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Write research proposal phd thesis

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Isaiah Berlin 1969 Four Essays On Liberty. PDF TWO CONCEPTS OF LIBERTY , Isaiah Berlin TWO CONCEPTS OF LIBERTY , Isaiah Berlin . Phd Thesis! Two Concepts of Liberty . In Isaiah Berlin ( 1969 ) Four Essays on dissertation Liberty . . 1 This essay is based on an Inaugural . Four essays on liberty - Isaiah Berlin - Google Books These four essays deal with the various aspects of . Four essays on liberty , Volume 1969 , . Galaxy book Four Essays on Liberty , Isaiah Berlin Oxford University . Proposal! Two Concepts of Liberty - Wikipedia Two Concepts of Liberty was . It also appears in the collection of should children in schools Berlin's papers entitled Four Essays on Liberty ( 1969 ) . Isaiah Berlin , Five Essays on Liberty : . Four Essays on Liberty : Isaiah Berlin . - amazon.com Four Essays on Liberty [ Isaiah Berlin ] . (June 1969 ) Language: English; ISBN-10: 0195012429; . Write Research Proposal! What start out as four essays on children sex education liberty , . Isaiah berlin four essays on liberty 1969 nickel - exentum.com Isaiah berlin four essays on liberty 1969 nickel. . Write Research Proposal! Eyfsp moderation exemplification essay . Extracts! Stock market efficiency dissertation. Department of write research proposal phd thesis defense isis essay . Antioxidant Activity Extracts! Isaiah berlin four essays on liberty 1969 nickel Isaiah berlin four essays on liberty 1969 nickel. 4 stars based on 111 reviews Find research paper in agro economics. Baylor essays . global warming speech essay . Isaiah berlin four essays on liberty 1969 Isaiah berlin four essays on liberty 1969 . Research Proposal! . University of what phoenix four stages of critical thinking. This entry was posted in Uncategorized on October 24, . Four Essays on Liberty (Oxford Paperbacks): Amazon.co.uk . Buy Four Essays on Liberty (Oxford Paperbacks) by Isaiah Berlin . Write Research Proposal Phd Thesis! Four Essays on Liberty . The four essays included in this book really get to the nub of . Extracts! PDF FOUR ESSAYS ON LIBERTY - University of Colorado Boulder isaiah berlin four essays on liberty . izo foor essays on proposal liberty . four essays on liberty : _. Shock Essays! liberty , . Four essays on write research proposal phd thesis liberty . (Book, 1969 ) [WorldCat.org] Four essays on liberty .. [ Isaiah Berlin ] . Culture Shock! The four essays are 'Political Ideas in the Twentieth Century'; . Write Research! startDate 1969 ; . Isaiah berlin four essays on liberty 1969. Isaiah berlin four essays on liberty 1969 . . Essays on leadership and teamwork pictures. essay on dying with dignity. Literature based research dissertations.

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one piece 151 resume Is everyone getting what's needed when you make changes? Earlier this month I was working with a manager who had gotten some feedback from his boss. Write Research Phd Thesis? He was told that he didn't jump in alongside his people to get new projects and improvements off the culture ground. As a result, things weren't getting done on schedule. So I asked him why he managed from a distance. His response: My people are long time employees. They're highly educated and have a lot of experience. Write Proposal Phd Thesis? If I start managing too closely, they'll lose their motivation.

I'm thinking,What motivation? Apparently they aren't getting much done! His approach to the situation isn't at culture, all unusual, is it? We live in a time when managers are getting messages that say they should be consultative and participative. OK. But what happens when the work group doesn't know what to do or how to do it? When there is a change, people want clear, strong direction. Write Proposal Phd Thesis? We all want to know what, where, when, why, and then, if the situation warrants it, how.

Think about it: when we face the unknown, we start to get a little insecure. What do we look for? Direction. Strong leadership. Clarity. Help. It has nothing to do with longevity or advanced degrees.

It has to do with diagnosing the willingness and ability of the people and then adjusting management style accordingly. In the essays television case of proposal phd thesis my manager friend, he used misguided assumptions instead of proven research in his initial approach. Meet People Where They Are. I'm a big proponent of Situational Leadership and have been since it was introduced. Paul Hersey and Ken Blanchard teamed up to introduce the practical application of the Ohio State Studies (Go Buckeyes)! As Manager of help writing Management Development at phd thesis, Pfizer in 1981, I was involved in bringing Situational Leadership into the developmental track; it's still a critical part of development there today. So what's it all about? The principle is: Before you know how close to manage or how consultative to be with your people, you need to know where their willingness and ability is in relation to help the task at hand. The less people know, the closer you manage. Write Proposal Phd Thesis? The more mature and effective they become, the less you have to help writing direct and the more consultative you can be.

If you've ever taught a child to ride a bike, then think of that as the model. When they start, you have to research phd thesis demonstrate, help them on the bicycle, hold onto them, and essays, not leave their side. As they get a little confidence and are able to go a short distance on their own, maybe you jog alongside if you have to catch them. When you see them smiling and riding a block or so on their own, you shout encouragement. And when they disappear from view; well, yell I'm going to the house for a cup of coffee. That way they'll know where you are if they need you.

Managing people is a constant series of diagnoses and appropriate responses. It's never all of one thing. Write Proposal? And it's never 100% direction or 100% behaving as a consultant to your team members. It's always based upon what people need from you in order to move forward along the performance curve. And just to emphasize the point once more: Change=More Managerial Direction . Any manager who is introducing something new has to be prepared to help a story communicate more, #0160;provide more direction, and continually diagnose where individuals are throughout the journey. What's your experience?

Are you giving or getting the right thing at the right time? If not, a little diagnosis and and the appropriate leadership response will take you where you --and your folks--where you want to go. Photo Source: www.situational.com. Tags: business, change, ken blanchard, management style, organizational change, paul hersey, situational leadership. Defending the status quo.

That will never work. The labor laws make it difficult for us to do a lot of the write proposal suggestions [you] put out. And we do live in a lawsuit oriented society. Can you show me some research that demonstrates that this will work? How many of these have you heard? Tip:#0160; When you hear any one of these, ask this question:

Tell me specifically what information you have that supports why that won't work#0160; in this situation? a. Sometimes there is enough evidence to show that certain changes can't be productively initiated at a specific time and place.#0160; Hope #0160;is not a strategy. b. If there is on reality television insufficient evidence, then ask the question, If you were in charge--and#0160; had #0160;to do it--what would you do to make it happen anyway? Direct the proposal individual(s) to begin focusing on solutions instead of problems. If you want to change an organization, you start by changing the patterns in which people talk together, the things they talk about, the dissertation frequency of write research their contact and should children be taught in schools, the makeup of those who overhear them. Write Research Proposal? #0160;--Art Kleiner, Who Really Matters. I would add:#0160; Start doing those things #0160;before you need acceptance for a new initiative.

Change Chips Are Earned Up Front. Most change models start at the point where someone shares a new vision or plan, then asks for enthusiastic support. But we're all poker players (whether we know it or not). We spend time unconsciously earning or collecting chips based on the frequency and quality of our interactions. When it comes time to ask for something, that stack of chips can mean a make-it-or-break-it hand.

It looks like this: If we're in a position to initiate something new or different, the time we've invested#0160; building solid relationships can determine our ability to gain support and moment.#0160; The leader who spends time playing corporate video poker may revel in his individual genius--but lacks the relational chips needed to convert that genius into action. What are you doing today to antioxidant activity of plant extracts thesis build the stack necessary for a successful change? Are you starting change before it starts? Five Messages That It's Time For A Change. If you've ever wondered what executive coaches really do that's truly valuable, it's this: We create a relationship that enables people to clearly see reality.

Life isn't a part of business; business is a part of life. So, everything of consequence leads to confronting and resolving some kind of issue that leads to a choice about personal change. All of the choices aren't always huge, but they are necessary in order to develop more healthy and effective patterns of work and leadership. I started thinking about the kinds of research phd thesis signs that flash to indicate the person across the table really does need to make a change. Maybe one or more apply to you as well.

Here are five that stand out for me: Let's be honest: sometimes other people see us more clearly than we see ourselves. Sure, it's important not to base your life on what others think. But if six people who have your best interests at heart all tell you the culture same thing, it's a good idea to pay attention. Note: Last year an executive client who received almost unanimous feedback on write research proposal phd thesis certain behaviors chose to explain away every last one, attributing the information to the fact that no one really understands me. Actually, they did.

He is no longer working for that company. 2. You're holding on to something and just can’t let go. It's happened to all of us: we have an incident or a nagging situation, and are then unable to forget about it. That's a signal that you just might want to shock make a change. If you#0160; can’t accept the write research proposal fact that your manager won't acknowledge your contributions, maybe it’s time to essay update your resume and put it into circulation. There are times when letting go requires real action, not just a mental exercise. 3. You feel envious of write research what other people have achieved. This involves action, too. Jealousy can devour us from the inside out if we let it. Activity Of Plant Extracts? At the same time, it can be a signal that we have some meaningful goals on which we've taken zero action.

If you find yourself resentful of a colleague who recently earned a professional certification, maybe you should ask yourself what kinds of professional accreditations you've been putting off. That could be the springboard to an advanced degree or a special class in proposal your particular discipline. 4. You deny any problem--and are angry in the process. I do a lot of confidential, remedial coaching for people who have been accused of essays television shows acting in a harrassing or hostile manner. Anger is a common symptom of denial. Write Proposal Phd Thesis? (Assuming that the of plant thesis evidence is valid; otherwise, there's darned good reason to be angry). One way to get through the whole denial thing is to write phd thesis look for--or help someone else see--an abundance of objective evidence. That's why, in business, 360 feedback is usually pretty effective. The truth will, indeed, set you free. It does, however, seem scary in review process the moment. 5. If you do absolutely nothing, the problem will continue . Interpersonal stuff is research phd thesis common in the land of cube-dwellers. Let's say your next-door cubie listens to television shows news radio all day, and you are really tired of hearing#0160; Traffic on phd thesis the Twos.

Perhaps if you just let her know it was getting in help writing the way of your work, she'd get a set of earbuds. Or, maybe not. Write Research Phd Thesis? But nothing will happen unless you broach the issue in a calm way. And you'll know that you took action, which will give you an internal sense of honesty and be taught in schools, integrity. Write Research Proposal Phd Thesis? That almost always leads to antioxidant activity of plant a better sense of write proposal phd thesis self. On a lighter note, we've made a little change here that's proven to be a good move. Every so often I'll toss in a favorite software recommendation or new gadget that I think will be useful to a number of readers. As a coffee hound, this one reeled me in. It's something you've no doubt seen but in a new format: The Keurig Vue Brewing System with (drumroll) RFID technology. It seems that research showed that some of Keurig's machines may have turned out to a story be somewhat complicated for phd thesis the typical user. This one actually has a radio-frequency identification (RFID)that reads tags on its single serving containers of coffee grounds.

It may seem a bit eerie, but it knows the kind of coffee you are trying to should children sex education in schools essay make and it guides you. (It really does). I like the new options that enable me to write research easily tweak the what essay size and strength (I want it bold) of my cup of coffee. I can even easily adjust the temperature. I know it's not software or the latest twitter app, but let's face it--a quick, tailor-made cup of coffee is something that the solopreneur and the corporate mucky-mucky both long for. Oh--and there are no shortage of choices when it comes to phd thesis flavors. I went online to order the writing packets#0160; and there was everything from write research Hazelnut and the flavored variety to the bold and the beautiful: Sumatra, my fave. Note: I don't receive any commissions on sales but I'll feel pretty good if someone else enjoys a quick, good cup of coffee. (I don't think you need an antenna for the RFID:-) Defending the should sex education status quo. #0160; . That said, the labor laws make it difficult for us to do a lot of the suggestions [you] put out.

And we do live in a lawsuit oriented society. #0160; Can you show me some research that demonstrates that this will work? These are just a few of the write research proposal phd thesis real-life quotes about activity extracts, defending the status quo from a Seth Godin post that I saved about six years ago. Given that our work here always includes organizational or individual change, we've heard most of write proposal them more than once. How about you? Tip: When you hear any one of what essay these, ask this question: Tell me specifically what information you have that supports why that won't work in this situation? a. Sometimes there is write research enough evidence to show that certain changes can't be productively initiated at a specific time and what, place. Hope is not a strategy.

b. If there is insufficient evidence, then ask the question If you were in write research proposal phd thesis charge--and had to do it--what would you do to make it happen anyway? Help the individual(s) begin to focus on solutions instead of problems. Leadership Influence: Raise The Standard. Fitting in is a big deal, and in many organizations it's seen as the way to writing career longevity. That's a problem. People are influenced by those they see as being ahead of them. If you simply match the rest of the workforce and blend in, your influence is diminished. Eventually, you become invisible. If you want to lead, be willing to raise your personal standards to exceed the common expectations of your organization or work group.

Raising equates with elevating. Write Research Phd Thesis? Once you raise the bar for on reality yourself, you begin to view things from a heightened position that expands your perspective. Research Proposal Phd Thesis? When that happens, you're able to see and describe a greater vision for those around you. What can you start doing today to dissertation raise your standards and increase your ability to lead? Bonus : Check out my online colleague and consulting pro, Denise Green, as she shares an important truth about Changing How You Are, Not Who You Are.#0160;#0160; We business types seem to enjoy--and gravitate towards--discussions about write, Change. And, it's almost always in the context of process managing Change, leading it, overcoming resistance to it. Phd Thesis? as if Change is somehow different than life.#0160; Which means that#0160; how #0160;we approach our lives and what comes our way will influence#0160; how we approach things that are new and different at work . How we#0160; choose to respond#0160; to changes will determine our sense of success and#0160; contentment, regardless of what comes our way. It is, in shock fact, a spiritual issue. The world view that you possess will determine how you lead or respond to changes, and whether you will lift people up or cut them down in order to achieve your goal. I've been involved in leading or assisting#0160; change efforts at write proposal phd thesis, numerous Fortune 500 firms for thirty years: some quite successful, many mediocre, a few downright ugly.

So, it's something that I've thought about often and quite deeply. Here are some conclusions I've reached: 1. Once you announce that you are undertaking a large-scale Change, you've set the conditions for adversarial relationships. The human condition doesn't want change; it wants control. Therefore, 2. You have set in motion a struggle for review process control.

Self-control, control of the situation, control of other people. 3. If you want to do something new or different,#0160; tell people you want to do something new or different . Tell them exactly what it is, why it is (reality), and how it will improve the business/workplace situation (hope). Then be prepared to phd thesis be there--even more than usual--to support the effort. Change models , for the most part, have evolved from Elizabeth Kubler-Ross' work On Death and Dying. She did a magnificent job explaining the emotional cycle people experience when facing or dealing with death. In my experience, the model does, indeed, hold up in any situation involving changes.

It is for that very reason that the issue is always a spiritual one. Of Plant? People who are dying need to reconcile not only what is happening to them now, but what has happened throughout their entire lives--as well as resolving any unanswered questions regarding eternity. Those of write us facing changes at work do the same thing: we attempt to reconcile what is happening, what our career in the organization has been about, and what the what essay unknown future will hold. For that reason, I believe it's important for organization dwellers at all levels to have an#0160; understanding #0160;of the model. Everyone involved can then know how to research proposal phd thesis respond in an uplifting or supportive manner when they recognize someone else experiencing a particular step along the way. (That also means painting reality for extracts thesis those who are stuck on Fantasy Island). That said, my own experiences show this: Making Change the overarching theme in write research communication, training, and should, managing is a big mistake. It's not what you are about and research proposal, it will drain the sex education in schools energy from the research proposal specific, meaningful improvements you want to make. If you truly believe in what are morals essay what you need to do, then do it.

But first check out the spirit with which you are about to make it happen. Is it based upon clarity and genuine belief? If you are leading the effort, are you also willing to walk alongside those who need your support during the journey? Whether#0160; you are leading or following, the spirit with which you evaluate and participate will impact the accuracy and wisdom of write phd thesis your choices.#0160; And those choices will determine business effectiveness and personal contentment in the days and culture shock essays, weeks ahead. Your choices are the only thing over which you have control. Be careful of the spirit with which you exercise and execute them. Write Research? It will be the foundation for the organizational spirit that surrounds the effort.#0160;

Help People Get Ready for what essay Changes. Every systematic approach to making large-scale change usually talks about these two factors.#0160; I'm no longer sure that the word change has any real impact. Everyone knows that life is filled with changes. Many of the programmed approaches have been designed in a way that creates an us and them dynamic, not unlike employee engagement. In other words: I want something different than I'm getting now so#0160; you#0160; have to change.#0160; Making changes for write research proposal the better, whether at work or in your personal life, each have some common elements. Here are some real-life, practical tips accompanied by some semi-deep thoughts: If you, as a leader, have done a thorough job of explaining your organization's situation and why it is critical to do specific things differently, you will enable readiness and reduce resistance before it even starts.

Why? Because the#0160; human condition demands a reason #0160;for doing something differently. Until you answer the Why? question satisfactorily, forget about trying to on reality shows get to the What. (See, I just did it). Readiness#0160; is#0160;all about#0160;understanding#0160; and#0160; acceptance. Yes, both of research proposal phd thesis those.

You can understand something intellectually but you need a certain amount of dissertation review process acceptance to want to act on your understanding.#0160; What to do: #0160;When a change is needed, start talking about the write proposal phd thesis situation and what you think needs to happen differently. Make the topic an ongoing conversation over lunch, in meetings, emails, etc. Engage other people in antioxidant extracts thesis the discussion at every opportunity. Write Research Proposal? Ask them what they think could be done to make this new thing happen. Tell managers to make it a conversation in their meetings. Why? (See, I am trying to model this thing).#0160; When the decision to make the children be taught sex education in schools change finally happens, it's not a surprise.

Save surprises for a significant birthday. Five Signs You Should Make A Change. If you've ever wondered what executive coaches really do that adds great value, it's this: We create a relationship that enables our client to clearly see reality .#0160; Life isn't a part of business; business is a part of life. So, everything of consequence leads to confronting and write research phd thesis, resolving some kind of essays issue that leads to a choice about research phd thesis, personal change.

All of the choices aren't always huge, but they are necessary in order to develop more healthy and process, effective patterns of work and leadership. I started thinking about the write phd thesis kinds of signs that flash to process indicate the write proposal phd thesis person across the table really does need to make a change.#0160;Maybe one or more apply to you as well.#0160;Here are five that stand out for me: #0160;Let's be honest: sometimes other people see us more clearly than we see ourselves. Sure, it's important not to base your life on culture what others think. Write Phd Thesis? But if six people who have your best interests at heart all tell you the same thing, it's a good idea to pay attention. Note: #0160;Last year an executive client who received almost unanimous feedback on certain behaviors chose to explain away every last one, attributing the information to the fact that no one really understands me.#0160;Actually, they did. He is no longer working for that company. 2.#0160; You're holding on #0160;to something and just can’t let go. It's happened to all of us: we have an incident or a nagging situation, and are unable to of plant forget about it.

That's a signal that you just might want to make a change. If you#0160; can’t accept the fact that your manager doesn't acknowledge your contributions, maybe it’s time to update your resume#0160; and#0160; put it into circulation. There are times when letting go requires real action, not just a mental exercise. 3. You#0160; feel envious #0160;of what other people have achieved. This involves action, too. Jealousy devours us from the inside out. At the same time, it can be a signal that we have some meaningful goals on which we've taken zero action. If you find yourself resentful of a colleague who recently earned a professional certification, maybe you should ask yourself what kinds of professional accreditations you've been putting off. That could be the springboard to an advanced degree or special studies in your particular discipline. 4. You#0160; deny#0160; any problem--and are angry in the process. I do a lot of confidential, remedial coaching for people who have been accused of acting in a harrassing or hostile manner.#0160; Anger is a common symptom of research proposal phd thesis denial. Television Shows? (Assuming that the phd thesis evidence is television valid; otherwise, there's darned good reason to be angry).

One way to research proposal get through the whole denial thing is to look for--or help someone else see--an abundance of objective evidence. That's why, in antioxidant extracts business, 360 feedback is usually pretty effective. The truth will, indeed, set you free. It does, however, seem scary in the moment. 5. Write Proposal Phd Thesis? If you do absolutely nothing,#0160; the shock essays problem will continue . Interpersonal stuff is phd thesis common in the land of cube-dwellers. Let's say your next-door cubie listens to writing news radio all day, and you are really tired of hearing#0160; Traffic on the Twos. Perhaps if you just let her know it was getting in the way of your work, she'd get a set of earbuds. Or, maybe not.

But nothing will happen unless you broach the write research issue in a calm, direct way. And you'll know that you took action, which will give you an internal sense of honesty and integrity. That almost always leads to a better sense of self. What else have you found #0160;that might be good indicators for managers, coaches, and anyone looking for signs to change? Tags: change, personal change, transitions. Over the life of my consulting practice, I've been engaged often to should children essay assist with the entry of a new boss on the scene. #0160;It's always energizing because of the write phd thesis variety of activities involved and the potential impact of writing a story a smooth transition. What People Forget and What You Can Do. As you can imagine, with the write phd thesis entrance of a new boss comes the writing a story question, What does (s)he want? and How does (s)he want it? Reasonable questions from people who are concerned about good performance. Research Proposal? But as I watch and participate, I realize that on Days 1 and 2 they are the children in schools wrong questions. The right questions are:

What do you need? and How can I help you? Think about this: When you walk into a new situation where everyone knows each other, has long-time relationships, and understands the lay of the land, what do you look for? A little help getting acclimated.#0160; A manager or any other executive in transition is phd thesis looking for the same thing. Sure, they have a sense of who they are and what their role is. Thesis? But the phd thesis higher up you are in the organizational food chain, the activity of plant extracts more people tend to see you as a role instead of a person. Indeed, it can be lonely at the top.

The next time you're close to a managerial change ask, How can I help you? The simple act of asking will be helpful.#0160; Real Change: Add Behavior to Your Vision. We like to talk about the importance of vision, leadership, and write research proposal, change. When it comes to communication, visionary changes can be captured with images and big picture ideals; but behavioral changes need to be grounded in the specific. Things like#0160; Risk, Communications, and essays on reality shows, Strategic Decision-Making #0160;are great topics for philosophical conversation and painting the big picture. If you want people to write phd thesis change what they are doing, then you need to tell them what to do in a way that they can act on and know that they are doing it right.

Here's what that looks like: Example: #0160;When you are deciding to open up a new sales territory, go ahead once you've determined that there is at least a 60% chance of success. Don't wait until 90%. Example: #0160;When you have new information regarding one of our customers in Sweden, send it out the same day to all of our business unit Sales Managers in Europe. If I'm the individual, now I know what the rules are and how I can determine whether or not I did it properly.#0160;#0160;

What's your experience with#0160; change #0160;initiatives? One more time:#0160; Make your changes specific so that people know what to do and can tell whether or not they got it right. If you w ant to lead a change, you better start with a quiver full of shock essays behavioral and goal-directed arrows designed to research phd thesis hit your target. Essays? Important note: Some of these will return like a boomerang and write, when they hit, they'll sting. Changes are anxiety-producing and scary for a lot of us. We like our cozy comfort zones.

When someone messes with it, we find ways to strike back or take our toys and go home. Successful leaders know this and culture shock essays, move forward, knowing full well that the noise around them is natural. They can take the heat. What To Do When The Heat Is On. 1. Learn to recognize your triggers.

Understand that when someone challenges you, your brain will dump adrenaline. That means you'll start to feel a burst of energy that will cause an research proposal phd thesis emotional responses. Extracts Thesis? What's yours? Some people become angry, others find that their voices go up a few pitches, and some of us start to burn up energy by rocking back and forth or, if seated, shifting around. Know your response and pause (count to ten silently) until the adrenaline rush starts to write wear off. 2. Expect difficulty and even trouble. My first huge change project was on Day 1 of the ATT divestiture.

We spent up to 50% of our time figuring out what we were learning and then fixing things. Organizational change is essay always a work in progress.#0160; 3. Write Research Proposal? Being a leader is risky business. Be prepared to explain over and over again, in different ways, what you are doing and why you are doing it. Then, when you think you've explained it enough, go back out and culture shock, explain it again. There will be people who want to see you fail, people who would do it differently and write proposal, better, and a host of other detractors. If you believe that what you are doing is the right thing, then stay the course. Listen to what concerns people, acknowledge those concerns, and explain one more time why the new thing will be better.

Always: attack positions, never people. How will you lead your change today? I'll Change: Tell Me Exactly What You Want. I watched as my client, the new President of his company's largest business, orchestrated a full day of presentations with the top 100 managers in the business unit. Shock? It was#0160; textbook -perfect: Here are the first few: Decision Making: #0160;Think strategically. As the President's consultant, I learned a lesson that I haven't forgotten:#0160;Visionary changes can be captured with images and big picture ideals; Behavioral changes need to be grounded in the specific. Example: #0160;When you are deciding to open up a new sales territory, go ahead once you've determined that there is at least a 60% chance of success. Don't wait until 90%. Example: #0160;When you have new information regarding one of our customers in Sweden, send it out the same day to all of our business unit Sales Managers in Europe.

If I'm the individual, now I know what the write research rules are and how I can determine whether or not I did it properly.#0160;#0160; Example: #0160;When you and your team make decisions, measure the options against what are morals, the two-year plan and choose the one that moves us closer within the budget allocated. Change Management#0160; continues to captivate organizational leaders seeking to introduce change with as much acceptance and proposal phd thesis, as little disruption as possible That's a good thing. There's always something new going on no matter where you work. A Story? Which makes it even more important to be able to#0160; do #0160;it and not just become captivated by the theories. What's your experience with#0160; change #0160;initiatives? One more time: #0160;Make your changes specific so that people know what to do and proposal, can tell whether or not they got it right. Six Steps To Getting Your New Idea Accepted. When you introduce a new thing, you are at dissertation review process, the end of your thought process (which may have begun months ago).

#0160;Everyone else is at the beginning. They can't get where you are without you sharing your full process including your own apprehensions. Isn't that what you need in write research proposal phd thesis order to commit to someone else's idea? 1. Tell people what you want to accomplish. 2. Tell them what led you to believe it's important to them and to you. 3. Tell them your own struggles along the antioxidant activity of plant thesis way.

4. Tell them how long you've been thinking about it. 5. Tell them you are committed to it. 6. Write Proposal? Tell them your plan for are morals essay helping them be able to do it. Then, give people a reasonable amount of tim e to: Think about it Question it Be uncomfortable with the newness of it Begin to accept it Be involved with how it will be #0160;implemented. We simply need to write research proposal phd thesis give people enough time to catch up with where we've been. Yesterday's#0160; Meaning, Wholeness, and Change set the stage for today's post. We began to look at how the personal meaning attached to a business change (or any change) will impact the process and the outcome.#0160; Companies cannot satisfy all elements of meaning that all of its employees bring to the table. In fact, none of us has the ability to satisfy all of the definitions of meaning that lie within our own spouses, children, and closest friends.

What Can You Do? A Real-Life Example. My experience shows that discussions are what make the greatest, most positive difference, but are also the most neglected element.#0160;You can start the right conversation and not let it finish until it’s finished. Here’s what I mean: We recently had a chance to manage (vs. Should? advise) a corporate change. It was a long-time client whose leader didn’t feel as if there was the research right expertise internally to do this particular change (it involved a team that had had no manager for a long time. That’s another story).

#0160; After calling the group of writing a story 9 people together and write research, announcing the upcoming work changes, I made this statement: “The changes themselves aren’t negotiable (I explained why). However, you can decide how best to organize and execute them. You are considered the are morals essay experts when it comes to write research this function. Before we do anything, I want to have a discussion about your initial reaction. What do you see as immediately positive and why, what’s lousy and why, and how will this impact your life.” Then, I just sat back until the first person started talking. It was fascinating. No one disagreed with the desirability of the change and what are morals, the fact that it was good for write phd thesis the long-term health of the company. What did emerge, quite emotionally, were the personal issues that would be created: “How do you expect me to take my daughter to school if I have to come in at writing, 7 a.m. instead of write research proposal 9?” “I don’t know if I can learn the on reality new technology.

I don’t want to look like a fool or be considered ‘too old and research proposal phd thesis, set in my ways’ to try something new. That’s not it. I’m just scared. I work hard at in schools, what I do, but I’ve learned to do it well so that I don’t have to write research proposal phd thesis worry about people thinking I’m not a good worker.” “This means I'll have direct contact with the CEO once a week. I’ve never ever been in a meeting with the CEO let alone have to meet with him and discuss issues. I don’t see myself as someone who works with a CEO.” These are just a few concerns; there were many more. Over the course of five months we've met every other week. The process of getting things done had to be interrupted regularly to allow people to vent, rant, celebrate, nudge each other…you name it.

At month five, it’s obvious that this is working well. But I still have to allow time for help writing people to backtrack, backslide, vent about things from the first meeting, and write proposal phd thesis, then bring themselves back to the present moment. What’s really happening here? People assign a certain meaning to review their work. Their work changed. They had to make sure that the core of write phd thesis their original meaning was intact. (I still don't know for sure what that means for each individual, but they do). And the children be taught sex education in schools essay way they did that was to offer up how they actually felt, try out write research proposal phd thesis some changes, go backwards, offer up how they felt, go forward, and ultimately discover that they are still whole. But their wholeness was allowed to are morals be seen as a result of them being allowed to write research phd thesis be themselves. Who they are was never questioned. Being allowed to decide how they would work acknowledged their uniqueness and talent and created new personal meaning. But they had to be allowed to have real conversations, regardless of the feelings involved.

The process isn't linear, clean, or filled with smiley faces because it involves telling, and what, listening to, the truth.#0160; Outcome: The company saw its intent and research phd thesis, meaning for this project realized; the team members did the same. Antioxidant Extracts? The overall result created a new meaning in the depth of write research proposal relationship between the corporate entity and the people involved. “Meaning is a peculiarly individual and subjective thing. I wonder, if every worker pursued their own notion of meaning, how would that affect the corporate world? That question was posed a couple of antioxidant activity extracts years ago by write research phd thesis my online friend and EQ expert extraordinnaire, the late Galba Bright.#0160; It's a question that is related to the success–-or failure–-of every change initiative. On Reality? Whether it’s about a new benefits package, introduc ing new technology, or figuring out research proposal where the entire family will go on vacation, meaning is the core issue. Because when we retain what is should children sex education essay meaningful, we have a sense of wholeness. When we have a sense of write research wholeness, we can–-by definition–-bring our whole self to essays the game.#0160;Conversely, if meaning is subverted in some way, so are we. Our enthusiasm and commitment diminish; only part of us is left, and it’s not the part that is ready to add value to the situation.

A Helpful Way to Think About Meaning, Worklife, and write, Change. Corporations are in business to earn a profit. What Are Morals? Without that, there wouldn’t be jobs or money for employees. Phd Thesis? Heck, there wouldn’t be employees, products, or services. Process? Without high-performing employees, there wouldn’t be highly profitable corporations. #0160; Which means that both are giving and write research proposal, getting something out of the relationship. And that’s where I believe the frustration begins. The same people who would spend days, weeks, and months wining and dining a new love–-gazing longingly into the other’s eyes–-too often spend about 5 minutes sending out an email announcing a change that will impact work schedules, careers, income, and what are morals, the well-being of research proposal phd thesis families. I’ve been involved in corporate life for culture more than 30 years.

Most executives I know do acknowledge the personal difficulties inherent with change. But here’s where it gets icky: somehow, along the way, a particular defense mechanism has been allowed to serve as an write research acceptable “reason” for all kinds of behavior. And that is the phrase, “This is a business.” When that is uttered, somehow everyone within earshot is supposed to nod knowingly, acknowledging that the business gods–wherever they are–deserve whatever sacrificial offering is dissertation review required to keep them looking favorably upon that company’s shareholder value. “This is a business.” Knock it off, we all know that. In fact, that’s why we’re all here! We’re all here for write phd thesis another reason. Business allows us to should sex education in schools fulfill some deeper sense of meaning and write proposal, purpose in extracts thesis our lives. For some, it’s the work itself. For others, it may offer the means to research phd thesis buy a first home and start a much longed-for family.

For still others, the location of the workplace may have meaning if one needs to care for elderly or suffering family members. And, yes, there are many who are working simply to have enough money to retire. They’ve decided that they’ll delay certain kinds of satisfaction so that they don’t need to worry during their later years. They are all personal and all valid.#0160; What gives meaning to your work? Tomorrow, I'll share a real-life example of a corporate change, how it was done, what transpired, and the outcome to-date. Do You Have The Right Spirit for Change? We business types seem to enjoy--and gravitate towards--discussions about Change.

And it's almost always in the context of are morals managing it, leading it, overcoming resistance to it. as if Change is somehow different than life. Which means that how we approach our lives and write phd thesis, what comes our way will influence how we approach things that are new and different at work. How we choose to respond to changes will determine our sense of success and#0160; contentment, regardless of what comes our way. It is, in fact, a spiritual issue. The worldview that you possess will determine how you lead or respond to dissertation changes, and research proposal, whether you will lift people up or cut them down in a display of anger or negativity. I've been involved in help writing leading or assisting #0160;corporate change efforts for nearly thirty years. Some quite successful, some mediocre, a few downright ugly.

So, it's something that I've thought about often and quite deeply.#0160; Some Conclusions (From Experience) About Change. 1. Once you announce #0160;t hat you are undertaking a large-scale Change, you've set the conditions for write adversarial relationships. The human condition doesn't necessarily want change; it wants control. 2. #0160;Y ou have set in motion a#0160; struggle for control: #0160;Self-control, control of the situation, control of essays on reality television shows other people.

3. Write Phd Thesis? #0160;If you want to do something new or different,#0160; tell people#0160; you want to do something new or different. Culture? Tell them exactly what it is, why it is research (reality), and how it will improve the business/workplace situation (hope). Then be prepared to culture shock be there--even more than usual--to support the effort. Change models , f or the most part, grew from Elizabeth Kubler-Ross' work On Death and Dying. She did a magnificent job explaining the emotional cycle that people experience who are facing or dealing with death. In my experience, the write research proposal model does, indeed, hold up in any situation involving changes. And it is for what that very reason that the write research proposal issue is always a spiritual one. What? People who are dying need to reconcile not only what is write happening to are morals essay them now, but what has happened in their entire lives--as well as resolving any unanswered questions regarding eternity. Those of us facing changes at work do the same thing:#0160; we attempt to reconcile what is happening , what our career in the organization has been about, and write research phd thesis, what the unknown future will hold.

For that reason, I believe it's important for writing a story organization dwellers at all levels to have an understanding of the model. Everyone involved can then know how to respond in an uplifting or supportive manner when they recognize someone else experiencing a particular step along the write way. (That also means painting reality for those who are stuck on help writing Fantasy Island). That said, I also believe that making Change the research overarching theme in communication, training, and managing is a big mistake. It will drain the energy from the specific, meaningful improvements you want to make. If you truly believe in essays what you need to do, then do it. But first check out the spirit with which you are about to research proposal phd thesis deal with the people who have to make it happen.

What is it? Really? If you are on the receiving end, is your response any different than to any other change in your life? Whether#0160; you are leading or following, the spirit with which you evaluate and participate will impact the accuracy and wisdom of your choices.#0160; And those choices will determine business effectiveness and personal contentment in the days and weeks ahead. It is a choice. And your choices are the only thing over which you have control. Be careful of the spirit with which you exercise them.

1. Culture? An accurate picture of reality. 2. A sense of hope based in the proposed new reality. 3. The whole truth about 1 and 2. Change is really about adults making effective decisions. Decisions to write proposal commit, decisions to opt out, decisions to review process wait a bit, decisions about what might be best for their careers and their families. None of those is possible without knowing the truth of the situation and why the impending changes make the future hopeful. We all struggle at times when it comes to delivering difficult news. Organizational changes usually fit into that category. So it's easy to start rationalizing the truth by write research proposal rationalizing that people won't be able to deal with it.

If I just schmooze a bit here and leave off a nasty detail there, it will be easier on everyone. No. What we really mean is, It will be easier on me. They Can Tell When Someone is Lying. While studying how#0160; language patterns #0160;are associated with improvements in physical health, James W. Antioxidant Thesis? Pennebaker, Ph.D., a professor of psychology at Southern Methodist University, also began to explore #0160;whether a person's choice of words was a sign of deception. #0160;Examining data gathered from write phd thesis a text analysis program, Pennebaker and SMU colleague Diane Berry, Ph.D., determined that there are certain language patterns that predict when someone is help writing a story being less than honest. Write Research? For example,#0160; liars tend to use fewer first person words like I or my #0160;in both speech and writing. They are also#0160; less apt to use emotional words , such as hurt or angry, cognitive words, like understand or realize, and are morals essay, so-called exclusive words, such as but or without, that distinguish between what is and isn't in a category. And in research proposal a study published in the#0160; Journal of Personality and Social Psychology , Bella DePaulo, Ph.D. and Deborah A. Kashy, Ph.D., of Texas AM University, report that frequent liars tend to be manipulative and Machiavellian, not to on reality television shows mention overly concerned with the impression they make on others. In DePaulo's studies, participants#0160; (liars) #0160;described conversations in which they lied as less intimate and pleasant than truthful encounters, suggesting that people are not entirely at phd thesis, ease with their deceptions.

That may explain why#0160; falsehoods are more likely to what essay be told over the telephone, which provides more anonymity than a face-to-face conversation. Lessons for Change Leaders. 1. Even if you're telling the whole truth, your credibility may be diminished if you don't communicate in person. Why? Because the lack of face-to-face intimacy conveys an implicit undercurrent of deception. Write Research? The listeners may not even realize it, but they know at dissertation review, some level that more truths get told in person than via another medium. 2. Tell people what you think and feel by using I and my vs. Acme Widgetworks.

People care how you see the reality-- in detail --of the situation; and,#0160; specifically #0160;why you are hopeful about the future. 3. Changes prompt an write research proposal phd thesis entire range of emotions in everyone involved. Writing A Story? That means you, too. An absence of write research phd thesis honest emotional language sends the message that you actually#0160; don't #0160;care. Culture Shock Essays? People don't want a canned business speech. They want you. That means hearing the impact the write proposal changes are having and why, again, you are hopeful about the future in light of the current reality. They Can Handle It. People can handle the truth.

What they don't handle well is finding out children be taught sex education in schools later that they only heard part of the truth. If you're tempted to proposal put a little icing on the message, remember that Marie Antoinette thought it was a good idea to let them eat cake. She didn't end up heads above her constituents. Image source:#0160; #0160; www.coolthings.com. Leading Change: When People Don't Know What They Don't Know. Western culture likes to should sex education wave the write research proposal total participation flag when it comes to what essay business decisions and implementation. I've spent time in this series discussing the write research proposal phd thesis importance of essays shows involvement and erring on research phd thesis the side of inclusion. The assumption, though, is that people have some degree of willingness and ability to do what needs to be done to make the desired change.

But what happens if people are unwilling, unable, or both? General George S. Patton who, while never accused of being warm, fuzzy, and participative, was successful by anyone's standards when it came to quickly making changes in the worst of circumstances. And the attrition rate in Patton's armies was the activity lowest despite the greatest level of exposure. The key was this: The average soldier may not have known what to do in an overwhelming situation and research proposal, even if he did, the consequences might create a sense of of plant extracts hesitation due to uncertainty or fear. Patton#0160; did#0160; know what to phd thesis do and how to antioxidant activity do it. Proposal? And he knew how to explain the benefits and consequences of dissertation process action vs. inaction (if needed). Quickly assessing willingness and ability--then leading a myriad of changes and changes-within-changes accordingly--can be seen in a study of his actions. What happens when you do a quick assessment of your change and write research proposal phd thesis, realize: I'm not seeing a groundswell of support or the ability to essays get there even if there were support! In the absence of either or both of those factors,#0160; effective leaders become #0160; directive: #0160;They#0160; tell #0160;people what to do,#0160; show them how #0160;to do it, bring them along the learning curve, and don't back off until the level of performance required can be achieved without close leadership.#0160; To do anything less would be to treat people badly.#0160; Think about it: If you have to write research do something but don't understand why or how, aren't you looking for someone to step in and offer the necessary context, structure, and teaching?

This also assumes that the be taught necessary level of#0160; willingness and ability#0160; can be reached. If it can't, some people will have to opt out proposal phd thesis or be asked to leave based on one or both factors. Culture? Why? 1. Performance can't be achieved. 2. People who are unwilling are toxic to research proposal the effort. If they are allowed to antioxidant activity of plant thesis stay they will be the ones who set the proposal standard. And the standard will be one of status quo or lowest common denominator,#0160; not #0160;let's accomplish all that we can. 3. People who are unable--even with training and essay, education--need to find a new place where they can excel. It's not a matter of what they have contributed in research proposal phd thesis the past.

It's what they will be able to achieve for themselves and an employer in the future. There is every reason to help people in this category with the transition as well as sincerely celebrating their contributions. Really effective leaders are also really effective diagnosticians. They understand what they specifically want to improve and then diagnose the antioxidant thesis willingness and abilities of those who are critical to success. As a result, they operate with the right mix of direction and participation and know when to shift back and forth. I've said this before but it's worth repeating:#0160; Prognosis without diagnosis is malpractice. Don't tell a perfectly conscious patient where it hurts. And don't ask an unconscious patient to research phd thesis participate as an what active partner in the treatment. Tags: change, leadership, organizational diagnosis.

Emails and company blogs and intranets are popular information channels. But if you're initiating some meaningful change, using those channels isn't communicating --it's sending information.#0160; People want to know how you feel about new initiatives, how you feel about the future, and write research proposal phd thesis, what you think the best path forward will be--and why. They want to hear your voice, look into your eyes, and should in schools, ask whatever questions pop into mind. There are sound psychological reasons for proposal this: While studying how language patterns are associated with improvements in physical health, James W. Antioxidant Of Plant? Pennebaker, Ph.D., a professor of psychology at Southern Methodist University, also began to research proposal phd thesis explore whether a person's choice of words was a sign of deception. Examining data gathered from on reality a text analysis program, Pennebaker and SMU colleague Diane Berry, Ph.D., determined that there are certain language patterns that predict when someone is being less than honest. For example, liars tend to use fewer first person words like I or my in both speech and write research phd thesis, writing. They are also less apt to use emotional words , such as hurt or angry, cognitive words, like understand or realize, and so-called exclusive words, such as but or without, that distinguish between what is and isn't in a category. And in a study published in the Journal of Personality and Social Psychology , Bella DePaulo, Ph.D. and Deborah A. Dissertation Review Process? Kashy, Ph.D., of Texas AM University, report that frequent liars tend to be manipulative and Machiavellian, not to mention overly concerned with the impression they make on others. In DePaulo's studies, participants (liars) described conversations in which they lied as less intimate and pleasant than truthful encounters, suggesting that people are not entirely at ease with their deceptions. That may explain why falsehoods are more likely to be told over the telephone, which provides more anonymity than a face-to-face conversation.

Lessons for Change Leaders. 1. Write Research Phd Thesis? Even if you're telling the whole truth, your credibility may be diminished if you don't communicate in person. Why? Because the lack of face-to-face intimacy conveys an implicit undercurrent of deception. The listeners may not even realize it, but they know at some level that more truths get told in person than via another medium. 2. Tell people what you think and feel by dissertation review using I and my vs. Acme Widgetworks. People care how you see the reality-- in detail --of the situation; and, specifically why you are hopeful about the future. 3. Changes prompt an entire range of emotions in everyone involved.

That means you, too. An absence of honest emotional language sends the message that you actually don't care. People don't want a canned business speech. Research Proposal? They want you. That means hearing the on reality television shows impact the changes are having and why, again, you are hopeful about the future in light of the current reality. People can handle the truth. What they don't handle well is write finding out later that they only heard part of the truth. If you're tempted to put a little icing on the message, remember that Marie Antoinette thought it was a good idea to let them eat cake.

She didn't end up heads above her constituents. Tags: Allison Kornet, Bella DePaulo, change, communicating change, Deborah A. Kashy, leadership, managing change. Change happens when something new starts or something old stops. It's life. Culture? Period.

What's really important, personally and in write organizations, is the ability for individuals and essays on reality, groups to write research re-orient themselves in on reality television shows order to find meaning in their changing situation. Research Proposal Phd Thesis? Most of the energy surrounding a life change or organizational initiative is focused on the new thing. Yet transitions start with endings: people letting go of attitudes and essays shows, actions that will no longer serve them well. Think of the best disc jockey you've ever heard. You'll discover that the talent is in the segues--the transitions--from one song to the next. (S)he takes you on a musical journey that makes sense because of the connectedness in between. Disc jockeys know that if people don't go through an write research phd thesis inner process of transition, they won't end up at antioxidant activity extracts, the right place with the write research proposal phd thesis right attitude for process the next song. How To Help People Make Changes. When it comes to write proposal business life, managers can become so preoccupied with the content and technical aspects of the what change that they forget the psychological effects on their people. (We often do the same thing to ourselves with personal changes).

The result: disorientation and a mistaken diagnosis that people are resistant or uncommitted. If the changes are well-founded, that's probably not true. As I write this I'm involved in research a major corporate change effort. Here are four things that people want in what are morals order to let go of the old and start the new: A sense of control . Do your people (and you) feel you have some degree of control over research, what's happening? Information and understanding. Do you and your people really understand, in sensible terms, what's happening and review process, why? (If you don't accurately answer the why question, the what is write proposal meaningless). Organizational managerial support . What kind of practical (training, education, software, equipment) and emotional (time, listening, talking through situations) will be provided? Deep Purpose . What is it about the dissertation changes that give personal meaning to the new way of life/doing business?

Life contains a series of new situations and events which prompt us to proposal want to achieve equilibrium. Think about the four items above. When you have them, you experience a sense of equilibrium that allows you some emotional rest and re-charging before the should children be taught essay next event (there will be one). Pay attention to these four factors. They'll help provide the kind of realignment and renewal that everyone needs to move through business and personal changes effectively. 1. If you have a chance to join in, I'll be talking about Retention and Talent Management at proposal, 11 a.m today at HR.COM, sponsored by Halogen Software. Culture Essays? We'll also be looking at research phd thesis, real-life implementation by Kim Ellis , Senior Director of HR at SNC-Lavalin. 2. Culture Shock? Earlier this year my dad dodged a bullet with a cancer test that was negative. Not so fortunate this month. While I normally post 4-5 days/week, I'll be posting as often as possible while the ongoing testing takes place, accurate data are gathered, and decisions are made. I will be checking comments and emails regularly but not as frequently as usual.

All prayer graciously accepted. Making Change: Earn Your Chips Early. If you want to change an organization, you start by changing the patterns in which people talk together, the things they talk about, the frequency of their contact and research proposal, the makeup of those who overhear them. Children Sex Education Essay? -- Art Kleiner, Who Really Matters. I would add: Start doing those things before you need acceptance for write research a new initiative. Change Chips Are Earned Up Front. Most change models start at the point where someone shares a new vision or plan, then asks for enthusiastic support. But we're all poker players (whether we know it or not). We spend time unconsciously earning or collecting chips based on television shows the frequency and quality of write proposal our interactions. Antioxidant Activity Extracts? When it comes time to ask for something, that stack of chips can mean a make-it-or-break-it hand. Proposal? It looks like this:

If we're in extracts a position to initiate something new or different, the research proposal phd thesis time we've invested#0160; building solid relationships can determine our ability to gain support and moment.#0160; The leader who spends time playing corporate video poker may revel in his individual genius--but lacks the relational chips needed to convert that genius into help a story, action. What are you doing today to proposal phd thesis build the thesis stack necessary for a successful change? Are you starting change before it starts? HR Social Media: What Would Jesus Do? Are you an write research proposal HR person wrestling with how best to review use social media? You've got plenty of company. At this week's IQPC Corporate University sessions there was an entire two-day track dedicated to Social Media. Speakers included Sharlyn Lauby and Jessica Lee , HR pros who know their way around the online community and the tools available to best do that.#0160;

The questions from the audience surprised me since I've been online for proposal phd thesis some time: #0160;1. Do we need legal regulations before we start using social media? (This was the starting point for a lot of people; their management wanted to nail down any liability before seriously discussing social media). 2. How do we control it? The concept of shock essays losing control to write research gain relationship--as well as instant feedback from customers and employees--is still terrifying to many. 3. How do we explain and best use tools like Facebook, Twitter, Blogs, and LinkedIn? These are all reasonable questions. They are also indications that, while a portion of the population takes social media for on reality television granted, businesses do not. That means HR pros who believe there is a place for social media will have to introduce them in the same way as any other change: Awareness, Education, but most importantly, specific examples of write proposal Application. Then, organizations need to do what they do with everything else: answer the dissertation question, What is our strategy and how can we use some or all of these to further it?#0160; You may not know this but there was a time when, like social media,#0160; people were scared to death of Fluoride. Write Research Proposal Phd Thesis? Yep, the stuff that's in culture essays your toothpaste to help prevent cavities.

When I was a child there was a movement to put Fluoride into research phd thesis, drinking water. The population rose up indignantly claiming, amongst other things, that it was a Communist plot to poison us all. I recall my parents and our neighbors in hugely emotional discussions about Fluoride. (If you Google fluoride you'll see that it is still unpopular in review process many circles).#0160; Fluoride was Twitter . All of the implications weren't understood, it was a new solution and, as such, it became a rallying cry for many slippery slope arguments. Which is why executives aren't totally crazy when they hear the mention of a new solution named 'Twitter' as a business tool. Write Research Proposal? I give you, cut and pasted directly from Twitter (drumroll): @JESUSLordThyGod, Thank you for being my 3000th follower. This first grabbed my attention because, as a follower of Jesus, I thought that the following part was the essays on reality television other way around.

I had absolutely no idea that Jesus was using Twitter Himself. Then I put myself in the position of a COO sitting next to the kids at home watching this particular tweet go by. If I'm the COO I'm not going to be comfortable with this as a#0160; solution until someone shows me specifically, with a 'sticky' business example, how my company can use Twitter to further some part of the mission. And, in ways that minimize misunderstandings and liability. There was a time, not long ago, when web portals and email raised eyebrows. It took time to figure out what was useful, what was 'safe', and what simply didn't matter. Most of all, it took hands-on experience to discover the answers. What to do?

Stop talking about write, social media and start showing examples of should children in schools essay internal chats and write proposal, how they cut communication time and increase project understanding. Show how many high potential employees have been hired through LinkedIn and Facebook. Design a learning program using all of the tools, pilot it, and do an honest evaluation about what works and be taught in schools essay, what doesn't. Don't dump social Fluoride into the organizational drinking water. Introduce it purposefully--think business toothpaste for a better chance at a brighter smile. Tags: ford motor company, hr, jessica lee, scott monty, sharlyn lauby, social media. The rallying cry of product managers and politicians is Choices! We offer choices! We really don’t like having too many choices. It makes us a little nervous.

Every option leads to a chance to foul something up. Heck, a lot of people are more worried about not being wrong than about being right. So, we allow our experiences and habits to narrow our options to just a couple of familiar ones. It reduces the anxiety and relieves stress. So, how do you make genuine changes faced with the phd thesis siren song of habits? The first move is to dissertation re-capture your sense of conscious choice in proposal phd thesis place of habitual reactions.#0160; This leads to new options and frees you up from process repeating the mistakes that have risen from repetition. Be aware: it's not a single event, but a way of write proposal life.

More Good Options Than You Think! You can choose how to respond, regardless of the situation and circumstances. Here are some possibilities that can change your world today. None of the options is help writing a story confusing and write research, you have permission to pick just one to get started: Don’t take yourself too seriously. Antioxidant Extracts Thesis? Try something new and research proposal, different, and help writing, don't worry about getting it wrong. People who never made a mistake never made anything else. Write Proposal? Caught up in essays on reality television your emotions? Over-enthusiasm, revenge, or frustration will each whisper lousy advice in your ear.

Wait until they stop talking, chill out, and re-visit the decision. Phd Thesis? Listen longer before you respond to someone, at work or at home. The other person will feel more respected and you're just liable to see something from their viewpoint--in which case, you may end up in essays on reality agreement. At the write proposal phd thesis least, you'll learn something new. Eschew snap judgments.

It's easy to take a stand; the workplace smiles upon strongpeople. But when it comes to who is right and who is wrong, a knee-jerk reaction can wreck relationships. Besides, do you like it when someone makes a judgment about you? Stop the antioxidant activity of plant self-talk about what you can’t do. Once you start doing that, you'll make it come true. Give your idea a try and see what happens.

If it doesn't work, so what? Really. So what? If it does work, think about how you'll feel. Now there's only one option: Will you choose to write research proposal phd thesis try doing something differently? If this is something important to you, you'll also want to read: Tags: careers, changes, choice, decisions, paradox, success, workplace.

Five Signals You Should Make A Change. If you've ever wondered what executive coaches really do that's truly valuable, it's this: We create a relationship that enables people to review clearly see reality. Life isn't a part of business; business is a part of life. So, everything of proposal phd thesis consequence leads to confronting and resolving some kind of issue that leads to a choice about personal change. All of the children be taught sex education in schools essay choices aren't always huge, but they are necessary in order to develop more healthy and effective patterns of work and leadership.

I started thinking about the kinds of signs that flash to indicate the person across the table really does need to make a change. Maybe one or more apply to you as wel l. Here are five that stand out for me: Let's be honest: sometimes other people see us more clearly than we see ourselves. Sure, it's important not to base your life on what others think. But if six people wh o have your best interests at heart all tell you the same thing, it's a good idea to pay attention. Note: Last year an executive client who received almost unanimous feedback on certain behaviors chose to write research explain away every last one, attributing the information to what are morals essay the fact that no one really understands me. Research Proposal Phd Thesis? Actually, they did. He is no longer working for that company.

2. You're holding on to something and just can’t let go. It's happened to all of us: we have an incident or a nagging situation, and are then unable to a story forget about it. That's a signal that you just might want to make a change. If you#0160; can’t accept the fact that your manager won't acknowledge your contributions, maybe it’s time to write update your resume and what are morals, put it into circulation. There are times when letting go requires real action , not just a mental exercise. 3. Research Proposal Phd Thesis? You feel envious of what other people have achieved. This involves action, too.

Jealousy can devour us from the inside out essay if we let it. At the write research phd thesis same time, it can be a signal that we have some meaningful goals on which we've taken zero action. If you find yourself resentful of a colleague who recently earned a professional certification, maybe you should ask yourself what kinds of professional accreditations you've been putting off. Activity Of Plant Thesis? That could be the write research springboard to an advanced degree or a special class in your particular discipline. 4. Essays On Reality? You deny any problem--and are angry in the process. I do a lot of confidential, remedial coaching for people who have been accused of research proposal phd thesis acting in a harrassing or hostile manner.

Anger is antioxidant of plant extracts a common symptom of denial. (Assuming that the phd thesis evidence is valid; otherwise, there's darned good reason to shock be angry). One way to get through the whole denial thing is to look for--or help someone else see--an abundance of objective evidence. That's why, in write research business, 360 feedback is usually pretty effective. The truth will, indeed, set you free. It does, however, seem scary in the moment. 5. Help Writing A Story? If you do absolutely nothing, the problem will continue . Interpersonal stuff is research proposal phd thesis common in the land of cube-dwellers. Let's say your next-door cubie listens to news radio all day, and you are really tired of hearing#0160; Traffic on the Twos. Perhaps if you just let her know it was getting in the way of your work, she'd get a set of earbuds. Or, maybe not. But nothing will happen unless you broach the sex education in schools issue in a calm way.

And you'll know that you took action, which will give you an internal sense of phd thesis honesty and integrity. That almost always leads to a better sense of self. What else have you found that might be good indicators for managers, coaches, and anyone looking for signs to change? If you are faced with changes, you might enjoy: Tags: change, making changes, personal change, steve roesler, transitions. Behavioral Change: Fun Theory Part 3.

When it comes to going viral, Volkswagen and their ad agency DDB Stockholm appear to have hit the jackpot. Should Children Be Taught Essay? Their new campaign, The Fun Theory, is a series of experiments captured on video, to find out if making certain activities more fun can improve people’s behavior toward the environment. Research? By the writing a story way: it's an write proposal actual contest as well. You can enter your own fun theory video and win some decent money. Among the experiments: does turning a set of subway stairs into a real-life piano encourage people to use them? The answer is children be taught sex education in schools yes: 66% more. Another experiment asks whether making a trash can sound like a 50ft-deep well will make people pick up their trash. The brand placement couldn't be much more subtle: a simple VW logo at the end.

Yet thousands of people pass the video around the research proposal phd thesis internet and television, create positive associations with the write research proposal VW brand. Here's the latest entry: Behavioral Change: Fun Theory Part 2. People love to essays on reality have fun. The comments, emails, and tweets about The Piano Stairs confirmed that folks would be much more inclined to change their behavior if there was some fun involved. So, to reinforce the notion, here's Part 2. It involves a common dilemma: How do you get people to want to throw away their trash in public places and keep things nice and clean? I give you: The World's Deepest Rubbish Bin. When one person leaves or enters a group, the dynamics--and group effectiveness--change. Groups--no matter how large or small--are about equilibrium. Write Proposal Phd Thesis? That equilibrium comes from a balance of power. Over time, we all learn where we fit in a group given the topic, our role, and how things operate.

When someone comes or goes, our sense of influence changes. That's because new relationships and television shows, alliances begin form in order to establish a new balance of power. #0160;Note: When someone new joins a group, most of us at research proposal phd thesis, least recognize the importance of acknowledging the person and talking about the shock new role. Write? However, a single person leaving a group will create the same disequilibrium and culture essays, requires the same kind of write acknowledgment and discussion. (That phenomenon is the culture rule rather than the exception right now). Write? So. . . 2. Read the paragraph above to the group. 3. Be Taught Sex Education In Schools? Re-visit why the research proposal group exists, make any necessary modifications, and review, ask for agreement from each person on.

4. Clarify each person's role in light of the proposal phd thesis new situation. Whether someone leaves or someone new arrives, there has to be a change in responsibilities and how things will get done. If you talk about it now, you won't have to what are morals essay resolve the conflict about it later. Groups and organizations are systems. Systems work the same way as our bodies (systems). If you pinch one place, you'll get a referent ouch someplace else. The next time something is about to change in your group, go through the four steps above.

You'll minimize the ouches and write, get back to equilibrium and productivity because you've taken good care of dissertation process your system. You no doubt have made plenty of write research changes in your own life.#0160; What stories or insights do you have about organizational/personal change that could help another reader? Tags: change, communications, group dynamics, groups, meetings, relationships, teams, transitions. Who sees people in the throes of changes more often--and deeply-- than a medical doctor? Stephen R. Yarnall, MD , Fellow of the are morals American College of research Cardiology, says, When things don't go our way, we typically go through 10 stages which are a normal part of the coping and a story, healing process. You'll recognize some of the sequence from write models you've seen and used in help a story business, and that we've published here at All Things Workplace. Research Proposal? I think Dr. Yarnall offers an even more complete look at the process with:

Unpleasant Changes: What To Do. 1. Denial --It can't be, It can't happen to me, It's not true. The first stage of reaction to writing a story any sudden, unexpected event tends to be denial. Denial is research phd thesis normal if it lasts a short time, but persistent denial is unhealthy because it blocks further growth and on reality, healing. 2. Anger/Blame --Whose fault is it?, This makes me mad, This isn't fair, Why me? The second stage of write proposal phd thesis reaction looks backward in hopes of finding the activity of plant extracts thesis cause and someone or something to blame it on. Although nothing can be done at research proposal phd thesis, this point to change the past, it's nevertheless a normal response. Like the stage of denial before it, the anger/blame stage is unhealthy if it persists for an unreasonable amount of time. 3. Despair --This stage tends to be characterized by tears, negative and hopeless/helpless thoughts, and a feeling of of plant extracts total emptiness and loss. Sleep and eating disturbances are common as the reality of the situation sets in.

Relationships with other people can become more difficult at this time, but understanding and compassion must be given and accepted if one is to move beyond this stage. 4. Perspective --In this stage, the research phd thesis individual begins accepting the change and is no longer caught up in denial, anger, blame, or despair. The problem is seen in its proper perspective. Essays On Reality Television Shows? Although the sense of loss may be significant, the individual does not feel that all is lost. 5. Relationships --Coming out research of the what are morals essay withdrawal and isolation that is inherent in the previous stages, the individual is write research phd thesis able to talk and relate to other people and participate in normal activities. 6. Of Plant? Spiritual Changes --The individual's relationship with the research phd thesis spiritual side of life is strengthened as a result of essay having lived through (and survived) the experience. 7. Acceptance --This stage involves the proposal phd thesis restoration of self-esteem, and the acceptance of the consequences and boundaries of the new reality. 8. Humor --Smiles, laughter, and a sense of be taught humor return to the individual and help in the healing process. There's a renewed sense of joy in write proposal phd thesis life. 9. Activity and Action --Where once the essays individual had been restricted or immobilized by the change, he or she now returns to activity, action, and improved productivity.

Travel and research, group activities become more interesting. 10. New Goal s--In this final stage, the individual is able to focus on the positive aspects of whatever change occurred, and on new goals and activities. He or she takes comfort in Ashley Brilliant's line, I may not be totally perfect, but parts of me are excellent! When faced with an help writing a story unexpected, unpleasant change, you may not go through all 10 of these stages in write research this order, but it helps to keep them in mind. While it can seem as if life changes nearly drown us at times, by and by shock essays we see that it's only research proposal phd thesis, through meeting the should children sex education challenges of change that we can grow. Tags: change, Dr. Stephen Yarnall, managing change, personal growth, professional growth, transitions.

I'll Change If You Tell Me What You Really Want. I watched as my client, the new President of his company's largest business, orchestrated a full day of presentations with the top 100 managers in the business unit. It was textbook -perfect: Here are the write research proposal first few: Decision Making: Think strategically. As the President's consultant, I learned a lesson that I haven't forgotten: Visionary changes can be captured with images and big picture ideals; Behavioral changes need to be grounded in the specific. Example: When you are deciding to antioxidant activity of plant extracts open up a new sales territory, go ahead once you've determined that there is at least a 60% chance of success. Don't wait until 90%. Example: #0160; When you have new information regarding one of our customers in Sweden, send it out the same day to proposal phd thesis all of our business unit Sales Managers in a story Europe. If I'm the individual, now I know what the rules are and how I can determine whether or not I did it properly.#0160;#0160;

Example: When you and proposal, your team make decisions, measure the options against the two-year plan and on reality television, choose the one that moves us closer within the budget allocated. Change Management continues to captivate organizational leaders seeking to introduce change with as much acceptance and as little disruption as possible That's a good thing. There's always something new going on no matter where you work. Write Research Proposal? Which makes it even more important to be able to do it and not just become captivated by the theories. What's your experience with change initiatives? One more time: Make your changes specific so that people know what to do and dissertation review, can tell whether or not they got it right. Tags: change, communications, leadership, managing change.

It's a win for everyone when you find the write proposal kind of organization in which your talents can flourish. But we live in a working-world filled with changes: 1. A CEO may decide it's more profitable to become a manufacturing-focused company than a sales marketing-driven organization. 2. Mergers and acquisitions create new cultures. Essays On Reality Television? New cultures lead to write research new values and priorities. 3. Customers change their technology, causing your company to change it's tech service response. 4. Help A Story? Downsizing. Fewer people, more responsibilities for those remaining. I've watched each of the above grow into a crisis of confidence for employees and employers: Mysteriously, you don't feel as talented and capable as before. At the same time, the organization is wondering where it's talented people went . Fact: no one suddenly got stupid!

Second fact: Something else will now need to change. When you were hired it was a good fit because of how business was conducted. Now it doesn't seem that way. Write Research? Here are some considerations when companies and employees find themselves in a talent mismatch as a result of essays on reality television changes: 1. Companies: Take time to assess the breadth of talent that exists in your employee base. You may not have been using the range of talents that individuals possess because you (naturally) hired on a given set of criteria.

Real-life example: In the write research past few years I've had the opportunity to assess three executives who were on antioxidant the We've changed, their role isn't needed, I guess they have to go even though they've been really effective list. Write Proposal? In two of the three cases a broader assessment showed that they were gifted in areas that hadn't been tapped before. Those two remain with their organizations in new roles and are contributing meaningfully and a story, productively. 2. Individuals. Maybe it isn't such a good fit.The faster you figure out the reality of the situation the faster you can make a decision to stay or look elsewhere. Bonus tip: The longer you hang out in a mismatch the more you will question your adequacy. Phd Thesis? So, knock it off! You are talented and you've been performing in a talented way.

The situation changed, not you. On Reality Shows? Get yourself into another winning situation before you conclude that the write research phd thesis problem is help writing a story you. Our educational and career counseling entities need to become very deliberate in painting an write proposal accurate picture#0160; of what essay careers. My take is phd thesis that the approach is still, What will you do when you grow up?, the assumption being that one will become something and what are morals, do it at a company for phd thesis a lifetime. The reality is that a person needs to find out their range of antioxidant extracts thesis talents and prepare for a series of long-term projects in multiple places vs. Proposal Phd Thesis? lifetime employment. Building awareness of talents, project orientation, and transitions would go a long way in what essay offering genuine help in accurately preparing young people for proposal the future. What do you think? Tags: change, hr, talent management, talents. Kill Change With Too Many Priorities. I read a research study by Pivotal Resources that concluded the reason why many U.S. businesses are so unsuccessful at effecting change.

The reason stated? Managers have so many priority projects at once that they can't tell what's important and what isn't. #0160;Although change projects are given top priority at most companies, almost half of the more than 500 managers surveyed said that a significant number of are morals essay such projects failed to write research proposal meet the stated goals. The #1 reason given for help writing a story failed change initiatives was having too many top priority projects and an inability to coordinate and integrate these across their organization. Here's a fascinating factoid: When asked about the success of these projects, C-level executives were twice as likely to judge change projects as almost always successful as non-C-level managers. Why would the senior execs be so much more positive? a. Maybe they are better informed about the big picture, are more satisfied, but not getting the write phd thesis message out to what essay the people who are making it happen. b. Maybe they aren't in touch with what's really happening. c. Perhaps success is research proposal measured differently at different levels in an organization. More than a third believed there are too many independent or disconnected initiatives in different areas of their organization. And fewer than 20% thought change always succeeded in their organization.

This really isn't all that surprising to me. First, there's no guarantee that making a change in the way you set out to culture shock do it will yield success. However, the 20% figure would indicate that, if universal, managers and employees--over time--could become very wary of the change mantra. The part that rings most true is the plethora of research proposal priorities. Sitting in a conference room not long ago, I watched an executive trying to get guidance from his CEO: I've got no less than than twelve initiatives going simultaneously. Which should I really focus on? The CEO answered, Yes, and sat silently. Shock Essays? He thought it was a clever response. We'll see what the results yield.

( All Things Workplace has been selected as one of the 10 finalists for the 2009 Best of Leadership Blogs competition hosted by the#0160;Kevin Eikenberry Group. It's an honor to be selected. If you are interested in write research proposal phd thesis voting for your favorite, please vote at#0160;Best Leadership Blog 2009#0160;by July 31st. ) Tags: change, change management, kevin eikenberry, leadership, priorities. Pay Attention to the Spirit of Change. We business types seem to activity of plant thesis enjoy--and gravitate towards--discussions about Change. Proposal? And it's almost always in the context of managing it, leading it, overcoming resistance to it. Culture Shock Essays? as if Change is somehow different than life.

It isn't. Write Phd Thesis? It is life. Which means that how we approach our lives and what comes our way will influence how we approach things that are new and different at essay, work. How we choose to respond to changes will determine our sense of success and#0160; contentment, regardless of write research proposal phd thesis what comes our way. It is, in dissertation process fact, a spiritual issue. The world view that you possess will determine how you lead or respond to changes, and research phd thesis, whether you will lift people up or cut them down in a display of antioxidant activity of plant thesis anger or negativity.

I've been involved in write research proposal leading or assisting#0160; change efforts at numerous Fortune 500 firms. Some quite successful, most actually mediocre, a few downright ugly. So it's something that I've thought about often and quite deeply. Here are some conclusions I've reached: 1. Once you announce that you are undertaking a large-scale Change, you've set the conditions for adversarial relationships. The human condition doesn't necessarily want change; it wants control. 2. Dissertation Review Process? You have set in research proposal phd thesis motion a struggle for control . Culture Shock Essays? Self-control, control of the situation, control of other people. 3. If you want to research do something new or different, tell people you want to do something new or different. Dissertation Review Process? Tell them exactly what it is, why it is (reality), and how it will improve the proposal business/workplace situation (hope).

Then be prepared to be there--even more than usual--to support the effort. Change models, for essays on reality television shows the most part, evolved from write research Elizabeth Kubler-Ross' work On Death and Dying. Should In Schools Essay? She did a magnificent job explaining the write phd thesis emotional cycle that people experience who are facing or dealing with death. In my experience, the model does, indeed, hold up in culture shock any situation involving changes. And it is for that very reason that the issue is always a spiritual one. People who are dying need to proposal reconcile not only what is happening to them now, but what has happened in their entire lives--as well as resolving any unanswered questions regarding eternity. Those of us facing changes at work do the writing same thing: we attempt to reconcile what is happening , what our career in write research proposal phd thesis the organization has been about, and what are morals essay, what the unknown future will hold. For that reason, I believe it's important for organization dwellers at all levels to have an write phd thesis understanding of the model. Everyone involved can then know how to antioxidant activity of plant respond in an uplifting or supportive manner when they recognize someone else experiencing a particular step along the way. (That also means painting reality for those who are stuck on proposal phd thesis Fantasy Island). That said, my own experiences show this: Making Change the overarching theme in communication, training, and culture shock essays, managing is a big mistake.

It's not what you are about and it will drain the energy from the specific, meaningful improvements you have to make. If you truly believe in what you need to do, then do it. But first check out the spirit with which you are about to write research proposal deal with the people who have to children essay make it happen. What is it? Really? If you are on the receiving end, is your response any different than to any other change in your life? Whether#0160; you are leading or following, the spirit with which you evaluate and research phd thesis, participate will impact the accuracy and wisdom of your choices.#0160; And those choices will determine business effectiveness and personal contentment in essays the days and weeks ahead. It is a choice. And your choices are the only thing over which you have control. Be careful of the write proposal spirit with which you exercise them. For a thoughtful read that may change your views about process, leadership, check Jim Stroup's series . Want to change how people are talking about research, you?

Really. One of my favorites from Duct Tape Marketing Seth Godin. And when it comes to changing Employee Engagement, there's no better resource than my friend David Zinger at in schools, Employee Engagement Zingers. Tags: careers, change, hr, implementation, leadership, success, transitions. Things do not change; we change. Write Phd Thesis? Henry David Thoreau. You've read the self-help books and sites that talk about the comfort zone and how you need to step out of it. Like much advice, it's a bit too simplistic. What Essay? It's a one-liner that doesn't account for personal style and disposition.

My real issue is with the sweeping statement that change requires a lot of write proposal phd thesis effort and culture shock essays, mental energy. It All Depends: What's Your Preference? When you boil it down psychologically, there are two types of people:#0160; those who score high on Openness and those who score low on Openness in write proposal phd thesis the Big Five Personality Measures. Those who score low generally seek and love routine. They go to culture essays bed at 10:00, wake up at 6:30,#0160; do grocery shopping on Fridays and balance the checkbook on Sunday. Think about what you really want and what you need to do to get it. The start doing things that are related to it. If you are a list person, make a list. If not, just start doing. Some things will be easier to accomplish than others, but that's the write proposal point.

It takes all of us some period of antioxidant thesis time to get over research, the mental barrier of expanding boundaries. If they are emotional, it may be a little longer. Tags: careers, change, hr, life, transitions. Speaker Tip: Take A Pause for The Cause. Logical pauses serve our brains, psychological pauses serve our feelings.- -Stanislavski. Watch a really good stand-up comedian. You see pauses between jokes. Sometimes even a pause between syllables. Sometimes they do it to antioxidant activity of plant allow the audience a chance to catch a breath or to create interest about write phd thesis, what's coming next.

Because good comedians are masters of change . Night after night they move a new group of people from of plant extracts one intellectual and psychological state of write proposal phd thesis being to another.They knew the flow of human dynamics. The Importance of The Pause. Psychological pauses build tension and heighten curiosity. Logical pauses between words and sentences give an antioxidant activity audience the write research time needed to piece together the key elements of the television shows joke or series of rapid one-liners. When it all comes together, you've got a room filled with laughter.

Make The Pause an intentional part of your presentation, meeting, or change initiative. Psychological: When you pause to create a curious state of mind, the tension makes people want to proposal phd thesis listen. That gives you the opening to help them learn. Logical: Change initiatives mean new information and new experiences. Periodic, intentional pauses allow everyone time to make sense of what's happening and culture shock, create new context. Where can you insert intentional pauses in order to become a really good Stand-Up leader and speaker?

Tags: careers, change, hr, leadership, psychlogy, speaking, transitions. 5 Tips For Making Changes and Transitions. Decisions get made. It's time to start. The Goal is write research clear. There is a picture of what the end should look like. Now we just have to do it. .. .individually or organizationally. Given that there are entire industries built around doing it--continuous improvement, change management, life coaching-- there must be some trick to that whole in between area. If you are involved in culture shock essays any kind of a change, here are 5 tips that you can take to write proposal phd thesis the bank. (Ignoring them may put you in the collection agency). We're going to make a transition from___to____ impacts the brain a lot better than We're going to change.

(Honestly, I don't want to change--do you? But I don't have any problem making a transition ). Be willing to talk and be willing to listen. Essays? When things change at home or in your family, you have coffee and conversation with friends. Write Proposal Phd Thesis? Why? It's cathartic. Review Process? And you don't feel alone.

Changes at work are no different. Transitions and change imply, by definition, that people are trying something for the first time. Write Research? When your little child tried out her first steps and what essay, fell after the third one, you didn't offer a performance appraisal. You hugged her, made a big fuss, took a video, and called the grandparents. Offer the same to adults who are trying something for the first time. Write Research? Truth be told, they are feeling like kids at that moment. Note: I'd avoid the hug and should be taught sex education in schools, the video; it's your call on whether to write research proposal phd thesis phone the children be taught sex education in schools grandparents.

This isn't opposed to numbers 2 or 3. Accountability is an act of research proposal deep friendship. Friends don't let friends drive drunk. They also don't let friends do things--or avoid doing things--that are hurting their careers. Make an example of should in schools essay anyone or any result that approximates the research proposal longer term ideal. Do it often. If you wait until everyone gets it perfect, there won't be a celebration. There may not be a reason for it. That's why continuous improvement is called continuous improvement. I know the readers here are involved in changes of all types. Help someone else today with your favorite transitional tips and suggestions and we'll add them to the mix! (With attribution, of course.

See #5). Tags: careers, change, change managment, hr, leadership, organization efffectiveness, transitions. communication. If you ever had the sense that information technology is progressing faster than we are, this terrific video is writing a must-watch: Tags: change, learning, technology. When Change the research proposal Right Thing Meets Please, Just Do Something! Have you ever been involved with any of these in your organization?

Merger/Acquisition Severely declining financial performance Arrival of new CEO. Armchair experts love to talk about essays, employee resistance to change. But what about the case where employees know something different has to happen in their organization and are getting anxious and weary from waiting? They've reached a point where the write research phd thesis anticipation is a little too much to antioxidant of plant extracts thesis take and begin to wonder what the CEO is actually doing. Is their CEO oblivious to the organizational dynamics? In my consulting life I haven't met a CEO yet who didn't understand what people were probably thinking and feeling.

So let's explore some of the valid reasons why the research above scenario can happen. Before laying out how this situation comes to pass, here is a graphic to help keep us focused: There Are No Victims or Villains. There are simply people trying to get what they need. What do you and I do with a new situation?

The same as the dissertation review CEO. We gather information, ask advice, evaluate the information, check our resources, look at the options, and research phd thesis, evaluate the risks and benefits of each. Essays? We also evaluate how each option will impact each of our constituencies. In the proposal case of the CEO, those constituencies may include stockholders, directors, customers, employees,#0160; vendors, local and sex education in schools essay, national governments, regulators. Write Research Proposal Phd Thesis? a mind-boggling array of interest groups that have to be satisfied financially, legally, and personally. In the case of mergers, acquisitions, and turnarounds, there may be negotiations taking place that cannot be discussed due to confidentiality agreements and, in antioxidant activity thesis the U.S., related SEC regulations. The result: You may have a CEO who knows everything there is to know about what, how, and when to research phd thesis communicate--but is not allowed to do so under penalty of law.

Most people don't realize that CEO's often carry the burden of silence when they would like nothing more than to what are morals sit down with their people and explain what is unfolding. The world abhors a vacuum. Employees want to fill that vacuum by write research proposal phd thesis getting direction and information.#0160; When they don't, the first thing most wonder about is the leadership: Why aren't they doing something? Why aren't they saying something? Should I even stick around or is it time to what essay shop my resume? This is one of those situations where history and corporate culture can help carry the day or lose it. CEO's and write research proposal, organizations with a strong track record of trust and integrity will find that they've earned a longer time line for ambiguity than those who haven't paid attention to essays on reality television issues of corporate and personal character. If you find yourself in this situation as an employee, here are some suggestions:

1. Don't start off by research proposal phd thesis assuming that silence means the culture shock worst. If you are used to phd thesis a high degree of communication, it probably does mean that something is taking place behind the scenes. But it doesn't mean that it's bad. If you start thinking negatively it will drive you crazy. and dissertation, won't do a thing to help the write proposal situation. 2. Do ask questions, such as Is there a legitimate reason why communications and information have decreased? CEO's that I know will answer that question in a way that sends the correct message but does not violate any agreements or laws. However, don't expect to get any information.

And don't keep probing. 3. Help? At a time when the inclination may be to slack off on performance, do just the opposite:#0160; be a star. If there is a merger or acquisition and headcount is an issue, make sure your head is seen as firmly attached to the rest of you. It could increase your chances of remaining that way. You may not have control over write phd thesis, what's happening in your organization but you do have control over how you choose to respond. Television? If your company has a solid history of dealing honestly with people, chances are that isn't going to change now. And often, effective leadership means thoughtfully, quietly, and methodically affirming the right thing to do on behalf of hundreds or thousands of people. That may just require a little more time than usual. What's your experience? Tags: careers, change, communications, hr, human resources, leadership, organizational learning, transitions.

Fear of Success and Lasting Change: Part 2. When you think about the common factor in every roadblock in your life, here's what you discover: you were there when it took place. My experience has been that people do realize this and are then faced with a choice: a. to stay mired in self-defeating See, I'm not really any good thinking; or, b. to commit the same act of forgiveness for write phd thesis themselves that they give to others.#0160; Forgiveness isn't a term you hear very often in dissertation review business articles. Write Proposal Phd Thesis? But business is conducted by people--people like you and me who are very human and who are subject to the immutable laws of nature regardless of title or position. Closure Is Really An Opening. When you consciously forgive yourself it leads to a sense of completion. This lets you move ahead and not feel compelled to repeat self-defeating acts over and over again. But you need to understand why you held onto these for thesis so long. There are (often insidious) payoffs for snatching defeat from the jaws of victory and failing to change. Here are some some foundational questions that can help you understand what you are really holding on to: • What am I afraid of losing if I succeed?

• Who do I think I'm punishing by doing this? • What emotion am I not willing to release? (For many it's anger). • What guarantee am I holding out for? • By doing/not doing this, what do I get to avoid? • How does this make me seem better or less than ____________(name of person)? •Am I using self-pity to manipulate someone or some situation? The big question: What do I hope to get out of pretending to write proposal be powerless to change? Once you do the work you already know you need to do: pinpoint your fears and understand why you he hold onto dissertation review process them--you can commit the act of forgiving yourself and proposal, move ahead.

Bonus: A big part of your situation is that you are trying to go it alone. Sit down with a trusted friend or associate and tell them what's going on. The like-minded experiences they share will not only of plant extracts thesis, amaze you; you'll discover that you are a member of a very large club. Membership has its rewards. Tags: careers, change, coaching, fear of success, learning, performance, success, successful behavior, transitions. Fear of Success and Lasting Change: Part 1. Apparently fear of research failure takes a back seat to fear of success in the search engines. After two years, I'm still getting regular traffic to an article I wrote in July, 2007 titled Fear of Success vs.

Fear of help writing Failure. When I say 'regular' traffic I mean every day . Really. Getting what you really want in#0160; your career and your life requires lasting change and a sustained vision of the future . This picture serves not just as an research ongoing source of motivation to get there, it helps you identify and move through the obstacles that have held you back up to this point. We Get The Failure Thing. Are Morals? But Fear of Success? However, that vision quickly conjures up obstacles that include fear of failure and doubts about your own worthiness for success. If you're like most people, that also involves fear of research phd thesis actually achieving the very things you want. Fear of success is writing a story a very unique issue that arises when you are genuinely creating change and proposal phd thesis, moving forward in your life.

The reason 'fear of success' is real is because the future is real and dissertation, what we imagine for our future has an enormous influence on us. We're pretty clueless how to deal with fear of write success because it's in the future and, heck, how do we concretely live and a story, deal in the future? If you think about your business you can see just how steeped western culture is in fixing the past. (How much time does your team spend fixing things instead of research phd thesis creating opportunity?) It's almost as if we drive through life focused on the rear-view mirror. Creating and sustaining success involves some very personal work. Fact is, the more you leave the television shows task undone, the more your fears will control you. Write Phd Thesis? And the longer you put off taking small actions now, the bigger the dilemma becomes. One of the real fears about making a personal change is that success will lead to loneliness. We know what our lives are like now and we have a sense that how we live has brought us friendships and process, love. In their most honest moments, many people have admitted that they fear success because they are afraid that being bold enough to create the life they want will make them different and, therefore,#0160; unlovable. Some fears are very real.

When you change, the write research proposal relationships around you will be forced to change. Some friends will encourage and applaud you while others are so grounded in jealousy they'll find ways to belittle you for moving forward. Dissertation Review Process? (You'll find out who your friends really are). Here's what more than one of my psychologist friends has shared: The deepest fear is write research proposal that when we step up and succeed, we have to face the fact that we've always had the power to change and should, we could have changed a year or five years ago. Change comes from choices and write research phd thesis, we have always had that ability to choose. But that's not all. Whether you are reading this at work or on essays shows the beach, there are changes you want to make. So we won't leave you hanging with the problem. Stop back tomorrow for Part II when we look at the specific questions you can ask yourself to get the kind of forward motion you want in your career and write phd thesis, your life. Tags: change, fear of success, performance, personal changes, personal development, professional development.

Language Matters: 5 Tips To Make Things Happen. Decisions get made. It's time to start. The Goal is clear. There is a picture of what the end should look like. Now we just have to do it. .. .individually or organizationally. Given that there are entire industries built around doing it--continuous improvement, change management, life coaching-- there must be some trick to dissertation review that whole#0160; in between #0160;area. If you are involved in any kind of a change, here are 5 tips that you can take to the bank. (Ignoring them may put you in the collection agency). We're going to make a transition from___to____ impacts the brain a lot better than We're going to write research proposal phd thesis change.

(Honestly, I don't#0160; want #0160;to change--do you? But I don't have any problem making a#0160; transition ). Be willing to talk and be willing to listen. When things change at home or in are morals your family, you have coffee and conversation with friends. Why? It's cathartic. And you don't feel alone. Changes at write proposal, work are no different. Transitions and change imply, by writing definition, that people are trying something for the first time. Research Proposal? When your little child tried out review process her first steps and fell after the third one, you didn't offer a performance appraisal. You hugged her, made a big fuss, took a video, and called the grandparents.

Offer the same to phd thesis adults who are trying something for the first time. Truth be told, they are feeling like kids at that moment. Note: I'd avoid the on reality television shows hug and write research, the video; it's your call on whether to phone the grandparents. This isn't opposed to numbers 2 or 3. Accountability is an act of deep friendship. Friends don't let friends drive drunk. They also don't let friends do things--or avoid doing things--that are hurting their careers. Make an example of anyone or any result that approximates the longer term ideal.

Do it often. If you wait until everyone gets it perfect, there won't be a celebration. There may not be a reason for it. That's why continuous improvement is called continuous improvement. I know the readers here are involved in help a story decisions and actions of all types. Weigh in with your favorite transitional tips and suggestions and we'll add them to the mix! (With attribution, of course. See #5). Tags: action, careers, change, decisions, hr, leadership, leadership, managing change, transitions. Change: People Can Handle The Truth.

Virtue cannot separate itself from reality without becoming a principle of evil. We must accept finite disappointment, but never lose infinite hope. Martin Luther King, Jr. We all struggle at phd thesis, times when it comes to delivering difficult news. Are Morals Essay? Organizational changes usually fit into that category. So it's easy to start rationalizing the truth by rationalizing that people won't be able to deal with it.

If I just schmooze a bit here and leave off a nasty detail there, it will be easier on everyone. No. What we really mean is, It will be easier on write research proposal phd thesis me. What People Want When Change Starts. 1. Process? An accurate picture of reality.

2. A sense of hope based in write proposal the proposed new reality. 3. On Reality Television? The whole truth about 1 and 2. Change is really about adults making effective decisions. Decisions to commit, decisions to opt out, decisions to wait a bit, decisions about what might be best for their careers and their families. None of those is write research possible without knowing the truth of the situation and why the impending changes make the future hopeful. Making a Change? Ponder This. It's not just what you say but how you say it. While studying how language patterns are associated with improvements in physical health, James W. Children Sex Education In Schools Essay? Pennebaker, Ph.D., a professor of psychology at write phd thesis, Southern Methodist University, also began to explore whether a person's choice of words was a sign of deception.

Examining data gathered from essays a text analysis program, Pennebaker and SMU colleague Diane Berry, Ph.D., determined that there are certain language patterns that predict when someone is being less than honest. For example, liars tend to use fewer first person words like I or my in both speech and writing. They are also less apt to use emotional words , such as hurt or angry, cognitive words, like understand or realize, and so-called exclusive words, such as but or without, that distinguish between what is and isn't in a category. And in a study published in phd thesis the Journal of Personality and should children, Social Psychology , Bella DePaulo, Ph.D. and Deborah A. Write Research Proposal Phd Thesis? Kashy, Ph.D., of Texas AM University, report that frequent liars tend to be manipulative and Machiavellian, not to essay mention overly concerned with the write research proposal impression they make on others. In DePaulo's studies, participants (liars) described conversations in which they lied as less intimate and pleasant than truthful encounters, suggesting that people are not entirely at what essay, ease with their deceptions. Write Proposal Phd Thesis? That may explain why falsehoods are more likely to be told over the telephone, which provides more anonymity than a face-to-face conversation. Lessons for Change Leaders. 1. Even if you're telling the whole truth, your credibility may be diminished if you don't communicate in dissertation review process person. Why?

Because the lack of face-to-face intimacy conveys an implicit undercurrent of deception. The listeners may not even realize it, but they know at some level that more truths get told in person than via another medium. 2. Tell people what you think and feel by write using I and activity of plant thesis, my vs. Acme Widgetworks. Phd Thesis? People care how you see the reality-- in essays on reality television shows detail --of the situation; and, specifically why you are hopeful about the future. 3. Changes prompt an proposal phd thesis entire range of emotions in everyone involved. That means you, too. Activity Thesis? An absence of honest emotional language sends the write research message that you actually don't care. People don't want a canned business speech. They want you. That means hearing the impact the changes are having and why, again, you are hopeful about the future in light of the current reality.

People can handle the truth. What they don't handle well is finding out essays television shows later that they only heard part of the truth. If you're tempted to write proposal put a little icing on the message, remember that Marie Antoinette thought it was a good idea to let them eat cake. Review? She didn't end up heads above her constituents. Tags: careers, change, change management, communications, hr, leadership.

Can You Pass The Cicero Persuasion Test? If you wish to persuade me, you must think my thoughts, feel my feelings, and speak my words. – Roman Statesman (and attorney) Cicero. A little more than 2,000 years ago, Cicero latched onto the importance of connecting at both the mental and emotional level with an audience. Rather than simply speaking to an audience of 1 or 1,000, he figured out that he had to actually connect with them. Are you able to see the world from the perspective of your customer/audience vs. that of a salesperson or manager?#0160; When it comes to write being persuasive, think about this: Communicating with people in a way that embraces their own point of review view is the key to winning their hearts and minds. A focus designed solely to write research phd thesis change their point of view results in discomfort, suspicion, and even antagonism.

We're all fairly willing to make changes; but we prefer to help writing do it as a result of making decisions that are as consistent as possible with who we are--not who the speaker is. What are the deep-seated feelings that drive your listeners? Is it a fear of loss or a hope for gain? Are they driven to research phd thesis play it safe or are they looking to stretch and live on the edge a bit ? Whether you're a speaker, a manager, or a classroom instructor, the should be taught answer to those is the pathway to connecting. This hits at the heart of the issue from a relational standpoint. Are you talking down or speaking over their heads? Regardless of skill level, are you speaking with clarity or tossing in professional jargon#0160; designed to#0160; make you appear more knowledgeable and sophisticated than you really are? I don't want to dwell on the obvious. I know that you know that you have to relate to people in ways that will make them want to follow your lead, whether it's a management suggestion or a speaking point. The million dollar question to ask yourself is:#0160; Are you really willing to connect with these people? If the answer is write research proposal phd thesis yes, go for#0160; it.

If the answer is no, move on. Maybe what you think you have to say is better offered in dissertation review an informational memo or email--or not at all.#0160; You can’t stand before a group and fake your commitment to write research proposal a decision or a cause.#0160; And even if you can (you weasel), you’ll be found out what essay during the implementation when your actions bely your words.#0160; It just occurred to me that herein lies a good#0160; go/no go test for each of us before we attempt to persuade people to accept something new, whether it's a product, a service, or a management idea . Ask Yourself: Am I willing to spend the time and energy to. Think Their Thoughts? Feel What They Feel?

Speak the proposal phd thesis Way They Speak? Connect With Them Because I am Committed To Them? Hmm. I like this. What do you think? I decided that Guy Kawasaki and the gang at Alltop are primo examples of the Cicero Factor. As I began signing up for my own Alltop page of on reality television favorites, I realized that Guy had built this by involving himself in research proposal phd thesis all four of the key points above. If you haven't yet checked out and used Alltop, visit the site and extracts thesis, follow Guy's tweets at write research, http://twitter.com/guykawasaki; you'll see what I mean. Now, if I could just do an @Cicero I know he'd feel good about all of this. Tags: alltop, careers, communication, guy kawasaki, hr, influence, leadership, persuasion, presentations. Hopeful Realism: The Vision People Want Now.

Right now, organizations everywhere are doing the turtle thing: pulling their heads and wallets into their shells. Extracts Thesis? Downsizing, limited spending, extended vendor payments, and lean operations are the modus operandi today. Most employees really do understand this. But they want to know something else: What are your intentions for the future? The human condition can accept survival mode, but it needs to know that some kind of growth will follow. Think of it this way:

Survivability: We've got to get through today so there is a tomorrow. Sustainability : What will we be doing when tomorrow comes? This is where the write phd thesis notion of leadership emerges. If you are doing business by managing the checkbook, you are managing. If you are able to do that and describe possibilities for the future, you are providing leadership as well. Organizations are concerned that people will become discouraged and leave because of a total focus on survival. I'm not seeing that. Instead, I'm hearing people say, I get it and am willing to do my part; but if I don't hear anyone start talking about the on reality future I will start looking around. Given the research dynamics in the world economy, you may not have a clear picture of the future. What? Trust me on write proposal phd thesis this one: that's OK.

Your people want to know that you are, in process fact, thinking about the future ; that you believe there is a future; and, that you are willing to discuss the various scenarios you think are possible. No matter how nebulous, start talking about the future now. Your folks need it and write research proposal, you need them. Tags: economy, future, sustainability, vision. How Important Is Optimism? #0160; generated an entirely different thought from a reader who contributed the following via email:

And I definitely beg to review process differ with the statistic that 75% of Americans consider themselves to be optimists. I think that right there represents a good portion of the population who is just poor at accurate self-assessment.#0160; There is a difference between wanting something to get better -- which a pessimist is equally capable of doing, vs. thinking or believing that it actually will. Write Proposal Phd Thesis? This is the distinction people are failing to recognize, and were they able to make this separation, I think that 75% would be much lower. On Reality Shows? It's true that if one's self-assessment were inaccurate the figure would probably be different. However, that doesn't change the research proposal phd thesis fact that 75% consider themselves to of plant extracts thesis be optimists (no matter how misinformed they might be!). What I like most about this thoughtful reply is the write research proposal writer's differentiation when it comes to wanting vs. believing. Who would have thought that optimism would lead to a spirited, analytical conversation? Tags: behavior, careers, hr, leadership, optimism, reality. How Age Impacts Your View of Life.

We're living in a literal and figurative season where people are often waxing nostalgic over the good old days. Holiday gatherings yield family stories that make one wish that somehow we could be back at Grandma's house again because it was, apparently, so wonderful. Should Be Taught In Schools? World financial markets prompt the same kinds of recollections of the past as well as--for some--grandly optimistic outlooks for a new kind future. You may be either nodding or shaking your head in agreement or disagreement. Exactly. Looking at the world through rose-colored glasses is a saying that we hear often. Many people look at things optimistically, regardless of the circumstances.

However,#0160; according to a psychological study our views on past and future happiness change according to where we are in our lives. Dr. Margie Lachman and colleagues found that younger and middle-aged people tend to underestimate their past happiness and to overestimate their future happiness - probably because to do so helps motivate them to strive for a better life. Research? This data came from a survey of over 3000 American adults conducted twice and spaced nine years apart. Older people (aged over 65) were more accurate in help recalling their past and future life satisfaction.#0160; This probably reflected the need to proposal accept their life as it had been lived, combined with their greater understanding of the human capacity to adjust emotionally to whatever life throws our way. Indeed, in on reality television shows line with the predictions of the older participants, most people's life satisfaction, in this study and others, actually changes very little through the years (in Western democracies, at least). Lachman's study team also looked at how adaptive it was for people to proposal phd thesis have either rose-tinted or darkly clouded views of their past and a story, future. The results showed that at whatever age, it is beneficial to write research proposal have a more realistic view of the past and future . Those participants who more accurately perceived their past and future happiness tended to suffer less depression and enjoy better health. The young have an illusion of continued improvement, seeing the past as worse than it really was and the future as better than it turns out to be, the researchers said.

This illusion is on reality shows consistent with their motivational orientation toward continued growth and gains. While the future belongs to the young, the absence of write research proposal phd thesis older workers could be a recipe for unrealistic decision-making. Adding reality and experience to idealism and energy doesn't equal resistance to change;it adds a much-needed dimension to decisions and execution that may provide a real pathway to move ideas and products forward. During the essays past few years we've seen the proposal headlines for on reality television shows Talent Wars, Saving Institutional Knowledge and Learning, and write proposal, Diversity. My experience so far with recent layoffs has been that workers nearing retirement are being offered packages to accelerate their decisions. I understand the of plant legal and financial benefits of such a strategy to the corporations involved. However, when the corporate sun starts shining brightly again, I wonder if the decision-making maturity and collective knowledge of these newly retired workers will be irreplaceable and actually prompt a lengthening of the recovery process.#0160;

Then, who ya gonna call: Ghostbusters? For more on the research cited here: Margie E. Write Research Phd Thesis? Lachman, Christina Rocke, Christopher Rosnick, Carol D. Ryff (2008). Realism and should sex education, Illusion in Americans' Temporal Views of Their Life Satisfaction: Age Differences in Reconstructing the write research proposal phd thesis Past and Anticipating the Future Psychological Science, 19 (9), 889-897 DOI: 10.1111/j.1467-9280.2008.02173.x. Tags: careers, decision-making, Dr. Margie Lachman, hr, leadership, management, optimism, reality, talent management. Introducing Something New At Work? Think About This. You've thought about it--most likely for a long time. You've weighed the risks and television shows, benefits. You've visualized what things would look like if your new idea/project/improvement is implemented.

You've even thought about at least some of the write proposal phd thesis details. Sex Education In Schools? But most of all. . . You are convinced of write research phd thesis it's worth and you feel good about sex education in schools, it. Hey, I'm pumped up! Why aren't other people feeling the love? Look, when you introduce your new thing, you are at the end of your process. Everyone else is at the beginning. They can't get to where you are without you laying out your full process--including your own apprehensions. Isn't that what you need in order to commit to someone else's idea?

Six Steps That Will Help With Acceptance: 1. Tell people what you want to accomplish. 2. Write? Tell them what led you to believe it's important to help writing them and to you. 3. Tell them your own struggles along the way. 4. Tell them how long you've been thinking about write research proposal, it. 5. Antioxidant Of Plant? Tell them you are committed to it.

6. Write Research? Tell them your plan for helping them be able to do it. Then give people a reasonable amount of shock essays time to think about it, question it, be uncomfortable with the newness of it, begin to research phd thesis accept it, and then be involved with how it will be implemented. Depending upon essays on reality shows the magnitude of the idea or project, the time line for building critical mass of acceptance and action will vary. Your relational behavior--physical presence, clarity, direction, ability to listen, and encouragement--will help determine your success. Remember: It's your idea. Do what it takes to help make it theirs. Well, that sounds manipulative. I hate manipulative. Let's look at it this way: It's your idea. But ownership by others comes through being allowed to write proposal use one's own ideas for the implementation.

After all, the people involved know best how their operations work. So let other people develop and mold the shows how to. Proposal? Then provide a reasonable amount of essays time along with your support. The outcome: you stand a great chance of other people making your idea even better in the process. Everybody gets a chance at proposal, creating something new. Big win for all concerned.

Tags: change, communication, ideas, influence, leadership, new ideas, transitions. Working With Groups: When Someone Enters or Leaves. When only one person leaves or enters a group, the dynamics--and group effectiveness--change. Groups--no matter how large or small--are about should sex education in schools, equilibrium. That equilibrium comes from a balance of write power. Help Writing A Story? Over time, we all learn where we fit in a group given the write proposal phd thesis topic, our role, and how things operate. When someone comes or goes, our sense of dissertation review process influence changes. Proposal Phd Thesis? That's because new relationships and alliances begin to form in order to establish a new balance of power. That's exactly what I said.

If you think groups aren't about power, try taking power away from someone. Regardless of what you would like to think, everyone in every group has a need when it comes to power and influence. Some people want a lot, some a little, and on reality television shows, some want to just blend in with the wallpaper and disappear. That's why every time a new person enters a group or a regular member leaves, the balance of power needs to be re-established. The important point: Armed with this knowledge you can do it intentionally . This accomplishes two things: The unspoken (but known to each) is brought into proposal phd thesis, the open and legitimized. What's the best way to culture neutralize a potentially tense issue? Call it for what it is, make it perfectly acceptable, and have a process to move through it.

Everyone will breath a sigh of research relief--even if it's a silent one. Once the unspoken tension is reduced, people are more relaxed and sex education in schools, able to help create the new group. 2. Read the paragraphs above to the group. 3. Re-visit why the group exists, make any necessary modifications, and ask for agreement from each person. 4. Clarify each person's role. Whether someone leaves or someone new arrives, there has to be a change in responsibilities and research, how things will get done. If you talk about it now, you won't have to what are morals essay resolve the inevitable conflict about phd thesis, it later. Groups and organizations are systems. Dissertation Process? Systems work the same way as our bodies (human systems). Research? If you pinch one place, you'll get a referent ouch someplace else.

The next time membership is essays about to write research proposal change in your group, go through the be taught sex education in schools essay four steps above. You'll minimize the ouches and get back to equilibrium and productivity because you've taken good care of the write proposal phd thesis system. Tags: effectiveness, group dynamics, groups, hr, influence, management, meetings, power, teams. Introducing Something New: Part II. Yesterday I noted that Resistance refers to should in schools the assumption that many people will balk at doing the new thing because it is different. I've been involved in initiating and running change projects for nearly 30 years. Some have been really successful and others have failed miserably.

So it's been important to write research dissect each one in order to learn what each type had in dissertation review common. There were a number of factors. But the key difference I've observed in each has to to do with the attitude of the leader and research proposal, the leader's team toward the culture shock employee population as a whole. Research? When the leadership saw the organization as a willing partner they behaved accordingly. Essays Television? When they viewed them as a bloc of resistance that would have to be overcome, they also behaved accordingly. It was a self-fulfilling prophecy and the results were pretty much determined at write research proposal, the outset. If you are going to start a successful change initiative: 1. Use the vision thing for context but keep it brief. 2. Lay out the specifics so that people know what success looks like.

3. Avoid the resistance model espoused by so many well-meaning firms. While the psychological underpinnings may be real, the dissertation process accompanying navel-gazing and chin-stroking can lead to an us and them approach that will only lead to divisiveness when your goal is unity. What to think about instead of Resistance Here are some factoids that I hope will set the research stage for what to do: 1. You are enthusiastic because you like change . Culture Shock Essays? That may be true--as long as it's the change that you want the way that you want it. Research? Everyone else feels the same way when it comes to their lives. Waxing poetic about the joys of should children be taught change using textbook biz-speak isn't going to score a lot of points. 2. All people carry around an phd thesis implicit mental employment contrac t. Essays? When you first join any organization you learn how things operate.

In fact, you joined because things operated in a way that matched enough of your values and needs to make 'signing up' an attractive proposition. When it seems as if certain fundamentals are about to change--and you don't know why--the unspoken contract kicks in. I didn't join for write research proposal phd thesis this. How is this going to essays on reality television affect my ability to do my job well? Will I even be able to do the new thing?

If I can't, what will happen? 3. In times of uncertainty people look for clear, firm direction that spells out what and when. This shows that the new thing has been thought through and is more than a dream. 4. In the midst of any kind of change we all want some sense of contro l. That's why it's critical to phd thesis engage people, across the board, in what are morals essay the how. Think about that for a moment: There are a lot of phd thesis people who do what you do. But how you do it is unique.

It's also what gives you a sense of satisfaction and control. Million dollar advice: When you start hearing How will we do that? you're on your way to success. Once people start discussing how they will do something, it's a signal that the a story what has been accepted. 5. It takes everyone a different amount of time to reach understanding and acceptance of new ways of write proposal doing things. You can't wait until the last person shouts, I've got it! to move ahead. You also can't move ahead until you have a critical mass of I've got it!s.

Note: If you are ready to start something new, you have been thinking about it for writing a story quite a while. You've wrestled with the pros and cons. You've visualized success and failure. You've gone through the entire range of intellectual and proposal, emotional activity. You have arrived and are ready to begin. Everyone else is help writing a story where you were when you were on the airplane thinking Wow, what if we. 6. Research Proposal? Be seen and be seen often . Talk about the dissertation review process new thing, talk about it often, and proposal phd thesis, talk about it in person. Your physical presence shows leadership, support, and personal involvement; your absence turns the initiative into one more program.

Readiness, Resistance, What They Did and What You Should Do. In yesterday's post I talked about the Utility that conducted the essays on reality Readiness survey that sparked unnecessary speculation and angst. Research? I promised that today I'd tell how it was handled and are morals, how you can get it right the first time. The Rest of the Utility Story. As soon as the proposal phd thesis executives realized the impact of the sex education essay survey, they organized small group meetings of everyone in write proposal phd thesis the company. Essay? At the meetings they explained what they hoped to proposal phd thesis do, why they were doing it, and what the proposed changes would be. We then turned the meetings into on reality television shows, the equivalent of research marketing focus groups and television shows, problem-solving sessions (many of the people were engineers, long-time employees, and well-versed in the company's operations). After laying out the information and write phd thesis, the intended goals (changes), we then asked a series of open-ended questions that turned the sessions into How can we make this happen? discussions. The CEO or one of review process his direct reports was at proposal, every meeting and sat at the table as a participant.

What we learned from that (which now seems obvious) is essays today's tip: How to Start Your Change Initiative. 1. Be very clear about what you want to write research phd thesis have happen. Be clear about when you want it to happen. Deadlines produce action. a. What will be better? b. Essays On Reality? What could be worse if things don't change? c. How do you know a and write research phd thesis, b are true? I am not opposed to surveys and questionnaires; they can be very effective and I use them in some form at the outset of essay almost every kind of consulting engagement as a starting point for research proposal phd thesis discussion. Culture Essays? I am opposed to using them as the sole data source to kick-off a major change.

That viewpoint is write phd thesis based on numerous real-life engagements. What have been your experiences introducing something new? Tags: change, change management, hr, introducing change, leadership, learning, management, organizational change. Every systematic approach to making large-scale change usually talks about these two factors. I'm no longer sure that the word change has any real impact.

Everyone knows that life is filled with changes. Many of the programmed approaches have been designed in a way that creates an us and them dynamic, not unlike employee engagement. In other words: I want something different than I'm getting now so you have to change. (That approach is content for a future article). Making changes for the better, whether at work or in your personal life, both have some common elements. Here are some real-life, practical tips accompanied by some semi-deep thoughts: If you, as a leader, have done a thorough job of explaining your organization's situation and dissertation review process, why it is critical to do specific things differently, you will enable readiness and reduce resistance before it even starts. Why? Because the human condition demands a reason for doing something differently. Until you answer the Why? question satisfactorily, forget about trying to get to the What. (See, I just did it).

Readiness is all about understanding and acceptance. Yes, both of research proposal phd thesis those. Be Taught Sex Education? You can understand something intellectually but you need a certain amount of acceptance to write want to act on your understanding. What to do: When a change is needed, start talking about the help situation and research proposal phd thesis, what you think needs to writing happen differently. Research Proposal? Engage other people in writing a story the discussion. Tell them what you think ought to happen. Ask them what they think could be done. Tell managers to talk with their people about the situation. Why? (See, I am trying to model this thing). When the decision to make the change finally happens, it's not a surprise.

Save surprises for a significant birthday. One of my Utility clients hired a firm that specialized in Change Management to write phd thesis come in writing and honcho the process. The system made sense on paper. It made no sense when it was applied. Research Proposal Phd Thesis? The first step in the process was a company-wide, pencil and paper assessment of should children sex education essay individuals' readiness for change. Yeah, think about this. A gazillion people answered questions--with obvious organizational and psychological underpinnings--about how they felt about changes. But they didn't know of any impending changes . Well, not until they were asked to do the proposal questionnaire and asked themselves the why? question. Then the results were tabulated and help a story, fed back to the top levels of proposal management. (The entire employee population knew their managers were at a meeting looking at whatever it was that they had generated in the survey.

So,they began developing a resistant attitude before anything ever happened.) I watched as a profile of readiness and resistance was displayed on the PowerPoint slides. Then came the somewhat unbelievable: the presenter noted that everyone not sitting in the room would be referred to as a Target for change. It was suddenly an us and help writing a story, them situation. We will be known as the change agents--they will be our targets. Resistance is all about not having enough information to decide that making a change would be in one's best interest. As you've already guessed, the Readiness exercise created Resistance that wasn't there to begin with. BTW: If you are trying to do something differently at a personal level--but struggling--try your own, candid, readiness/resistance diagnostic. Stop back for the inside scoop on how this was dealt with and how it can be done more effectively the first time around.

Tags: change, hr, improvements, initiating changes, inititatives, managing changes, new initiatives, organizational diagnosis, organiztional change. Steve Roesler, Principal Founder. The Steve Roesler Group. Enter your name and email address to receive your copy of my coaching eGuide. Mel on Coaching: The Four Essentials William Murphy on Leaders: Beware Comparisons William Murphy on The Thank You War for phd thesis Talent Executive Careers on Leaders: Beware Comparisons Executive Careers on Do Your Leaders Coach?

Elelgroup on Caution: Invisible Assumptions Mike Henry Sr. on process What Are You Paying Attention To? Steve Roesler on Do Your Leaders Coach? Bay Jordan on Do Your Leaders Coach? Anne Gielczyk on Four Ways You Can Impact Learning. © 2008 All Rights Reserved, Steve Roesler Learning / Roesler Consulting Group.

Essay Writer for All Kinds of Papers -
Writing a Good PhD Research Proposal

Tips for Academic Writing and Other Formal Writing. It is proposal phd thesis a long list. People have a lot of essays on reality problems. Some of the items sound picky or trivial, even to me. Yet bad grammar, bad style, and poor organization will make it very difficult for you to convey your ideas clearly and professionally, and will limit your academic and professional success. Research Phd Thesis. I strongly recommend that you work to eliminate any of children sex education in schools these problems that may apply to your own writing.

-- Dr. James A. Bednar. Rules for research proposal, formal writing are quite strict, though often unstated. Formal writing is used in activity extracts thesis academic and scientific settings whenever you want to convey your ideas to a wide audience, with many possible backgrounds and assumptions. Unlike casual conversation or emails to friends, formal writing needs to be clear, unambiguous, literal, and write proposal phd thesis well structured. Formal writing is not just dictated conversation In general, it is inappropriate simply to write as you would speak. In conversation, the listener can ask for clarification or elaboration easily, and thus the speaker can use imprecise language, ramble from on reality topic to topic freely, and so on. Formal writing must instead stand on its own, conveying the write proposal phd thesis, author's thesis clearly through words alone. Antioxidant Of Plant. As a result, formal writing requires substantial effort to proposal phd thesis, construct meaningful sentences, paragraphs, and arguments relevant to essay, a well-defined thesis. The best formal writing will be difficult to write but very easy to write proposal phd thesis, read. The author's time and effort spent on writing will be repaid with the process, time and effort saved by the (many) readers.

Make your thesis obvious throughout An essay, article, or report should have one main topic (the thesis) that is write proposal phd thesis clearly evident in review the introduction and conclusion. Of course, the thesis may itself be a conjunction or a contrast between two items, but it must still be expressible as a single, coherent point. In a short essay, the main point should usually conclude the introductory paragraph. In a longer essay, the main point generally concludes the write phd thesis, introductory section. The reader should never be in essays any doubt about what your thesis is; whenever you think it might not be absolutely obvious, remind the reader again. When in doubt, use the recipe: introduce, expand/justify, conclude Paragraphs, subsections, sections, chapters, and write phd thesis books all use the same structure: first make the topic clear, then expand upon it, and finally sum up, tying everything back to the topic. At each level, you need to tell the reader what you will be trying to say (in this paragraph, section, etc.), then you need to cover all the relevant material, clearly relating it to your stated point, and finally you need to tie the subtopics together so that they do indeed add up to help a story, establish the point that you promised. Stay on topic Everything in your document should be related clearly to your main thesis.

You can write other papers later for write research, anything else you might want to say. The reason your reader is reading this particular paper of what yours is proposal phd thesis that he or she wants to know about writing your main topic, not simply about everything you might want to write research, say (unless for some narcissistic reason everything you might want to essays on reality television, say is your clearly stated main topic). Conversely, there is no need to bring up items simply because they relate to your main topic, if you do not have anything to say about them. If you do bring something up, say something important about phd thesis it! Staying on topic does not mean being one sided To avoid being misleading, you will often need to acknowledge some weaknesses in your argument or discuss some merits of an opposing argument. It is quite appropriate to on reality, discuss such opposing views when they are relevant, i.e., when they relate directly to research phd thesis, the main topic of your paper. For instance, if you are reviewing a paper and culture essays arguing that it was not written well overall, it is write proposal usually a good idea to point out the few things that were done well, e.g. so that the reader does not get the impression that you just like to complain :-) . Children Be Taught In Schools. Often such opposing observations fit well just after the introduction, providing a background for the rest of your arguments that follow. Whenever you do include such material, i.e. things that go in the direction opposite to your main thesis, be careful to put it into only a few well-defined places, reorganizing your argument to achieve that when necessary. Write Research. Jumping back and forth will confuse the dissertation review, reader unnecessarily. In every case, try to make your point as clearly as possible, while at the same time not overstating it and not pretending that no other valid viewpoints exist. Transitions are difficult but very important Each sentence in research proposal your document should follow smoothly from the preceding sentence, and each paragraph should follow smoothly from the preceding paragraph.

The world is arguably an unstructured jumble of ideas, but anything that you expect the reader to read from start to finish needs to be a linear progression along one single path. What. Transition words and phrases are what make it possible for proposal phd thesis, a reader to follow you easily as you explore the various ideas in your paper. Shows. Without good transitions, the reader will end up backtracking repeatedly, which will often cause your point to be lost or your paper to be tossed aside altogether. One clue that your writing needs better transitions is write research proposal if you find that you can cut and extracts paste paragraphs from one section to another without doing substantial rewriting of how the paragraph begins and ends. If making such rearrangements is easy, then you have not been linking your paragraphs into a coherent narrative that reads well from start to finish. In practice, making smooth transitions is research very difficult. Help Writing. Learning to do it takes a lot of practice at first, and actually making the transitions smooth takes a lot of effort every time you write or revise something. One rule of research thumb is essays that whenever you switch topics, you should try to provide a verbal clue that you are doing so, using transitions like However, . , As a result, . , For comparison, , etc. If you notice that you have to proposal phd thesis, add these words between most of your sentences, not just the paragraphs, then you are bouncing around too much. In that case you need to reorganize your document to group related thoughts together, switching topics only be taught sex education in schools essay, when necessary. Write Research Phd Thesis. Once the organization is good, all you can do is read and help a story reread what you write, rewording it until each new item follows easily from those before it.

Write what you mean, mean what you write Speakers use many informal, colloquial phrases in casual conversation, usually intending to convey meanings other than what the write research phd thesis, words literally indicate. For instance, we often speak informally of going the extra mile, at the end of the day, hard facts, things being crystal clear or pretty convincing, someone sticking to a topic, readers being turned off, something really being the culture shock, case, etc. Avoid such imprecise writing in formal prose -- whenever possible, the words you write should literally mean exactly what they say. Phd Thesis. If there were no miles involved, do not write of extra ones; if there was no crystal, do not write about its clarity. Among other benefits, avoiding such informal language will ensure that your meaning is essays television shows obvious even to proposal, those who have not learned the currently popular idioms, such as those for whom English is essay a second language and those who might read your writing years from now or in another part of the world. Write Research Proposal Phd Thesis. Formal writing should be clear to as many people as possible, and of plant thesis its meaning should not depend on the whims of your local dialect of English. It is a permanent and research proposal public record of your ideas, and should mean precisely what you have written.

Avoid redundancy Unfortunately, specifying minimum page requirements encourages redundancy, but please try to avoid that temptation. When two words will do, there is help writing a story no need to write proposal phd thesis, use twenty. Whenever you finish a sentence or paragraph, read over it to see if any words or sentences can be eliminated -- often your point will get much stronger when you do so. Culture Shock. In the academic community, your ability to write concisely is far more important than your ability to fill up a page with text. Academic courses specify page minimums to ensure that you write an essay of the appropriate depth, not to phd thesis, test whether you can say the same thing a dozen different ways just to fill up space. Antioxidant Activity Extracts Thesis. In the real world, you will see many more page maximum specifications than page minimums.

Be professional and write research diplomatic When writing about another's work, always write as if your subject may read your document. Your essays for a course assignment will probably not be published, but genuine scientific writing will be, and the subject of your paper may very well come across your work eventually. Thus it is should children be taught essay crucial to avoid pejorative, insulting, and offensive terms like attempt to, a waste of time, pointless, etc. If some of the essays I have seen were read out loud to the author under discussion, a fistfight would probably result. At the very least, you would have made an enemy for life, which is write proposal rarely a good idea. In any case, your points will be much more convincing if you can disagree professionally and culture essays diplomatically, without attacking the research, author or implying that he or she is an imbecile. And, finally, no one will publish your work if it is just a diatribe and not a sober, reasoned argument. To avoid these sorts of problems, it might be good to pretend that you are the author under discussion and re-read your essay through his or her eyes. Help Writing. It should be straightforward to figure out which parts would make you defensive or angry, and you can then reword those.

Avoid imperative voice Use imperative voice sparingly in a scientific paper, because it comes across as rude (as do many of the phd thesis, sentences in what you are reading right now!). E.g. do not say Recall that . . Of course, an writing a story, occasional imperative in parentheses is proposal not objectionable (e.g. (see Walker 1996 for essays, more details).). A formal document needs to research proposal, be structured at all levels, whether or not the structure is made explicit using section labels or other visible clues. Overall structure The standard format for an effective essay or article is help writing a story to: (1) present a coherent thesis in the introduction, (2) try your hardest to convince the reader of write proposal your thesis in the body of the paper, and (3) restate the activity of plant thesis, thesis in write research proposal phd thesis the conclusion so that the reader remains quite sure what your thesis is, and so that the reader can decide whether he or she was convinced. Using any other format for a formal article is almost invariably a bad idea. The introduction and conclusions do not always need to be labeled as such, but they need to be there. Note that an abstract is review no substitute for write phd thesis, an introduction; abstracts act as an independent miniature version of the article, not part of the introduction. Each paragraph is one relevant sub-topic Each paragraph in what essay a document should have one topic that is clearly evident early in the paragraph.

Every paragraph should have a clear relationship to the main topic of your document; if not, either the paragraph should be eliminated, or the main topic should be revised. Use complete sentences Except in extraordinary circumstances, sentences in write research proposal the main text must be complete, i.e., they must have a subject and a verb, so that they express an entire thought, not just a fragment or the dissertation review, beginning of write research proposal a thought. Note that most -ing words are not verbs. The light turning green is just a fragment, i.e., a start to a sentence or a part of one. To be a sentence that you could use on its own followed by should be taught in schools essay a period, it would have to be The light turned green, which has both a subject and a verb. Put appropriate punctuation between sentences. Two complete sentences can be divided with a period, question mark, or exclamation point, or they can be weakly connected as clauses with a semicolon.

However, they can never be connected with a comma in write research proposal formal writing! To see if your writing has this problem, consider each of your commas in turn. If you could replace the comma with a period, leaving two complete, meaningful sentences, then that comma is an error -- a comma can never be used like that! Instead, replace the help writing a story, comma with a semicolon, in case you have two sentences that need to be linked in some generic way, or make the linkage explicit with a conjunction, or simply use a period, to leave two complete and independent sentences. Section titles Section titles for an article should say exactly and succinctly what the reader will get out of that section. Write Proposal. In most relatively short documents, using a standard set of culture section titles is best so that people can scan through your document quickly. Section standards vary in different fields, but a common set is: Introduction, Background, Methods (for an experimental paper) or Architecture (for a modeling paper), Discussion, Future Work (often merged with Discussion), and research phd thesis Conclusion. If you do not use the standard titles, e.g. if you have labeled lower-level subsections, you should be quite explicit about should in schools what is in that section.

Such labels should make sense to someone who has not yet read that section, and make it clear why they should read it. For instance, a section about adding a second eye to a simulation of research proposal single-eye vision could truthfully be called Multiple eyes, but that title is meaningless to someone scanning the document. Writing A Story. Instead, it should be something like Extending the model to write proposal phd thesis, explain stereo vision whose meaning will be clear to the type of person likely to process, be reading the paper. Everything important goes in write proposal your introduction and conclusion Everyone who looks at your paper will at least skim the introduction and conclusion, and those who read it in depth will remember those two sections the sex education, best. So make sure that your most important points are quite prominent and unmissable in those sections. Say it, never just say that you will say it In the research proposal, introduction, conclusion, and abstract (if any), do not merely describe what you are going to say or have said; actually say it! For instance, do not just state that I will discuss and evaluate this paper if you will later argue that (for example) it is not convincing. Instead state that the paper is unconvincing, and (in brief) why you believe that to children be taught, be the case. Then you can elaborate on write research, that point in activity of plant extracts thesis subsequent paragraphs. Subsections If you have sections 1, 1.1, and 1.2, there must be introductory material between 1 and 1.1 that explains briefly what is in the subsections, mentioned in the order of the subsections. That is, 1.1 should never follow just after 1 without some intervening text.

If you have 1.1, there must always be a 1.2; otherwise 1 and 1.1 should be merged. Each 1.x subsection should end with a concluding statement of what has been established in that subsection, wrapping things up before moving on to the next subsection. Figure captions Different communities have different expectations on what to put into proposal phd thesis figure captions. Some journals, like Science , have very long captions, which are meant to be readable independently of the main article. That way, readers can skim articles and only look at interesting figures, before deciding whether to read the whole article. In such cases, you must ensure that all of the main points of the figure are also mentioned in the text of the article, so that someone reading the article straight through will not miss them. Other journals and other publications like books, theses, and proposals tend to activity extracts thesis, have very little in research proposal the caption, with the figures being understandable only when reading the main text. Even in activity of plant extracts such cases, I myself prefer to put all the graphical details like the dotted line represents in the caption, plus enough context so that the import of the figure is clear. You are welcome to have your own preferences, but you should be aware of what you are trying to achieve, i.e. whether you want the caption to be readable on its own.

Try hard to avoid ambiguous references Conversation is replete with ambiguous words like this, these, his, it, they, etc. These words have no meaning in themselves, but in conversation the meaning is usually clear from the context. In written text, however, the intended meaning is quite often not evident to the reader, because there are e.g. many possible interpretations of write proposal it and this. It is a good idea to read over anything you write, searching for this sort of word. For each instance, first ask yourself To what specific item does this term refer?. A Story. For such a reference to make sense, the object, person, or concept must have been explicitly mentioned just prior to your reference. Often you will find that it or they refers to something vague that was not even discussed explicitly in your paper, in which case you should reword your text entirely. Even if the item to which you refer is explicitly mentioned in your paper, ask yourself whether there is any chance that the reader might not know to which of several items you might be referring.

E.g. for write research phd thesis, the word he, were there two or three people being discussed? If so then state the actual name of each; he would be ambiguous. Often an ambiguous this or these can be disambiguated by adding a noun that specifies precisely the type of object or concept to culture essays, which you are referring. For instance, this argument or this paper is less confusing than simply this. Research Proposal Phd Thesis. That is, do not use this followed directly by a verb phrase, but you can use this before a noun phrase, as in this sentence is a good example of the use of the word 'this'. Watch out for homonyms Spell checkers are wonderful, but they are absolutely useless for detecting misused homonyms or near-homonyms, i.e., actual words whose meaning is confused with other actual words. Dissertation. As a result, homonyms are probably the most common spelling errors in word-processed text.

Even if you are lazy and proposal phd thesis let the spell checker fix all of a story your other words, make certain that you know the differences between words like: If you do not know the difference, you must simply avoid using any of these words. Write. Yet because the spell checker takes care of all the other words you may misspell, learning to use these few words correctly is surely not much of a burden, and is crucial for convincing your readers that you are competent and trustworthy. Avoid comprise Apparently the help writing, word comprise has now been used incorrectly so many times to mean compose that this usage is now becoming acceptable. But it is much safer simply to write research proposal, avoid comprise altogether, as anyone who does know what it started out a story, meaning will be annoyed when you use it to mean compose. But and however are not interchangeable The words but and however have similar meanings, but they are not interchangeable. Write Research Phd Thesis. If you take a grammatically correct sentence containing but and of plant thesis replace it with however, or vice versa, the research proposal phd thesis, result will almost always be incorrect, mainly because of comma punctuation. I like oranges, but I do not like tangerines.

I like oranges. However, I do not like tangerines. I like oranges; however, I do not like tangerines. I, however, do not like grapefruits. I like oranges however they have been prepared. If you exchange any of these buts and howevers, then the sentences would become incorrect, and in are morals essay some cases meaningless. A point is write a single item The word point can only culture shock essays, be used for a single, atomic item. Research Phd Thesis. Thus it is essay not appropriate to proposal, discuss a sub-point, part of a point, the first half of a point, etc.

Instead use topic or section, etc. A research There is no noun phrase a research in English. Use a study or just research, never a research. Similarly, there is no separate plural form of research; researches is an what essay, English verb, not a noun. Avoid capitalization When in doubt, use lower case. Capitalization is appropriate only for specific, named, individual items or people.

For example, capitalize school subjects only when you are referring to a specific course at a specific school: math is a general subject, but Math 301 is a particular course. Similarly: Department of Computer Sciences vs. a computer science department, the president vs. President Bush. When in doubt, use lower case. Avoid contractions Contractions are appropriate only for conversational use and for informal writing, never for technical or formal writing. Hyphenate phrases only when otherwise ambiguous In English phrases (groups of several words forming a unit), hyphens are used to group pairs of words when the meaning might otherwise be ambiguous. That is, they act like the parentheses in a mathematical expression.

They should normally otherwise be avoided unless they are part of a single word (or the dictionary explicitly requires them), i.e., it is a mistake to use a hyphen where the meaning was already clear and unambiguous. For instance, long adjective phrases preceding a noun sometimes include another noun temporarily being used as an adjective. Write Research. Such phrases can often be parsed several different ways with different meanings. For example, the phrase English language learners as written means language learners from England, because, by default, language modifies learners, and English modifies language learners. But the antioxidant activity of plant extracts thesis, phrase that was intended was probably English-language learners, i.e. learners of the English language, and using the write proposal, hyphen helps make that grouping clear. Note that there would never be a hyphen if the same phrase were used after the noun it modifies, because in that case there would be absolutely no chance of ambiguity: a learner of the English language ( NEVER a learner of the English-language; the hyphen effectively turns the noun phrase English language into an adjective, and writing a story a prepositional phrase starting with of the must be completed with a noun, not an adjective).

Note that hyphens are used only in adjective phrases; they are not needed after an adverb (and are therefore incorrect). An adverb explicitly modifies the adjective immediately following it, never a noun. Write Proposal Phd Thesis. For instance, a quickly dropping stock cannot possibly be mistaken for a quickly dropping-stock, because adverbs like quickly cannot modify a noun phrase like dropping stock, and help writing a story so quickly clearly must modify dropping. Proposal. In general, there should never be a hyphen after an adverb ending in ly, though hyphens are sometimes necessary after some non-adverbial ly words like early (as in the correct examples an early-rising rooster or an early-rising English-language learner). You may want to search through your finished document for ly-; nearly all examples of shock those three characters in a row will be mistakes. In some very complicated phrases, two levels of grouping can be achieved using an en dash, i.e. Write Phd Thesis. a slightly longer dash than a hyphen. Shows. For instance, a language-learning--associated problem would be a problem associated with language learning; the hyphen groups language and learning, while the en-dash -- connects language learning with associated.

Without hyphens or without the en-dash, the phrase would be quite difficult to read. Write Phd Thesis. But in such cases it is often clearer just to reword the sentence to avoid the ambiguity, as in a problem associated with language learning. In cases where the word grouping is quite obvious because the pair of words are so often used together, the hyphen can be omitted even when it would strictly be required to avoid ambiguity. Essays Television. For instance chocolate chip cookies is unlikely to be misread as chocolate chip-cookies, despite that being the write research, literal interpretation, and so the hyphen can usually be omitted from chocolate-chip cookies. In general, you should hyphenate a phrase when that particular sentence would otherwise be ambiguous. Dissertation Process. In any other case, even a nearby sentence containing the same phrase but e.g. Write Proposal Phd Thesis. after the noun it modifies, you should leave out the should children be taught sex education, hyphen. I.e., the hyphen is not a property of the phrase, but of how you are using the write, phrase in the sentence. American vs. British English I myself am American by birth, despite lecturing in what are morals essay a British university, and I use American spellings by write default (e.g. organization, not organisation).

Authors are generally free to use whichever spelling they prefer, although publishers will often change the thesis, spellings to make e.g. all the write phd thesis, papers in a certain edited volume use the process, same conventions. Thus please do not hesitate to use whichever one of the (correct) spellings you are more comfortable with, as long as you keep it consistent throughout the write research, document. Formatting and grammar rules When in help writing doubt about grammar or page format, researchers in psychology and computer science generally follow the APA style guide; biological fields use similar standards. Unfortunately, you do have to pay for the APA guide, though it is now available in a less-expensive electronic edition. Pay attention to how your document looks Use readable, clear fonts and reasonable margins, following the typical format used for similar documents.

If your word processor cannot make the spacing regular between words (e.g. Write Proposal Phd Thesis. most versions of Microsoft Word), turn off right justification. Poor spacing makes the page look jumbled and seem incoherent, even if the writing is not. Nearly all formal writing should simply be stapled --- anything else looks unprofessional. For instance, using a fancy cover and binding for antioxidant activity of plant extracts thesis, a short paper or report is write proposal distracting and writing a story makes it difficult to photocopy the paper; such binding is necessary only for research phd thesis, long papers that a staple would have trouble keeping together. At the opposite children be taught essay extreme, it should be obvious that folding one corner is not an acceptable substitute for proposal phd thesis, a staple.

Authors are authors, not writers The people who perform a scientific study are called authors, never writers, even though the results are presented in a written paper. Scientific authorship includes much more than the actual writing, and a story some authors may well not have written any word in the paper. Use last names Never refer to the authors by their first names, as if they were your friends. They are not, and even if they were, it would be inappropriate to draw attention to that circumstance. Except in unusual cases to avoid ambiguity or to discuss specific people (e.g. the original founders of research proposal phd thesis a field of should children sex education in schools essay research), first names are not even mentioned in write research proposal the body of a scientific text; the last names are sufficient. Author names are keys -- spell them properly In academic writing, an author's last name is shock essays like the key in a database lookup -- if the name is research misspelled (e.g. Davis for Davies), your reader will not be able to locate works by writing that author in write phd thesis the library or online.

Moreover, it is shows extraordinarily impolite to misspell someone's name when you are discussing them; doing so shows that you have not paid much attention to write research, them or their work. So you should make a special effort to spell author names correctly, double and review triple checking them against the original source, and ensuring that you spell them the same way each time. Use appropriate pronouns Use appropriate pronouns when referring to the authors. If there are multiple authors, use they or the authors or the authors' last names, not he or the author. If there is only one author and research phd thesis you can determine the gender with great confidence, you may use he or she; otherwise use the shock essays, author or the author's last name. Referring to write research phd thesis, other texts Use double quotes around the antioxidant of plant extracts thesis, title of an article when you refer to it in the text.

Italics are reserved for books or other works of similar length. Avoid underlining altogether --- underlining is write research just a way of indicating that handwritten or typewritten text should be typeset in process italics, and proposal is thus inappropriate when italics are available (as they are on any modern word processor). Be very precise when discussing an author discussing another author For better or worse, academic writing often devolves into discussions of writing a story what one author said about another author. If commenting on such controversies, you should be extremely careful about write research using ambiguous terms like his, the author, etc. Very often your reader will have no idea which of the various authors you are referring to, even though it may be clear to you. When in doubt, use the actual last names instead, even if they might sound repetitive. Avoid footnotes Footnotes should be used quite sparingly, and should never be used as a way to avoid the hard work of making your text flow into a coherent narrative. Antioxidant Activity Thesis. Only when something genuinely cannot be made to fit into the main flow of the text, yet is somehow still so important that it must be mentioned, does it go into write a footnote. Avoid direct quotes In scientific (as opposed to literary or historical) writing, direct quotes should be used only when the dissertation review process, precise wording of the original sentences is important, e.g. if the work is so groundbreaking that the words themselves have driven research in write research proposal this field.

In nearly every other case, paraphrasing is more appropriate, because it lets you formulate the idea in the terms suitable for your particular paper, focusing on the underlying issue rather than the way one author expressed it. Be careful with arguments about of plant extracts thesis grammar If you are going to phd thesis, criticize the grammar or spelling of an author in writing, you should be extraordinarily careful to verify that you are correct. Reading a long rant from an American about what are morals how a person of research proposal British upbringing has supposedly misspelled words like utilisation, or vice versa, can be quite painful. There is no need to mention explicitly reading the paper A lot of students use phrases like while reading this paper, I . and In this paper the authors . Help. . Try to avoid this redundancy. If you use the research proposal phd thesis, word author you need not also use paper, and vice versa. Similarly, it is clear that whatever you discovered about the paper, you discovered while reading the paper; we do not need to essay, be reminded of this.

Academic writing is always about papers and authors, and thus those topics should only be discussed when they are relevant. Discussing existing work Whenever you bring up an existing piece of research research, whether it is your own or someone else's, there is a standard way of doing it properly. Review. First you say what the research proposal phd thesis, research showed, then you say what its limitations are, and culture shock then you say how your own work is going to overcome those limitations. I.e., say what has been done, what has not been done, and how you are going to do some of what has not been done. If you are doing a literature review rather than an original research paper, you just describe what you think should be done, rather than what you plan to do. Write Research Proposal Phd Thesis. Unless you want to make an enemy, you should always mention something positive about existing work before exploring the limitations, and you should always assume that the person you are discussing will read what you wrote. Are Morals Essay. Of course, sometimes there is a good reason to make an enemy, e.g. to draw attention to yourself by attacking someone famous, but you should be sure to choose your enemies wisely. Discussing proposed work In a research proposal, it is never acceptable to announce only that you are planning to study topic X. In the context of research, studying is a vague and unbounded task, with no criterion for proposal, success and no way to tell if you are getting anywhere. Studying is something you do in a course, where someone can tell you what to focus on and can test you to see if you got the right answer; research is not like that. In research, you need to spell out the specific questions you are going to try to answer, the are morals, specific phenomena that need explanations, and write so on -- it's up to children be taught sex education, you to define the question and the methods, and until you've done so, it's not research, just idle speculation. Discussion/future work In the research phd thesis, discussion sections of a research paper, be sure to discuss all topics that the audience expected to see in the paper, even if you yourself do not believe them to should sex education essay, be relevant.

The reader is research phd thesis more likely to thesis, assume that you have been sloppy about your literature review than to write phd thesis, assume you knew about the work but believed it not to be relevant. Page restrictions can help here --- they provide a good excuse for help writing, omitting topics that you do not believe to be relevant. In a longer article or thesis without page limits you have no choice but to research proposal, address the activity thesis, issue and explicitly state why the topic is not relevant despite the common belief that it is. Bibliographies Students often seem to think that bibliographies are mysterious, tricky things with rules far too complex to understand or remember. Although there is a vast array of different bibliographic formats, the underlying principles are actually not complicated at all. Write Proposal Phd Thesis. Simply put, all bibliographies must have a certain basic minimum standard of information in order to fulfill their function of allowing people to help writing, locate the proposal, specific item of reference material you cite. In particular, every bibliography entry needs an author, date, and title, every journal article absolutely must have a volume and page numbers, and every conference paper must have the title of the conference proceedings, the page numbers, and some indication of who published it.

Without having every bit of essays on reality shows this basic information, there is no way to research, be sure that readers can find the one specific article that you are discussing. Conversely, you should not include anything not necessary or useful for of plant extracts thesis, locating the article, such as the cost of reprints. Phd Thesis. As long as the correct information is included, there are many acceptable bibliography formats, though note that in all cases each entry ends in a period. Citations The bibliography or reference list in an academic paper must consist of precisely those sources that you cite in the text, without any extra sources and without omitting any. Each citation must provide enough information for the reader to be taught sex education in schools essay, find the correct source in the bibliography; beyond that, any number of citation formats will do unless there is some specific standard you are told to follow.

One common approach is to use author-date citations like (Smith, Wu, and Tong 2008), but other approaches such as numbering the bibliography entries and then using bracketed or superscript numbers are also fine. If using numeric citations with brackets, note that there must always be a space before the first bracket, as in . known [1], ( not . Write Research Proposal Phd Thesis. known[1]). If using author-date citations, you must remember that any item in parentheses does not exist , as far as the a story, grammar of the research proposal, sentence is concerned, and thus it cannot be used as part of the sentence. Thus the essays television, rule is simply to write phd thesis, put the children in schools essay, parentheses around the write research proposal, part that would be acceptable to review process, omit when reading aloud, as in Carlin (1972) showed that. or . Research. as seen in rats (Carlin 1972). ( not (Carlin 1972) showed that. and should children sex education not . as seen in rats Carlin (1972).). It is usually best to have only a single level of parentheses, because multiple parentheses start to research proposal phd thesis, distract from the main text. Thus I would prefer has been established (but for a counterexample see Johnson, 1905) to activity of plant, has been established (but for write research, a counterexample see Johnson (1905)). I and we Writing standards disagree about whether to use I and what we (and their various forms) in academic work. Some argue that those personal pronouns distract from what should be objective and scientifically valid without recourse to any particular speaker, or even that they just do not sound scientific. Others argue that omitting I and we results in awkward, passive sentences rather than direct We did X sentences. Proposal Phd Thesis. Personally, I believe that academic writing should use personal pronouns whenever what is being reported was an arbitrary and specific choice made by a human being, or for opinions or personal judgment, precisely because these pronouns emphasize that a human was involved in the work. When reporting universal scientific facts or observations, I would not use personal pronouns, because any reasonable observer would have reported similar results and thus there is writing a story no need to emphasize the phd thesis, role of the authors.

Thus, personally, I believe that I and we have their place in academic writing, i.e., to emphasize the human element where appropriate; in other circumstances I would discourage their use. Please note that I happen to television, disagree with a few of the rules commonly accepted for English text, and in the text on write research phd thesis, this page I happily use my own rules instead. You might wish to follow the accepted usage in such cases, though I would much rather everyone used my own much better rules as listed below. If you do agree to join my one-man campaign to culture shock, fix the proposal phd thesis, English language, I cannot accept any responsibility for points deducted by less enlightened folks. :-) Punctuation after quotations In American English (and in some cases for British English), punctuation following a bit of quoted text is traditionally placed inside the quotation. However, I consider that rule an essays on reality, egregious violation of the whole notion of quotation, i.e. an obvious bug in the English language.

For example, if I am quoting someone who said that life is hard, I always put the comma outside the quotation mark because they themselves did not necessarily have a pause when they said it; in fact, they probably had a full stop (which would be written as a period). Accepted American usage is to write life is hard, but the computer programmer in me just cannot be convinced to make such an obvious semantic error. Spaces around dashes An em-dash is a long dash, longer than an en-dash and a hyphen. The traditional formatting for an em-dash does not use any spaces, as in life is hard---then you die. However, I myself much prefer to put a space before and after the research proposal phd thesis, dash.

Without the spaces the dash appears to be connecting two words like hard---then, which makes no grammatical sense. Grammatically, the antioxidant thesis, function of the dash is to separate and connect phrases or clauses, not words, and I prefer to make that visually clear by putting spaces around the dash. Research Phd Thesis. Again, in my opinion the shock essays, accepted usage is a bug in the language. Dangling prepositions Officially, it is an error to proposal phd thesis, end a sentence with a preposition, as in they arrived at of plant extracts the place they were heading to. However, in practice it is often very difficult and research proposal awkward to extracts, reword sentences to avoid dangling prepositions. Thus I consider this rule to phd thesis, be optional at activity of plant best. Serial commas In Britain and some other less-enlightened countries, the comma is often omitted before an 'and' in a list. Write. For instance, they will write of ham, chips and eggs, rather than ham, chips, and eggs. I consider this an appalling, confusing construction, because it meaninglessly groups the last two items in the list together.

Lists are generally meant to be collections of equals, so there should be just as many separators between chips and eggs as between ham and chips. In many cases, omitting the should children be taught sex education in schools, serial comma is ambiguous. Moreover, in the very rare case where adding the research proposal, comma is ambiguous, the sentence should be rewritten anyway. Oxford University Press, at least, agrees with me; see the antioxidant of plant, Wikipedia serial comma entry. Again, this insistence on using appropriate syntax is write proposal phd thesis probably driven by the computer programmer in me, but I think all right-thinking people should be offended whenever a serial comma is should be taught sex education essay omitted. Commas after i.e. and e.g. Many grammar books state that a comma is write research always required after i.e. and essays on reality e.g. used in a sentence, as in sentences often contain spelling errors, i.e., words spelled incorrectly.

The inspiration for this rule is phd thesis that such abbreviations should be mentally expanded to the English translation of the essays, Latin phrase for which they stand (i.e. Phd Thesis. translating to that is, and antioxidant of plant thesis e.g. translating to for example, which in itself is an important distinction to know). However, these terms come up very often in formal writing, and in many cases I consider it inappropriate to research proposal phd thesis, add symbolic pauses (i.e. commas) around them. Such pauses break up the flow of the sentence, and modern readers treat the abbreviations just as they would any other word, without internally translating them to Latin phrases and then English phrases. Thus in essays on reality many cases I prefer to omit the research proposal phd thesis, comma after the abbreviation, and children sex education sometimes also the one before it. Some people, even more pedantic than I, disagree. This document is in proposal the public domain. You are free to copy it, redistribute it, modify it, or use it for any other non-fraudulent purpose.

If redistributing a complete copy or a lengthy excerpt, please (1) retain this notice, (2) clearly mark the activity of plant extracts thesis, original author, and (3) clearly mark any changes that you make as your own and write proposal phd thesis not those of the original author.

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+20 Resume Objective Examples - Use Them On Your Resume (Tips) We glanced at write phd thesis, your resume. And we want to tell you: Thanks, but no thanks. An employer who just threw your resume in should be taught sex education, the trash. Poor Michelle. Write? Why aren’t employers looking at her resume? Michelle has a ton of job experience, but she is dissertation process preparing to change her career. Michelle could have used a great resume objective to write proposal, grab the help a story, recruiter’s attention and let the recruiter know that her resume is in write research, the right place. The recruiter would have known from the beginning that Michelle was the culture essays, right person for the job. This article will tell you why good resume objective statements are important plus: What a good objective for a resume should look like. Write Research Proposal? When to write an objective on a resume.

How to write a resume objective. And I will explain the differences between a general resume objective, resume summary, and resume profile. For industry-specific examples , keep reading. Shock? If you don't find a sample resume objective for your industry, let us know in the comments and write research we'll write an example for you. Culture Shock? A resume objective is a short, targeted statement or blurb at the beginning of a resume that reflects what you have already achieved, and write proposal how you are a perfect match for the position that is on television shows, offer. Outgoing Certified Public Accountant with an MBA and phd thesis +2 years of experience in essays on reality shows, specialized tax services. Seeking to leverage my technical and professional expertise to grow in the new role of Accountant at your company.

Seeking a job as mattress tester because I like sleeping and I can quickly fall asleep anywhere. Research Proposal? Here is a template from essays on reality television our resume builder . Notice how the sample resume objective stands out. If you want to save time, get professional tips, and quickly write your resume, you can try our resume builder. It's fast and easy to proposal phd thesis, use. See more templates and help a story create your resume here. So, what does objective mean? The dictionary definition of ‘objective’ (noun) is research phd thesis a goal or aim to essays on reality shows, get something specific. What is your goal for applying for a job?

Employers know you want the job. You gave them your resume. But, once upon a time, the resume objective definition was a statement that told hiring managers who you were and why you wanted the job. Proposal Phd Thesis? Resume Objective Statement Example. Want fun, stimulating job that pays me in tacos and a mountain of money every month. Oh, and fifty days of paid vacation. And a gym membership. Oh, and what are morals one of those people who follow you around and get you coffee - a personal assistant. Yes, one of those. You can write an objective for a resume like this and still get good jobs (kind of). But, some experts argue that it is no longer fashionable to include a resume objective like the resume objective statement example I just gave you.

In fact, the general consensus is that the write phd thesis, old resume objective format is dissertation review process a 90’s relics that is about as fashionable as wearing denim on denim. Write? Because employers care more about what they want. Surprise, surprise. You aren’t writing a letter to Santa. When you send your resume to large companies in 2016, it could end up in a pile of +250 other resumes on average. The modern recruiter needs to should children in schools, quickly scan each resume. They only research proposal phd thesis have time to look for what they want and need. Attracting a recruiter's attention in shock, the fastest, most direct way possible is now invaluable.

So the beginning of the resume needs to provide a different sort of information - the information that the proposal phd thesis, recruiter wants and needs. This is why the format for on reality television, great resume objectives has changed. Modern resume objectives have become a tool for showcasing your ability to achieve the employer’s objective not your own. Resume Objective Statement Example. Research Proposal? Experienced chef interested in becoming a zoo keeper. Tons of culture shock essays experience with picky clients who need to be fed with the right food at the right time. Want to apply my patience and understanding of complicated clients to taking care of angry lions at the Zoo. Pro Tip: A good resume objective needs to show that you are a perfect match for that position . Write Research Proposal Phd Thesis? You will need to dissertation review process, change the objective statement for a resume every time you apply for a different job.

You may also want to take a look at our guides and resume examples (here) for specific positions. So, if you apply for 1,000 jobs how many good resume objectives do you need? Yes, that’s right - 1,000 resume objectives. Research Proposal Phd Thesis? You don't need to change everything, just re-tailor each objective on a resume to match the new job post. The topic of writing a resume objective is confusing. Culture Shock Essays? There seem to be about a dozen different names for what you can put in the space at the top of a resume. The resume profile layout gets called: career summary career objective personal profile statement profile statement resume summary resume summary statement summary of qualifications. Here’s the thing - they are all basically the same. Proposal? But, there are minor differences and you should not confuse them.

Just remember: put your resume objective or summary at the top of your resume. You can choose one of our +20 resume templates, and use our resume builder to essays, save time, and write proposal phd thesis quickly create your resume here. Take a look at a sample resume below: When Do You Need a Great Resume Objective? When you're writing a resume, the first thing you will probably include after adding your contact information is some sort of introduction. Should Children Sex Education In Schools? Think of this section as an elevator pitch that you've designed to sell yourself to the employer.

The introduction comprises what you would say to the hiring manager if you were to pitch your resume face to face. A recent study by The Ladders has shown that recruiters will only spend 6 seconds looking at a resume. So, you need to catch a recruiter’s eye immediately to make sure they keep reading. And the best way to make recruiters keep reading is to write research phd thesis, introduce yourself in a way they can't ignore . Okay, but let's go back to writing a resume objective for antioxidant activity of plant extracts thesis, a resume. There are three main types of introductions for resumes: 1. The Resume Objective. 2. Research? The Resume Summary or Executive Summary.

3. The Resume Profile. Resume objectives are the introduction of choice for three types of on reality television people: 1. People who are entering the job market for the first time. 2. People who are switching industries, changing careers, or need to explain an unclear career path. 3. People who are targeting specific positions. The rest of you might want to consider either a resume summary or resume profile . Or you don’t have to use anything if you don’t feel like it. You can just jump right into your experience or education section. It depends on what you think is most important and what you want a recruiter to see first. The Resume Objective vs. The Summary vs. The Profile.

Another reason why experts will tell you that general resume objectives are dead is because of the rise of the resume summary and the resume profile. Here are the differences: A resume objective is one or two lines at the beginning of your resume that state how you are a good fit for the position on offer. This type of introduction is useful for research, people who have little or no work experience. Dump Truck Driver with a valid Class A Certified Driver's License (CDL) and shock essays 2 years of experience. Wishing to write proposal phd thesis, leverage my experience to fill the position of Truck Driver at your company. Zero accidents or injuries throughout entire career. Obtain a challenging management position where I can develop myself creatively and become a high-level professional. A resume summary is should children sex education also a couple of lines at the beginning of your resume.

But a resume summary statement will include a brief overview of work experience that matches the requirements of the proposal, position. Professional Dietician and Caterer with 6+ years in the foodservice industry. Highly entrepreneurial and efficient at building and maintaining client relationships. Seeking to leverage my interpersonal skills to bring a solid customer service perspective to the position of Catering Manager at your company. Professional Photographer seeking a full-time position taking picutres in the fashion industry. Bonus: Download actionable examples of review real job descriptions and the resume objectives that match them. Resume Objective Examples for Your Profession (Download) For people who have work experience in the same field as the job for which they are applying. If this is proposal phd thesis your case, make sure you read our guide: A Resume Summary That Will Get You The Job [7 Secret Steps] A resume profile lists your qualifications, experience, and education in terms of the writing, company’s needs and values. It is exactly like a resume summary statement, just more extensive.

It can be formatted as a paragraph or as a list with bullet points. Proposal Phd Thesis? Let’s look at be taught sex education, IT jobs for a moment. The resume profile structure works well for IT resumes because IT hiring managers want to see a list of all the different software and hardware you are familiar using. Analytical problem solver (6) with High School Diploma and 3.5 GPA (1). Proposal? Undergraduate studying computer science with an emphasis on computer systems and antioxidant of plant thesis architecture. Strong exposure to Windows Server 2008 / 2012, Win7, and write Microsoft Office 2010 / 2013 (2). Help A Story? Working understanding of remote connectivity software (RDP, Citrix, and research phd thesis Cisco VPN), Cisco switches, routers, and TCP / IP networking (3 and 4). Experience with Microsoft Active Directory, administration, creation of user accounts, and Internet email (5). In the end, the real difference is whether or not you have quantifiable work experience . Activity Thesis? Pro Tip: Never confuse resume introductions with cover letters. Proposal Phd Thesis? Yes, it is still necessary to write cover letters.

Cover letters introduce you to an employer and explain why your skills and experiences fit the job for which you are applying. An introduction to your resume does the same thing, but in a couple of lines at the beginning of your resume. Introductions reinforce what you write in your cover letter and the experience you show in your resume. Five Examples of Resume Objectives for Specific Situations. In this section, I’ve put together a bunch of examples of great resume objectives for people in specific situations. These examples are for the three types of people I mentioned at the beginning of the article: People who are entering the what are morals essay, job market for the first time (entry level).

People who are switching industries, changing careers, or need to explaing an unclear career path. People who are targeting specific positions (professionals). A. Entry-level Resume Objective Samples. Entry level or first-time employees include: Recent High School graduates with zero work experience and write proposal no higher-level education. College graduates looking for their first professional job. People who have been out of work for longer periods of time or have not worked. If you are a person looking for your first job, you should focus on the traits that will make you a good employee. But you shouldn’t randomly pick three nice adjectives out of thin air. Are Morals? Look back at your accomplishments and activities as a student.

Find traits that are easily displayed during those activities. Whatever it is that you did before as a student, pull traits from that experience that match the research proposal phd thesis, traits required for the job. Use your experience as proof that you actually have these traits later in the resume. A high school resume objective sample might look like this: Dedicated team player (1) (captain of the swim team 2 years) with proven leadership and communication skills. Seeking an opportunity to leverage my talents as a server at should children be taught sex education in schools essay, your restaurant (2) . Write? I have the follow-through and positive attitude that will allow me to achieve company targets (3) . Lead with your strongest trait. The traits you list should match the traits you marked as keywords from the job description. Here is the example of the server job description with the keywords marked: Here is our career objective example again with the dissertation review process, keywords highlighted: Dedicated team player (captain of the swim team 2 years) with proven leadership and research phd thesis communication skills. Seeking an opportunity to leverage my talents as a server at what are morals, your restaurant. I have the follow-through and positive attitude that will allow me to achieve company targets. If you have graduated from university, your resume objective statement will look a bit different: Highly-motivated (1) Business Administration graduate (2) looking to fill a position as a Management Assistant (3) . I am ambitious, hardworking (4) and want to research proposal phd thesis, find a company that I can grow with as I achieve their goals.

1. Lead with a strong trait. 2. Follow with the type of education you have and any work experience you have. Shock? 3. State the position you are seeking. Write? 4. End with a sentence that emphasizes that you add value to the company. Let’s say you’ve just been out of the game for a long time. You took time off to be a full-time mom or dad, but now you want to go back to work. If you have higher education or work experience, a good job objective for a resume will look the same as a university graduate or young professional's resume objective. Start with your education or your previous work experience - even if you gained it years ago.

Maybe you have never worked and don’t have higher education. Help? What would a good resume objective example look like then? Organized and motivated (1) employee able to apply my skills (be specific - which skills?) in various environments. Write? Seeking a position as an office assistant (2) in (name of company). I am personable and reliable and will prove to be an process, asset to the company. Write Research Proposal? B. Transitioning Industries or Career Change Resume Objective Samples. You have experience, you just have it in another industry. A career objective for help, a resume is a place for research phd thesis, you to state that you are making a change and help writing that where you were is relevant to where you are going.

That way, a hiring manager doesn’t think your resume is in write research, the wrong place. What is essays on reality television shows this concert pianist’s resume doing in my pile of flight attendant applications? A killer resume objective will answer that question right away so that your resume doesn’t end up in the trash. Accomplished (1) Marketing Manager (2) with 10+ years (3) of proposal experience in the retail real estate industry (4). Seeking to use my background in planning, overseeing, and implementing marketing campaigns (5) to take on the role of Brand Manager (6) at (name of company). I am creative and effective at are morals, presenting and research proposal phd thesis developing the essays, brands I represent (7 and write proposal 8) . Strong Trait (1) + Past Work (2) + Number of Years (3) + Specific Industry (4) + Types of Duties (5) + Specific Position (6) + How these Skills will Translate (7) + Added Value (8) You could also add a reference to are morals, your education either at write phd thesis, the beginning or end of the resume objective statement. Writing? C. Professional Resume Objective Sample: Applying for a Specific Position. This sample is for people who have the research, education and work experience but feel that a brief introduction will address an interest in a specific position.

IT Professional (1) with 3+ years (2) of experience in systems management and configuration at a large telecommunications company (3). Aiming to use my proven technical, management, and communication skills (4 and 5) to effectively fill the position of Network Engineer (6) at (name of company). Possess a BA in Computer Science (7). Past Work (1) + Number of antioxidant of plant thesis Years (2) + Specific Industry (3) + Types of Duties (4) + Strong Traits (Keywords) (5) + Specific Position (6) + Your Degree and Training (7) Seven Tips How Not To Ruin a Good Resume Objective. 1. Here Is the Best Way To Be Credible. One of the benefits of putting a good resume objective on a resume is that it makes you stand out to an employer at first glance. Unless you write a general resume objective like this one: Dedicated person interested in pursuing a job that allows me to use my skills to benefit the company. Remember? We already talked about this. This is the “Nice person applying for research phd thesis, nice job at nice company” career objective that almost made it taboo to pur resume objectives on a resume at all. The problem is that it doesn’t answer any of the following questions:

What job do you want to pursue? What skills do you have? How will they benefit the company? Be specific. Avoid writing generic statements that could apply to any job seeker looking for any job in extracts thesis, the world. Write Proposal? Dedicated waitress interested in pursuing a retail sales position that allows me to use my interpersonal and customer service skills to benefit the should children sex education in schools, customer service goals of Awesome Jeans Incorporated. Now that’s specific. Pro Tip: Some experts will tell you that being too specific will box you in and hurt your chances if there are other jobs on offer.

That may be true if you are not responding to a specific job offer. In most cases, you will respond to write proposal phd thesis, specific job offers. They will include job descriptions that will tell you exactly what type of traits and skills the employer wants. It won’t box you in if you show that you have everything they want in the first two lines of your resume. You will come across as the exact person they need to hire for the job. What Essay? 2. How To Use Numbers To Attract Attention. Use numbers and details when possible: 2 years of experience 50% increase in proposal, sales 100 people in attendance at my event managed a team of should be taught in schools 50 people saved 25 baby seals from poachers. My proven managerial and organizational skills were developed through 2 years of experience creating a series of events that drew over 100 people each. Research Proposal Phd Thesis? Both of these things will also help you avoid being generic and having a general resume objective on children sex education essay, a resume. The main question you should be asking when writing a resume objective for research phd thesis, a resume: How are your skills and traits going to benefit the employer? This is especially important for people transitioning from one industry to another.

How does your past experience translate to your future position? Dedicated waitress interested in pursuing a retail sales position that allows me to use my interpersonal and customer service skills to benefit the customer service goals of dissertation process Awesome Jeans Incorporated. We can see that the research proposal, interpersonal and customer service skills that this waitress used at her old job can be used to help achieve the customer service goals of children be taught sex education in schools essay Awesome Jeans Incorporated. Read more about showcasing your skills here: +30 Best Examples Of What Skills To Put On A Resume (Proven Tips) You will find out what are the skills that employers desire most. Write Proposal? Oh, and did I mention that the article comes with a fun and children be taught sex education essay actionable infographic? Go check. 4. How Long Should A Good Resume Objective Be? Make it short and sweet. Resumes are short documents. A career objective for write phd thesis, a resume shouldn’t be more than two or three lines at the beginning of your resume.

No one wants to read a novel about your job experience. 5. Essay? Should You Use First Person Pronouns? Maybe you’ve heard a rule like: Don’t use pronouns or the first person on your resume. There is something called a “smart” third person approach that eliminates the pronoun and starts with an action verb. Instead of saying “I manage” you write “Manage.” When writing a resume objective in write, the third person and in the present tense, you are giving the employer a chance to help writing, imagine you transferring your skills and write research duties to their open role. It focuses on the employer by leaving direct references to you out of the equation. Help Writing? But, like I said before, there are no real rules.

As long as you are making a clear point and showing added value, it won’t matter that you used personal pronouns. Also, what are you supposed to call the thing? As I mentioned before, there are endless names for the introduction section of a resume. Write Proposal Phd Thesis? You can start a good objective for a resume like this: Or forget the what are morals, title and proposal just start writing. A Story? Make it work for you.

Write what’s comfortable and compelling. Proposal? Pro tip: Most of the examples provided in the sample section of this article start without a title. Because general resume objectives on a resume are seen as cliche and dissertation process out of fashion, it might be better not to slap the label in front. 6. How To Use Keywords To Get Results. Research Phd Thesis? Instead of using a bunch of random, flowery adjectives like “hard working” or “dedicated” use the adjectives from the job description. Of Plant Thesis? Note: use “hard working” and “dedicated” if they are in research proposal phd thesis, the job description. This is a form of help keyword optimization. All you need to do is write research proposal phd thesis go back through the job description looking for keywords. These keywords should be written throughout your resume.

A couple of them can show up in your resume objective as well. Whoever is looking at culture, your resume will probably start by scanning the document. Recruiters will be looking for the keywords they put in the job description, and if you add them to a resume and write phd thesis an objective in a resume, they will find what they are looking for right away. Do you want to know how to use keywords to tailor your resume to the job description? I'll show you in should be taught in schools, our actionable step-by-step guide: 6 Proven Tips On How To Tailor Your Resume To The Job Description 7. Most People Make These Mistakes - Do You? Okay. Phd Thesis? I lied. There are two rules you should always follow. Never use the word utilize and don't lie. Never use “utilize” in a job objective on a resume (or any unscientific situation for culture essays, that matter) - just do not do it.

You will sound pretentious. You will sound like you are trying too hard to sound intelligent. You will sound like someone who slips French words into conversations at parties. There are only a few people who can do that without being embarrassing - French people. Also, don’t lie about proposal phd thesis your traits or skills: If you hate people, then don’t say you are “friendly” or “bubbly” or have “good interpersonal skills.” Don’t say you hate people, just pick a different trait to review, emphasize. Writing a resume may seem scary and intimidating. You have to catch the phd thesis, attention of hiring managers within the first few seconds. Writing a strong introduction can turn a glance at your resume into shock essays a full read. Research Phd Thesis? Putting a great resume objective on a resume could be the a story, one thing that keeps your resume on research phd thesis, the hiring manager’s desk and out of the trash can.

A good resume objective is key for anyone lacking professional experience. It signals to should be taught sex education in schools, the person reading your resume that you are right for research proposal phd thesis, the job, even if you have never had a job. Bonus: Download actionable examples of dissertation real job descriptions and research proposal the resume objectives that match them. Resume Objective Examples for Your Profession.” Do you have any questions about are morals how to write a great resume objective for a resume? Leave a comment. We'll be happy to help. Natalie is a writer at write, Uptowork.

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Elder Mistreatment: Abuse, Neglect, and Exploitation in an Aging America (2003) IN ADDITION TO READING ONLINE, THIS TITLE IS AVAILABLE IN THESE FORMATS: MyNAP members SAVE 10% off online. Not a MyNAP member yet? Register for a free account to start saving and receiving special member only perks.

E lder mistreatment is a recognized social problem of uncertain, though probably increasing, magnitude. Based on the best available estimates, between 1 and proposal 2 million Americans 65 or older have been injured, exploited, or otherwise mistreated by someone on whom they depended for care or protection (Pillemer and Finkelhor, 1988; Pavlik et al., 2001). The number of cases of elder mistreatment will undoubtedly increase over the next several decades, as the population ages. Yet little is known about its characteristics, causes, or consequences or about dissertation process effective means of prevention or management. This report is meant to point the way toward better understanding of the nature and scope of the problem, a necessary condition for the development of informed policies and programs. After summarizing the social context within which the field has developed, this chapter assesses the research proposal, present state of knowledge, identifies some of the problems that must be addressed if the field is to move forward, and locates the problem of elder mistreatment in a larger set of challenges confronting an aging society. AN AGING AND VULNERABLE POPULATION. The aging of the population of the United States is a well-recognized demographic fact. The life expectancy of people born in the United States has been rising throughout the essays on reality, past century. The proportion of the population age 65 and proposal phd thesis older has increased dramatically since 1950.

Between 1950 and 2000, the total population of the country increased by help, 87 percent, the. population age 65 and older increased by 188 percent, and the population 85 and older increased by write research phd thesis, 635 percent (Eberhardt et al., 2001, Hetzel and Smith, 2001). Over this same period, the help a story, life expectancy of people at write research proposal age 65 increased from 13.9 to 17.9 years (Natonal Center for Health Statistics, unpublished data, 2001). Dissertation Review! These trends will likely be accentuated by the aging of the post-WWII baby boom generation. The U.S. Bureau of the Census predicts that by 2030, the population over age 65 will nearly triple to more than 70 million people, and older people will make up more than 20 percent of the population (up from research phd thesis, 12.3 percent in 1990) (Population Projections Program, 2000). It is heartening that large proportions of the nation’s older people are living without substantial disability. Among people age 75 and older in 1999, 70 percent described their health as good or excellent (Eberhardt et al., 2001).

Inevitably, however, the aging of the are morals essay, population is also associated with increases in age-related diseases and disabilities. Of the estimated 12.8 million Americans reporting need for assistance with activities of daily living (ADLseating, dressing, bathing, transferring between the bed and a chair, toileting, controlling bladder and bowel) or instrumental activities of daily living (IADLspreparing meals, performing housework, taking drugs, going on errands, managing finances, using a telephone), 57 percent (7.3 million people) were over the age of 65 (Administration on Aging, 1997). Dementia is present in approximately 5 to 10 percent of persons age 65 and older and 30 to research proposal, 39 percent of persons age 85 and older (Rice et al., 2001; Henderson, 1998). Antioxidant Extracts! Among people age 85 and older in 1999, 33 percent reported themselves to be in fair or poor health, 84 percent had disabilities involving mobility (unpublished data Natonal Center for Health Statistics, 2002), and 16 percent had Alzheimer’s disease (Brookmeyer et al., 1998). Given the proposal phd thesis, projected growth in the elderly population, long-term care for elderly people with disabilities has become an increasingly urgent policy concern (Institute of Medicine, 2001; Stone, 2000). The settings in which long-term care is provided depend on a variety of factors, including the process, older person’s needs and preferences, the availability of informal support, and the source of reimbursement for care. An increasing number of elderly people reside outside traditional home settings in highly restrictive institutional environments (such as skilled or intermediate nursing facilities) or in less restrictive community-based residential settings, such as assisted living facilities, board and write care homes, and adult foster homes.

Among the 34 million persons over age 65 in 1995, 5 percent were nursing home residents, and 12 percent lived in the community setting with ADL or IADL limitations. The number of nursing home residents increased between 19731974 and culture shock 1999 from write research proposal phd thesis, 961,500 to 1,469,500 among those age 65 and older, and be taught sex education from 413,6000 to 757,100 among those 85 and older (Eberhardt et al., 2001). Write Phd Thesis! In 1999, another 500,000 elderly people were living in. assisted living facilities (Hawes et al., 1999). Among people age 85 and over, 21 percent were in nursing homes in dissertation 1995 and 49 percent were community residents with long-term care needs (Alecxih et al., 1997). The nursing home population tends to be older and more severely disabled than elders residing elsewhere, with about half of the residents being 85 or older and about half having five ADL limitations, in 1996 (Stone, 2000); still, four out of five elderly persons with ADL or IADL impairments lived in the community setting (Alecxih et al., 1997).

Approximately 17 percent of these community-dwelling older persons are considered severely disabled, with limitations in three or more ADLs. Of those ADL-impaired elderly people living in community settings, 37 percent report that they need help but do not receive it or receive less help than is needed (Stone, 2000). Most long-term care for community-dwelling elders is research proposal phd thesis provided in a traditional home setting, either in an older person’s own home, with or without a spouse, or in the home of a close relative. The 1994 National Long Term Care Survey indicated that more than 7 million Americans, mainly family members, provided 120 million hours of care to elders with functional disabilities living in the community. However, the nature and character of the informal networks now providing long-term care services may change (Stone, 2000). The potential pool of adult children who can serve as caregivers is already decreasing, as a result of culture essays, a variety of demographic trends, including divorce, smaller families, and increased workforce participation (Himes et al., 1996). Research! These factors increase the pressures on families caring for their elderly relatives and also are likely to increase the demand for institutional care. These trends highlight the growing challenge of ensuring the safety and culture essays protecting the other interests of elderly people in the diverse settings in which long-term care is provided.

No matter where they reside, older people are vulnerable not only to the infirmities and write research proposal phd thesis suffering associated with disease and essay disability, but also to write proposal phd thesis, neglect, victimization, and exploitation by others, including their caregivers. In this respect, protecting older people from essays on reality television, mistreatment is an important element of the broad challenge of ensuring quality services in long-term care. While elder mistreatment has attracted sustained efforts from practitioners and some interest from policy makers over the past two decades, it has not received concomitant attention from researchers or from the write, agencies that provide research funding. No major foundation has identified this field as one of what are morals essay, its priorities, and the federal investment has been modest at best. For example, fewer than 15 studies on elder mistreatment have been funded by the National Institute on Aging (NIA) since 1990, and research proposal support from other agencies has been even less substantial. As a result, elder mistreatment research has thus far been confined to what are morals essay, a small community of. investigators who have produced a modest body of knowledge concerning the phenomenology, magnitude, etiology, and consequences of elder mistreatment. Preventive and phd thesis remedial interventions have been unsystematic, episodic, and poorly evaluated.

In recognition of these deficiencies, the National Institute on Aging requested the on reality, National Research Council to commission this study as the first step in an effort to broaden and deepen knowledge about the mistreatment of elders. Proposal Phd Thesis! Support was also provided by the Office of Behavioral and Social Science Research on Women’s Health of the National Institutes of Health and the Agency for Health Care Research and Quality. Help A Story! This report presents a research agenda for consideration by the National Institute on Aging and write research proposal phd thesis other potential sponsors of research on culture elder mistreatmenta term we explain more fully in Chapter 2. Research on elder mistreatment is in an early stage, reflecting its relatively recent recognition as a distinctand importantsocial problem. The prevailing understanding of the write proposal phd thesis, problem, and the social response to it, have gradually emerged over the past half-century, shaped by what, evolving social responses to child protection and family violence as well as by an intensifying concern about neglect and victimization of vulnerable elderly people.

Family discord and proposal phd thesis mistreatment of its vulnerable members were outside the public domain for antioxidant activity of plant extracts thesis much of this country’s history. Responsibility for assisting families in research phd thesis need was assumed mainly by religious organizations and private charitable institutions. Although many states established asylums for people with mental illness during the 18th and 19th centuries, thereby providing some custodial protection for dependent or neglected adults, there was no legal basis for intervention into families until the late 19th century, when industrialization, immigration, and urbanization exacerbated family problems, including poverty and internal conflict, and also exposed them to public viewespecially when its victims were children. The emergence of the juvenile court in the early part of the help a story, 20th century represented a significant assertion of collective responsibility for protecting and “saving” children who had become ungovernable by their parents; over proposal the following decades, the jurisdiction of the juvenile courts gradually reached children who were neglected or abused by their parents (Platt, 1969). The legal foundation for modern policies and programs for elder protection was put in place after World War II, particularly during a burst of national energy geared toward remediation of endemic social problems during the 1970s. Although the a story, threads of child protection, adult protection, and research phd thesis family violence were intertwined in the history of that period, they are summarized separately below. The current system for protection of elders and help other vulnerable adults grew from the child protection system, which itself is only about 40 years old in its modern form.

The seminal event in the formation of the modern child protection system was the publication of an article in the Journal of the American Medical Association by a team of physicians at the University of write research proposal phd thesis, Colorado, who proclaimed the existence of help writing a story, a “battered child syndrome” (Kempe et al., 1962). Pediatrician Henry Kempe, the write research, leader of the group and founder of the of plant, International Society for Prevention of Child Abuse and Neglect, spearheaded a movement to adopt mandated reporting laws. These laws, which were quickly adopted in all 50 states, rested on the premise that the abused child was an aberrant problem (amounting to several hundred egregious cases each year in the United States), and on the belief that the problem could be solved if health professionals brought those cases to the attention of research proposal phd thesis, social service authorities. Although initial federal action did not occur until significantly later, with the children be taught, adoption of the Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act of 1974 (Nelson, 1984), that legislation also required states to adopt mandated reporting and investigation as the primary strategy for protecting children. Drawing on their parens patriae authority to protect helpless citizens, a few states developed new public welfare programs during the 1940s and write proposal phd thesis 1950s to protect adults who could not manage their own resources or protect themselves from harm. What! New adult protective services units were established not only to provide social services, but also to write research proposal, provide legal services, such as guardianship. Aroused by these state innovations, federal interest in the problem first appeared in the 1960s.

Legislation was directed at all adults who were seen as defenseless and susceptible to being hurt by others. In 1962 Congress passed the help writing a story, Public Welfare Amendments to the Social Security Act, authorizing payments to the states to establish protective services for “persons with physical and/or mental limitations, who were unable to write research, manage their own affairs . . Antioxidant Activity! . or who were neglected or exploited” (U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, 1966). One of the demonstration projects funded by this new program was operated by write, a team at the Benjamin Rose Institute in Cleveland under Margaret Blenkner and her associates (Blenkner et al., 1974; Anetzberger et al., 2000). She matched a group of elders receiving protective services with a group from the community who were receiving traditional services, finding that those who were receiving protective services had a higher mortality rate and higher nursing home placement rate than those who were receiving. traditional services. This study raised important questions: Was the higher risk attributable to the intervention or to selection bias, and children if the write research phd thesis, former, what aspect of the help, intervention increased the risk?

Was it the nursing home placement? Notwithstanding this puzzling finding from the Blenkner study and other studies questioning the cost-effectiveness of protective services (Wolfe, this volume), advocates for the system continued to research, press for culture shock essays broader congressional action. Eventually, in 1974, Congress amended the Social Security Act to write phd thesis, require states to establish protective service units for adults with mental and physical impairments, who are unable to manage on their own, and who were victims or were being exploited or neglected. Funding for children be taught sex education in schools the protective services was to come from social services block grants (SSBG) given by the federal government to the states. Until this time, most SSBG funds had been used exclusively for child protective services. This new federal program directed the states to write research phd thesis, provide protective services to adults who, “as a result of on reality television shows, physical or mental limitations, are unable to act in their own behalf; are seriously limited in the management of their affairs; are neglected or exploited; or are living in unsafe or hazardous conditions.” A number of states then codified this federal mandate and, by write research, 1978, 20 states had legislation establishing adult protection units as part of on reality television, their social services agencies. Write Proposal! This trend was accompanied by increasing use of SSBG dollars for should children be taught in schools adult protection: in 1980, 38 states reported that 83.3 million SSBG dollars were spent for adult protective services.

As SSBG appropriations declined during the 1980s, however, funding for adult protective services declined; by 1985, it had declined by 42 percent. Scarce attention was paid to the problem of elder abuse before 1978 except for some intermittent articles published in write British and American medical and social services journals. On Reality! In the late 1970s, the national spotlight was directed for the first time at proposal phd thesis what was characterized as systematic mistreatment of elderly people. Congressman Claude Pepper held widely publicized hearings, calling attention to the “hidden problem” of elder abuse in the nation’s families, including what one witness characterized as “granny battering” (Wolfe, this volume). What! Although the research phd thesis, Pepper hearings did not lead immediately to federal action or funding, they stimulated additional state action. As the state response continued to evolve in the early 1980s, many states required reporting of abuse, bringing the problem within the purview of adult protective services. By 1985, 46 states had designated a responsible agency.

Meanwhile, Congressman Pepper continued to review, agitate for a federal response to elder mistreatment. In a 1981 report (Pepper. and Okar, 1981), he stated that elder abuse was increasing and research proposal phd thesis recommended that Congress act immediately to help the states identify and assist elder abuse victims. Again, however, Pepper’s plea was unheeded by essay, the Congress. Finally, in 1989, Pepper succeeded in including creation of a national center on elder abuse as an write phd thesis amendment to the Older Americans Act. Although various versions of a national center followed, the current National Center on Elder Abuse was established in 1998. In retrospect, it appears that elder mistreatment became identified as a national concern when it was conceptualized as an “aging” issue, rather than as an undifferentiated component of adult protection. This also helped to broaden the constituencies interested in research and program development to include gerontologists and the expanding network of service providers and advocates for the elderly.

The Pepper hearings also cast the problem of elder abuse in a particular lightas a complication of caregiving. The emerging image was that of an impaired victim, usually an elderly parent being cared for by an adult caregiver who wasn’t able to manage the caregiving because of stresses in life, on the job, and in the family. Even though it is only a partial explanation of elder mistreatment, this picture seemed to resonate with Congress and the media (Wolfe, this volume). Emerging Conceptions of Family Violence. The evolving understanding of elder mistreatment as a social problem has more recently been shaped by another imagethe trapped victim of family violence. Spouse abuse and other varieties of intimate partner violence have received increasing professional and process political attention since the 1980s, leading to a wide variety of research proposal, interventions and a substantial investment in research (National Research Council, 1996; National Research Council and Institute of essays on reality television shows, Medicine, 1998).

Prevention, protection, and punishment are necessary components of a comprehensive social response, requiring the participation and coordination of a broad array of public agencies. As the consciousness of health professionals has been raised, family violence has been embraced as a public health problem, thereby recruiting researchers and advocates in injury prevention and public health to write proposal phd thesis, the field (Institute of Medicine, 1999). Many of the preventive and protective tools developed in the context of intimate partner violence have now been directed to violence against elders. Bringing elder mistreatment into the domain of family violence widens the angle of the lens and thereby brings new ideas about etiology and what essay prevention into write research view. However, it also exposes some tensions between social services agencies, with their traditional helping orientation, and help writing a story many family violence specialists, with their greater emphasis on criminalization and punishment of perpetrators. Evolving conceptions of elder mistreatment, and the appropriate social responses to it, will also be shaped, inevitably, by the deep concerns that have emerged over the past decade in the field of child protection. In 1990, the phd thesis, U.S. Advisory Board on Child Abuse and Neglect issued a highly publicized and rarely disputed declaration of a national emergency in the child protection system. By that time, the number of cases reported annually to state and county social service and law enforcement agencies in the United States approached 3 milliona number enormously discrepant from the 1962 estimate of Kempe et al. of approximately 300 cases annually.

Moreover, the what are morals essay, advisory board found that, by state social service agencies’ own admission, many children officially found to have been maltreated received no services other than the investigation itself. The U.S. Write! Advisory Board on Child Abuse and Neglect (1990) attributed the emergency to the errant design of the child protection system itself: the system has become preoccupied by investigation (rather than prevention and treatment), and community responsibility for ensuring the safety of dependent children has effectively, if unintentionally, been diverted to a small social service agency. In response, the board (U.S. Advisory Board on Child Abuse and Neglect, 1993) proposed a new national strategy designed to rely on voluntary action to make child protection a part of everyday life (see Melton and Barry, 1994, Melton et al., 2001, for edited books articulating the social science foundation for this approach). Culture Shock Essays! As Wolfe notes in his paper in this volume, several states have attempted to deemphasize investigation in their state child protection statutes, and some major foundations have undertaken initiatives to demonstrate the feasibility of a neighborhood-based, largely voluntary, and largely preventive and supportive child protection system. Nonetheless, modal practice is research proposal phd thesis largely unchanged, and the enormity of the problem remains (Melton, 2002).

The tensions in child protection policy (as well as the number of reported cases) have intensified as the scope of problems defined as child maltreatment has expanded. A Story! Although the modern system was created in proposal phd thesis response to the image of battered children, neglect has long been the modal reason for help referral to write phd thesis, child protection (Peddle and Wang, 2001), and antioxidant of plant extracts thesis most such cases involve complex social and economic problems, not willful neglect (Pelton, 1994). Similarly, the biggest increase in reporting occurred when sexual abuse was “discovered” early in the 1980s (Weisberg, 1984), and criminal prosecution became a common feature in the child protection system. Recognition of the frequent linkage between intimate partner violence and child maltreatment (see Carter et al., 1999) has also challenged the child protection system, which generally (except to some degree in cases of. sexual abuse and severe physical abuse) has not adopted the “perpetrator-victim” model commonly embraced by advocates for battered women (Melton and Andrews, 2000).

There are some signs of an uneasy rapprochement between the two systems (see, e.g., Schechter and Edleson, 1999), as some child protection authorities have adopted safety planning, a feature of victim empowerment in programs for battered women, as a potentially useful element of research proposal, intervention in cases of child maltreatment. Even this development, however, has illustrated the field’s vulnerability to television, unintended side effects. Phd Thesis! For example, a legislative determination in a story Minnesota that exposure of children to intimate partner violence is per write research proposal phd thesis se evidence of dissertation review process, child neglect led to phd thesis, an immediate doubling of referrals to child protective services, a huge increase in expenditures, and dissertation process increased stress and loss of confidentiality for women and their families living in proposal phd thesis shelters (Edleson, 2000). It was also speculated that this policy, soon retracted by the legislature, deterred some battered women from help writing, seeking protection for themselves and their children. These tensions and policy adaptations in the field of child protection appear to be highly relevant to elder protection at this moment in the evolution of research and public policy in this nascent field. As discussed further in Chapter 6, adult protection services agencies grapple daily with the tensions between investigation and service, and prosecution and write research proposal protection. Agency caseloads reflect the highly diverse problems within their jurisdictions, ranging from intentional partner violence to far more numerous cases of caregiver neglect (as well as problems not arising in on reality shows child protection, such as financial exploitation). The recent history of write, child protection offers many lessons for specialists in elder mistreatment. Prevailing conceptions of elder mistreatment draw on a diverse array of images (the forgotten and shows helpless nursing home resident, the battered granny, the stressed caregiver, the abusing spouse).

Moreover, the system of adult protection that has emerged to respond to phd thesis, these varied problems (as well as other problems relating to adults with disabilities) is essays television based on research proposal phd thesis ideas and structures borrowed from policy and practice in child maltreatment and, more recently, intimate partner violence. Yet prevailing policies and practices in these adjacent domains are not fully applicable to elder mistreatment and have been controversial on their own terms. Repeatedly, National Research Council and Institute of essay, Medicine panels have called attention to the need for sustained and aggressive research on research phd thesis the phenomenology, magnitude, etiology, and consequences of these problems and on the effects of help, interventions (National Research Council, 1993, 1996; National Research Council and Institute of Medicine, 1998). In so doing, they. have noted that very little is known about the phenomenology, magnitude, etiology, and consequences of write research, elder mistreatment, and that almost nothing is known about the effects of interventions. Essays On Reality Television! Although the write, body of evidence remains sparse, researchers have recently begun to raise doubts about the of plant thesis, cost-effectiveness of current interventions (Dyer et al., 1999; Harrell et al., 2002; Pavlik et al., 2001; Hajjar and write proposal phd thesis Duthie, 2001; Wolf and of plant Li, 1999). Overall, the national response to elder mistreatment still remains weak and incomplete.

Adult protection is phd thesis a poorly funded system, and Congressman Pepper’s single-minded emphasis on the abuse, exploitation, and neglect of vulnerable elderly people has not been sustained by his successors in Congress or by essays on reality television shows, a public preoccupied with youthfulness and ill at research proposal phd thesis ease with aging. As a result, elder mistreatment remains hidden, poorly characterized, and largely unaddressedmore than two decades after the Pepper hearings first exposed it to public view. It is long past time to move the field forward in a careful and shock essays systematic way, drawing on the knowledge already generated in the domains of research phd thesis, child maltreatment and intimate partner violence, while remedying the weaknesses that have so far plagued the field. Although there is a sizable body of unpublished reports and commentary on elder mistreatment, fewer than 50 peer-reviewed articles based on empirical research have been published in the field. (A summary of these studies appears in Appendix A.) Although these studies provide a foundation for further work, it is not a strong one. National Research Council (1993) and Institute of Medicine reports (2001; National Research Council and review Institute of Medicine, 1998) and other authoritative reviews (e.g., Pillemer, 2001; National Institute of Justice, 2000) have repeatedly lamented the phd thesis, weakness of the research base for designing programs and on reality informing policy on the wide variety of overlapping problems, ranging from granny battering to neglect by nursing homes, that are grouped under the rubric of elder mistreatment. A systematic program of research is needed to write research phd thesis, better describe the what are morals, many facets of the problem and to explore their causes and consequences.

Understanding the nature and write research phd thesis scope of the problem is prerequisite to designing and implementing solutions. Are Morals! In the absence of the necessary research, interventions have been designed and implemented in the dark, so to write phd thesis, speak. Almost every state has required reporting of suspected cases of elder mistreatment, but little is known about the effects of children sex education in schools essay, these requirements (National Research Council and Institute of Medicine, 1998). A few states and localities have mounted some creative interventions, but these few initiatives have been poorly evaluated. It has often been said that elder. mistreatment, as a field of research, is at about the same embryonic stage of development as child mistreatment was about 30-40 years ago. Some of the weaknesses of elder mistreatment research are summarized below. Unclear and Inconsistent Definitions. The first major difficulty in write proposal phd thesis analyzing results from previous research on elder abuse and neglect results from the sex education in schools, poor definition of the term “elder abuse.” To some extent, this problem is a reflection of write research proposal, conceptual confusion: What type of antioxidant activity of plant thesis, behavior or condition is denoted by the concept of “abuse”? To some extent, it is also traceable to the variations and ambiguities of the state statutes that direct or authorize interventions in cases of proposal phd thesis, elder abuse or neglect. (The statutes are discussed in Chapter 2.) However, researchers have often exacerbated the problem by failing to define or operationalize their terms in a clear and essay objective way.

For example, many researchers refer to write research proposal, the entire range of problems experienced by what are morals, elders as “abuse,” including lack of proper housing, untreated medical conditions, and write research proposal lack of social services. Most of the studies are weakened by their undifferentiated treatment of various types of abuse and neglect. That is, all forms of mistreatment are lumped together, despite evidence that the forms of antioxidant of plant extracts, abuse and neglect differ substantially. Research Proposal Phd Thesis! In some studies, for example, it is difficult to determine whether financial exploitation is process included in the research definition. Studies are especially weakened by their inclusion of the category “self-abuse” or “self-neglect.” As discussed below, these terms refer to research, a category of conditions that has little in common with the conditions that bear on abuse and neglect of elder persons by other people. Researchers have also diverged widely in their definitions of the pertinent component terms and have frequently used confusing and unclear definitions. For example, some researchers have used the term “abuse” tautologically; for example, one group of researchers defined elder abuse as “an abusive action inflicted by the abusers on adults 60 years of age or older.” Another group called elder neglect and abuse “a generic term that refers to the neglect and/or physical, psychological, or financial abuse of the older person.” Furthermore, definitions have differed so widely from study to study that the results of research are almost impossible to compare.

While one set of essay, investigators calls “withholding of personal care” physical abuse, a second researcher calls it active neglect; a third subsumes such actions under physical neglect; and write research proposal yet a fourth considers such behaviors to be “psychological neglect.” Similarly, some researchers define physical abuse in terms of actions: hitting, pushing, choking, etc. Others, however, use lists of injuries to culture shock essays, define physical elder abuse, such as cuts, fractures, bruises, and burns. The development of better definitions of mistreatment of the elderly should be an extremely high priority for researchers. In particular, it is critical to differentiate among various types of mistreatment. Researchers must be clear and explicit regarding what is included and excluded from the category of elder abuse in order to conduct any meaningful meta-analyses. The panel addresses this problem in the next chapter. Related to the definitional issue is that of measurement. Write Phd Thesis! This is an equally vexing problem, since the definitions of the varying elements of elder abuse must be operationalized through the design and administration of a research instrument. Many studies have not developed separate research instruments at all; instead, they have simply analyzed the children be taught in schools, forms used by agencies. These forms are not designed for research and rarely provide data of the write proposal, type and quality to be of use to researchers. Or studies use as a “measure” of abuse whether a professional has identified an elderly person as “abused”thereby embracing without further clarification the discretionary judgments of clinicians and caseworkers applying the ambiguous statutory definitions.

Few attempts have been made to create reliable and valid instruments for the studies. Even when research instruments have been used, researchers have used highly varying approaches. An example to illustrate this point may be in order. Researcher A includes physical abuse in her definition of elder abuse. She is using the Conflict Tactics Scale, which measures physical acting out in review response to conflict. Write Proposal! She then proceeds to define physical abuse as a single incident in what which the write research proposal, elder is hit, bit, punched, kicked, threatened with a weapon, or has a weapon used on him or her. Researcher B also includes physical abuse in his definition of elder abuse. However, he has developed his own scale, similar to the Conflict Tactics Scale but more broadly constructed, so that it measures any assaultive behavior of hitting, biting, kicking, punching, threatening with a weapon, or using a weapon regardless of the reason for the behavior. Furthermore, he decides that there must be at least two episodes of writing, this behavior for write proposal it to be called physical abuse except for those items dealing with weapons, in which case one incident is sufficient.

Thus both researchers have included physical abuse in culture shock essays their studiesindeed, it may be the sole focus of each researcher’s studybut the measure of research phd thesis, physical abuse differs across the two studies. This problem arises for all of the types of elder mistreatment typically investigated, including neglect and financial exploitation. The lack of definitional consistency poses issues for interpretation and understanding across. studies, including determining prevalence and risk factors. However, even if researchers embraced a common set of definitions for the elements of activity thesis, elder mistreatment and operationalized them the write research phd thesis, same way, that would still leave the problem of determining whether the instruments actually measure what they purport to measure (validity) and whether they can be reliably administered. At the present time, no measure of elder mistreatment has been validated, nor has any instrument been embraced by the field as a definitive measure of mistreatment, even within a narrow sphere. All this suggests that researchers, policy makers, and other consumers of research on essays elder mistreatment must pay careful attention to the definitions and measures of any studies on which they rely.

In most cases, the proposal phd thesis, measures will not be comparable. Incompleteness of Professional Accounts. Since the earliest stages of elder abuse research, surveys of professionals have been used to shed light on dissertation review process the prevalence of elder abuse and on risk factors. Investigators typically mail surveys to write research, professionals and paraprofessionals, asking them about help writing contacts with cases of elder abuse or neglect during a given time period. Write Phd Thesis! To provide a typical example, in a survey on elder abuse funded by the Administration on Aging, a sample of professionals, including administrators and direct service workers from 16 types of agencies, was surveyed in each of Pennsylvania’s 67 counties. Overall, one-half of the responding agencies reported encountering elder abuse, ranging from over 90 percent of essays on reality television, domestic violence agencies, to less than 30 percent for law enforcement, emergency services, medical clinics, and drug/alcohol agencies (Fiegener et al., 1989).

Similarly, a survey of Alabama physicians and proposal phd thesis registered and licensed practical nurses found that 38 percent of the physicians and 53 percent of the nurses had seen cases of elder abuse in the previous year (Clark-Daniels et al., 1990). At best, studies of professional experience provide impressionistic estimates and opinions about the prevalence, correlates, and children sex education in schools consequences of elder mistreatment. Although such data may be useful for generating hypotheses for further research, they do not provide a sound basis for designing programs or formulating policies. Elder mistreatment researchers have also relied on samples of cases that have come to the formal attention of a social agency or reporting authority. For example, records of patients at hospitals or social service agencies have been reviewed, and the percentage of elderly persons judged to research proposal, have been abused is established. Shows! A more controlled version of this kind of study provides agency caseworkers or health professionals with a standardized assessment tool, which they are trained to research, fill out for clients. The “Three Model Projects on Elder Abuse,” funded by the Administration on Aging, used such methods (Wolf et al., 1984). Activity Of Plant! In both types of studies, however, researchers obtained data from professional accounts of write proposal phd thesis, mistreatment rather than from interviews with victims themselves. It is widely recognized that reported cases are highly selective samples, and that there is what essay a large reservoir of research proposal phd thesis, unreported and undetected cases of elder mistreatment about television which very little is known. Although unreported cases may be similar to reported cases, they also may be quite different. Samples of reported cases may suggest common patterns and correlates of mistreatment, especially when paired with a control group, but the data must be interpreted with great care.

Most important , the question of the extent of elder mistreatment cannot be answered by studies of reported cases. There are major problems with focusing on write reported cases: The studies are primarily based on cases uncovered through surveys of community professionalspublic health nurses, social workers, legal aid lawyers, etc. Dissertation Review! They are thus cases that have come to public attention in one way or another. However, we know from other studies of family violence using nonclinical populations that only a fraction of cases involving serious mistreatment comes to public attention and write research proposal that these cases are not necessarily representative of the problem at large. (In relation to child abuse, for example, see the 1995 Gallup Poll, finding that far more of America’s children are victims of essays, physical and research proposal phd thesis sexual abuse than officially reportedGallup Poll, 1995.) Similarly, in a story most cases, the research data on elder mistreatment have not come directly from victims, but instead from professionals and outside observers.

Such secondhand knowledge may distort the proposal phd thesis, actual dynamics of mistreatment by failing to are morals, present the problems and research proposal phd thesis their effects, as the actual participants perceive them. Case reports have little value in studying some forms of mistreatment that are rarely reported to adult protective services agencies, such as mistreatment in institutional settings. Because elder mistreatment studies have relied so heavily on shock reports from proposal, professionals, crucial data about abuse situations have been missed. Community professionals in essays on reality general do not collect data useful to researchers and policy makers. Thus, previous research using agency records has rarely been able to obtain detailed information about family history, attitudes, and consequences of mistreatment and other issues.

Some researchers (e.g., Lachs et al., 1997a) have made effective use of these weak datasets by matching cases with higher-quality datasets. In an effort to generate a national estimate of the occurrence of elder abuse and neglect based on case-identification by write research proposal, professional “sentinels,” the culture, National Center of Elder Abuse, in write phd thesis conjunction with Westat, Inc., conducted the National Elder Abuse Incidence Study (National Center on Elder Abuse, 1998). In this study, modeled after recent incidence studies of child abuse, the researchers identified a nationally representative sample of 20 counties in 15 states; for each county sampled, they collected data from the local APS agency as well as approximately 1100 professional “sentinels” having frequent contact with the elderly. In 1996, according to the projections based on this study, about dissertation 450,000 persons age 60 or older experienced abuse or neglect in family settings, about 16 percent of whom were in the APS report files. It is generally acknowledged that these findings detect only the most overt cases and thus significantly underestimate the incidence of phd thesis, elder mistreatment. Studies of professionals and on reality agency records are justified in those situations in which investigators specifically want to know how professionals view elder mistreatment. But researchers have too often used these professional surveys to proposal, estimate the incidence or prevalence of elder mistreatment, or to establish its causes. They are not appropriate for these purposes. Future research in this area should go beyond archival data and what should rely to a much greater extent on elder persons’ accounts of their experiences and on their perceptions regarding their own security. Data on the extent of elder mistreatment in the general population are sparse. Representative sample surveys of community populations are urgently needed.

Over the past two decades, knowledge about violence in families and the victimization of phd thesis, children and other vulnerable people has improved significantly. A major advance has been the fielding of major population-based victimization surveys that have helped to establish reliable prevalence estimates of select problems, such as intimate partner violence and child physical and sexual abuse. Similar progress has not occurred in the field of elder mistreatment. In the earliest research about should be taught sex education two decades ago, studies were generally conducted on small, nonrandom samples, with little generalizabilty to the population. Furthermore, research in the field was conducted independently by investigators from different disciplines, using different methods and proposal without recognizing the problems faced by dissertation review process, other investigators. For example, the medical community focused on clinical signs and symptoms that could not be explained by proposal, disease markers, and this was a daunting task. Very often, older adults who had multiple chronic diseases or conditions might have symptoms that could mask or mimic mistreatment. Using a patient-based approach to study elder mistreatment is also fraught with potential for sample bias, in that if an help writing a story older adult does not have a doctor or. does not come to write proposal, the emergency department, mistreatment cannot be evaluated. Although some population surveys have subsequently been fielded, many of them have excluded from the sample potential respondents who may be at high risk for abuse or neglecte.g., older adults with profound dementia, severe hearing or speech impediments, or advanced problems with mobility who are unable to participate in survey research. Although some investigators have tried to use proxy respondents, this method poses even more challenging issues, because the proxy may be implicating him or herself in activity of plant extracts thesis mistreatment.

Prevalence information (for one community in the United States) was best established by Pillemer and Finkelhor (1988), who used a stratified random sample of community dwelling older persons (65 or older) in the Boston metropolitan area. Write Research Proposal Phd Thesis! A two-stage interview process was used: screening to determine if the culture shock essays, person was a victim of mistreatment (defined to include physical abuse and psychological abuse and proposal phd thesis neglect but excluding financial abuse), followed by antioxidant of plant extracts thesis, in-depth interviews by telephone or in research proposal phd thesis person. Since 1988, there has been no effort in the United States to obtain better prevalence data using large-scale random samples on either a locally or nationally representative sample. However, four such studies have been undertaken in Canada (Podnieks, 1992), the United Kingdom (Ogg and activity of plant extracts thesis Bennett, 1992), Finland (Kivela et al., 1992), and The Netherlands (Comijs et al., 1998). Despite using different methods, these studies each reported that the prevalence of elder abuse falls in the 3-5 percent range. (It should be noted, however, that the scope and content of the definitions used in these studies vary, particularly with regard to financial abuse.) Despite attempts to estimate incidence and prevalence in other ways, random sample surveys of the elderly population alone allow for a more accurate assessment of the rate of research, elder mistreatment. In the are morals, United States, a national survey is urgently needed to estimate the prevalence of write proposal, different types of elder mistreatment in help a story the general population, and in specific regions and write research phd thesis subgroups, as well as the co-occurrence of different forms of activity of plant extracts thesis, mistreatment (see Chapter 4). Prospective studies are powerful designs, in that they can overcome the recall bias inherent in retrospective studies based on self-reported mistreatment. Studies of this kind are urgently needed: to date, no prospective study of elder abuse has been conducted.

However, in a pioneering study, Lachs and colleagues retrospectively linked Adult Protective Services data to a prospective studythe New Haven EPESE study (Established Population for proposal phd thesis Epidemiologic Studies in the Elderly) as the basis for this research, one of four cohorts funded by what essay, NIA (Lachs et al., 1996). In inception year 1982, the study sample consisted of 2,812 community-dwelling older adults over age 65. Write Phd Thesis! A manual record matching of EPESE and shock Connecticut ombudsman/elderly protective service records was done to determine if any cohort members had been seen by ombudsmen over an 11-year follow-up period from research, cohort inception (1982-1992 inclusive). After cohort members who were seen by protective services for the elderly were identified, weighted survival curves from essays on reality television shows, cohort inception were constructed for three subgroups of subjects: (1) those found to have sustained verified elder mistreatment (abuse, neglect, or exploitation) by another party (i.e., nonself-neglect), (2) those seen by protective services for corroborated self-neglect, or (3) other members of the cohort who had no contact with elderly protective services. Much of the data on risk factors and consequences of elder mistreatment are drawn from studies of clinical case samples. However, few of write research phd thesis, these studies have used controlled designs. For this reason, generalizations made from the existing studies are necessarily suspect. For example, some investigators have asserted that the should children be taught sex education, abused elderly tend to be physically or mentally impaired or both. However, without a comparison group, it is impossible to know if they are more or less impaired than other persons.

Several studies have attempted to go beyond previous efforts by interviewing the victims themselves and including a control group of nonabused elderly persons (Bristowe and Collins, 1989; Paveza et al., 1992; Pillemer and Finkelhor, 1988). These are still few and far between, however. Interestingly, although a number of controlled studies were conducted in the late 1980s and early 1990s, there are virtually no examples of more recent case-control studies of elder mistreatment. Lack of Systematic Evaluation Studies. There has been almost no effort to evaluate intervention programs for elder abuse. Certainly, no study has as yet attempted a randomized control group design in write phd thesis this area. Any kind of experimental demonstration project is dissertation review process rare. Little is known about the relative effectiveness of various programs. Due to such shortcomings, existing studies have not provided adequate data needed to answer three important public policy questions about elder abuse and neglect: First, is the research proposal, problem of children, sufficient magnitude to warrant large-scale public concern, including such measures as mandatory reporting laws and protective services?

Better data on the true prevalence of elder mistreatment are needed in deciding what action government ought to take. Second, what are the proposal phd thesis, characteristics of locations, conditions, situations, and relationships in which the elderly are most vulnerable to a story, mistreatment? To design and implement intervention programs, policy makers and service providers must learn more about the factors that increase or decrease the risk of mistreatment and the conditions that ensure safety. Third, what interventions prevent elder mistreatment and ameliorate its effects? Extensive evaluation research using scientifically sound research designs is critically needed. IMPEDIMENTS TO ELDER MISTREATMENT RESEARCH.

Why is knowledge about elder mistreatment so underdeveloped? What accounts for the paucity of sound research in this important area? The panel has identified a number of explanatory factors. Many investigators believe that victims and family members are not suitable respondents for interview studies of proposal phd thesis, elder mistreatment, because they are not reliable respondents, because they are not willing to be interviewed, or because they are incapable of giving the culture essays, necessary consent. In fact, many victims are more than willing to be interviewed and are reliable respondents able to give the necessary consent. Surveys including such respondents have uncovered serious cases of mistreatment, and a variety of studies have been conducted in which victims have been interviewed. In general, methods that have been used successfully to write research phd thesis, investigate other forms of family violence have not been applied to shock, research on elder mistreatment. Gerontologists who study elder mistreatment have tended to phd thesis, follow their interests in dissertation review process family caregiving and write phd thesis have seen the problem in this context.

However, because much elder mistreatment does not occur in family caregiving situations, this has been a serious limitation. Furthermore, the technology for studying family violence has been developed and review refined not by write research proposal phd thesis, gerontologists, but by child abuse and intimate partner researchers. Elder mistreatment researchers have not been trained in methods of studying other forms of family violence, including sampling methodologies and measurement techniques. One example of this problem is the lack of studies using the Conflict Tactics Scale (Straus, 1978; Straus and Gelles, 1990, 1992) to study elder mistreatment. Regardless of the occasional controversy over the scale, it is a hallmark instrument that has been used in scores of studies of child abuse. and intimate partner abuse. A Story! It is to some extent the state of the art, but some elder mistreatment researchers do not seem to be aware of research, it. It is very difficult to obtain access to perpetrators of mistreatment. In intimate partner studies, a number of researchers have used treatment programs for batterers as sources of research subjects.

These do not exist for elder mistreatment. The exclusion of some victims can seriously bias samples. Help A Story! The problem is most evident when residents of institutions are excluded altogether from write research proposal, population samples. Essays Television Shows! However, even within the targeted study population (whether community dwelling or residing in institutions), exclusion criteria based on research phd thesis cognitive deficiencies can seriously skew the findings. There is some anecdotal evidence that institutional review boards have interpreted the writing, Common Rule (the governing regulations on research ethics) in an unduly restrictive fashion, impeding potentially valuable research on elder mistreatment (see Chapter 8). Few investigators have been drawn to this field of inquiry.

Reviews of the literature reflect the same small set of names time and again, with few new researchers selecting and remaining in this field. One of the reasons for this situation is write research phd thesis that so little funding has been available for research on elder mistreatment. Although more outstanding investigators might have attracted more funding, dedicated funding also could attract more and dissertation better investigators. Although the total federal contribution to research on elder mistreatment is uncertain, expenditures by NIA, the lead agency for aging research, have totaled $10 million during the last 12 years (19902001). Annual expenditures have increased from research proposal phd thesis, less than $300,000 per year in 1990 to over $1.3 million in dissertation process 2001; this is a modest sum even in comparison to the underfunded domain of child abuse research, on which federal agencies spend $3.8 million each year. The existing body of research is largely descriptive and pragmatic, taking the concepts and research proposal definitions used in essays practice or in statutes as given, rather than deriving the concepts and measures from theoretical premises or hypotheses. Write Phd Thesis! The atheoretical nature of the shock, research is reflected in the tendency to research phd thesis, lump all forms of what essay, mistreatment within a single category.

Individuals who have attempted to conduct research on elder abuse report that they have sometimes been hindered by write, a lack of cooperation from agencies responsible for activity of plant identifying and treating victims of mistreatment. Adult protective services programs and other elder abuse service programs have been characteristically reluctant to assist researchers in research activities, and especially research that involves interviews with victims and research their families. Reasons for lack of agency cooperation include a desire to protect their clients’ privacy and to help a story, prevent additional disruption in their lives, fear of evaluation research, and a shortage of staff time to devote to write research phd thesis, research. Although every state has enacted a statute authorizing or directing intervention in cases involving vulnerable adults, including the elderly, these statutes vary widely in almost every respect (see Appendix B and tables in Chapter 2). They specify different ages or circumstance under which a victim is eligible for protective services, often differentiating between in-home and institutional abuse.

They also vary in definitions of abuse, classification of abuse as civil or criminal, whether reporting is should be taught sex education mandatory or voluntary, and the remedies or resources available when abuse is documented. Each of the phd thesis, statutes defines conditions or circumstances that warrant intervention. The statutes typically define abuse or mistreatment as a series of broad categories, such as physical abuse, psychological or emotional abuse, sexual abuse or exploitation, and essays fiduciary abuse or exploitation, as well as neglect. However, not all states include all of write proposal, these categories, and others are sometimes added. For example, some states do not include psychological abuse within the definition, while others add more specific forms of mistreatment such as “unreasonable confinement” or “abandonment.” Moreover, statutes sometimes distinguish between degrees of mistreatment according to the perpetrator’s culpability or state of mind; for culture example, the law may distinguish among willful infliction of physical abuse, negligently causing physical injury, and failure to prevent it. In addition to research proposal phd thesis, variations in the types of mistreatment included in the statutory definition, the statutes also differ substantially in defining the common categories. For example, the definition of emotional abuse in several states includes “ridiculing or demeaning an infirm adult, making derogatory remarks to essays, an infirm adult or cursing or threatening to inflict physical or emotional harm on an infirm adult,” whereas other states require proof of “extreme emotional distress or harm” (see Appendix B). These statutory variations in definitions and obligations create innumerable opportunities for confusion and lack of proposal, comparability, especially if reported cases are being studied.

When data are reported to some central repository, unless the repository has imposed a specific definition for each of the forms of abuse, the same statutory element will trigger reports in different categories of cases in different states. Interpretation of combined statistics is treacherous, even if the only objective is to compare trends across states. Keeping in mind the impediments to research identified in this chapter, the panel decided to concentrate its attention on shock essays the tasks that are most urgently needed to research, propel the what, field forward. Chapter 2 addresses the prob- lem of inconsistencies in definition and research measurement that have thus far characterized research on help writing elder mistreatment. Chapter 3 sketches a theoretical framework that may be useful in organizing research on write phd thesis the phenomenology and help a story etiology of elder mistreatment in write research proposal phd thesis different settings and contexts. What! Chapter 4 addresses the research proposal, challenge of measuring the occurrence of help a story, elder mistreatment in write research proposal the population, highlighting important epidemiological considerations in elder mistreatment research. Chapter 5 summarizes what is now known about risk factors for elder mistreatment and identifies priorities for future research. What! Chapter 6 addresses research needed to research, improve screening and case identification in essay clinical settings.

Chapter 7 reviews policies and programs aiming to prevent or respond to elder mistreatment and identifies priorities for proposal future research. Chapter 8 addresses concerns about protecting human subjects in elder mistreatment research, and Chapter 9 identifies some necessary conditions for moving the field forward. The panel’s conclusions and recommendations are presented in Table 1-1. TABLE 1-1 Conclusions and Recommendations Regarding Elder Mistreatment Research. Conclusion or Recommendation. Basic research on activity the phenomenology of elder mistreatment is a critical early step in the further development of the field. The development of widely accepted operational definitions and validated and standardized measurement methods for the elements of elder mistreatment is urgently needed to move the field forward. The panel recommends systematic, theory-driven longitudinal research, both qualitative and quantitative, exploring the changing dynamics of elder people’s relationships and the risk of mistreatment, as they are affected by changing health status, social embeddedness, and proposal phd thesis caregiving and living arrangements, in both domestic and institutional contexts.

Population-based surveys of culture essays, elder mistreatment occurrence are feasible and should be given a high priority by funding agencies. Phd Thesis! Preparatory funding should be provided to develop and test measures for identifying elder mistreatment. Funding agencies should give priority to the design and fielding of national prevalence and incidence studies of elder mistreatment. These studies should include both a large-scale, independent study of dissertation process, prevalence and modular add-ons to other surveys of aging populations. In addition to write research, improved household and geographically referent sampling techniques, new methods of sampling and children in schools identifying elder mistreatment victims in research proposal the community should be developed in order to improve the validity and writing a story comprehensiveness of elder mistreatment occurrence estimates.

Supplemental modules pertaining to elder mistreatment should be included in existing comprehensive geographic health and social surveys, including ongoing longitudinal studies of aging populations. Once the measurement issues have been satisfactorily addressed, a comprehensive national prevalence study of elder mistreatment should be undertaken. Conclusion or Recommendation. Research is needed on the phenomenology and clinical course of elder mistreatment. The occurrence of elder mistreatment in institutional settings, including hospitals, long-term care and assisted living situations, is all but uncharacterized and research proposal phd thesis needs new study sampling and detection methods. Studies examining risk indicators and risk and writing a story protective factors for different types of write proposal phd thesis, elder mistreatment are urgently needed.

A particularly critical need exists for such studies in institutional settings. Research on risk and protective factors should take into consideration the clinical course of elder mistreatment. Advances in culture essays measurement in risk and protective factor research are needed. Screening and Case Identification in Clinical Settings: Chapter 6. Substantial research is needed to improve and develop new methods of screening for write research proposal phd thesis possible elder mistreatment in antioxidant a range of clinical settings. Research is needed on the process of designating cases as incidents of mistreatment in order to write phd thesis, improve criteria, investigative methods, decision-making processes, and decision outcomes.

Research assessing the capacity of older persons with cognitive impairments to provide accurate testimony is needed for improving the accuracy of case identification, not only in clinical settings, but also in a story legal settings, including prosecutorial decision making and formal adjudication. Research is needed to write research proposal, help illuminate the characteristics of common injuries, such as their etiology, natural course, distribution, and severity so that the process of identifying cases of elder mistreatment can become more accurate and reliable. Research on the effects of elder mistreatment interventions is urgently needed. Existing interventions to prevent or ameliorate elder mistreatment should be evaluated, and agencies funding new intervention programs should require and fund a scientifically adequate evaluation as a component of each grant. Conclusion or Recommendation.

The panel strongly recommends systematic studies of reporting practices and the effects of reporting, taking maximum advantage of the culture shock essays, opportunity for comparisons of research phd thesis, practices and outcomes in states with and without mandated reporting. Research is needed on the effectiveness of adult protective services interventions, ideally in study designs that compare outcomes in cases in which services were provided with those in which eligible recipients declined offered services or other cases in help which mistreatment of an equivalent nature has been identified. Prosecutorial response to elder mistreatment is an understudied area that should receive heightened attention by the National Institute of Justice and other funders of criminal justice research. Research about the use of civil justice interventions and their effectiveness in preventing exploitation and other harm to elders should be jointly sponsored by write, the National Institute of a story, Justice and the Administration on Aging. The panel strongly encourages government agencies and private sponsors of elder mistreatment programs to write research, give priority to interventions that emphasize specialized professional training and interdisciplinary collaboration. Dissertation Review Process! All new initiatives should include sufficient funding for evaluation. Investigators and institutional review boards (IRBs) need clearer guidance (without rigid rules) concerning two issues that tend to recur in elder mistreatment research: conditions under which research can properly go forward with participants whose decisional capacity is impaired, and the proper responses to write proposal, evidence of mistreatment elicited during the course of the study. The panel recommends that the National Institute of antioxidant activity extracts thesis, Aging, in collaboration with the Office of Human Research Protections and other sponsors of elder mistreatment research, undertake a consensus project to develop ethical guidelines and provide necessary clarification. Whenever feasible, investigators should consult representative members of the populations being studied (elder persons and caregivers, nursing home residents and staff, etc.) to ascertain their perspectives and preferences regarding the proper responses to evidence of mistreatment (and the related ethical issues raised by the proposed research), and should take this information into account in developing the protocol. Conclusion or Recommendation. Elder mistreatment reporting statutes should be amended to exempt researchers from research proposal, their mandatory requirements.

NIH should issue certificates of confidentiality designed to insulate elder mistreatment researchers from any legal obligation to disclose possible cases of television, mistreatment that otherwise may arise under state law, including tort “duty to protect” obligations as well as reporting statutes. Issuance of these certificates should be predicated on the assumption that IRBs will carefully scrutinize the protocols to ensure that participants are protected from harm and that, under appropriate circumstances, IRBs will permit investigators to take voluntary steps to protect subjects in danger. An adequate long-term funding commitment to research on elder mistreatment must be made by relevant federal, state, and write proposal phd thesis private agencies to support research careers and to develop the next generation of dissertation, investigators in the field. 500 Fifth St., NW | Washington, DC 20001. Since the write research, late 1970s when Congressman Claude Pepper held widely publicized hearings on are morals essay the mistreatment of the research phd thesis, elderly, policy makers and shock practitioners have sought ways to protect older Americans from physical, psychological, and financial abuse. Yet, during the last 20 years fewer than 50 articles have addressed the shameful problem that abusers—and sometimes the abused themselves—want to conceal.

Elder Mistreatment in an Aging America takes a giant step toward broadening our understanding of the mistreatment of the phd thesis, elderly and recommends specific research and funding strategies that can be used to deepen it. The book includes a discussion of the conceptual, methodological, and logistical issues needed to create a solid research base as well as the ethical concerns that must be considered when working with older subjects. It also looks at problems in determination of a report’s reliability and the role of physicians, EMTs, and others who are among the first to recognize situations of mistreatment. Elder Mistreatment in an Aging America will be of interest to anyone concerned about the elderly and ways to culture, intervene when abuse is suspected, including family members, caregivers, and advocates for write research phd thesis the elderly. On Reality! It will also be of interest to researchers, research sponsors, and policy makers who need to know how to advance our knowledge of this problem. Front Matter i–xvi Executive Summary 1–8 1. Introduction 9–33 2. Concepts, Definitions, and Guidelines for Measurement 34–59 3. A Theoretical Model of proposal, Elder Mistreatment 60–70 4. The Occurrence of Elder Mistreatment 71–87 5. Risk Factors for Elder Mistreatment 88–103 6. Screening and Case Identification in Clinical Settings 104–120 7. Evaluating Interventions 121–139 8. Research Ethics 140–149 9. Moving Forward 150–152 References 153–164 Appendix A: Elder Mistreatment Measures and help Studies 165–180 Appendix B: Analysis of Elder Abuse and Neglect Definitions Under State Law 181–237 Appendix C: Elder Abuse and Neglect: History and Concepts 238–248 Appendix D: Biographical Sketches 249–258 10. Elder Mistreatment: Epidemiological Assessment Methodology 259–302 11. Ethical and Policy Issues in Research on Elder Abuse and Neglect 303–338 12.

The Clinical and Medical Forensics of Elder Abuse and Neglect 339–381 13. Financial Abuse of the Elderly in Domestic Settings 382–445 14. Elder Abuse in Residential Long-Term Care Settings: What Is Known and What Information Is Needed? 446–500 15. Elder Abuse Intervention: Lessons from Child Abuse and Domestic Violence Initiatives 501–526 Index 527–552. You're looking at OpenBook, NAP.edu's online reading room since 1999. Based on feedback from you, our users, we've made some improvements that make it easier than ever to phd thesis, read thousands of publications on culture shock our website. Do you want to take a quick tour of the write proposal, OpenBook's features? Show this book's table of contents , where you can jump to any chapter by name.

. or use these buttons to essays on reality shows, go back to the previous chapter or skip to the next one. Jump up to the previous page or down to research phd thesis, the next one. Also, you can type in a page number and press Enter to go directly to that page in the book. Switch between the Original Pages , where you can read the essays on reality shows, report as it appeared in print, and Text Pages for the web version, where you can highlight and search the text. To search the entire text of this book, type in your search term here and press Enter . Share a link to write phd thesis, this book page on children sex education in schools your preferred social network or via email. View our suggested citation for this chapter.

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