dartmouth Writing?  But this will not do either. Even if Alfred were obligated not to reveal the information, it would still not show the threat to human rights, reveal it to be blackmail; rather, it would be a coercive threat, for example, extortion. It would indeed be legally wrong for Alfred to writing, reveal what he told Bill in confidence, but the threat to disclose it unless Bill pays Alfred to keep quiet would be a legal wrong not because it is blackmail, but because it breached Alfred's contractual obligation to Bill.
But if there is copy no obligation for Bill to keep the damaging information to himself, then and only then would there be no coercion involved in making it known, Should Alfred accidentally find out about Bill's extramarital affairs, he is under no obligation at dartmouth writing program all regarding its disclosure.  Why, then, should his informing Bill that he will reveal what Bill has been up to narrative unit, be coercive? Maybe the argument is that Alfred acts coercively because he seeks to exact Bill's money without his consent. Thesis?  Although no literal gun is being pointed at Bill's head, something else is- serious damage to his life, reputation, job prospects, or whatever- should he refuse to for much, pay. This account, of course, would not work with cases in which Bill, on hearing that Alfred possesses (and is writing likely to reveal) the information, seeks him out to offer him hush money, but perhaps the pomona essay questions, supporter of blackmail laws may not mind cutting these cases adrift from the scope of such legislation. Writing Thesis? Once again, however, we need to remind ourselves of the disanalogy with the essay for much, gunman. Absent monetary considerations, if the writing, gunman pulls the trigger a legally significant wrong is done to his victim, whereas, if Alfred spills the beans on Bill's philandering no crime is essay committed. May be one could liken Alfred's act to that of Edward who, seeing Faye drowning, will not throw her a rope unless she agrees to pay him $5000.  This is surely exploitative of Faye's situation, but is it coercive? Were Edward to have pushed Faye into the water in the first place, there would indeed be an argument for saying that the demand for $5000 was coercive; but ex hypothesi he did not, and writing thesis, so, given that he does not violate a legal obligation in not throwing a rope to her, it is essay questions hardly coercive for him to demand something for his assistance.  Bill's follies, likewise, are his own doing, and not the result of a set up by Alfred, and dartmouth writing program thesis, if Alfred has come into possession of information that could be Bill's undoing, may he not offer to withhold it on his own terms? Blackmail and Exploitation. Perhaps, as I suggested in the last paragraph, blackmail should be seen as exploitative. That is, in blackmailing Bill, Alfred takes advantage of Bill's vulnerability. If so, should this justify its legal proscription?
Note, first of pomona essay questions, all, that the notion of exploitation is none-too-clear; it is, for example, used by dartmouth program, Marxist writers to characterize ordinary capitalist labor relations: in making a profit, employers of labor are said to return to their employees less than the human rights torture essay, full value of dartmouth writing thesis, their labor. Their vulnerable position (their need to essay, eat, support families, and program, so forth) makes them vulnerable to such shortchanging. But even with a less expansive and copy essay without, less tendentious understanding, there is a gap between exploiting another's vulnerabilities and doing something that should be considered illegal. If George exploits Harold's generosity to get a loan, or Ivan exploits John's poor management of a rival business or even John's sudden and debilitating illness to gain a larger share of the market or to dartmouth writing program thesis, put John out of business, neither George nor Ivan have done anything illegal, however opportunistic they may have been. So, if Alfred exploits Bill's vulnerability to make some extra money for himself, why should his act be proscribed by law? Blackmail and Privacy. It might be argued that blackmailers threaten a right one has to human, privacy. There is, it may be said, certain information about oneself over writing program thesis, which one should have control. It is one's own business, and not the business of others. If it is to be given out, it is appropriately given out only if one has consented to its being shared.
If others come by that information accidentally or because someone with whom one has shared it has violated confidentiality, that is essay too bad. The third party is not guilty of any wrongdoing in having or sharing the information. Writing? However, if the third party, realizing that one wanted to keep the family systems, information to oneself, now chooses to use it as leverage for self-enrichment then that person is dartmouth writing program violating the essay, privacy rights of another no less improperly than the person who taps one's telephone or bugs one's house or looks in writing one's personal files. But there are significant differences between these various cases. The person who taps one's phone or bugs one's house or looks at human torture essay one's files has undoubtedly violated one's property rights in some way- has trespassed, at least. Even private detectives are limited in what they may be permitted to dartmouth program thesis, do to obtain information. But the argument from privacy would outlaw private detectives altogether, just because they make a business of pomona, getting information that others want to keep secret.  The blackmailer need not violate any so-called privacy rights  to obtain his information: a sharp eye, an dartmouth writing program thesis, open ear, and a little advantageous positioning may be all that is necessary. Were the potential blackmailer simply to pass on the information to copy without, other interested parties no legal offense would be involved.
Why should that change if the blackmailer seeks to take advantage of what he knows by seeking cash for silence? Even after their so-called victims have paid up, blackmailers sometimes come looking for more. The damaging information after all, may not have passed out of their heads or hands. It may therefore be argued that the only way to keep blackmailers from repeatedly approaching those who have bought their silence is to ban blackmail altogether.  But repeated attempts at blackmail maybe prevented much more easily if blackmail is decriminalized. Dartmouth Program? All that is required is that blackmailers sign a contract with the blackmailee that stipulates the blackmailers' permanent silence in return for a payment of $X. Then, if the blackmailer breaks his agreement (something he can do even when blackmail is narrative essay illegal), he can be held liable for whatever damages might be stipulated or otherwise determined by the courts. In such cases, there will be something legally wrong about repeated blackmail that does not apply to the first occasion. What is more, to program, outlaw blackmail in the first instance because blackmail demands may be repeated in the future is not to punish someone for a past crime done but for a (potential) future crime- hardly what we have in mind when we speak of criminal justice.
If this were allowed to family therapy essay, be a general legal principle, moreover, we would have to entrench in the law the concept of preventive detention, for program thesis all members of unit, groups statistically over represented in the criminal category. In any case, the argument from repeated blackmail would hold in only a limited number of writing program, cases- those in essay questions for much nothing which there was some likelihood that a further approach would be made or that the agreement would be breached. It would hardly provide a general argument against thesis, blackmail. The Consequences of Blackmail. Most who favor blackmail prohibition do so on non-consequentialist grounds. They see something inherently problematic about the transaction that constitutes blackmail.
Nevertheless, perhaps to boost such arguments, they often supplement them with observations about the effects that decriminalizing blackmail would probably have. Richard Epstein, for example, suggests that were blackmail to be legalized, it would encourage the formation of corporations such as his hypothetical Blackmail, Inc., an organization devoted to essay questions, ferreting out embarrassing (or worse) information on people and then blackmailing them to have it kept quiet.  Assuming the profitability of dartmouth writing program thesis, such an enterprise, a blackmailee might find himself the essay introduction, target of numerous independent approaches and, to meet the financial obligations incurred by this, might be led (or even encouraged) into committing crimes to pay for his chronic secrecy need. But are such fears well founded? Epstein does not ever show that a world without anti-blackmail laws would spawn a Blackmail, Inc. Program? And even were it to do so, it would not provide a sufficiently strong reason to torture, outlaw it or blackmail. The tastelessness or unseemliness of a social institution is writing program not a sufficient reason to ban it or enterprises that exploit it. We would have as good reason to ban malicious gossip or The National Inquirer . And the social pressure that might lead a person into committing crimes to narrative essay unit plan, pay for secrecy would not differ substantially from the social pressure to be somebody or impress others, motivations that may be just as likely to lead people to commit crimes. Dartmouth Program? 
A more limited consequentialist argument has been suggested by Jennifer Gerarda Brown.  She suggests that were blackmail in cases of incriminating information legalized, there would likely be a reduction of crime. The criminally inclined would face the real possibility that they would have to split the profits of their criminality or otherwise pay to cover up their crimes, and such costs would constitute a significant deterrent to criminal activity. But this is actually an argument in favor of legalizing blackmail, not prohibiting it. As we noted at the beginning, there is a real difficulty about family therapy, legally differentiating payer- initiated from seller-initiated silence. If Bill learns that Alfred possesses damaging information that he might be inclined to disclose to others, and offers Alfred $5000 to keep quiet, it is hard to argue that Alfred has either coerced or exploited Bill, or that the writing, transaction should be outlawed. The awkwardness of allowing such a differentiation of cases has led some writers to develop strategies for keeping them together. Essay? Thus Scott Altman has claimed: Evidentiary and definitional problems with payer initiation can undermine any power it has to dartmouth writing program, separate coercive from non-coercive transactions. Extended Introduction Help? Some bargains appear payer-initiated because the program thesis, payer initially suggests the deal. But the payer might only learn of the copy without, other party's intent to reveal the embarrassing information after that party discloses this intent in order to elicit an offer or payment.
Because this case cannot easily be distinguished from genuine payer initiation, permitting payer initiation can insulate paradigmatic blackmail cases from punishment.  Similar arguments used to be employed against dartmouth writing, all forms of euthanasia, lest it should become a cloak for murder. The solution, were we to therapy, persist in outlawing seller-initiated silence, would be essentially the same: the development of dartmouth program thesis, procedures that would allow- for most cases- clearer discriminations to be made. But since we do not accept the arguments against pomona essay questions, blackmail laws in the first place, this rescue is writing unnecessary. Blackmail and Victimization.
Defenders of blackmail laws persist in calling the blackmailee a victim. Once seen as such, blackmailers are easily tarred with wrongdoing. Yet this characterization trades on the conflation of two distinct senses of help, victim. On one account, a victim is anyone who is damaged or harmed by some event: there are earthquake victims and victims of disease. Dartmouth Writing? Blackmailees might be seen as victims or potential victims in this sense. The information possessed by rights essay, the blackmailer, if disclosed, will damage them in some way. And one might argue that if one kind of damage has been averted it has been averted only at a cost, and - at a stretch - that one is dartmouth writing program thesis a victim of circumstances that have a cost.
But the term victim may also be used in a more restricted sense - as when we speak of someone being victimized. Essay Help? Here we have in mind someone whose rights have been violated, someone who has been illegally wronged by another. Is the person who is writing program thesis blackmailed a victim in this second sense? It would seem not: if Alfred were to disclose the torture essay, damaging information about Bill no right of Bill's would have been violated. That he should refrain from doing what he had a right to do in exchange for some monetary consideration does not change the matter. (29) Those who persist in speaking of dartmouth writing program thesis, blackmailees as victims can mean victim only in the first sense. Yet it is only in the second sense, that victims might have some legitimate legal claim against others. The libertarian conviction is not simply that some instances of blackmail should not be criminalized but that it should never be criminalized.
The libertarian therefore needs to confront some hard cases. (a) Suppose Ken tells Leon that if Leon does not pay him $1000, he will report that Leon is introduction guilty of a crime, which he is already suspected of committing. The libertarian would not forbid Ken from making this demand, or, if Leon does not pay, he would not prevent Ken from dartmouth program, making the false report. Ken has free speech rights, including the copy without, right to dartmouth, speak falsely about another. True, the police-and courts-may subsequently accept Ken's word about Leon, so that Leon is unjustly punished, but if they do that, that injustice is on them for failing thoroughly to narrative essay unit plan, investigate Ken's report. As noted above, any damage to Leon 's reputation is not damage to something over which Leon has any rights. (30) While the dartmouth writing, foregoing is perfectly compatible with libertarian theorizing, it will strike many as repugnant.
After all, the law underlies the social order, even our very civilization. Questions For Much Ado About? If one may with impunity place a spoke in the whee1 of justice in this manner, it bespeaks ill of the libertarian philosophy. Dartmouth? But there is a solution to this quandary, even apart from the radical substitution of essay for much, libertarian for statist courts. (31) And that is to writing, pay or tie up witnesses so that they are contractually obligated to tell the truth upon pain of contract violation. One of the pomona essay, great injustices of our present court system is that witnesses are in effected drafted into testifying, and, so, for that matter, are jurors. It would be legally illicit to bear false witness under such circumstances. But, contrary to Altman, the dartmouth program thesis, impropriety would then be one of extortion, or contract violation, not blackmail. b) What if Michael learns that Nicholas has embezzled $l million from family therapy essay, his company, but suggests to Nicholas that for dartmouth thesis a payment of $56,000 he will not report it?
Surely, one might argue, Michael has a duty to torture, report what Nicholas has done, and writing, any attempt to profit from an agreement not to reveal it should be criminalized. Although some libertarians might balk at essay without cases of writing, this kind, it is certainly open to others - myself included - to argue that whatever moral duty might be claimed to report the crimes of another (and not to profit from them), nevertheless there is no basis for legally requiring that the crimes of another should be reported. Such positive duties- like the positive duty to be a good Samaritan- has no place in criminal law. Blackmail laws are often taken for granted. Indeed, such is the moral objecctionableness of blackmail in many people's minds that they cannot imagine how the decriminalization of blackmail could possibly be supported.
But, like many other practices considered morally and socially objectionable, their objectionableness does not immediately or easily translate into a matter for the criminal law. It has been my contention that this is true of blackmail. As the paradox of blackmail should have alerted us, there's indeed something deeply problematic about criminalizing an act that conjoins two other acts that, in themselves, are not criminal. * Walter Block, author of Defending the Undefendable , is Professor of Economics at the University of Central Arkansas , Conway , Arkansas . Family Systems Essay? Email: [email protected] . The author wishes to thank John Kleinig for his editorial support, which far surpassed the ordinary call of editorial duty. 1. Williams, Blackmail ,  CRIM. L. Dartmouth Writing? REV. 79, at family 163 (1954). It was Williams who originally spoke of the paradox of blackmail.
The morality of the dartmouth writing thesis, constituent acts is, perhaps less clear than their legality. But my concern here is copy essay without with the justification of dartmouth, blackmail's criminalization not with its morality per se. 2. Systems Therapy Essay? It might be claimed that using the example of extramarital affairs- though typical -unfairly prejudices the case in favor the opponent of blackmail. Many would feel that the dartmouth writing, philanderer deserved what was coning to him- whether it was blackmail or exposure. Copy Essay Without? If the information were of dartmouth writing program thesis, a different but still mortifying kind - disclosure that a bank executive always took a rubber duckie into questions, his bath, or wet his bed, or had a black/Jewish grandmother- would we feel as sanguine about the blackmailers opportunism? Perhaps not, but this would not show that the blackmailer should be punished for seeking to get something in return for silence. 3. Authors offering arguments in favor of the present prohibition of blackmail are numerous. They include: Alldridge, Attempted Murder of the Soul : Blackmail, Privacy and Secrets . 13 OXFORD J. LEGAL STUD. 363 (1993); Altman, A Patchwork Theory of Blackmail , 141 U. PA. L. REV.
1639 (1993); Becker, The Case Against Blackmail, unpublished MS (1985); Berman, The Evidentiary Theory of Blackmail: Taking Motives Seriously, 65 U. CHI. L. REV. 795 (1998); Boyle, A Theory of Law and Information . Copyright, Spleens , Blackmail, and Insider Trading, 80 CALIF. Dartmouth Program? L. REV. 1413 (1992); Brown, Blackmail as Private Justice , 141 U. PA.
L. REV. 1935 (1993); Campbell, Why Blackmail Should be Criminalized: A Reply to Walter Block and David Gordon, 21 LOYOLA OF LOS ANGELES L. REV. 883 (1933); Campbell, The Anomalies of human essay, Blackmail , 55 LEGAL Q. Rev. 382(1939); Coase, The 1987 McCorkle Lecture: Blackmail , 74 VA. Dartmouth Writing Program? L. REV., 655 (1988); Daly Giertz, Externalities, Extortion, and Efficiency; Reply, 68 AM. ECON. REV.
736 (1978); DeLong, Blackmailers, Bribe Takers, and the Second Paradox , 141 U. P.A, L. REV. 1663 (1993); Ellsherg, The Theory and Practice of Blackmail, in BARGANING: FORMAL THEORY OF NEGOTIATION 343 (O.R. Young, ed. 1975); Epstein, Blackmail, Inc ., 50 U. CHI. L. REV., 553 (1983); Evans, Why Blackmail Should be Banned , 65 PHIL. 89 (1990); Feinberg, The Paradox of Blackmail , 1 RATIO JURIS 83 (1988); J. FEINBERG, HARMLESS WRONGDOING (1990); Fletcher, Blackmail . Essay Help? The Paradigmatic Case, 141 U. Dartmouth Program? PA. L. REV. 1617 (1993); C. FRIED, CONTRACT AS PROMISE 102 (1981); Ginsburg Shechtman, Blackmail: An Economic Analysis of the Law , 141 U. PA.
L. REV. 1849 (1993); Goodhart, Blackmail and Consideration in Contracts , 44 LEGAL Q. Human Torture? REV. 436 (1928), repr. in A.L. GOODHART, ESSAYS IN JURISPRUDENCE AND THE COMMON LAW 175 (1931); Gordon, Truth and dartmouth writing, Consequences : The Force of Blackmail's Central Case, 141 U. PA. L. REV. l74l (1993); Gory, Nozick’s Argument Against Blackmail , 58 PERSONALIST 187 (1977); Gorr, Liberalism and the Paradox of Blackmail , 21 PHIL. Pomona? PUB. Dartmouth Writing? AFF. 43 (1992); Haksar, Coercive Proposals, 4 POL.
THEORY, 65 (1976); Hale, Bargaining, Duress, and Economic Liberty , 43 COLUM. L. Rev. 603 (1943); Hale, Coercion and Distribution in a Supposedly Non-Coercive State , 38 POL. SCI. Q. 470 (1923); Hardin, Blackmailing for Mutual Good 141 U. PA.L.
Rev. Questions For Much Ado About? 1787 (1993); M. Writing Thesis? HEPWORTH, BLACKMAIL: PUBLICITY AND SECRECY IN EVERYDAY LIFE 29-40 (1975); Isenbergh, Blackmail from A to C , 141 U. PA. L. REV. 1905 (l993); Jandoo Harland, Legally Aided Blackmail , 27 NEW L. J. 402 (1984); Katz, Blackmail and Other Forms of Arm Twisting , 141 U. PA. L REW.
1567 (1993); Katz Lindgren, Instead of a Preface , 141 U. Copy? PA. L. Thesis? REV. 1565 (1993); Landes Posner, The Private Enforcement of Law, 4 J. LEGAL. Without? STUD. 1 (1975); Lindgren, Unraveling the dartmouth thesis, Paradox of Blackmail , 84 COLUM. L. REV. 670 (1984) Lindgren, More Blackmail Ink; a Critique of Blackmail Inc ., Epstein's Theory of Blackmail 16 COLUM. L. Copy Essay Without? REV. 909 (1984) Lindgren, In Defense of Keeping Blackmail A Crimes: Responding to Block and Gordon, 20 LOYOLA OF LOS ANGELES L. REV.
35 (1986); Lindgren, Blackmail; On Waste, Morals and dartmouth writing thesis, Ronald Coase 36 U.C.L.A. L. REV. 597 (1989); Lindgren, Kept in the Dark; Owen's View of Blackmail, 21 CONN. L. REV. 749 (1989); Lindgren, Secret Rights: A Comment on Campbell's Theory of Blackmail , 21 CONN. L. Rights? REV. 407 (1989); Lindgren, Blackmail: An Afterword , 141 U. PA. L. REV. 1975 (1993); Lindgren, The Theory, History and dartmouth, Practice of the Bribery-Extortion Distinction , 141, U. PA. L. REV. 1695 (1993); Lyons, Welcome Threats and questions ado about, Coercive Offers , 50 PHIL.
425 (l975); Murphy, Blackmail; A Preliminary Inquiry, 63 MONIST 156 (1980); R. NOZICK, ANACHY, STATE, AND UTOPIA (1974); Owens, Should Blackmail be Banned ?, 63 PHIL. Dartmouth Program? 501 (l979); R.A. POSNER, ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OF LAW (4th ed. 1992); Posner, Blackmail, Privacy and Freedom of Contract, 141 U. PA. Help? L. REV. 1817 (1993); Shavell, An Economic Analysis of writing, Threats and family, Their Legality: Blackmail, Extortion and Robbery , 141 U. Dartmouth Writing Program? PA L. Extended Essay Introduction? REV. Dartmouth? 1877 (1993); Tooher, Developments in the Law of Blackmail in England and Australia , 27 INT.
COMP. L. Q., 337 (1978); Waldron, Blackmail as Complicity , unpublished MS (1992); Williams, Blackmail, supra n.1; Winder, The Development of pomona questions, Blackmail , 5 MODERN L. Program Thesis? REV. Questions? 21 (1941). 4. Dartmouth Writing Thesis? In contrast, here is the essay, libertarian case for program the repeal of laws prohibiting blackmail: Mack, In Defense of Blackmail, 41 PHIL. STUD. 273 (1982); M.N. R0THBARD, THE ETHICS OF LIBERTY (1998); M.N. Narrative Unit? ROTHBARD, MAN, ECONOMY AND STATE 443 n. 49 (1993); Block , The Blackmailer as Hero , THE LIBERTARIAN FORUM 1 (Dec. 1972); W. BLOCK, DEFENDING THE UNDEFENDABLE 44-49 (1976; 1991); Block Gordon, Extortion and the Exercise of program thesis, Free Speech Rights; A Reply to unit, Professors Posner, Epstein, Nozick and Lindgren , 19 LOYALAS OF LOS ANGELES.
REV. 37(1985); Block, Trading Money for Silence, 8 U. HAWAII L. Dartmouth Thesis? REV. 57(1986); Block, The Case for De-Criminalizing Blackmail: A Reply to Lindgren and Campbell , 24 WESTERN STATE U. L.REV. 225 (1997); Block, A Libertarian Theory of Blackmail , 33 IRISH JURIST 280 (1998); Block McGee, Blackmail from A to Z , 50 MERCER L. REV. 569 (1999); Block, Towards a Libertarian Theory of Blackmail , J. Essay? LIBERTARIAN STUD. (forthcoming); Block McGee, Blackmail As a Victimless Crime , 31 BRACTON L. Dartmouth Writing Thesis? J. 24 (1999); Block, Kinsella, Hoppe, The Second Paradox of Blackmail , Q, J. BUS. ETHICS, (forthcoming); Block, Let's Legalize Blackmail , SETON HALL L. Rev (forthcoming); Block, Blackmailing For Mutual Good VERMONT L. REV. Human? (forthcoming); Block Anderson, Posner on Blackmail; A Critique (forthcoming); Block, Blackmail and Economic Analysis , THOMAS JEFFERSON. REV. (forthcoming); Block, Threats, Blackmail, Extortion, Robbery and Other Bad Things TULSA L. REV. (forthcoming); Block, Blackmail is Private Justice , U. BRIT. COLUM. L. REV. Dartmouth Writing Thesis? (forthcoming).
5. Katz, Blackmail and family therapy, Other Forms of Arm Twisting , supra n. 3, at 1567-68. Sometimes the threat may take the form of an offer- though of a form that Hillel Steiner refers to as a throffer- in dartmouth program thesis which failure to take it up is associated with threatened consequences. See Steiner, Individual Liberty , 75 ARISTOTELIAN SOC’Y PROC. Unit? 33, at 39 (1974-75). 6. Mack, In Defense of Blackmail , supra n. Program Thesis? 4, at 277. To counter the response that these are cases in which the blackmailees are being blackmailed only into not doing something, Mack suggests that the factory owner might be blackmailed into donating money for Cambodian relief (278).
7. Fletcher, Blackmail; The Paradigmatic Case , supra n. Extended Essay? 3. 8. Gordon, Truth and Consequences , supra n. 3, at 1744. 9. Dartmouth Writing Thesis? See Altman, A Patchwork Theory of Blackmail , supra n. Essay? 3, at 1640. 10. Restaurants and supermarkets often donate day old food to the poor. 11. Gordon, Truth and Consequences , supra n. 3, at 1746. Mack's counter-examples (supra n. 6) cast some doubt on the generality of this claim.
12. Writing Thesis? In actual fact, a blackmailer's motives might be much more complicated. Rights Torture? Although taking monetary advantage of a situation may well be one consideration, moral umbrage might also figure, along with, say, a more remote desire to obtain money to pay for a sick child's operation. Gordon's characterization of the blackmailer's intent might- in certain cases, at least-apply equally to many other currently legal commercial ventures, which people may undertake. 13. Altman, A Patchwork Theory of Blackmail , supra n. 3, at 1641. 14.
The simple fact of a threat is not sufficient to make the act coercive (and hence illegitimate). If I threaten to sue you for the damage you have caused to my car, unless you pay for its repair, my threat constitutes no illegitimate coercion. Should it be argued that some threats one has a right to make (as in the latter case) whereas others one has no right to make (as in blackmail), the libertarian will reply that this begs the question: Why should Alfred not threaten to reveal Bill's extra-marital affairs unless some payment is program thesis made? 15. Should it be objected that the essay introduction, destruction of reputation by writing thesis, means of disclosure of information about one does constitute a violation of rights (as is sometimes allowed by essay introduction help, laws against libel and defamation), the libertarian will respond that the question is begged. A libertarian would not agree to the enforceable securing of thesis, reputation against damaging information. On this see W. BLOCK, DEFENDING THE UNDEFENDABLE, Supra n.4, at essay introduction 59-62; M. ROTHBARD, ETHICS OF LIBERTY, supra n. Writing Thesis? 4, at pomona 121-22. 16. Dartmouth Writing Program? For this argument, see Altman, A Patchwork Theory of Blackmail , supra n. 3, at essay 1642, fn. Dartmouth Writing Program Thesis? 11.
For a rejoinder, see Block McGee, Blackmail As a Victimless Crime supra n. Torture? 4, text at note 23. 17. That may be too strong: perhaps there is a moral or religious obligation not to gossip about dartmouth program thesis, others. And perhaps what is private does not change its status as a result of becoming known to another. But there is no enforceable legal obligation not to rights essay, pass on the information that has come into one’s possession. 18. Katz, Blackmail and dartmouth writing program thesis, Other Forms of Arm-Twisting , supra n. Pomona Essay? 3, at 1599. 19. See Altman, A Patchwork Theory of Blackmail , supra p. 3, at 1643. 20. I am, of course, assuming that there is no Good Samaritan law requiring that assistance be given.
Were there such a law, a libertarian would of dartmouth thesis, course oppose it. 21. That surely goes for investigative reporters, newshounds, and gossip columnists as well. They also profit from information that others would prefer to family, keep secret. 22. Libertarians reject privacy rights that are not reducible to property rights- rights not to dartmouth writing program thesis, have one's property bugged or phone tapped.
See M. ROTHBARD, THE ETHICS OF LIBERTY, Supra 4, at 121-22. 23. Although some jurisdictions do recognize torts for violation of privacy, libertarians are opposed to such constraints, because such torts must allow -what I challenge- that people can have property rights in their reputation. 24. See e.g., Fletcher, Blackmail: The Paradigmatic Case , supra n. 3, at 1623, 1627. See also Altman, A Patchwork Theory of questions, Blackmail , supra n. 3, at writing program 1648. Fletcher sees the extended essay introduction, possibility of the blackmailer's coming back for more as constituting a permanent domination of the blackmailer over the blackmailee. Writing Thesis? But that is only if no contract is made between the blackmailer and blackmailee forbidding any further claims. 25.
Richard Epstein, Blackmail, Inc ., supra n. 3. 26. Copy? For an extended discussion, see Block Gordon, Extortion and the Exercise of Free Speech Rights , supra n. 4. 27. Brown, Blackmail as Private Justice , supra n. 3. 28. Altman, A Patchwork Theory of Blackmail , supra n. 3, at 1649. 29. Indeed, one might be inclined to argue that the writing program thesis, blackmailer displays a kind of decency toward the blackmailee by nothing, offering him a way out of his predicament (the blackmailer's opportunity to damage the dartmouth writing program, potential blackmailee by disclosing- as he has a right to do- the information he has on him).
The gossip provides no such injury-averting option. See Block Gordon, Blackmail, Extortion and Free Speech , supra n. 4, at 39: In contrast to the gossip, who tells the secret without even affording the victim the opportunity of purchasing silence, the blackmailer can be seen as a benefactor. 30. See W. Pomona Questions? BLOCK, DEFENDING THE UNDEFENDABLE, supra p. 4, at 59-62; also, M. ROTHBARD, THE ETHICS OF LIBERTY supra n. 4, at dartmouth writing thesis l26-27. 31. On this see M. ROTHBARD, FOR A NEW LIBERTY (1973)
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