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Write my Essay | I need help with my School Assignment. Write My Essay We are the most trusted essay writing service. Get the best essays delivered by experienced UK US essay writers at affordable prices. Shelby anticipates the following question toward the have, end of his article, “Shouldn’t we reject black solidarity and project write, embrace interracial, anti-racist solidarity instead?” (a) Explain what this question means (e.g., explain what ‘black solidarity’ as well as ‘interracial solidarity’ mean in paper, this context). (b) How does Shelby respond to this rhetorical question/challenge? Are his arguments here persuasive? Offer some critical discussion (e.g., Which is the of democracy essay, strongest consideration? What does his discussion establish?
Can his arguments be strengthened?) (c) Briefly consider how this exchange between Shelby and his imagined interlocutor would be different (if at pay to paper, all) if the question posed had been, “Shouldn’t we reject black solidarity and embrace an interracial solidarity movement against british in africa essay anti-black racism?” Your paper should be no longer than 4 pages (and not under 3 pages). Your paper should be spell-checked and proofread for grammatical correctness. Use 12pt font, Times New Roman, and pay to have paper written, double-spacing. Do not cite any sources outside of the material assigned. Ethics 112 (January 2002): 231–266. ! 2002 by self The University of Chicago.
All rights reserved. 0014-1704/2002/11202- Foundations of Black Solidarity: Collective. Identity or Common Oppression?* We are one with you under the ban of prejudice and proscription— one with you under the slander of inferiority—one with you. in social and have, political disfranchisement. What you suffer, we suffer;
what you endure, we endure. We are indissolubly united, and bubbly, must. fall or flourish together. Have Written. [Frederick Douglass]1. In an how to, effort to liberate blacks from the burden of racial oppression, black leaders have frequently called on black Americans to become a. more unified collective agent for social change.2 And while there are. * Sincere and warm thanks go to my friends and colleagues who commented on. previous drafts of this essay, including Linda Alcoff, Anthony Appiah, Lawrie Balfour, Sylvia. Berryman, Martha Biondi, Bernard Boxill, Derrick Darby, Dan Farrell, Dena Gilby, Robert. Gooding-Williams, Jennifer Hochschild, Bill Lawson, Sarah Loper, Ron Mallon, Howard. McGary, Charles Mills, Lucius Outlaw, Naomi Pabst, John Pittman, Diana Raffman, Kathleen.
Schmidt, and Laurence Thomas. I would also like to pay to have paper written, thank an anonymous reviewer. for Ethics, as well as the project how to write, editors of the pay to written, journal. Self Essay. Earlier versions of the essay were presented. at Howard University, Harvard University, the Du Bois Scholars Institute in New Jersey, the Collegium for written, African American Research Biannual Conference, and a special session. of the APA Pacific sponsored by the Committee on Blacks in pros of democracy essay, Philosophy. I am grateful to. the audiences at these venues. 1. Frederick Douglass, “To Our Oppressed Countrymen,” in Black Nationalism in America,
ed. John H. Bracey, Jr., August Meier, and Elliott Rudwick (Indianapolis:Bobbs-Merrill, 1970), p. 58, originally published as an editorial in the North Star (December 3, 1847). 2. In everyday life, use of the term ‘black’ when referring to individuals or groups. rarely causes much confusion; context is usually enough to pay to, make the speaker’s meaning. relatively clear. But the concept “black” is and cons essay, quite vague and thus is not easily accommodated. to theoretical discourse where one would like to be fairly precise. Moreover, the meaning. of ‘black’ as a “racial” designator varies with social context, for there are various systems. of racial classification around the world; and even within a given locale, who is “black”
may shift with political contingencies. My concern in this essay is primarily with blacks. living in the United States today, including recent African, Caribbean, European, and. Latin American immigrants, though some of what I say here can also be extended to. blacks living in paper written, other places as well. For the moment, I will rely on context to set the. 232 Ethics January 2001.
some who think such solidarity irrational, impractical, or perhaps even. morally objectionable,3 I take it that many people (both black and nonblack) believe it to global outline, be essential for black people to achieve the full. freedom and social equality that American ideals promise. However, even among those who agree that black solidarity is important for bringing. about racial justice, there is substantial disagreement over the precise.
meaning of this solidaristic commitment. Such disagreement can be. quite fundamental, as can be seen by comparing the following two views. on the scope and significance of black political solidarity: Common oppression theory: Blacks should unite and have, work together. because they suffer a common oppression; and they can. overcome or ameliorate their shared condition only through black.
Collective self-determination theory: Blacks should unite and global warming paper, work. together because they are an oppressed people, a people with their. own distinctive racial, ethnic, cultural, and/or national identity; and as a people, blacks have interests that are best served by their. becoming a self-determining group. Though they are somewhat similar in underlying motivation, the.
two political theories are importantly different. The common oppression. theory, the least radical of the pay to have written, two, simply acknowledges the existence. of antiblack racism in America and write bubbly, calls on those who suffer under it. to act collectively to end that oppression or at least to reduce its impact. on their lives.
The goal of this political program, then, is to free blacks. from antiblack racism, and it sees black solidarity as a necessary means. to that end. Have Paper. The collective self-determination theory, on the other hand, is a form of computer applications technology grade papers black nationalism, and it maintains that blacks need to work. together to bring about their collective self-realization as a people. Generally. more pessimistic about the paper, prospects for applications 12 exam, ending antiblack racism, this program seeks relief for black people through collective autonomy.
(political, economic, social, and/or cultural) and calls for black solidarity. to bring this about. My concern in this essay is primarily with the status of the common. oppression theory, for while it is sometimes misunderstood or outright. rejected, it is a position that I believe blacks should embrace (and of. meaning of the term ‘black’, but in the section titled “Varieties of ‘Black’ Social Identity,”
I will urge a more precise conception of “blackness.” My reasons for choosing ‘black’ rather than, say, ‘African-American’, ‘Afro-American’, or ‘person of paper color’ will also become. clearer in that section. 3. See, e.g., Kwame Anthony Appiah, “Racisms,” in Anatomy of Racism, ed. Reflexive. David Theo. Goldberg (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1990); Randall Kennedy, “My Race. Problem—and Ours,” Atlantic Monthly (May 1997): 55–66; and have, Paul Gilroy, Against Race:
Imagining Political Culture beyond the Color Line (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, Shelby Foundations of Black Solidarity 233. course some already do). Though the collective self-determination theory, with its goal of black collective self-realization, certainly has its adherents, and it too is worthy of extended critical discussion, I will not. be concerned to take it up here, at least not directly. However, in an.
effort to applications 12 exam, defend and have written, clarify the british imperialism essay, common oppression theory, and to. further distinguish it from black nationalism, I want to scrutinize a. doctrine that is often thought to be a component of both conceptions. of black solidarity: Collective identity theory: A collective black identity is essential. for an effective black solidarity whose aim is liberation from racial. oppression; therefore, blacks who are committed to emancipatory. group solidarity must embrace and written, preserve their distinctive black. It is perhaps obvious why the advocate of black collective self-determination. would embrace this view, since it is the project how to write, distinctive social.
identity of have blacks that, on this account, constitutes them as a “people.” Without such an identity, the self reflexive, goal of black collective self-realization loses. its rationale and much of its appeal. But even for those who accept the. more modest common oppression theory, collective identity theory may. seem to have much going for it, as it would appear to help with overcoming. two serious obstacles to pay to written, black collective action against antiblack. racism. First, there is the familiar free-rider problem.
While some blacks. are willing to make the relevant sacrifices to bring about racial equality, others are much more complacent and narrowly self-interested. The. inaction of the latter weakens the and cons, collective effort, and it breeds resentment. and suspicion among blacks, as some are seen as benefiting. from the sacrifices of others without contributing anything of substance. to the pay to paper, collective struggle. Collective identity theory suggests a (partial) solution: by cultivating a common conception of who they are as black. people, blacks can strengthen the warming paper, bonds of sympathy and loyalty that.
will enable them to overcome these barriers to collective action. Have Paper Written. Such. an identity could also give blacks a firmer basis for mutual identification. across class lines, something that is thought to be sorely needed in this. time of increasing intraracial economic stratification. Second, there is. the general problem that the mere acceptance of abstract principles of.
justice is often insufficient to motivate people to contribute the time. and resources necessary for effecting meaningful social change. This. difficulty affects the collective will of reflexive blacks as well, despite the fact that. they, perhaps more than any other racialized group in America, desperately. want to see an end to racial oppression. Again, the collective. identity theory seems to pay to have paper, help: viewing each other as “black brothers and.
sisters” with a shared social identity may, like the familiar motivating. 234 Ethics January 2001. force of global outline paper kinship relations, make blacks more inclined to help each other. in a movement to end racial subordination and pay to have paper written, inequality. Many influential theorists in the history of british imperialism in africa essay black political thought. have defended or relied upon the collective identity theory.
The tendency. to tie emancipatory black solidarity to the need for have written, a collective. black identity can be found in the writings and speeches of such diverse. thinkers as Edward Blyden, Alexander Crummell, W. E. Imperialism In Africa. B. Du Bois, Marcus Garvey, Alain Locke, Malcolm X, Amiri Baraka, Harold Cruse, Stokely Carmichael, Maulana Karenga, Molefi Asante, and Lucius Outlaw. 4 For purposes of illustrating this tendency, I will focus on Du Bois. and his well-known essay, “The Conservation of pay to have written Races.” In that essay, Du Bois explicitly advocates a particularly strong form of bubbly emancipatory. black solidarity: “It is our [the American Negroes’] duty to have paper written, conserve our. physical powers, our intellectual endowments, our spiritual ideals; as a.
race we must strive by warming paper race organization, by race solidarity, by race unity. to the realization of that broader humanity which freely recognizes differences in. men, but sternly deprecates inequality in have paper written, their opportunities of development.”5. Du Bois believed that black solidarity is necessary for both overcoming. racial oppression and ensuring that blacks make their unique cultural.
contribution to humanity. He also insisted that blacks should “conserve” their racial identity, rather than be absorbed into pros Anglo-American culture; for, as he saw it, the goals of pay to have emancipatory black solidarity cannot. 4. Though not all of these thinkers explicitly defend the of democracy, collective identity theory, each at least implicitly relies upon pay to have paper written, it. Global Warming Outline Paper. Moreover, it is arguable that some of them came to.
deemphasize the importance of a collective black identity to black solidarity—e.g., Du. Bois and Malcolm X—which is why I say that the view can be found in their “writings and. speeches.” See Edward W. Blyden, “The Call of pay to have paper Providence to the Descendants of how to write bubbly Africa. in America,” in Negro Social and Political Thought, ed.Howard Brotz (NewYork:Basic,1966); Alexander Crummell, “The Relations and Duties of Free Colored Men in America to. Africa” and pay to paper, “The Race Problem in America,” both in pros and cons of democracy essay, Brotz, ed.; W. Have Paper Written. E. B. Du Bois, “The. Conservation of Races,” in The Seventh Son: The Thought and Writings of W. E. B. Du Bois,
vol. 1, ed. Julius Lester (New York: Vintage, 1971); Marcus Garvey, “Aims and how to, Objects of. Movement for Solution of Negro Problems,” in Brotz, ed.; Alain Locke, “The New Negro,” in The New Negro, ed.
Alain Locke (New York: Atheneum, 1969);MalcolmX, “BlackMan’s. History,” in The End of White World Supremacy: Four Speeches by Malcolm X, ed. ImamBenjamin. Karim (New York: Arcade, 1971); LeRoi Jones (Amiri Baraka), “The Legacy of Malcolm. X, and the Coming of the pay to have, Black Nation,” in his Home: Social Essays (New York: William. Morrow, 1966); Harold Cruse, The Crisis of the essay, Negro Intellectual (New York: William Morrow, 1967); Stokely Carmichael and have paper written, Charles V. Reflexive. Hamilton, Black Power: The Politics of Liberation.
in America (New York: Vintage, 1967); Maulana Karenga, “Society, Culture, and have, the Problem. of Self-Consciousness: A Kawaida Analysis,” in Philosophy Born of Struggle: Anthology of how to Afro- American Philosophy from pay to have paper, 1917, ed. Leonard Harris (Dubuque, Iowa: Kendall/Hunt, 1983); Molefi Kete Asante, The Afrocentric Idea (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1998); and. Lucius T. Outlaw, Jr., “Against the of democracy, Grain of Modernity: The Politics of have written Difference and the. Conservation of ‘Race,’” in his On Race and Philosophy (New York: Routledge, 1996). 5. Du Bois, “The Conservation of reflexive Races,” p. 183; emphasis added.
Shelby Foundations of Black Solidarity 235. be achieved without the written, preservation of a distinctive black identity: “We. believe it the duty of the and cons, Americans of Negro descent, as a body, to. maintain their race identity until this mission of the Negro people is. accomplished, and the ideal of human brotherhood has become a practical. possibility.”6 While it is pay to, clear that Du Bois would like to see black. identity preserved even beyond that time when (if ever) social equality. becomes a reality, here he emphasizes the global outline paper, “duty” of blacks to maintain.
their identity “until” such equality is realized. Even in his reconstruction of the pay to written, concept of “race,” Du Bois emphasized. the link between racial identity and write, race solidarity: “[A race] is a vast family of pay to written human beings, generally of common blood and language, always of common history, traditions and impulses, who are both. voluntarily and global warming outline paper, involuntarily striving together for the accomplishment of certain. more or less vividly conceived ideals of written life.” 7 Recently, there has been a lively. philosophical debate over the exact meaning of Du Bois’s conception.
of race as defined in his “Conservation” essay.8 Much of this debate has. focused on the metaphysics of 12 exam 2011 race, that is, on what “races” are, whether. any really exist, and if so, in what sense. Pay To Paper. Du Bois was no doubt concerned. with such questions, but his interest in the reality of “races” was in part. based on his desire to lay a firm foundation for black solidarity. British Essay. Du Bois. was convinced that a collective black identity—based primarily on a. shared history and culture, and only secondarily on a common biology—
is a necessary component of an have written, emancipatory black solidarity. Much of how to write black social thought has followed him in this. Indeed, among. advocates of black solidarity, collective identity theory is often treated. However, I will argue that we should reject this view of black emancipation, not because black solidarity has no contribution to pay to paper written, make to.
black liberation, but rather because cultivating a collective black identity. is unnecessary for forging effective bonds among blacks, would create. (or exacerbate an already) undue constraint on individual freedom, and is likely, in any case, to be self-defeating. Bubbly. I would urge that we. 6. Ibid., p. 186; emphasis added. 7. Ibid., p. 178; emphasis added. 8. See, e.g., Kwame Anthony Appiah, In My Father’s House: Africa in the Philosophy of.
Culture (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1992), pp. 28–46; Lucius Outlaw, “On W. E. B. Du Bois’s ‘The Conservation of paper Races,’” in Overcoming Racism and applications technology grade 12 exam, Sexism, ed. Linda A. Bell. and David Blumenfeld (Lanham, Md.: Rowman Littlefield, 1995); Robert Gooding-
Williams, “Outlaw, Appiah, and Du Bois’s ‘The Conservation of Races,’” in pay to paper, W. Write Bubbly. E. B. Pay To Written. Du. Bois on pros and cons essay, Race and Culture, ed. Bernard W. Paper. Bell, Emily R. Grosholz, and James B. Stewert. (New York: Routledge, 1996); Tommy L. Lott, The Invention of Race: Black Culture and the. Politics of Representation (Malden, Mass.: Blackwell, 1999), pp. 47–66; and Paul C. Taylor, “Appiah’s Uncompleted Argument: W. E. B. Du Bois and the Reality of Race,” Social Theory. and Practice 26 (2000): 103–28. 236 Ethics January 2001. disentangle the call for an emancipatory black solidarity from the call. for a collective black identity.
A black solidarity that is based on the. common experience of antiblack racism and the joint commitment to. bringing it to an end can and should play an important role in the fight. against racial injustice. But an british imperialism essay, emancipatory black solidarity that emphasizes. the need to affirm a racial, ethnic, cultural, and/or national. identity is a legacy of pay to have paper written black political thought that must now be abandoned. for the sake of the struggle against racial oppression. Toward the. end of this essay, I will sketch and defend a version of the common.
oppression theory that eschews the self, requirement of a collective black. Before proceeding further, however, two caveats are in order. First, my concern in this essay is with that form of group solidarity that has. as its primary goal the pay to written, liberation of black people from the burdens of. racial inequality and antiblack racism. Thus, for grade 12 exam papers 2011, the remainder of this. essay, ‘black solidarity’ will refer to this type of have emancipatory solidarity. But of course not everything that could rightly be called a form of “black. solidarity” is in africa, bound up with antiracist politics, since there are other.
collective goals or values that could serve as a basis for pay to paper written, building black. unity. For instance, there is a form of black solidarity that has as its end. the nurturing of communal relations among blacks, a solidarity that is. not treated as a means to computer applications grade 2011, some other external objective: some may seek. solidarity with other blacks simply because they see intrinsic value in. the social interaction and the feelings of community that it brings. Written. Nothing. I say here should be taken to preclude or disparage this type of. solidarity; the form of emancipatory black solidarity that I would defend. is perfectly compatible with it.
Indeed, under certain conditions, the. former may, even without conscious effort, foster the latter and vice. versa. How To. Second, like Du Bois, some blacks might want to work together. to cultivate and preserve “black culture,” because they believe it to be.
distinctive, intrinsically valuable, and in danger of being lost or underappreciated; and, again, they may see this collective project as important. quite apart from its relationship to the struggle against racism. Provided. such a project is paper written, not treated as a necessary component of emancipatory. black solidarity, it is not threatened by the rejection of the global warming paper, collective. identity theory.
However, if blacks are thought to have an obligation to. commit themselves to this goal of cultural conservation, then the project. will be vulnerable to some of the criticisms I will raise against collective. identity theory below. Before submitting it to critical scrutiny, it will be useful to pay to have written, specify the. collective identity theory in a bit more detail. This will involve two tasks: explaining the how to write bubbly, meaning of “blackness” and describing the requirements. Shelby Foundations of Black Solidarity 237.
of “solidarity.” I will take up the latter task first. I want to suggest that. there are four core characteristics that are jointly sufficient for a robust. form of group solidarity. By “robust” here I mean a solidarity that is. strong enough to move people to collective action, and not just a mutual. sympathy born of the recognition of commonality or a feel-good sense.
of group belonging.9. Identification between group members.—One of the more salient characteristics. of group solidarity is the tendency of paper group members to identify. with each other or with the imperialism in africa, group as a whole. The basis of have paper written mutual. identification can vary greatly. It can, for example, be based on a shared. ethnic or cultural heritage (whether real or imagined). Project How To. But its basis may. also be the written, fact that group members believe themselves to share a similar.
plight or some significant, perhaps life-shaping, experience. Such commonality. often engenders mutual empathetic understanding. This kind. of understanding is how to, not, however, merely a matter of have paper written sympathy, which. may be nothing more than an involuntary reaction to the plight of. others. Rather, members of a solidarity group come to view themselves, because of what they have in common, as sharing a special bond; and.
because of this bond, sometimes fellow group members are treated as. if they were an extension of the self, so that one may feel pride when. a member of the group does something praiseworthy or shame when. a fellow member does something embarrassing, almost as if one had. done the deed oneself. It is mutual identification that accounts for this.
familiar sense of “we-ness” that is so characteristic of solidarity groups. Shared values or goals.—Members of a solidarity group share a set of. values and/or goals, and in africa essay, each knows (or at least believes) that fellow. group members are committed to these. The values or goals might take. the form of more or less vague ideals (e.g., “Africa for the Africans” or. “Black Power”), specific policies or principles (e.g., civil disobedience. or equal opportunity for all), or broad social programs (e.g., black. capitalism or the building of a unified African nation-state). Such common. values and/or goals often (at least partially) define the paper written, group,
constituting its distinctive character and self-conception. 9. The characteristics of group solidarity that I discuss below are drawn in part from. recent work in social psychology on group cohesiveness, especially from the social identity. and self-categorization approaches. I take it that these characteristics are intuitive and. relatively uncontroversial. Moreover, they are compatible with a variety of social psychological.
approaches to group behavior. Self Essay. See, e.g., John C. Turner, Rediscovering the Social. Group: A Self-Categorization Theory (Oxford: Blackwell, 1987); Michael A. Hogg and Dominic. Abrams, Social Identifications: A Social Psychology of Intergroup Relations and Group Processes. (London: Routledge, 1988); Michael A. Hogg, The Social Psychology of Group Cohesiveness: From Attraction to Social Identity (New York: New York University Press, 1992); Tom R. Tyler, Roderick M. Kramer, and pay to, Oliver P. Pros Of Democracy. John, eds., The Psychology of the Social Self (Mahwah, N.J.: Erlbaum, 1999). 238 Ethics January 2001.
Group loyalty.—One of the most important components of solidarity. is group loyalty. Paper. Loyalty to one’s group entails allowing the group to. figure significantly in the construction of one’s projects and life plans. This will involve, perhaps among other things, faithfulness to the group’s. values, principles, and ideals, and a willingness to write, exert extra effort to. help members of the group and to advance the group’s interests. Moreover, group loyalty is always (at least somewhat) exclusionary and is often.
defined in opposition to some other group(s), that is, there is usually. an “Us” and a “Them,” or, if you like, an in-group and an out-group. Members of have a solidarity group show loyalty to in-group members as. opposed to those of the relevant out-group, whose interests, goals, or. values may differ from global warming outline paper, or conflict with those of the pay to have, in-group. Though. it does require that one be willing to resist threats to one’s group created. by its enemies, the partiality that loyalty engenders need not be adversarial. Peaceful coexistence, even coalition, between different solidarity.
groups is often possible. Mutual trust.—Group solidarity also requires that group members. trust one another, for mutual trust is the project write, foundation of cooperation. Because of the vulnerability to exploitation that loyalty engenders, wellfounded. trust is necessary to give group members some measure of. security. Pay To Paper Written. Each must have reason to believe that the others will not let. him down, betray the british in africa, values of the group, or free-ride on the sacrifices. of his fellows. Mutual trust enables members of the group to act collectively. to achieve group goals, especially when success is uncertain.
There are many examples of solidarity groups: families, labor unions, fraternities and sororities, some ethnic groups, religious organizations, political parties, police officers, street gangs, military personnel, and organized crime syndicates. Rather than focus on have, any of these quite. complicated (and, with some of these, problematic) forms of solidarity, a simpler and more suitably paradigmatic case is the solidarity between. members of project how to a sports team. Written. Players on british imperialism, a sports team often identify with.
each other. When they do, each thinks in terms of “we” rather than “I.” When the team wins a game, all rejoice in victory, and when it loses, everyone suffers “the agony of defeat,” no matter how much or little. each may have contributed to pay to paper written, the victory or loss.
Such sports teams will. also be jointly committed to a set of bubbly values or goals. For example, they. may be committed to fair play and sportsmanship, a particular style of. play, or a win-at-all-costs philosophy. Have Paper Written. Team solidarity also requires that. each be loyal to pros and cons essay, the group’s values and to her teammates. So, for instance,
members of the pay to, team will work hard during practice sessions, stick to self, agreed-upon game plans, put aside individual goals when pursuing. them would conflict with the pay to have paper, good of the team, and expend as. much effort as is necessary for the team to win—the sports cliche?’s “110. percent.” Finally, members of a sports team must trust one another, Shelby Foundations of Black Solidarity 239. especially if they are to be successful at winning. Write. Each must feel confident. that her teammates will perform their designated roles on the.
team; and pay to, each must know that if she makes an honest mistake that. costs the team a game, her teammates will support her with words of. encouragement, rather than berate and how to, blame her. Such trust is pay to, often. built by mutual displays of individual loyalty to the team or by repeatedly.
struggling together against formidable opponents. To briefly summarize: robust group solidarity exists whenever a set. of individuals identify with each other, are jointly committed to applications 2011, certain. values or goals, are loyal to the group and paper, its members, and trust one. another. Thus, black solidarity would be robust if blacks, as a group, were to possess each of these four characteristics. VARIETIES OF “BLACK” SOCIAL IDENTITY. According to project how to write, collective identity theory, black people must embrace and. preserve their distinctive black identity if a politically progressive solidarity.
is to flourish among them. To fully understand this position, then, we also need to know what group of people ‘black’ is supposed to be. picking out here, and what the pay to paper written, nature of this “black identity” is that. they must embrace and preserve. I want to approach these two questions. by making a distinction between “thin” and “thick” conceptions of black.
identity. Relying on this distinction, we will see, among other things, that the collective identity theorist urges the cultivation of a thick black. On a thin conception of self reflexive black identity, “black” is a vague and socially. imposed category of difference that serves to paper, distinguish groups on how to write bubbly, the. basis of their members having certain visible, inherited physical characteristics, and/or a particular biological ancestry. The prevailing thin.
conception of black identity in written, the United States holds that blacks are. those persons who have such inherited physical traits as dark skin, tightly. curled or “kinky” hair, a broad flat nose, and how to write, thick lips, and/or those. persons who are descendants of people that are presumed to have such. characteristics. Thus, on a thin view, blacks are persons who (more or. less) fit a certain phenotypic profile and/or who are thought to pay to paper, have. biological ancestors that fit the relevant profile.
For those who meet the criterion, there is little room for choice; you cannot simply decide not to be thinly black—as the applications technology grade 12 exam papers 2011, African American. saying goes, “The only thing I have to do is pay to have written, stay black and imperialism essay, die.” If, say, one were to have paper, assimilate completely to imperialism essay, so-called white culture, one’s. thin blackness would nevertheless remain intact, for cultural conversion. provides no escape.
No amount of pay to wealth or social status can erase one’s. thin blackness—though clearly one’s class status might mitigate some. of its negative consequences. One might alter her physical appearance. so as not to “look black,” or if she does not have a “black appearance,”
240 Ethics January 2001. she might simply conceal her black ancestry—as those who “pass” do—but in either case, she would still be black, in self reflexive essay, the thin sense, even. if never found out. It is an individual’s thin blackness that makes her. vulnerable to antiblack racism despite her nonblack physical appearance, her law-abiding conduct and pay to have paper, good character, her class position or. professional status, or the extent of global warming outline her assimilation to the dominant. A thick conception of pay to have paper written black identity (which usually includes a thin. criterion as a component part) always requires something more (or. something other) than a common physical appearance or shared ancestry.
11 Here, the global paper, social category “black” has a narrower social meaning, with specific and sometimes quite demanding criteria for who qualifies. as black. Drawing on pay to have paper, the history of black social thought, four familiar. versions of thick blackness can be distinguished.
First, relying on K. Anthony Appiah’s terminology, there is the. racialist conception of blackness.12 On this conception, black identity is. based on the supposed presence of a special genotype in the biological. make-up of all (fully) black people that does not exist among nonblacks. On this view, an underlying cluster of genes, transmitted through reproduction, accounts not only for the relatively superficial physical traits. that constitute thin blackness but also for more socially significant traits, such as temperament, aesthetic sensibility, and certain innate talents;
and it is the possession of this genotype that defines membership in the. black race. How To Write Bubbly. There is of course a racialist conception of blackness that. is committed to the view that biological race determines native intelligence, reproductive traits and tendencies, and paper written, moral character. How To Write Bubbly. However, since this strong form of racial determinism is widely accepted as. false and racially offensive, I will assume that our collective identity. theorist does not endorse it.
Second, there is the ethnic conception of blackness. It treats black. identity as a matter of written shared ancestry and common cultural heritage.13. On such an how to bubbly, account, there is no assumption that two people of the. same ethnicity must necessarily share the same “racial essence.” To be. sure, the members of an ethnic group may share certain physical traits. 10. Pay To Have. For a similar conception of blackness, see Bernard R. Imperialism Essay. Boxill, Blacks and Social. Justice, rev. Pay To Have Paper. ed. (Lanham, Md.: Rowman Littlefield, 1992), p. 178. 11.
Those thick conceptions that require something other, rather than just something. more, than thin criteria for blackness will entail, if only implicitly, a critique and rejection. of the thin criteria. 12. Appiah, “Racisms,” pp. 4–5. 13. An ethnic identity becomes a national identity when it is associated with a particular. geographical location that is viewed as a place of origin or “homeland.” However, I will.
treat nationalist conceptions of blackness as a variant of the and cons of democracy, ethnic conception, for the. differences between ethnicity and have paper written, nationality will not affect my argument. Shelby Foundations of Black Solidarity 241. as a result of their shared biological ancestry (e.g., dark skin or the. capacity to grow an afro), and pros and cons of democracy essay, they may even value their possession of.
these traits as part of their ethnic heritage. But these ethnic traits need. not be viewed as indicating an pay to paper, underlying racial genotype that explains. black behavioral or psychological dispositions. Pros Essay. Indeed, the ethnic conception. of blackness is consistent with the pay to have, complete rejection of. There are two dominant ethnic conceptions of of democracy essay black identity.
One. emphasizes the fact that black people are descendants of certain sub- Saharan African peoples, and it maintains that they share a culture that. is traceable to the culture of those ancestors. The other stresses both. the experiences of blacks with oppression in the New World and the. rich culture they have created in pay to written, the context of that oppression since. being forcibly removed from Africa. On both versions, though, one does.
not have a black ethnic identity unless one both has the relevant biological. ancestry and embraces the appropriate cultural traits. Third, there is the cultural conception of blackness. It rests on the. claim that there is an identifiable ensemble of beliefs, values, behaviors,
and practices that has come to be associated with the thinly black because. of their role in project, creating it. Though this culture is thought to be. primarily the product of thinly black people and their experiences, its. continued reproduction does not depend solely on the activities of these. blacks, since nonblacks may participate in pay to have paper, sustaining and developing it. as well—jazz, for example. On this model, thick black identity is of democracy essay, tied. neither to pay to paper, “race,” nor to outline, biological ancestry.
Anyone could, in have written, principle, embrace and cultivate a black cultural identity, in warming paper, much the same way. that anyone could, again in principle, become a practicing Christian. Finally, there is the historically influential kinship conception of. blackness. This view understands black identity on the model of the. family—recall Du Bois’s conception of “race” as a “vast family” or consider. the use of “brother” and “sister” to pay to, affectionately refer to fellow. blacks. Write Bubbly. Of course blacks are not a family, not even an extended one, in.
any ordinary sense.14 So what is it about familial relations that could. plausibly constitute a basis (or suggest an analogous foundation) for a. thick black identity? There seem to be three possibilities. First, one could. understand blackness in terms of biological relatedness—that is,“blood. ties.” But then, the kinship conception can be expressed in terms of. the racialist view, the ethnic view, or the thin conception of pay to have paper black identity. 14. For compelling critiques of the how to, family/race metaphor and have paper written, its invocation in how to write bubbly, discourses.
of racial solidarity, see Paul Gilroy, “It’s a Family Affair,” in written, Black Popular Culture, ed. Gina Dent (New York: New Press, 1990); Appiah, “Racisms,” pp. 13–15; and Patricia. Hill Collins, Fighting Words: African American Women and british, the Search for Justice (Minneapolis:
University of Minnesota Press, 1998), pp. Written. 167–74. 242 Ethics January 2001. Second, one could treat black identity as not merely a matter of biology. but of the reproduction of a common way of life. But here I would. suggest the idea could be adequately captured by the ethnic conception. of blackness (perhaps with some additional racialist assumptions). Or. third, like familial relations formed through marriage or adoption, blackness could be thought to rest on voluntary affiliation, custom, or.
(legal) convention. This form of imperialism “blackness,” however, would be simply. a version of the pay to have written, cultural conception. Thus, the familiar kinship view is. not a distinct conception of project how to write blackness from the ones already considered, and thus it will not receive independent critical discussion here.15. There are several things to notice about thin and thick black identities. First, one may choose, with varying degrees of difficulty, not to.
define one’s self-conception in terms of “blackness” at all; that is, one. may choose not to subjectively identify with the pay to paper written, label “black” or to conform. to its associated behavioral norms.16 Some contend that those. blacks who do so are denying something important about themselves, perhaps out of racially motivated self-hate. But a different, more respectable, reason for rejecting a black identity, one that does not necessarily. involve self-deception, is that one may believe the applications technology papers 2011, designation. “black,” with its typical connotations, is not an pay to, apt characterization of. either who one is or who one would like to be.
Or one might think that. a black identity, while perhaps perfectly appropriate for bubbly, some, is too. crude or limiting in one’s own case. Yet another reason might be that. one believes it to be an inherently invidious and have written, repressive social distinction.
and, thus, should be repudiated on political grounds. Technology 12 Exam 2011. It should. be clear, however, that the choice not to self-identify as black, whatever. its rationale, does not dissolve the often constraining social realities that. are created by the fact that othersmay insist on ascribing such an identity. to one and, consequently, may treat one accordingly, whether for good. Second, given the thin/thick distinction, we can understand what. it would mean to say of someone who is clearly black according to paper, thin. 15. Of course, members of a family often share important experiences that contribute.
to their feelings of connectedness and loyalty. In a similar way, black people have a common. history of racial oppression and share the experience of antiblack racism. How To Write Bubbly. However, as I. will argue below, these commonalities can form the basis for have written, group solidarity without. relying on a “thick” collective black identity. 16. Project How To Write. For illuminating discussions of the relationship between third-person racial ascription.
and first-person racial self-identification, see Anna Stubblefield, “Racial Identity. and Non-Essentialism about Race,” Social Theory and pay to written, Practice 21 (1995): 341–68; K. Anthony. Appiah, “Race, Culture, Identity: Misunderstood Connections,” in Color Conscious: The. Political Morality of how to bubbly Race, by K. Anthony Appiah and Amy Gutmann (Princeton,N.J.:Princeton. University Press, 1996), pp. 76–80; and Robert Gooding-Williams, “Race, Multiculturalism. and Democracy,” Constellations 5 (1998): 18–41. Shelby Foundations of paper written Black Solidarity 243. criteria, but who fails to satisfy the how to bubbly, relevant criteria for thick blackness. (whatever that turns out to be), that he or she isn’t “really” black—a. claim that is sometimes thought to be somewhat paradoxical, if not.
completely incoherent.17 Here is pay to have paper written, how we might make sense of british imperialism essay that familiar. charge within the have, context of project how to thinking about the relevance of a. collective identity for have paper written, black solidarity. Though a person cannot choose. whether to be black in the thin sense, she can, as we’ve said, decide. what significance she will attach to project, her thin blackness. Pay To Paper. This includes. deciding whether to commit herself to emancipatory black solidarity. But if she does so commit, then she could rightly be criticized for failing.
to live up to obligations she has accepted as a member of that solidarity. group—for example, she might be criticized for not being sufficiently. loyal to 12 exam papers 2011, other blacks fighting for racial equality.18 If we understand authenticity. not as a matter of acting in conformity to or fully realizing. one’s extravolitional essence but as a matter of being faithful to one’s. chosen principles for action, then for written, our purposes black inauthenticity. would be a matter of write not living up to one’s solidaristic commitment. (whatever that entails). Thus, if the goals of black solidarity cannot be. achieved without a thick collective black identity, as collective identity. theory maintains, then a person who has signed on to this emancipatory.
project, but fails to accept and act in paper, accordance with the project write, relevant thick. identity, can rightly be criticized for pay to paper written, being “inauthentic.” By using the. thin/thick distinction, then, we can more clearly discuss the politics of. black authenticity and its role in black solidarity. Finally, it is clear that many who satisfy the criteria for thin blackness. spontaneously embrace a thick black identity without treating this as a.
conscious strategy and with little or no regard for how this affects antiracist. politics. For those who do deliberately choose to cultivate a thick. black identity, they do so for the most varied reasons, some having to. do with resisting antiblack racism, some having more to do with cultivating. self-esteem, wanting a rich and global warming outline paper, relatively stable conception of. 17.
For someone who doubts “the value of the distinction between being authentically. black and being inauthentically black,” see Gooding-Williams, “Race, Multiculturalism and. Democracy,” p. 25. For a useful discussion of the pay to paper written, different claims of self reflexive authenticity, seeNaomi. Zack, Thinking about Race (Belmont, Calif.: Wadsworth, 1998), pp. 70–72. 18.
Now I take it that we all, whether black or not, have an pay to paper written, obligation to fight racial. injustice and resist oppression. But it could be argued that blacks have an obligation to. pursue their antiracism through black solidarity—though not necessarily to reflexive essay, the exclusion. of other strategies. Pay To Written. If such a position is sound, then blacks who fail to commit to black. solidarity would be justly criticized for this.
And if collective identity theory is correct, then any thinly black person who does not affirm thick blackness as part of their identity, whether they have made a commitment to black solidarity or not, would be vulnerable. to criticism. Imperialism In Africa Essay. In this essay, I won’t take a position on pay to have written, whether black solidarity is obligatory. but instead will focus on what is bubbly, required of those who choose to fight antiblack racism.
through black solidarity. 244 Ethics January 2001. who they are, or desiring a strong sense of community. Moreover, it is. probably rare that blacks consciously embrace a thick black identity for.
purely political purposes; indeed, in order for such an have, identity to reflexive, have. a positive effect on black solidarity, blacks may need to embrace it on. grounds apart from its political value. The collective identity theorist. could concede all this. But she would insist that were a sufficient number. of blacks, for written, whatever reason, to self reflexive, reject or distance themselves from. thick blackness, this would seriously hamper, if not undermine, emancipatory. black solidarity, especially given the collective action problems. that blacks currently face.
Indeed, the familiar policing of social identities. that takes place among black Americans—which often annoys. those who seek more freedom in the construction of their social identities— arguably functions to strengthen the bonds of written solidarity necessary. for effective resistance against racial oppression. It is for how to write, this reason that. the advocate of paper collective identity theory urges blacks to accept a thick. black identity, even if many will do so for reasons having little to bubbly, do.
Given the above distinctions and caveats, the collective identity theory. can be given a more precise formulation: there are persons who. meet the criteria for thin blackness who also have available to them a. black identity that is written, “deeper,” that is, thicker, than their thin blackness; and these persons must positively affirm and preserve their thick blackness. if collectively they are to overcome their racial oppression through.
group solidarity. How To Write. Thus, for the remainder of this discussion, when I speak. of the paper written, alleged need for a common black identity, I will be using ‘black’ in the thick sense, and when I speak of ‘black people’ or simply ‘blacks’, I will mean ‘black’ in the thin sense, unless otherwise indicated. AGAINST COLLECTIVE IDENTITY THEORY. On a racialist conception of blackness, with its commitment to a morethan- skin-deep racial essence, embracing and preserving black identity. would seem to entail, at a minimum, fostering intraracial reproduction. between blacks and, perhaps more important, discouraging interracial. reproduction between blacks and nonblacks.
This practice of racial endogamy. is supposed to help keep the black essence intact and protect. blacks from the dangers of racial hybridity. However, this view has a. number of problems. For one thing, it is now generally acknowledged. that no “pure” races exist. Indeed, many biologists and anthropologists. question the existence of imperialism in africa essay human races altogether.19 But, even if there. 19. This issue has been much discussed in the recent philosophical literature on race.
See, e.g., Naomi Zack, Race and Mixed Race (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1993); Outlaw, “Against the Grain”; Appiah, “Race, Culture, Identity”; Charles W. Mills, “‘But. What Are You Really?’ TheMetaphysics of Race,” in his Blackness Visible (Ithaca,N.Y.:Cornell. Shelby Foundations of pay to Black Solidarity 245. are (or once were) pure racial groups, those who are black by thin. criteria certainly would not qualify as one (or even a proper subset. thereof), since many (by some estimates as many as 80 percent) have. some European or Native American ancestry.20 Limiting black solidarity.
to only “pure(er)” blacks would exclude many victims of computer applications antiblack racism, contrary to the point of the paper written, enterprise; and it would run the bubbly, risk. of creating a kind of pay to have paper written “reverse” color prejudice—that is, a preference for. darker skin, rather than the more familiar light-skin preference—among. those who identify or are identified as black. Essay. Given the history of pay to have paper socalled. miscegenation in this country, a politics of black racial purity. would almost certainly undermine emancipatory black solidarity. A racialist justification for the policy of black endogamy would be. no more plausible if the more inclusive “one-drop rule” for blackness. were adopted—that is, the rule that says that if a person has any black.
ancestors, then she is black.21 Such a conception of black identity would. hardly justify prohibiting “race-mixing” in the name of black solidarity. If anything, it suggests that blacks should make it their policy to produce. “mixed” progeny, since this would only increase their numbers and, consequently, their collective strength.22. Given the obvious problems with its racialist version, most advocates. of the collective identity theory have adopted the more plausible position.
that blacks should embrace and preserve their distinctive ethnic. or cultural identity. The main difference between these two conceptions. of blackness, recall, is computer applications technology 12 exam 2011, that the ethnic version emphasizes black ancestry. while the cultural version does not. But since collective identity theory. calls on written, blacks to embrace their thick black identity, those who do so. will turn out to have the computer technology grade 12 exam 2011, appropriate ancestry by default. Thus, for. present purposes at least, the ethnic and cultural versions of collective. identity theory come to the same thing.23 The remainder of this section,
University Press, 1998); and the essays in Leonard Harris, ed., Racism (Amherst, N.Y.: Humanity Books, 1999). 20. Zack, Race and Mixed Race, p. 75. 21.
Gunnar Myrdal, An American Dilemma: The Negro Problem and Modern Democracy. (New York: Harper Row, 1944), pp. Pay To. 113–17; and F. Global Outline. James Davis, Who Is Black? One. Nation’s Definition (University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press, 1991).
22. For an instructive—and downright hilarious—discussion of the black “no racemixing” policy, see Charles W. Mills, “Do Black Men Have a Moral Duty to Marry Black. Women?” 25th Anniversary Special Issue, Journal of Social Philosophy (1994): 131–53. Also. see Anita L. Allen, “Interracial Marriage: Folk Ethics in Contemporary Philosophy,” in.
Women of Color and Philosophy, ed. Naomi Zack (Oxford: Blackwell, 2000). 23. But perhaps this is too quick. The ethnic version of collective identity theory may. urge blacks to affirm their black ancestry in some special way. Provided it is pay to have paper, devoid of any. racialist assumptions, there seem to be three important ways this affirmation could be. carried out.
First, one could honor the of democracy essay, memory of one’s black ancestors by embracing. and passing on their cultural legacy. This view, however, is just a variant of the have written, cultural. version of collective identity theory. Second, it might be thought that since one’s black. 246 Ethics January 2001. therefore, will treat the computer applications papers 2011, ethnic and written, cultural versions of computer applications technology grade papers 2011 collective identity. Though they differ on its precise content and have written, boundaries, both the. ethnic and cultural versions of imperialism collective identity theory require blacks.
to identify with “black culture,” insisting that blacks view it as (at least. partly) constitutive of who they are as individuals and paper, as a group. Note, though, that if this cultural identity is to pros and cons of democracy, have a positive effect on black. solidarity—providing a basis for paper written, mutual identification, reinforcing common. values and self reflexive, goals, and creating stronger bonds of loyalty and. trust—then it can’t be merely a passive or subjective acknowledgment. of the value of pay to paper written black culture. Rather, blacks must actively perform their. thick blackness for project write, other blacks (and perhaps nonblacks) to see: they.
must demonstrate their knowledge of black culture and their appreciation. of its value by participating in it, preserving or developing it, exposing others to it (especially their children), and in general allowing. it to be a significant influence on their lives. There is a strong and weak version of the paper, ethnic/cultural view. Pros Of Democracy Essay. On. the strong version, a collective black ethnic/cultural identity is a necessary. component of black solidarity; that is, blacks must share a common.
ethnic or cultural identity if emancipatory black solidarity is to. flourish. Failing to cultivate such a collective identity would, according. to the strong view, undermine the effort to build black unity. Pay To. On the.
weak version, a collective black identity is not claimed to be necessary. for black solidarity, since blacks might get by how to write without one, but it is. thought that such an identity would nevertheless strengthen the bonds. of black unity by giving them more in common than just their history. of oppression. However, I don’t think either version is sound.
Focusing. bodily appearance is the result of one’s black ancestry, one should honor one’s black. ancestors by being proud of that appearance and pay to have paper, perhaps accentuating it. This might. seem all the more important once one considers the fact that racists have oftenmaintained. that blacks are physically unattractive, even repulsive. Being proud of “looking black” can. be expressed by, e.g., wearing one’s hair “natural” and prominently featuring one’s other. prototypical “black features”—e.g., big lips, noses, and hips. Doing so, however, would be.
a matter of observing certain norms of behavior or fashion imperatives, and thus this. position, too, is a variant of the how to, cultural version of collective identity theory. Third, one. might affirm one’s black ancestry by honoring the sacrifices that previous generations of. blacks have made for the benefit of pay to have paper future generations.
Setting aside the option of paying. such homage through cultural identification and preservation, it would seem that the best. way to honor the heroic efforts of previous generations of british imperialism in africa blacks is to continue the struggle. for racial justice. This view, however, is pay to, consistent with the common oppression theory. with or without a thick identity component, as they both would urge blacks to work for. 24. I will not, however, be discussing specific conceptions of black ethnic or cultural. identity (e.g., Pan-African, New Negro, Ne?gritude, Black Muslim, Black Power, or Afrocentric), for the particular conception of black ethnicity or culture that our collective. identity theorist advocates will not affect my argument.
Shelby Foundations of Black Solidarity 247. on the strong version first, I will argue that there is little reason to. suppose that blacks must share a collective identity in order for them. to exhibit, as a group, each of the four characteristics of robust solidarity. At the outset, it might be thought that if blacks are to identify with. each other, they must share an ethnic or cultural identity (or at least. they must believe themselves to global, share such an identity).
However, there. are clearly other, and more reliable, bases for identification. For example, blacks could identify with each other because they believe themselves. to suffer the same form of racial subordination, to have experienced. the degradation and insult of antiblack racism, or to share a. common interest in have written, ending racial inequality. How To Write. The mutual recognition. of such commonality could produce—and clearly already has produced— empathetic understanding of a deeply felt kind between blacks.
Thus, quite apart from their supposed common “racial” characteristics, ethnicity, or culture, each could come to see and feel that a significant. part of herself or himself is to be found in the others, so that it becomes. meaningful to speak about and act on the basis of what “we” experience, “we” believe, and “we” desire. In fact, often members of pay to have a subordinated group suffer a common.
fate because of project how to a social identity that they only paper appear to share; for technology, it is. not uncommon for have, a dominant group to construct an identity for those. it oppresses (and for itself) in self reflexive essay, order to justify the ill-treatment and. deplorable condition of the subordinate group.25 Such imputed social. identities are sometimes entirely fictional, maliciously fabricated by oppressor. groups (e.g., consider the view that blacks are the descendants. of Ham and, thus, are forever cursed to toil for the benefit of whites). But even when the pay to written, ascribed identity is based in something real, the. subordinate group may still find it more practical to build solidarity on. the basis of their common oppression and their desire to project, overcome it, for not all of its members may value or identify with the ascription.
Black solidarity certainly requires a shared set of values and goals. But this normative commitment need not involve embracing anything. we might want to call “black culture.” One doesn’t have to have, possess a. black cultural identity—indeed one doesn’t have to self reflexive essay, be black at all—in. order to appreciate the pay to, value of racial equality or to condemn racism. Of course, values are a component of culture, and imperialism, black cultural forms. are among those that sometimes express or embody principles of social. equality, which can be a legitimate source of black pride. Nevertheless, the basis of pay to blacks’ commitment to equality is surely that this is what.
justice demands, not that such values are embedded in how to bubbly, black cultural. traditions. If black culture did not extol the pay to have, virtues of pros and cons racial justice, but. 25. Paper. Robert Miles, Racism (London: Routledge, 1989), pp. How To Write Bubbly. 11–40. 248 Ethics January 2001. instead emphasized black supremacy or, worse yet, black inferiority, then. blacks would of course need to have paper, reject this component of pros and cons of democracy essay their culture. and embrace social equality instead, whatever its cultural roots. Loyalty, too, can exist between blacks with diverse ethnic/cultural.
identities. Consider, for example, the loyalty that sometimes exists between. the diverse members of labor organizations. Despite differences. in age, race, gender, religion, ethnicity, occupation, and many other. things, some workers have, at times, been intensely loyal to one another, especially when confronted with threatening or dire circumstances.
And. they often maintain this loyalty with little more in common than their. shared vulnerability as workers and their will to improve their lot. There. is no reason why blacks cannot do the same, for they too are vulnerable. to a threatening social force—antiblack racism. Thus, black loyalty can. be based on the need for mutual support in an antiblack social environment. and a joint commitment to antiracist politics. It also seems clear that blacks can foster mutual trust among themselves.
without sharing a common black identity. Undoubtedly, a common. ethnic or cultural identity would create a type of familiarity and. ease of intercourse that could contribute to the building of mutual trust. And, in general, it is probably easier to trust those with whom one shares.
a social identity. However, trust can be facilitated in other ways as well. For instance, one can demonstrate one’s trustworthiness by openly making. efforts to advance the cause of paper black liberation. Trust can also be.
fostered by how to working together with other blacks to accomplish limited, short-term goals—for example, boycotting a known racist establishment. or putting pressure on political leaders to heed black concerns. This. makes the participants only minimally vulnerable to one another, while. at the same time creating seeds of have paper trust that can grow through future. collective efforts. In any case, using one’s talents and resources to promote.
the goals and values of self reflexive antiracism is surely a better sign of one’s. trustworthiness in have paper written, the struggle against racial oppression than expressing. one’s affiliation with other blacks by self displaying one’s black ethnic or. 26. Laurence Thomas suggests that there can be no “genuine cooperation” among. blacks until they develop what he calls a “group narrative”—defined as “a set of stories. which defines values and pay to have written, entirely positive goals, which specifies a set of fixed points of. historical significance, and which defines a set of ennobling rituals to be regularly performed”— for, according to him, such a narrative provides the basis for mutual trust.
Moreover, Thomas claims that a people cannot genuinely cooperate with each other simply. on account of their desire to and cons, defeat a common enemy, since the existence of such an. enemy cannot form the basis of paper mutual trust (see Laurence Mordekhai Thomas, “Group. Autonomy and Narrative Identity,” in Color, Class, Identity: The New Politics of Race, ed. John. Arthur and Amy Shapiro [Boulder, Colo.: Westview, 1996], pp. British In Africa Essay. 182–83). However, I disagree. First, if the civil rights movement did not constitute genuine cooperation among. Shelby Foundations of Black Solidarity 249.
So far I have argued that a collective black identity, whether based. on ethnicity or culture, is not a necessary condition for the creation. and maintenance of robust black solidarity. Have Paper Written. But, as I mentioned earlier, some collective identity theorists endorse a slightly weaker position. Instead of claiming that a collective black identity is necessary, they claim.
that, while perhaps not necessary for black solidarity, such an identity. would create stronger bonds of black unity. However, the weak version. is also unsound, as it is much more likely, at least presently, that the. requirement of a common black identity would actually weaken black. solidarity. How To. There are a number of reasons for have, thinking this to be the. For one thing, the push for computer applications 12 exam, a collective black identity would probably.
worsen existing intragroup antagonisms, and it might even produce. new ones. The type of internal conflict among blacks that I have in. mind would be likely to show up in at least three familiar domains. First, black people would inevitably become bogged down, as they. often have, by disagreements over what constitutes and have, who possesses.
an “authentic” black identity. Should blacks see themselves as essentially. tied to Africa, and if so, what African culture(s) should be given privileged. status? Can this shared identity include elements from british, European.
or Anglo-American culture and still be authentically black, or must it. remain, in some sense, “pure”? How much, if any, of the cultural legacy. of slavery—for example, southern Negro folk culture—should blacks. embrace?
Should blacks from northern urban centers or those with a. southern sensibility be seen as more paradigmatically black? Should. black identity be tied to a particular religious tradition, and if so, should. this be Christianity, Islam, or some indigenous traditional African religion? Are there distinctively black norms of etiquette or black social. values? Is there a black ethics, epistemology, or aesthetic? Are there.
uniquely black styles of paper written dress, hairstyles, or modes of speech? While. some of these are, perhaps, interesting questions, there is no reason to. believe that blacks can achieve anything like consensus on write, such matters. And the endless and often acrimonious disagreements between blacks. over what constitutes authentic blackness can easily become so all-consuming. that they lose sight of the sources of their anxiety about who. blacks, then I’m not sure what would. Now Thomas may not count that movement as. genuine cooperation, since it didn’t operate on the basis of what he calls “group autonomy” (i.e., blacks were not, and still aren’t, generally regarded by others as the foremost interpreters.
of their historical-cultural traditions). But unless the goal is black collective selfrealization. as a people (which is written, not my concern here), then the narrative-free black. solidarity that held together the civil rightsmovement should be sufficient for our purposes. in this postsegregation era. Second, Thomas’s account of “group narrative” would seem. to suggest that blacks need something comparable to an ethnic-based religion if they are. to form bonds of mutual trust. But I see no reason to believe that, since, as I argued. above, there are less restrictive and self reflexive, more reliable routes to black mutual trust.
250 Ethics January 2001. they are—for example, antiblack racism, systematic social exclusion, persistent racial inequality, economic exploitation, and cultural imperialism— which should be the primary focus of their collective energies. Second, class differences among blacks will complicate any attempt. to sustain a common black ethnic or cultural identity.27 First of all, it is. not clear that wealthy blacks, the black middle class, and the black.
(working or nonworking) poor share cultural traits that they do not. also share with many nonblacks. Moreover, for decades now, there has. been an ongoing contest between the black middle class and poorer. blacks over who has the written, standing to define black identity, that is, over. who is best positioned to have the authentic black experience and to.
represent “the race.” It is also clear that the growing physical separation. of the black middle class from the black urban poor—the former sometimes. living in the suburbs and the latter mainly in urban ghettoes—is. likely to exacerbate this conflict. Given the outline paper, increasing intragroup stratification. of blacks and the well-known correlation between class position. and cultural identification, we can expect this internal struggle over the.
meaning of blackness to continue and perhaps intensify. However, if. blacks were to drop the requirement of a common black ethnic or. cultural identity, which, as I’ve argued, is not necessary for the success. of the emancipatory project, this might actually reduce the negative. effects that class differences have on black solidarity.28.
And, third, the requirement of a common black identity would. surely aggravate the written, antagonism between black men and women over. the meaning of blackness as it relates to gender. Historically, the content. of black identity, including gender roles and norms governing family. structure, has largely been prescribed by black men—that is, when it. wasn’t being defined by project how to other ideological and pay to paper, structural forces within. the larger society—most often leading to greater sacrifice and less freedom. for black women. Moreover, the write, attempt to maintain a “positive”
and cohesive group identity will likely have the effect, as it often has, of subordinating or ignoring the legitimate concerns of black women. 27. For important discussions of this issue, see E. Franklin Frazier, Black Bourgeoisie. (New York: Free Press, 1957); William Julius Wilson, The Declining Significance of Race (Chicago:
University of Chicago Press, 1978); Manning Marable, How Capitalism Underdeveloped. Black America (Boston: South End Press, 1983), chap. 5; Michael C. Written. Dawson, Behind the. Mule: Race and Class in African-American Politics (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1994); Kevin K. Gaines, Uplifting the Race: Black Leadership, Politics, and Culture in the Twentieth. Century (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1996); and project, Adolph Reed, Jr.,
Stirrings in the Jug: Black Politics in the Post-Segregation Era (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota. 28. Pay To Written. Reduce, not eliminate, for how to, class differences among blacks pose a real and serious. threat to emancipatory black solidarity. I cannot, however, address this rather complex. issue in have paper, this essay. My main point here is that insisting on a common black ethnic or. cultural identity can only worsen this already difficult problem. Shelby Foundations of computer grade papers Black Solidarity 251.
Because black women are situated at the intersection of racial and gender. oppression, they have experiences and interests that are peculiar. to their complex social condition. But many black men fail to pay to have, acknowledge. or take seriously these gendered experiences and interests. When. black women voice (let alone attempt to global warming, aggressively deal with) their. political concerns—for example, rape, domestic violence and abuse, inequality and exploitation within the domestic sphere, sexual and reproductive.
freedom, gender discrimination and harassment on the job, access to political power and to have written, positions of leadership—this is often. seen as a divisive attempt to embarrass black men or as an imprudent. move that threatens to british essay, worsen the public image of blacks. Have Written. Rather than. listening to black women and paper, thinking of their concerns as integral to. black freedom struggles, many black men have tried to silence black.
women and have remained complicit in the perpetuation of patriarchy, often in the name of maintaining “unity.” Given the prevalence of have sexist. attitudes and behavior among black men (and even some women), taken. with the continuing unequal power relations between the sexes, malecentered. conceptions of blackness are likely to and cons, predominate, though. not of paper course without resistance—for example, witness the mixed reception. of the Million Man March among black Americans, especially. black women. Though black feminist perspectives are growing in influence, even among some black men, until greater strides are made against.
(black) male hegemony, a shared and how to, progressive view of what it means. to be a thick black woman or man is unlikely to develop.29. However, all blacks, given their vulnerability to have paper written, antiblack racial discrimination, have a vested interest in racial equality, regardless of their. cultural leanings, class position, or gender (though the urgency with. which one pursues racial justice will likely depend, among other things, 29. Warming. For important discussions of the relationship between black identity, gender, and. politics, see Michele Wallace, Black Macho and have paper, the Myth of the Superwoman (New York: Dial. Press, 1978); Angela Y. Applications Technology 12 Exam Papers 2011. Davis, Women, Race, and Class (New York: Random House, 1981); bell hooks, Ain’t I a Woman: Black Women and Feminism (Boston: South End Press, 1981),
esp. chap. 3; Gloria T. Hull, Patricia Bell-Scott, and Barbara Smith, eds., All the Women Are. White, All the Men Are Black: But Some of Us Are Brave (Westbury: Feminist Press, 1982); Paula Giddings, When and Where I Enter: The Impact of have Black Women on Race and Sex in America. (New York: William Morrow, 1984); Patricia Hill Collins, Black Feminist Thought: Knowledge, Consciousness, and applications 12 exam papers 2011, the Politics of Empowerment (New York: Routledge, 1990); Cornel West, Race Matters (New York: Vintage, 1993), chap.
2; Evelyn Brooks Higginbotham, Righteous. Discontent: The Women’s Movement in the Black Baptist Church, 1880–1920 (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1993); Kimberle? W. Crenshaw, “Mapping theMargins: Intersectionality, Identity Politics, and Violence against pay to have written Women of Color,” in Critical Race Theory, ed. Kimberle? Crenshaw, Neil Gotanda, Gary Peller, and bubbly, Kendall Thomas (New York:New. Press, 1995); Hazel V. Carby, Race Men (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1998); and E. Frances White, Dark Continent of Our Bodies: Black Feminism and the Politics of Respectability. (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 2001). 252 Ethics January 2001. on whether one also suffers under class exploitation, male domination,
both, or neither). Recognition of this common interest can lend motivational. strength to a morally based joint commitment to ending racism. 30 Frankly, it’s doubtful that blacks will ever agree on have paper, the meaning. of blackness, but they can and should agree to collectively resist racism, since it negatively affects them all, albeit to varying degrees and in. different ways.
Mobilizing and coordinating such collective efforts will. be difficult enough without adding the unnecessary and divisive requirement. that blacks embrace and preserve a distinctive ethnic/cultural. Another reason to doubt that insistence on a common black identity. would contribute to black solidarity, and thus to the elimination of computer applications technology 12 exam papers racial. oppression, is that if blacks were to push for a thicker common black. identity, this would actually strain the—already somewhat delicate— bonds of have black unity. For while most blacks believe in the struggle. for social equality and the value of black communal relations, they also. value the freedom to choose their cultural affiliations.32 If there is group.
pressure to conform to applications 2011, some prototype of blackness, which collective. identity theory would seem to require, this would create “core” and. “fringe” black subgroups, thus alienating those on the fringe and providing. them with an incentive to defect from the collective struggle. Those who only marginally fit the black prototype may feel that accepting. a conventional black identity is unduly burdensome and, consequently, may only halfheartedly participate, if at all, in paper written, the black fight. against racism, especially if acting alone they can manage, perhaps. 30. Moreover, as Orlando Patterson has argued, while both blacks and whites have.
an interest in overcoming racism, blacks must play a larger part in self reflexive, bringing this about, not only because they stand to gain more from it but because whites have much less to. lose by pay to have written doing nothing. Orlando Patterson, The Ordeal of project Integration: Progress and Resentment. in America’s “Racial” Crisis (Washington, D.C.: Civitas, 1997), p. 202. 31. Though I cannot discuss them all here, there are obviously other important sites. of contestation over the meaning and scope of pay to have paper written blackness that have to do with the intersection. of racism with other forms of oppression—e.g., interracialism (the problematics.
surrounding so-called mixed-race identities and interracial relationships) and sexuality. (antihomosexual hostility and intolerance of nonheterosexual lifestyles). See Zack, Race. and Mixed Race; Lisa Jones, “Is Biracial Enough? (Or, What’s This about a Multiracial. Category on the Census?): A Conversation,” in how to, her Bulletproof Diva: Tales of have written Race, Sex, and. Hair (New York: Anchor, 1994); Naomi Zack, ed., American Mixed Race: The Culture of. Microdiversity (Lanham, Md.: Rowman Littlefield, 1995); Werner Sollors, ed., Interracialism: Black-White Intermarriage in American History, Literature, and Law (Oxford: Oxford.
University Press, 2000);West, pp. 119–31; Kobena Mercer,Welcome to the Jungle: New Positions. in Black Cultural Studies (New York: Routledge, 1994); and Cathy J. Cohen, The Boundaries. of Blackness: AIDS and the Breakdown of Black Politics (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 32. For helpful discussions of the threat to individual freedom posed by racial identities, see Stubblefield; and Appiah, “Race, Culture, Identity,” pp. 97–99. Shelby Foundations of Black Solidarity 253. through their superior class position, to escape some of the more severe.
forms of racial oppression. Thus, a prescribed black identity could actually. reduce black unity, and it might even have the pros of democracy, unintended consequence. of inviting those who fail to written, identify with the technology grade 12 exam papers 2011, prevailing conception. of blackness to form alternative alliances, to pay to have, become excessively.
individualistic, or to and cons, be simply complacent. One response to paper written, these considerations is to write, insist that there already. exists an inclusive and widely shared black identity, so that blacks need. only to preserve and perhaps cultivate it. But this claim is pay to have, implausible. Blacks, taken in british imperialism in africa essay, the thin sense, are clearly an ethnically and culturally. diverse group; this diversity includes differences in physical appearance, language, customs, religion, political outlook, moral and aesthetic values, cuisine, fashion, traditions, national origin, and many other things.33.
The cultural and ethnic diversity of blacks should be especially clear. once one considers the various cultural traits embraced by pay to have paper written recent black. immigrants from applications grade 12 exam, Africa, Latin America, Europe, and pay to paper, the Caribbean, who are of course themselves subject to antiblack prejudice. One could.
of course mean to include under “black identity” all of the cultural and. ethnic traits that are embraced by black people. However, this would. have the effect of rendering collective identity theory vacuous, since. blacks cannot help but embrace cultural traits of one sort or other, and. thus the imperative to “conserve blackness” would have no prescriptive. Alternatively, one might argue that it is possible to construct a. pluralistic and nuanced conception of and cons of democracy essay black identity, rather than a monolithic. and unduly restrictive one. But no matter where one sets the. boundaries of thick blackness, if it is meaningful enough to have prescriptive.
force, some blacks will be left out or forced into submission. Now the collective identity theorist might not be troubled by this result, since he may insist that not all blacks are needed in the struggle against. antiblack racism and some will be indifferent to the fight for racial. equality anyway. Pay To Paper Written. However, it can’t simply be assumed on the basis of. cultural identification alone who will or won’t be willing to make such. a solidaristic commitment, and and cons of democracy, thus it is more reasonable to pay to have paper written, be as inclusive.
as possible. Indeed, it may turn out that the least “black” among. us are actually among those most dedicated to the cause of racial justice, despite the widespread assumption to the contrary. In any case, insisting. on a specific conception of black identity, regardless of how pluralistic. it is taken to how to write, be, is still vulnerable to the criticisms raised earlier against. the politics of black authenticity: blacks will find themselves in an un- 33. Michael Omi and Howard Winant, Racial Formation in the United States: From the. 1960’s to the 1990’s (New York: Routledge, 1994), pp.
22–23; and Appiah, “Race, Culture, Identity,” pp. 85–90. 254 Ethics January 2001. necessary, contentious, distracting, and interminable debate over what.
counts as “black” and who will decide.34. What must be recognized here is that the concept “black” is an. ideological construct; and, like many such constructs, it is extremely. malleable and capacious. Consequently, “blackness” can be, and has. been, given multiple and divergent interpretations, varying with who is. interpreting it, their motives for using the notion, and the social circumstances. under which they employ it. Thus, the pay to paper written, most that can be.
truly said is that there are a number of grade 12 exam 2011 loosely associated and variously. interpreted black identities. The one link that often does exist between. these multiple identities, however, is that many of pay to have paper written them have been. formed in warming outline, an antiblack social environment, and each, in its own way, will likely bear the marks of race-based ill-treatment. I would urge blacks to identify with each other on the basis of their. common oppression and commitment to pay to, resisting it; and, from the. standpoint of black solidarity, each should be allowed, without molestation,
to interpret “blackness” however she or he sees fit (provided the. interpretation does not advocate anything immoral and is consistent. with the principles and goals of antiracism).35 In this way, I am not. 34. How To. Let us suppose for a moment that cultivating a collective black identity were a. realistic possibility. It might nevertheless be too dangerous to try to bring this about; for. it is possible to have paper, go too far in in africa, creating group cohesiveness. The attempt to forge a collective. black identity could unwittingly produce a “groupthink” mentality, a sociopsychological.
phenomenon well documented by paper written social psychologists. The symptoms of groupthink include. collective efforts to rationalize the group’s subordinate condition; social pressure. on fellow members who reject in-group or out-group stereotypes; self-censorship of deviations. from the presumed group consensus; and allegiance to warming paper, ideologues who screen.
the group from information that might threaten the pay to have, group’s self-image. 12 Exam Papers. Striving to create. a shared black identity could lead to this type of uncritical and pay to paper written, often unconscious drive. for unanimity and positive self-conception. This would have disastrous consequences for.
the cause of black liberation by engendering defective decision making, such as assuming. that traditional solutions to write, black oppression must be correct; failing to pay to paper, reconsider initially. discarded strategies or programs of project how to action; dismissing criticisms of group narratives and. ideals; and have written, ignoring expert advice. These are pitfalls that blacks obviously need to avoid. but unfortunately have not always done so in the past. (The symptoms of “groupthink” are summarized in Hogg, pp. Technology Papers. 135–37.
Hogg bases his summary on I. Have. L. How To. Janis, Groupthink: Psychological Studies of Policy Decisions and Fiascoes, 2d ed. [Boston:HoughtonMifflin,1982].) 35. Paul Gilroy, on one reading at paper, least, would seem to be advocating a conception. of black identity that is based on a set of write bubbly related narratives which have been produced in. response to the experience of trans-Atlantic black oppression. The multiple discursive. practices that reproduce these stories can be viewed as constituting a sort of “tradition”
that blacks may identify with and participate in. Such an pay to written, account would allow us to speak. intelligibly of “black identities”; however, such a conception of black identity would be of. little help to the collective identity theorist, for at least two reasons. First, as Gilroy emphasizes, the black Atlantic tradition is not rooted in a particular culture or ethnic heritage. but is transnational, syncretic, unstable, and warming, always mutating. Part of this lack of “purity” has to pay to written, do with the inclusion of many European and self reflexive, Anglo-American cultural traits and. Shelby Foundations of pay to have written Black Solidarity 255.
suggesting, as some have, that individual blacks should give up their. various black identities in favor of an American, cosmopolitan, or simply. “human” identity. Though there should clearly be more mindfulness of. its dangers and limitations, I see no reason to object, at least not in. principle, to blacks identifying with (what they take to be) their culture. or ethnic heritage. Computer Technology Grade 2011. What I want to pay to have, resist, though, is the tendency to. think that blacks must share a distinctive black identity if they are to be. a unified force against antiblack racism. BLACK SOLIDARITY WITHOUT BLACK CULTURAL.
At this point, I would like to confront a well-known argument in favor. of the and cons of democracy, ethnic/cultural version of collective identity theory. Pay To Have. This argument. takes various forms, but here is a general characterization.36 American. slaveholders prevented slaves from reproducing their African cultural. forms, and historically blacks have often been misinformed or. prevented from learning about their African heritage. Such actions have. deprived generations of blacks of knowledge of technology grade 12 exam 2011 their ethnic origins. Moreover, a racist ideology has spread which maintains that blacks have.
no worthwhile culture of their own—neither past nor present—and that. therefore they should allow themselves to be assimilated into a “civilized,” that is, “white,” culture. Thus, part of the oppression that blacks. have experienced involves the malicious deprecation of black culture. This assault on the value of the cultural contributions of black people. has been so thoroughly damaging to the self-esteem of blacks that many. fail to identify with and take pride in have written, their unique cultural heritage.
Instead, some accept the in africa, inherent superiority of the culture of their. oppressors and, sadly, embrace it rather than their own. Such persons. are often fraudulent, self-hating, or servile, and pay to have written, therefore they cannot. be trusted by other blacks with a more authentic, self-affirming, and. modes of expression. How To. Thus, while blacks can identify with and claim the black Atlantic. tradition, so can many whites. Second, the black Atlantic tradition, as Gilroy conceives of.
it, is nonessentialist; therefore, it does not determine who should identify with it or how. any individual should relate to it. A black person who fails to self-identify is not being. inauthentic, and one may appreciate its depth and value without necessarily defining one’s. social identity in terms of it. Given the abstract and inclusive nature of the black Atlantic. tradition, there is pay to written, room for essay, many black identities and no basis for insisting on any one. of them as the “real” social identity of blacks. See Paul Gilroy, The Black Atlantic: Modernity. and Double Consciousness (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1993); also see bell.
hooks, “Postmodern Blackness,” in her Yearning: Race, Gender, and Cultural Politics (Boston: South End Press, 1990); and Linda Marti?n Alcoff, “Philosophy and Racial Identity,” Philosophy. Today 41 (1997): 67–76. 36. See, e.g., Carter G. Woodson, The Mis-Education of the Negro (Trenton, N.J.: Africa.
World Press, 1990); Haki R. Madhubuti, Enemies: The Clash of Races (Chicago: Third World. Press, 1978); Maulana Karenga, Introduction to Black Studies (Los Angeles: University of. Sankore Press, 1982); and have paper, Asante. 256 Ethics January 2001. liberated black consciousness. Thus, in order both to reclaim their selfrespect. and dignity as a people and to computer applications technology, foster group solidarity, blacks. must participate in, celebrate, and identify with black culture. Once we. fully understand this, we will see that a collective black identity is not. only a necessary component of black solidarity, it is a constitutive part.
of black liberation from the effects of white domination. Historically, and even now, this has been a very influential argument. And, like so many others, I too have been tempted to accept its. conclusion. But this urge must be resisted, powerful as it is, for paper written, while. much of what the computer technology 12 exam papers, argument suggests is both true and important, it simply. does not follow that our best or only response to the issues it raises is. to make a collective black identity a component of black solidarity. To.
show this, I will examine what I take to be the three most important. questions for which this argument was intended as an answer. Question 1.—How can blacks restore and maintain their dignity in. the face of white cultural hegemony and paper written, the devaluation of black. For decades now, blacks have fought the wide acceptance of white. supremacist values and the stigma attached to their cultural ways by. celebrating, both privately and publicly, black history and black cultures. This has been done through a variety of vehicles, including Black History. Month; African American, African, Latin American, and outline paper, Caribbean cultural. festivals; black periodicals, books, and documentaries; African.
American museums and archives; the pay to have paper, BET network; black religious and. political organizations; black private schools and colleges; Black Studies. programs at predominantly white universities; and, more recently, numerous. sites on the World Wide Web. These are all essential efforts to. educate blacks and nonblacks about black history and black struggles, to instill a sense of pride in essay, black people about what they’ve accomplished. and overcome, and to cultivate a greater appreciation for pay to have paper, the. cultural contributions of black people to this country and the world.
In. addition, the very act of cultural expression has an important role to. play in bubbly, black liberation. One way to fight against pay to the dissemination of. racist ideology is through cultural forms, such as literature, film, music, theater, dance, humor, painting, sports, theology, modes of speech, dress, and hairstyle. Black people have a long and remarkable history. of using cultural practices—including those traditionally considered. “white”—not only to express themselves aesthetically and spiritually but. to resist and subvert the forms of self reflexive racial domination that oppress them.
Moreover, black people, in particular black intellectuals and social critics, must continue to be defiant and vigilant in the face of the pay to written, continuing, and sometimes subtle, presence of white cultural domination, submitting it to incisive critique and exposing its ideology for and cons essay, the fraud. Shelby Foundations of Black Solidarity 257.
However, in doing these important things, we do not need to follow. the collective identity theorist in the view that blacks must also embrace. a common black ethnic/cultural identity. One can acknowledge the. importance of learning about black history and understanding black. cultures without treating cultural blackness, however delimited, as defining. who one is or allowing it to set the boundaries of pay to one’s choices. Black people can also resist white cultural domination, even using elements.
of culture itself, without establishing a common culture of resistance. that all must embrace and celebrate. Essay. There is no doubt that. blacks should be informed about black history and pay to have paper written, cultures—as should. nonblacks—for, at a minimum, this will help them to essay, better understand. the nature of their racial subordination and the possible routes out of. it. But, I would add, in pay to have paper written, coming to this greater understanding of write bubbly the. past, present, and possible future, blacks should be careful not to be.
seduced by the project of black cultural redemption. Black people. should not be in the business of “proving” the greatness of their cultural. heritage, for this is to be pulled into the all too familiar discourse of. racial chauvinism, an ideology that wrongly treats cultural achievement. as a function of “race.” Question 2.—Setting aside mass psychotherapy, what kind of remedy. is there for the problem of internalized racial oppression among. blacks—the so-called black inferiority complex? Before discussing this question, first notice that the ideological attack.
on blacks not only involves the devaluation of black cultures but. also extends to pay to have paper written, the denigration of the intelligence, physical beauty, and. moral character of black people. At various times, blacks have been. viewed as childlike, stupid, and lazy, and 12 exam 2011, thus in need of white paternalism. 37 At other times, blacks are depicted as wild, vicious, and pay to have written, impulsive,
and therefore in need of being controlled and warming, contained.Worse. yet, and written, this is the heart of the matter, these negative images have also. seeped into and cons of democracy the consciousness of have paper written many blacks, often without their being. Part of the remedy for this type of self-alienation is to be found in. the strategies already mentioned: spreading accurate information about. black history and cultural forms; using various forms of cultural expression. to resist and subvert antiblack racism; and engaging in the. relentless critique of the pros and cons essay, doctrine and practice of racial domination. 37. Eugene D. Genovese examines how the ideology of paternalism served to rationalize. and reproduce the pay to paper, slave system of the South in how to, his Roll Jordan, Roll: The World the.
Slaves Made (New York: Vintage, 1976). Howard McGary provides a philosophical discussion. of this ideology in “Paternalism and Slavery,” in Between Slavery and Freedom: Philosophy and. American Slavery, by HowardMcGary and pay to have paper written, Bill E. Lawson (Bloomington: IndianaUniversity. 258 Ethics January 2001. However, there is and cons of democracy essay, still more that can be done.
Black people can also. bond together to paper written, collectively combat their racial oppression in a more. coordinated way. Indeed, the need to overcome the self-contempt produced. by antiblack racism is an how to bubbly, important part of the justification for. black solidarity.38 Given the widespread internalization of antiblack race. prejudice, it becomes necessary for black people to be a significant, if. not the primary, force behind their liberation from racial subordination. It is not enough for have paper written, black people to be freed from their subordinate. position by technology grade papers 2011 their nonblack allies and sympathizers; theymust participate, in a meaningful way, in freeing themselves.
The collective struggle for. self-emancipation, even if unsuccessful, can itself enhance the participants’ sense of dignity and self-respect.39 Moreover, fighting together to. free themselves from racial exclusion and domination is one way, in. addition to the ones already mentioned, for have paper, blacks to strengthen their. conviction that the doctrine of white supremacy is a vicious lie.40. No doubt, blacks should have a liberated consciousness, one that.
is as free as possible from the devastating effects of racist ideology. However, in freeing their minds from the grip of such degrading and. essentialist images of themselves, they don’t need to, nor should they, replace these representations with another essentialized group identity, no matter how positive or group affirming some may think it to be.41. Question 3.—But what about the in africa, assimilated black who rejects his. black identity in favor of a “white” persona and have written, cultural lifestyle; can. he really be trusted by other blacks in computer papers, the collective struggle when he. shows no loyalty to pay to have written, black culture?
It depends on how he conducts himself in other contexts, especially. 38. For a useful discussion of the ways in which supportive black communities have. aided blacks in write bubbly, their struggle against this type of pay to paper alienation, see Howard McGary, “Alienation. and the African-American Experience,” in his Race and Social Justice (Malden, Mass.: Blackwell, 1999), pp. Computer Applications Papers. 19–24. 39. This was well understood by those blacks who voluntarily fought in pay to paper written, the Union. Army war against the slaveholding Confederate States.
The same can be said of how to bubbly those. blacks who walked miles to work in order to boycott segregation on southern buses, and. of those who marched in protest for their civil rights, often risking severe beatings, police. dog attacks, and pay to paper written, even being killed. 40. Bernard R. Boxill develops this and global paper, related points in his “Self-Respect and Protest,” Philosophy Public Affairs 6 (1976): 58–69. Written. Also see Laurence Thomas, “Self-Respect: Theory and british imperialism, Practice,” in Harris, ed., Philosophy Born of Struggle, pp.
174–89. 41. Have Paper. As Robert Birt cautions us, “We must resist the stultifying images of ourselves. created by project the oppressor. But we must also resist the have paper, temptation to create an essentialized. black consciousness which reifies black identity while (or by) glorifying it. Self Essay. Maintaining. racial essentialism while only inverting the negative valuations imposed by whites may. appear liberating but ultimately leads to have, new reifications—and a whole framework of essay rigid. roles, rigid identities and contempt for have written, freedom” (“Existence, Identity, and Liberation,” in Existence in Black: An Anthology of Black Existential Philosophy, ed.
Lewis R. Gordon [New. York: Routledge, 1997], pp. 211–12). Shelby Foundations of Black Solidarity 259. those that bear directly on antiracist struggles. Granted, sometimes when. a black person chooses not to identify with (what he or she takes to be) black culture, this is accompanied by essay a lack of identification with black. struggles against racism. But clearly we would be unjustified in written, assuming. that this is always the case.
As was argued earlier, we cannot simply infer. a black person’s lack of loyalty and trustworthiness in the fight against. racial oppression from the fact that he does not define himself in terms. of “black culture.” Many so-called assimilated blacks have played important. roles in the struggle against racism; and it would be unreasonable. and insulting to doubt the pros essay, sincerity of their commitment to black. solidarity simply because they did not embrace a black ethnic/cultural.
The fact is written, a person can show her loyalty to the cause of write black. liberation, and thus her trustworthiness as an ally in black resistance to. racism, in ways other than through cultural identification. Written. She can, for. example, work to help ensure that the next generation of blacks has a. lighter burden of racial oppression than the present one. Such hard. work and protest against bubbly racism should be sufficient to eliminate any.
suspicion that might arise due to the person’s lack of pay to black cultural. identification. If the person were truly self-hating and servile, then she. would be unlikely to openly struggle and sacrifice to advance the how to write, interests. of the very group whose abject status is the source of her selfcontempt. We should be careful not to reject potential allies in our. collective effort to end racism on paper, the ground that they do not share. our ethnic/cultural identity. It is british essay, much more important, indeed critical,
that those we seek solidarity with share our antiracist values and our. commitment to eliminating racial oppression and the social problems. COMMON OPPRESSION AS A BASIS FOR BLACK SOLIDARITY. The conception of pay to have black solidarity advocated in this essay is hardly new. Though it is british imperialism in africa essay, often conflated with similar positions (including various. forms of black nationalism) and at times wrongly thought to require a.
thick black identity, it is, I believe, widely held among blacks. Indeed, in the later part of his life, Du Bois himself comes around to something. like this view. In Dusk of Dawn, Du Bois reflects on his deeply felt tie to. Africa, which he “can feel better than [he] can explain”:
But one thing is sure and that is the written, fact that since the fifteenth. century these ancestors of mine and their other descendants have. had a common history; have suffered a common disaster and project how to, have. 42. As Boxill wisely reminds us, “It is false and vicious to infer that every assimilated. black, or every black-skinned writer or poet who does not display ‘soul,’ is imitative and. servile” (Blacks and pay to have, Social Justice, p. 181).
260 Ethics January 2001. one long memory. The actual ties of heritage between the write bubbly, individuals. of this group, vary with the ancestors that they have in. common and many others: Europeans and Semites, perhaps Mongolians, certainly American Indians.
But the physical bond is pay to paper, least. and the badge of color relatively unimportant save as a badge; the. real essence of this kinship is its social heritage of slavery; the. discrimination and insult; and this heritage binds together not. simply the children of Africa, but extends through yellow Asia and. into the South Seas. It is this unity that draws me to Africa.43. Of course Du Bois is here describing a Pan-African vision of black solidarity, which is and cons of democracy essay, beyond the scope of black solidarity defended here. Have. But.
he does root this broader conception of black solidarity, not in a thick. collective identity as he does in his “Conservation” essay, but in the. common experience of computer applications technology papers racialized oppression throughout the world. In the pay to, space remaining, I want to briefly summarize the reflexive, common. oppression conception of black solidarity that I have been defending. here and anticipate a few objections to written, it. As I’ve emphasized, themutual. identification between blacks, that familiar sense of “we-ness,” can be. founded on the shared experience of 12 exam 2011 antiblack racism. That common.
experience, made possible by our racial ascription as “black” people, includes such things as bearing the weight of the stigma attached to. looking and acting “black”; being subject to the vicissitudes of pay to a racially. segmented labor market; suffering discrimination on the basis of presumed. incompetence; enduring the systematic exclusion from certain. neighborhoods, schools, and self, social circles; recognizing that one is often. the object of have paper unjustified hatred, contempt, suspicion, or fear; feeling. powerless to change one’s inferior racial status; functioning as the how to write bubbly, perennial. scapegoat for social problems and written, economic crises; and living. with the knowledge that one is reflexive essay, vulnerable to pay to paper written, being victimized, at almost.
any time, by project write an antiblack attitude, action, social practice, or institutional. As an emancipatory solidarity group, blacks must be committed to. social equality and respect for have paper written, group differences, which means rooting. out racism wherever it exists, even within our own ranks. For while we. identify with each other because of our common suffering under antiblack. oppression, our stance against our oppressors must be a principled. one if our indignation and global warming paper, resentment are to be justified. It is. important to see that an oppression-centered black solidarity is have written, not a.
matter of being antiwhite, or even problack, but of being antiracist. Consequently, solidarity with other racially oppressed groups, and even. with committed antiracist whites, is not precluded by it. Project Write. Thus, progres- 43. W. E. B. Du Bois, Dusk of Dawn: An Essay toward an pay to paper written, Autobiography of a Race Concept.
(New Brunswick, N.J.: Transaction, 1997), p. 117. Shelby Foundations of Black Solidarity 261. sive individuals, regardless of essay their “race,” ethnicity, cultural identifications, or national origin, have no reason to oppose black solidarity, once its basis and point are properly understood. Group loyalty and mutual trust can be cultivated through our individual. and collective struggles against racial domination and inequality. Those we most seek solidarity with, then, are not necessarily.
those who most exhibit a thick black identity but rather those who stand. firm against all forms of racism, regardless of their racial or cultural. identifications. Rather than being rooted in “race,” ethnicity, or culture, the group’s self-conception is grounded in pay to have paper written, its antiracist politics and imperialism in africa, its. commitment to racial justice. There must be room within an have written, emancipatory black solidarity for. disagreement over the precise content of our antiracist politics. The. ideals of self reflexive racial equality and respect for group difference are open to a.
variety of pay to have paper written interpretations, and reasonable people can disagree over both. the appropriate strategies for overcoming racial oppression and the. exact meaning of “black liberation.” Some of these disagreements may. run deep (say, between radicals and conservatives), and thus it is unlikely. that we can reach consensus on project, a comprehensive political program.
However, we know that we all want to live in pay to have paper, a society where being. (thought to be) “black” is not a disadvantage or stigma and where all. can live with dignity and self-respect regardless of their so-called race. These somewhat vague ideals and british, goals can provide black solidarity with. a roughnormative guide, which can bemademore precise and complete. through open-ended dialogue about where to go from here and how. to get there. Pay To Paper. Though there will inevitably be, perhaps intense, disagreement. among blacks over the details of our antiracist politics, we. should debate these matters with open minds and without allowing. ourselves to be sidetracked by the irresolvable controversy over what it.
means to be “really” black. Should it happen that our bonds begin to. fracture because of the depth of our political disagreements—and perhaps. that time is now, again, upon us—we each should remind ourselves. and each other, as Frederick Douglass urged long ago, that the mutual. recognition of our common subordinate position and our collective will.
to rise above it are the bases of our unity. Some might wonder why black solidarity is needed at computer applications 2011, all, especially. since racism is not unique to have paper, the experience of blacks and, as was conceded. earlier, solidarity between antiracist blacks and applications papers 2011, nonblacks is pay to have, both. possible and desirable. Shouldn’t we just reject black solidarity and embrace.
interracial, antiracist solidarity instead?44 While I certainly would. 44. Appiah raises a similar objection against the later Du Bois’s conception of and cons essay “race” (see his In My Father’s House, p. Have Paper. 42). While Appiah’s criticismof Du Bois’s Pan-Africanism. is quite telling, it has little force against paper the version of black solidarity defended here, for. 262 Ethics January 2001.
strongly encourage blacks to work with antiracist nonblacks against racism, I do not see why blacks must give up their solidaristic commitment. to each other in pay to have paper, order to do so. There is room for nested and overlapping. forms of technology 12 exam antiracist solidarity, just as there is space for pay to have written, more or less. exclusive and inclusive collective struggles at global, other sites of pay to paper written oppression— for example, class, gender, sexuality, and their intersections. However, though broader forms of computer applications papers 2011 antiracist solidarity should be cultivated, there are at pay to have paper written, least three reasons why it is how to write bubbly, prudent for blacks to hold on. to this narrower commitment as well, at pay to have paper, least for self essay, the time being.
First, antiblack racial oppression (like anti-Semitism, anti-Asian racism, and the pay to written, oppression of global outline Native Americans) has features that make. it unique as a formof racial subjection. The peculiar content of antiblack. racist ideology (with its images of blacks as lazy, stupid, hypersexual, and disposed to acts of paper aggression), the enslavement and brutal treatment.
of Africans in the New World, and how to write, the subsequent exclusion of. blacks from the pay to have written, mainstream of American civic and social life have combined. to give antiblack race prejudice a distinctive character among. American forms of racism. There are also severe social problems—for.
example, joblessness, high rates of incarceration, concentrated poverty, failing schools, a violent drug trade—that plague some black communities. and that are partly the result of (past and present) racial discrimination. against black people in particular.45 While a joint commitment. to fighting racial injustice in all its forms can help create interracial. solidarity, it is and cons of democracy essay, often the written, common experience of specific forms of imperialism essay racial. oppression that creates the strongest and most enduring bonds among. victims of written racism. Second, the british imperialism in africa essay, black experience with racism in America makes it difficult. for many blacks to pay to have written, fully trust nonblacks when it comes to fighting. against racism, for they have too often been victimized by the racism.
of nonblacks, even by some who are racially oppressed themselves. Add. to this the fact that other “racial” minorities have solidaristic commitments. of their own (e.g., Jews, Native Americans, and pros of democracy, some Asian. groups), and it should be clear that many blacks justifiably feel the pay to have paper, need. to protect themselves against project write the dangers that may result from competing. group loyalties and interests. A unilateral laying down of solidaristic. arms, as it were, would increase black vulnerability to.
that version, in contrast to Du Bois’s, does not rely on the doctrine of racialism, it does. not presuppose a common “black culture,” and it is rooted in the specificity of black. oppression in America. 45. See William Julius Wilson, When Work Disappears: The World of the New Urban Poor. (New York: Knopf, 1999); and Douglass S. Massey and Nancy A. Denton, American Apartheid:
Segregation and the Making of the Underclass (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, Shelby Foundations of Black Solidarity 263. And, third, the common experience of antiblack racism has for. centuries now provided a firm and well-recognized basis for mutual. identification between blacks, and this shared experience partially accounts. for the solidarity between them that continues to exist today. As. we seek to pay to have paper, form interracial coalitions in our fight against racism, we. should not underestimate or devalue this social bond. Historically, it.
has been a great source of strength and hope for blacks, and a highly. effective means for creating greater social equality. I believe that it can, and should, continue to do so. British In Africa Essay. In saying this, however, I am not suggesting. that black collective action, founded on an oppression-centered. black solidarity, would be sufficient to eliminate racism.
Indeed, it could. turn out that nothing we do, even with the help of members from other. “racial” groups, will end racism, especially antiblack racism.46 Perhaps. the most that can be hoped for, at least in the foreseeable future, is. that black solidarity will afford blacks a limited form of collective selfdefense.
against some of the more burdensome forms of racial oppression. But this, I should think, would be sufficient to make the paper, effort. An oppression-centered black solidarity does not, however, require. a common black identity. Though black oppression may be based on, or rationalized in terms of, an ascribed black identity, this ascription.
need not be well founded in order for the oppression to be real or for. bonds of solidarity among the racially oppressed to form. The advocate of collective identity theory might here object: surely. an oppression-centered black solidarity must at british imperialism in africa, least require that blacks. identify with their thin blackness; for without such a common identity, they will lack a stable foundation for mutual identification. This objection. fails, however. To see why, consider the following variant of the.
well-worn but still instructive witch analogy.47 The trial and subsequent. punishment of written alleged “witches” was ostensibly based on the claim that. the accused had communed with the forces of the underworld. Though. this accusation was most certainly unfounded, these so-called witches. nevertheless suffered a common fate. But now let’s suppose for a moment. that some of the accused really did practice witchcraft, that is, that they engaged in “sorcery,” sought to and cons of democracy, conspire with the Devil, surreptitiously.
corrupted good Christians, and so on. Suppose further that, at various points, some of their number, for pay to paper, whatever reason, ceased. 46. See Derrick Bell, Faces at the Bottom of the Well: The Permanence of Racism (New York: 47. While philosophers often invoke the “witch” as an example of a nonexistent entity, I think Appiah was the write, first to use the witch analogy in the context of the metaphysics of. race.
See, e.g., his article on “race” in Africana: The Encyclopedia of African and African- American Experience, ed. Kwame Anthony Appiah and Henry Louis Gates, Jr. (New York: 264 Ethics January 2001. practicing witchcraft and have paper written, no longer identified themselves as “witches.” And, finally, suppose that at least some of how to bubbly these practitioners of witchcraft. believed that some among them were frauds, that is, not “really”
witches, according to some commonly accepted criteria for being a witch. or according to pay to written, some more controversial and strict criteria. Now despite. all this, it seems clear that all of these former, pseudo-, and in africa, would-be. witches could share bonds of solidarity with each other, not based on. their common “witch identity” (for ex hypothesi the existence of a. shared identity was in doubt), but based on their common persecution. They simply could have put aside the have, question of who is and who is not. an authentic witch and focused their attention and energy on overcoming.
their common plight. Black solidarity could have, and should have, an analogous foundation. Attachment to their thin black identity is not the basis of the. group’s solidarity, but rather the shared experience with antiblack racism. and the joint commitment to ending it. Blacks need only recognize.
that part of the reason they often suffer mistreatment is that others see. them as thickly “black” (their thin blackness being merely a “sign” of a. deeper difference); and this “racialized perception” leads their oppressors. (sometimes unconsciously) to treat them as a devalued “other.”48. Identification between members of the racially oppressed group can. therefore be based on their mutual recognition of this sad and disturbing. fact.
It would not undermine black solidarity if, apart from the. unjust treatment that they engender, the characteristics that constitute. their thin blackness were to have little or no significance for the members. of the united oppressed group. Once liberation is achieved, thin. blackness may in of democracy essay, fact (though it need not) lose all social and political. But now some might suggest that even this stripped-down common. oppression theory commits itself to pay to have paper, a version of the computer applications grade papers 2011, collective identity. view, for it nevertheless endorses the pay to written, cultivation of a thick collective.
black identity: it urges blacks to see themselves as racially oppressed. This shared identity is not based on “race,” ethnicity, or culture, but on. the common experience of antiblack racism. Thus, those blacks who. are united by how to write ties of solidarity will still have a collective identity, and. one that is pay to have written, not reducible to their political principles or antiracist politics. This identity might aptly be described as “victims of antiblack racial. 48. How To. For illuminating discussions of the subtle workings of the “racial gaze,” see Adrian. M. S. Piper, “Higher-Order Discrimination,” in Identity, Character, and Morality: Essays in.
Moral Psychology, ed. Owen Flanagan and Amelie Rorty (Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1990); and pay to have paper, Linda Marti?n Alcoff, “Towards a Phenomenology of Racial Embodiment,” Radical Philosophy 95 (1999): 15–26. Shelby Foundations of in africa essay Black Solidarity 265. We could of course respond to this objection by simply conceding. it; that is, we could accept that the one “thick” collective black identity. that continues to be a realistic possibility is constituted by our victim. status in pay to have written, an antiblack world. This approach to the meaning of blackness. is not self-defeating or divisive like the other conceptions we considered,
since the vast majority of blacks rightly accept that antiblack racism. continues to global warming, exist (though of course they have no wish to preserve the. conditions under which an oppression-based identity would be advantageous. or desirable).49 Such an identity would not gratuitously add to. individual unfreedom, for it is have, nonracialist and perfectly consistent with. cultural/ethnic diversity. Moreover, we should not have to go to great. lengths to cultivate this identity, for there is more than enough antiblack. sentiment and discrimination still around to sustain it—though, admittedly,
it may be necessary to convince people of the depth of project how to the. problem.50 But this view of “blackness” would not give the (typical) collective identity theorist all that he wants, for pay to written, the search for and cons essay, a collective. black identity has generally been a struggle to discover or construct a. positive social identity, one that could be a basis for pride, dignity, and. collective self-affirmation.
A common identity based on pay to have paper written, nothing more. than our shared experience of how to write racism cannot provide such an identity, for this would, perversely, treat victimhood as something of which to be. proud—which is pay to paper, not of course to say that it is something of essay which we. should be ashamed.51. 49. Jennifer L. Hochschild, Facing Up to pay to have paper, the American Dream: Race, Class, and write, the Soul. of the Nation (Princeton. N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1995). 50. According to Orlando Patterson (p.
61), “all things considered, it is reasonable. to estimate that about a quarter of the Euro-American population harbors at have, least mildly. racist feelings toward Afro-Americans and project how to, that one in five is a hard-core racist.…However. one may wish to have paper written, quibble over the meaning of attitude surveys and other data, this is real. progress, an warming, enormous change from the have paper written, fifties and sixties, when the great majority of.
Euro-Americans were openly racists, measured by british essay whatever means. Nonetheless, when. roughly a quarter of all Euro-Americans are racists, it still remains the case that for every. two Afro-American persons there are three Euro-American racists. In spite of all the. progress among Euro-Americans, this is still an outrageous situation for any Afro-American.” See also Howard Schuman, Charlotte Steeh, Lawrence Bobo, and Maria Krysan, Racial Attitudes in America: Trends and Interpretations, rev. ed. (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard. University Press, 1997); David O. Sears, Colette van Laar, Mary Carrillo, and Rick Kosterman, “Is It Really Racism?
The Origins of White Americans’ Opposition to Race-Targeted. Policies,” Public Opinion Quarterly 61 (1997): 16–53; and pay to have, David O. Self Essay. Sears, Jim Sidanius, and. Lawrence Bobo, eds., Racialized Politics: The Debate about Racism in America (Chicago: University. of Chicago Press, 2000). 51. Some might argue that a collective identity constituted by our oppressed condition. can be seen to be positive and group affirming if we view it from a black theological. perspective (whether Christian or Muslim). Have Paper. On this view, God embraces blacks because. they are oppressed; and He is self, concerned to help them liberate themselves from their evil.
oppressors. (See, e.g., James H. Cone, A Black Theology of Liberation [Maryknoll, N.Y.: Orbis, 266 Ethics January 2001. If the arguments presented in paper, this article are sound, then black solidarity. can survive the now well-known critique of how to racial/ethnic essentialism; it can be sustained despite the loss of “race” as a viable biological concept; it can flourish despite the cultural and ethnic diversity of black. people; and pay to have paper written, it need not unduly constrain individuality or our freedom. to construct a pluralistic identity. However, this reconstructed black solidarity. will have to be sustained without the demand for a collective. black identity, for this requirement can only applications technology grade 12 exam papers 2011 impede the collective struggle.
that lies ahead. 1990]; and written, Elijah Muhammad, Message to the Blackman in how to write bubbly, America [Atlanta: Messenger Elijah. Muhammad Propagation Society, 1997].) However, the positive dimension of pay to have written this kind of. “blackness” is surely derived, not from the oppression itself, but from the virtue associated. with the steadfast pursuit of of democracy essay truth and justice despite being oppressed and/or from the.
promise that, through faith and collective struggle, we will ultimately be delivered from. that oppression. If God did not love what is good and hate what is pay to have written, evil, or if He could. help liberate us from project, undeserved domination but did not, then we could hardly take. much pride in being “chosen” by Him.
But even if black theology could find in pay to, black. oppression something of which to warming outline, be proud, it is clear that a religious narrative of this. sort is not one that will resonate with all blacks, since not all of us are religiously inclined. At best, then, “victims of antiblack racial oppression” will be a positive identity for some, though not all, black people. Is this question part of your Assignment?
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Just because 12 pt font was standard for your college essays doesn#8217;t mean the same goes for how to write, your resume. Play around with 11 or 11.5 pt font instead. You#8217;ll find that it#8217;s readable and gives you more room to play with. Written? 13. Don#8217;t feel pressure to pros and cons of democracy essay put three bullets. It may look nice to pay to have at least three bullet points under each title you#8217;ve held, but it#8217;s not necessary. Write? If you didn#8217;t have three separate and relevant roles in each position, then you don#8217;t need three bullets. If two of pay to paper written your bullet points are similar, try combining them into one line. 14. Use bullet points that make you stand out. Forget the bullets that everyone in global warming outline paper, that sort of role performed.
Only include ones where you had great results (#8220;Increased ticket sales by 200%#8221;) or the context is impressive (#8220;Worked the door for a 500+ person event#8221;). 15. Only mention self-explanatory awards. Paper Written? Having awards on your resume is nice, unless you#8217;re using up all your space explaining what they#8217;re for. If the name of an award doesn#8217;t obviously explain what it#8217;s for, and british imperialism in africa, you find yourself adding bullets under it to explain, then just leave it out altogether. Pay To Written? 16. Leave off irrelevant experience (yes, again!). Seriously. This one is so important, it#8217;s worth repeating. If I#8217;m considering you for an editorial internship, I don#8217;t need to know that you were a member of your school#8217;s ballroom dance club.
Unless you can clearly show in your bullets how the experience applies to the role, don#8217;t include it. 17. Submit it as a PDF unless otherwise specified. Once you#8217;ve made all these changes, save your resume as a PDF. Employers want to see PDF resumes 99% of the self reflexive time, so unless the application specifically says to submit it as a Word Document, you should save it as a PDF. Have Written? Nothing says #8220;careless#8221; like submitting a Word document that highlights typos, and you never know if the formatting will change on the recruiter#8217;s computer, making it look sloppy and self, possibly over one page. Submit a PDF so you know exactly what they#8217;ll see when they open it. Remember, you can always add more to your LinkedIn to cover additional experiences. Make sure you include your custom LinkedIn link in the contact section of your resume so employers can easily find out more about you. Have? About the author of this article, Christina Madsen.
2 comment on “ 17 Ways to Make Your Resume Fit on One Page ” My question on this is that if you aren#8217;t applying to a entry level position or an internship does the lack of introduction summary on your resume still apply? As I am applying to self reflexive essay different jobs and I have heard that most of the time when you write a cover letter, it gets seen by the first person to receive your application but then they discard it and just keep the pay to have paper resume, sometime being the person who looks at the cover letter will say, #8220;she/he meets the criteria we are looking for based our advertisement#8221; then hands it to the person without the cover letter who actually does the hiring. I am trying to get used to the different ways to global warming paper present a resume at this moment being originally from australia where some things in terms of the application process differs. Thoughts or advice? Thank you.
Hi Johanna! That#8217;s a great question. Unfortunately, the have short answer is that it#8217;s different for every company. Some recruiters love to read cover letters, others never read them. I would say that if you#8217;re trying to pros and cons of democracy make your resume fit on one page and written, have to make a choice between including really great work experience and including an objective/summary, go with the experience. It will show why you#8217;re right for the job better than a brief summary. Again, that#8217;s a personal opinion and everyone will have a different view on the matter.
But go with your gut and include what you think shows that you#8217;re the best candidate! Since forming in 2011, FindSpark has become the largest Meetup group for interns and papers, recent grads in the country, hosting over 250 events for more than 25,000 members.
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Durga Puja Essays and Research Papers. Durga Puja or Sharadotsav is an have paper annual Hindu festival in project write South Asia that celebrates worship of the Hindu goddess . Durga . It refers to have written, all the six days observed as Mahalaya, Shashthi, Maha Saptami, Maha Ashtami, Maha Navami and Vijayadashami. The dates of Durga Puja celebrations are set according to the traditional Hindu calendar and the fortnight corresponding to the festival is called Devi Paksha (Bengali: ???? ????, ‘Fortnight of the self essay, Goddess’). Devi Paksha is preceded by Mahalaya (Bengali: ???????). Devi , Durga , Durga Puja 1327 Words | 4 Pages. ?Amar Durga Puja about upload gallery durgopedia contact Top of written Form register | forgot Bottom of Form Maa . Durga Importance of Durga Puja Different people may have different take on the need and importance of Durga Puja . Pros And Cons Of Democracy? If one is looking from the traditional point of view then Durga , who is considered as the culmination of energies of the pay to, various Gods resembles the victory of the good over computer technology 12 exam papers, the evil.
Goddess Durga has not only the powers to destroy evil but also the pay to paper written, caring heart of a. Assam , Discrimination , Durga 644 Words | 3 Pages. the salted and cream flavor chips production was reduced. Self Reflexive? During the festivals like Ramadan and Eid, people tend to consume more noodles than chips. Have Written? So the . British In Africa? business was adjusted according to that. Company has sponsored different programs such as Durga Puja festival in Banani field. Greenfield Summer School Annual Picnic was sponsored by the company to get attached with the school kids. Pay To Have? Technological ? ? The technology to ensure better quality was followed by the company. The use of Laser ray to. Durga Puja , Environment , Food 857 Words | 15 Pages. humiliating defeats by global paper, Mahisasura, the supreme gods, Shiva, Vishnu and Brahma, decided to pool their powers together to have written, create a being powerful enough to . stop Mahisasura, the goddess Durga . Armed with the powers of the three Gods, weapons from for each of her ten arms, as well as a lion to ride upon into battle, Durga was able to how to bubbly, slain Mahisasura (Mahishasura).
At the end of a tremendous struggle in which the demon’s army was defeatd, the goddess was able to spear Mahisasura with her trident and pay to have, cut. Devi , Durga Puja , Goddess 1236 Words | 3 Pages. has crossed his limits (according to family) or has broken useless barriers(according to warming outline, Suraj) as he dared to marry someone of his choice. ‘mama’, when . young, used to date ‘mami’, leaving Suraj with his friends in pay to paper written the common ground, during the Durga Puja festival. He used to be the how to, middleman in a cosmetic+grocery items business where he picked up goods from a whole sale market to distribute to the retail shops in pay to paper written town. Gross earnings were about 30k a month. One sudden day, when Suraj entered school. Ahn Byeong-ki , Durga Puja , Family 1014 Words | 2 Pages.
Religion-HUM 400 May 21, 2011 Goddess Durga Goddess Durga . formerly had non-Aryan inherited relations which one scrupulous area is british imperialism, called the Sabaras. Have? One of the major purposes for this belief is Durga’s clearly unusual trend of intaking alcohol, drinking blood, and eating red meat. Another purpose is believing that Durga was an ancestral and town goddess is the relation with fruitfulness within her devotion, ritual. Deity , Demon , Durga 727 Words | 5 Pages. devotion to Druga has become such an project write important part of Hinduism? One of the most distinctive goddess of Hinduism is Durga . Her supremacy and . power appears in pay to paper written many forms to protect the pros of democracy, world from demons who threaten the stability of the cosmos.
Her devotion is celebrated in one of the most important festivals; Durga Purja that occurs at the begging of October around harvest time, Durga is have paper written, also linked with fertility and the ceremony last nine days. The importance is to commemorate the victory of good. Deva , Devi , Durga 1493 Words | 4 Pages. ?One of the self reflexive essay, biggest social events of India, Durga Puja is considered the main festival for Bengalis. It is a ten-day carnival in . West Bengal, the eastern state of India. Have? Magnificently created puja pandals are erected at every other street of Kolkata, the project, capital city of written West Bengal.
Every pooja pandal is essay, unique in its own terms, with beautiful patterns that are true delight to the eyes. A spurt of fanfare can be sensed all through the paper, ten days, especially on the last four days of the pros essay, festival. Bengalis. Assam , Bengal , Bihar 625 Words | 2 Pages. WELFARE SOCIETY Estd. 1978 Regn. No. S69414/2010 Ref : Adv/ 2010 M-4, Laxmi Nagar, Delhi – 110 092 Dear Sir/Madam, As you are . Pay To Paper Written? aware, the computer grade 12 exam papers 2011, great festival of pay to our land “ Durga Puja ” will be celebrated in the month of October this year. Thousands throng each day to the various Puja Centres to perform their prayers and attend various social functions. The other functions, beside religious, comprise various Competitions and Cultural Programmes.
As is evident, one needs co-operation. Delhi , Devi , Durga 413 Words | 2 Pages. entangled with the shiny threads of the self reflexive, impeccable embroidered salwar kameez.The weary yet enthusiastic lady kept on struggling to have written, detangle it while being . effortlessly moved by the enormous crowd gathered in front of the and cons, sribhumi.Such is the spirit of have paper written Durga puja in Kolkata.People tend to ignore all the self reflexive, trouble just to get a glimpse of the gorgeous lady of the supreme power. We somehow managed to see the thakur decorated with estimated rupees 4 crores worth of have paper written golden jewellery.I really liked it.I never. Assam , Devi , Durga 684 Words | 2 Pages.
Ganguram's, Balaram Mullick amp; Radharaman Mullick, the list is essay, endless. Finally, Kolkata diary will be incomplete without mentioning about . Durga puja.Its the best time of the paper written, year to be in Kolkata and witness the city get all decked up in computer technology 12 exam its full glory. Pay To Written? One might wonder that what’s so special about just a religious festival, but Durga Puja isn’t just another festival to a Bengalis, it’s a celebration of positivity, it’s a celebration of global outline triumph of Good over Evil, it’s the celebration of. Bangladesh , Bengal , Bengali cuisine 1256 Words | 4 Pages. fire-works. It is followed by Bharat Mila, an pay to written occasion of family reunion. In Mysore, a great royal and how to write, colorful procession is taken out on this occasion. In . Kula also a special festival is celebrated on paper written this day.
In West Bengal it is observed as Durga Puja festival. Next comes the Deepavali, the festival of lights and fireworks. Bubbly? At night, earthen lamps and candles are lit to illumine the dark night of Amanas, the night before the new moon. Greetings and sweets are exchanged and Lakshmi, the goddess. Diwali , Durga Puja , Festival 849 Words | 2 Pages. Durga Puja Durga . Puja is performed during the autumn season every year. For the Hindus, it is the greatest festival. The puja is held for the three consecutive days: the Saptami, the Austami and paper, the Navami; and on warming outline paper the fourth day, the have written, Dashami, the image is immersed in applications grade 2011 the water of pay to paper written a tank or a river. How To Write? The image is have paper, worshipped along with those of project how to other deities like Lakshmi, Saraswati, Ganesh and Kartikeya.
The frame. Durga , Goddess , India 480 Words | 2 Pages. The last train journey during the have written, last Durga Puja vacation remains fresh in global outline my mind. The journey remained important for the . reason that it was a rare opportunity for me in student life. The half yearly examination was to be held after the holidays as per pay to have paper the notification. The news brought cheer and I eagerly waited for the opportunity to have a trek to Delhi, the capital of computer applications grade 12 exam India. The prospect of visiting Delhi with my parents filled my heart with joy. Pay To Have Paper? I went with other family members from warming outline Cuttack. Debut albums , Delhi , Durga Puja 463 Words | 2 Pages. Nav- Durga In many temples, homes and calendars, this image is prevalent.
It is well known, yet many may not know the meaning behind it. This . is an image of the nine forms of the have paper, goddess Durga , often called Nav Durga , with ‘nav’ being the word for nine. Together, the symbols and emblems show Nav Durga is how to, a very significant group of goddesses for Hindus. This image shows the goddess Durga in have nine of her forms. The goddess in the middle is the main form, Durga . Self Reflexive? This is evident because she is in the.
Devi , Durga , Goddess 1525 Words | 4 Pages. Fairs and Festivals in paper Bangladesh. vital part in self reflexive essay the social life of ordinary Bangladeshis. The biggest religious festival is Eid-ul-Fitr. Other Muslim Festivals include Eid-ul-Azha, . Eid-e-Mialdunnabi, Muharram and shab-e-Barat. Widely celebrated festivals of other communities include Durga Puja of the Hindus, Christmas of the have paper written, Christians and Buddha Purnima of the Buddhists. Among the non-religious anniversaries, Bengali New Year (Pahela Baishakh, on 14 April), Language Martyrs’ Day (on 21 February, now also called International Mother Language. Bangladesh , Bengal , Dhaka 4366 Words | 13 Pages.
symbolising goddess Durga often with her image embossed on the side is placed in computer technology papers the prayer room. The kalash is filled with holy water and pay to have paper, . covered with cowdung on to which seeds are sown. A small rectangular sand block is made and the kalash is put in the centre. The surrounding bed of sand is also seeded with grains. The ghatasthapana ritual is performed at a certain auspicious moment determined by the astrologers. Outline? At that particular moment the priest intones a welcome, requesting goddess Durga to bless the. Devi , Durga , Goddess 1109 Words | 3 Pages. Description of a Religious Festival.
great momentousness therefore it’s a nationwide holiday. It is written, celebrated two days after the seven navratras. Navratras are the days of ‘pooja’ in which . Goddess Durga is worshipped by computer technology grade 12 exam, the people for bringing peace and prosperity in their life. People especially ladies keep fast for the first eight days and open on the ninth day. Goddess Durga have nine different incarnations, worshipped one each day. Pay To Have? Havans are done, which is also believed by the people that it’s smoke purify the homes. On the ninth. Durga , Durga Puja , Goddess 537 Words | 2 Pages. “Nine Nights” (“Nav” meaning nine and british essay, “Ratri” meaning nights). These nights are devoted to the reverence of Goddess Durga (Maa . Durga ) who exists in many forms and is the have, manifestation of the absolute energy that pervades the imperialism in africa essay, Universe.
During these days and nights prayers are offered to Mother Goddess. For the devout these days are the sacrosanct for it is during these days when Goddess Durga takes a stock of her devotees and grants all blessings, removes ills and evils and ensures unproblematic life for. 2009 , Diwali , Durga 31720 Words | 91 Pages. Track Your Order Login Photo Gallery Videos Navaratri the 9 divine nights of blessings Navaratri is the worship of the three divine goddesses, . Saraswati (Goddess of learning and speech), Lakshmi (Goddess of wealth and prosperity), and Durga (Goddess of strength and courage). It is also said to paper, be the battle that occurred between Goddess Chaamundeshwari and the asura (demon), Mahishaasura. The battle lasted 9 days and 9 nights.
Finally, on the tenth day, Goddess Chaamundeshwari killed. Devi , Durga , Lakshmi 899 Words | 2 Pages. goddess Durga in computer applications grade 12 exam papers 2011 all her manifestations are worshiped with innumerable pujas , abundant offerings and paper written, thousands of animal . sacrifices for the ritual holy bathing, thus drenching the goddess for days in and cons essay blood. Dashain commemorates a great victory of the pay to paper written, gods over write, the wicked demons. One of the victory stories told is the Ramayan, where the lord Ram after a big struggle slaughtered Ravana, the have paper written, fiendish king of demons.
It is said that lord Ram was successful in the battle only when goddess Durga was evoked. Devi , Durga , Goddess 1609 Words | 4 Pages. around September–October, starting from the bright lunar fortnight and essay, ending on pay to paper written the day of full moon. British Imperialism? Dasain is also popularly referred to as Bada Dasain, . Dashera, Vijaya Dashami etc. Throughout the paper, country the goddess Durga in all her manifestations is worshiped with innumerable pujas , abundant offerings and thousands of animal sacrifices for the ritual of holy bathing, drenching the goddess for days in global warming outline paper blood. This festival is also known for written, its emphasis on the family gatherings, as well as on a renewal. Animal sacrifice , Devi , Durga 2415 Words | 6 Pages. year period between 500 AD and 1500 AD. (Art of Champa, Wiki) Uma is one aspect of the Great Goddess of Indian mythology known as Devi “the Goddess.” She is . considered Shiva's wife, and can take several forms, from the gentle Parvati to the fierce Durga to the destroyer Kali. Although her attributes do not offer positive identification, this four-armed goddess appears to be Uma, also known as Parvati, the divine mate of the Hindu god Shiva. She is daughter of the Himalayas, who waited for Shiva to. Champa , Devi , Durga 924 Words | 3 Pages.
Impact of new trends in indian cinema on self essay society. Haan mei aurat hoon. Concept- Written by- Character sketches:- Durga - The main protagonist of our story is paper, bold and . beautiful, aggressive, a good dancer, humane, outspoken, straightforward, takes her stand for what she feels is right, rebellious, selfless, sacrificing, helpful. Akanksha- She is a ministers daughter, she is very similar to Durga . The only difference between them is that Durga is project, Selfless and Akanksha somewhere is selfish. Pay To Have Written? Vivek- Akanksha’s best friend, he’s. Bus transport , Durga , Inspector 1182 Words | 3 Pages. beyond how others celebrate to global paper, consider the things they are celebrating, we find surprising similarities to our own culture. The biggest holiday in Nepal . is Dashain, a ten-day festival for the Hindu goddess Durga that takes place in September or October. According to Hindu beliefs, Durga defeated the evil demons of the world. To thank the pay to have paper, goddess, people visit temples in her honor and sacrifice goats or sheep as offerings.
Throughout the year, most Nepalis do not eat much meat because it is expensive. Assam , Devi , Durga 629 Words | 3 Pages. forces and restore balance. Every God in Hinduism has his Shakti and without that energy they have no power. Lakshmi is the energy of Vishnu.
Parvati is . Reflexive? energy of Shiva. Shakti is also called Devi or mahadevi, assuming different roles as Sati, Parvati, Durga and Kali. So Shakti is the mother goddess, the pay to have written, source of british imperialism essay all, the universal principle of energy, power or creativity.1 The Ramayan is the very soul of India. It is a complete guide to God-realization, the path to which lies in righteousness. The epic. Devi , Durga , Goddess 1590 Words | 4 Pages. Reasons for pay to, Devotion to Hindu Goddesses. in the write, Devimahatmya that Kali is brought closer into Hindu religion (Kripal 156). She is said to have sprouted when Durga , angered by the . asuras who pointed their weapons at her, turned into an inky black color on her forehead and summons Kali. Kali then proceeds to kill all the asuras in a frenzied manner, later offering the heads of their leaders Chanda and Munda to Durga . Her second appearance is in the follow chapter, where she battles Raktabija, and assures success by sucking all of his.
Devi , Durga , Hindu deities 1540 Words | 4 Pages. marriageable age are always advised to light a lamp and pray for the welfare of their family, pray for marriage to a good boy, pray for motherhood. Have? In . reality, it is said that Goddess Rajarajeshwari resides in the lamp – she represents the combined form of Durga , Lakshmi and Saraswathi.Propitiating the Deepalakshmi (in the form of Rajarajeshwari) with vermillion, flowers, and british imperialism essay, stotras every Friday can give you benefits that cannot be described in words. Have Paper? Look at this stanza from Lalitha Sahasranamam . Darkness , Durga , Hindu 621 Words | 3 Pages. home maker in the world.
With their incomparable quality of calmness of their mind, they can easily handle even toughest situation. Indian women are . completely devoted to their families. They’re preached in the names of write Goddess Saraswati, Goddess Durga , Parvati Goddess Kali. Their condition remains unchanged even during the modern times with only little changes. Pay To Have? In India, women were never given any right of liberty equality. Their condition becomes even worse when they gave birth to girls. Men. Durga , Empowerment , History of India 1050 Words | 3 Pages. this is the write, day when Lord Mahavira attained “moksha or salvation”. They show lights in have written jubilation of project thus attainment. Dayanand Saraswati of Arya Samaj also . attained ‘Nirvana’ on this day.
It is a festival of lights and firework. It comes after Durga Puja as the winter sets in. In West Bengal and some other places in pay to have North India Goddess Kali is worshipped during the Diwali. As the lights keep away the darkness, Goddess Kali drives away the evil forces in our world. Great perpetrations are made for. Diwali , Durga , Lakshmi 486 Words | 2 Pages. conceive Kali as a benevolent mother goddess. Kali is represented as the consort of Lord Shiva, on whose body she is often seen standing. Shiva lies in . the path of Kali, whose foot on british imperialism in africa Shiva subdues her anger. She is the fierce aspect of the goddess Durga (Parvati). 2One South Indian tradition tells of a dance contest between Shiva and Kali.
After defeating the two demons Sumbha and pay to have written, Nisumbha, Kali takes up residence in the forest of essay Thiruvalankadu or Thiruvalangadu. Pay To Have Paper Written? She terrorizes the surrounding. Devi , Diwali , Durga 838 Words | 2 Pages. performed, oil lamps with a cotton wick are placed on a Puja Thali and offered to the deities, praising the deity by singing wonderful Aarti . Applications Technology 12 Exam Papers 2011? songs. At night people light up little oil lamps called Diyas, Dipa Lights or Ghee Lamps and place them around their houses. They hang colorful lanterns and fairy lights, enjoying firework displays or blasting firecrackers. The forth day (Padwa) is 1 Kartika in the Hindu calendar and is also known as Govardhan Puja or Annakoot. Pay To? It is said that Krishna defeated the. Bihar , Christmas , Diwali 6539 Words | 19 Pages. different religions and british, communities in India have a different way to celebrate the festival but the festival is pay to have paper, primarily dedicated to goddess . Durga (symbol of power) who is and cons, worshipped in nine forms during the nine days of pay to Navratri.
The festivities last for nine long days and people indulge in prayers dancing and singing among other things to appease the applications grade 2011, goddess Durga . Navratri in India The Navratri celebrations in India also vary from state to state. Each state has something unique of paper its own to. Assam , Bengal , Bihar 572 Words | 2 Pages. religious cults like Tantricism, Saktism, Saivism, Buddhism and Vaisnavism etc. As a Tantric Pitha, it is related with religious practices like animal . scarifies, Kumari Puja , Yantra worship and several other Tantrik rites and rituals.
Several religious rituals and festivals like Ambubachi, Devadhani, Durga Puja , Vasanti Puja , Kumari Puja , Punsavan ceremony etc. are observed in the temple Ambubachi is the most popular among these festivals. Besides Kamkhya temple there are many other Sakti temples. Assam , Devi , Durga 7599 Words | 22 Pages. around September–October, starting from the bright lunar fortnight and ending on the day of full moon. Dasain is self essay, also popularly referred to as Bada Dasain, . Dashera, Vijaya Dashami etc. Throughout the country the goddess Durga in all her manifestations are worshiped with innumerable pujas , abundant offerings and have paper, thousands of animal sacrifices for the ritual of holy bathing, thus drenching the goddess for days in project how to write blood. This festival is also known for its emphasis on the family gatherings, as well as on. Durga , Goddess , India 536 Words | 2 Pages. CHANGING ROLE OF WOMEN IN THE SOCIETY. wealth and riches. Women have been considered ‘janani’, i.e., the progenitor and ‘ardhanigini’ i.e., half of the body.
Women are also considered to be an . embodiment of Goddess Durga . Women have shouldered equal responsibilities with men. So if history has incarnated women to be the have paper, goddess of wealth and riches or Goddess Durga herself, so why there had been gender discrimination in the society since ages? Why sex-selective abortions are there? Widespread discrimination against women is, however, reflected. Discrimination , Durga , Gender 667 Words | 2 Pages. and goddesses worshipped by Hindus all over India. I was instantly attracted to her mystery and dark beauty. Reflexive Essay? Kali is only one of the many Gods and Goddesses . worshipped daily throughout India, having the largest congregation in paper Bengal. One form is british imperialism in africa, puja , or the act of worshipping the image or manifestation of a God by making spiritual connection with the deity through invocation, offerings, rituals and prayers. Have Written? Thousands of people, gather together at shrines and temples to honor and offer sacrifices. Devi , Durga , Goddess 680 Words | 2 Pages.
engaged in a great battle. There was one particular titan who was too powerful for the lesser gods to defeat. Durga , the british imperialism essay, Warrior/Mother . goddess, was then called upon for aid. She arrived in pay to have splendour, riding a lion into battle, Her ten arms each bearing a magical weapon, Her ten faces each displaying a serene calm. She became the center of a cyclonic force of destruction. Durga wounded the asura king (who was Her main opponent and bubbly, the hub of his army). From his wounds the pay to paper written, blood flowed. Deity , Devi , Durga 412 Words | 2 Pages.
glad And laughs when she is sad She can handle a lot of trouble And carry heavy burdens even double We forget the difficult woman life Her love, her . British In Africa Essay? care, her sacrifice A woman can shower love and affection But in anger, she becomes Goddess Durga for destruction You cannot estimate her sharpness She gives light and removes darkness A girl is very important in one’s life Never hurt her with either words or knifeIn my head I hear a humming, Summer, summer summer's coming, It comes with. Black-and-white films , Crying , Durga 349 Words | 2 Pages. blessing from the holy deity, goddess Dakshinkali and her mother. Have Written? We separated ourselves and penetrated in to project how to write, various parts of the have written, village. We met the . residing local peoples, business persons (Khuwa entrepreneurs, agro farmers, hotel/restaurant owners), puja materials cum souvenir sellers, visitors at the temple, picnic comers, temple management people and even the bus transportation committee people. During our rigorous interview with various people and self – observation, we came to find out the. Bulk tank , Dairy , Dairy farming 6539 Words | 23 Pages.
all worshippers on in africa essay the tenth day. * Day 2-7: Dwitia to Saptami: Represent the pay to, continuation of the battle. * Day 8: Ashtami: Animals are . sacrificed in the temples of Goddess Durga asking for her help to win the battle. * Day 9: Nawami: People worship Durga in imperialism mass. Have Paper Written? Everyone goes to temple of Durga . Also Vishwa Karma (god of creativity) is project how to, worshipped at the room where all tools and weapons were kept and the tools are finally released from the room. All machinery like sewing machine. Durga , Goddess 705 Words | 2 Pages. observances, he has always allowed the greatest freedom: (1) in the determination of the dates of the festival, which, as he has explained on page 53, vary, . and (2) in the traditional ways of celebrating them. For instance, in South India during the have, Durga Puja they have the Kolu when various idols and toys are arranged in colourful galleries before which, every evening, girls sit and sing.
Again, in some places there is fire-walking without the Kavadi (see page 109), held in how to write honour of Draupadi Amman. Devi , Durga , Hinduism 39613 Words | 130 Pages. Respect The Girl Child For Life, And Not Merely For A Day! The 23rd of have paper written October 2012, is the last day of the Hindu festival of Navratra—the nine days’ . regimen of british in africa essay fasting and feasting, which is celebrated in its various nuances— Durga Pooja (worshipping goddess Durga ); the rhythmic Garba dancing; the night long singing of bhajans (devi jagran); the pay to paper written, Ramlila (enactment of life of god Rama), with the celebrations culminating on the tenth day by immersing the statues of the goddess in pros of democracy essay the river (from. Devi , Durga , Female 433 Words | 2 Pages. Navratri Significance and Celebration. marks prosperity. With changing seasons, festivals of have paper written India depict this change. Navratri, a hindu festival who’s name itself has change (ratri). ‘Nav’ means . nine and ‘Rartri’ means night; this festival is celebrated worshiping, nine forms of Goddess Durga for nine nights. Beginning on the first day of the bright fortnight of the Hindu month Ashwin, roughly corresponding to dates in the Gregorian calendar in September/October.
This also usually coincides with the end of the rainy season. It is celebrated. Devi , Durga , Parvati 780 Words | 2 Pages. Gautam; A woman who was saved by Lord Rama Gift Pledge; Knowledge Maiden Nonviolent virtue Happy mood In happy mood Delighted Witty; One who has pleasant . Essay? dreams; Imaginative Visiting; Returning Woman Living; Prosperous; Wife of Prophet Mohammed Goddess Durga God's gift 4 Aishwarya Aja Ajaa Ajagandha Ajala Ajanta Ajay Ajeeta Ajeya Ajinder Ajita Akaisha Akalka Akane Akanksha Akashleena Akhila Akira Aklima Akriti Akshadha Akshainie Akshamala Akshara Akshata Akshatha Akshaya Akshayaa Akshera Akshi Akshika. Devi , Durga , Lakshmi 8953 Words | 37 Pages. animal species at nature best is to go for pay to paper written, a safari tour. To get the complete visit of the corners of the park and maximum wildlife experience Corbett park . is divided in four different safari zones namely Dhikala Safari Zone, Bijrani Safari Zone, Durga Devi Safari Zone and Jhirna Safari Zone.
To get the best of your visit you need someone who is a local resident of the essay, region and have paper written, is familiar with the area. This is what can be provided by global outline, us. We manage a team of experts who are well aware of the areas. Durga , Hunting , India 560 Words | 2 Pages. as any man. But unlike the other bandits who infested the northern states of India, Phoolan Devi did not steal for her own enrichment. Like Robin Hood, she . Have? stole from the rich and gave to self reflexive, the poor, particularly poor women. Her inspirations were the Durga , the pay to have paper, Hindu goddess of shakti, strength and power, and Mohandas K. Gandhi, the Indian statesman and humanitarian who had fought for equality among all people. Dacoit gangs have a long history of preying on travelers and looting villages in the northern. Bandit Queen , Chambal River , Crime 5300 Words | 13 Pages. originate from the palace grounds.
Dasara is the most extravagant festival of Mysore. The Dasara festival is imperialism in africa, celebrated in the months of September and . Pay To Have Paper Written? October of each year. The festival celebrates and commemorates the victory of the great Goddess Durga , after she slew the self essay, demon,Mahishasura, and thereby, symbolizing the triumph of good over evil according to Hindu mythology. Some call her Chamundeshwari. This festival has been celebrated by the Wodeyars at Srirangapatna from 1610 and in have Mysore with.
Durga , Henry Irwin , India 547 Words | 2 Pages. that the victory of Good over Evil is the pros and cons, reason for this celebration. She also says that the festival is to mark the return of Rama to Ayodhya after his . defeat of Ravana. Lots of pay to have people also start new ventures on this day after performing Lakshmi Puja . This is self reflexive essay, marked by lighting of lamps, candles and diyas by the women folk in have written the family. The light and colour add to computer applications grade, the celebrations. In all, I can say that Deepavali is the pay to have paper, brightest festival to project, be celebrated in India. The delicious food associated. Diwali , Fireworks , Gulab jamun 329 Words | 2 Pages. ? Tihar (Dipawali) - everything you ever wanted to know about Tihar. its all here! About Tihar : The Nepali festival Tihar is . also known by many names such as Dipawali or Bhai Tika or Laxmi Puja or as a festival of lights.
It is a five-days festival, which comes soon after the Dashain Festival, and pay to have written, Tihar is all about worshiping of global outline different animals such as crow, dog, cow, and worshiping of the Hindu Goddess of Fortune or Wealth (Goddess Laxmi), and have written, cooking great meals. Daytime Emmy Award ceremonies , Diwali , Family 2699 Words | 5 Pages. ? Hinduism Paper There are many reasons for performing, along with various derivations, of puja rituals. Puja is performed to . aid in seeking God’s help in times of need, or to assist in how to write communicating more closely with God. These rituals can also serve as thankfulness and sign of pay to have paper reverence for when God has appeared in self reflexive essay one’s life. The prime objective within puja rituals, however, is the showing of unconditional love towards God without ulterior motive. It is have paper written, more or less an outward sign of wholehearted. Ceremony , Communication , Dance 809 Words | 3 Pages. Indrakeeladri Mountain. Computer 2011? On the outskirts of the city, to the west lies the Kondapalli reserve forest, which provides the city with lush green freshness. . The word Vijayawada means ‘Land of pay to have paper Victory’, and is named after the Goddess of the city Kanaka Durga , who is also known by the name of ‘Vijaya’. The city is also famous by the name ‘Bezawada’ which is the old name of the city.
The city of Vijayawada is one of the leading tourist destinations of the how to write, country and is famous for its juicy mangoes, a. Andhra Pradesh , Bay of Bengal , India 478 Words | 2 Pages. Durga, Slayer of the Buffalo Titan. Art Institute of pay to have paper written Chicago has on display a Durga , Slayer of the Buffalo Titan statue. This statue was added to the Art Institutes' collection . in 1996 and labeled as a gift from an anonymous donor. This statue of Durga is a piece of ancient art which I feel represents the power and british, imagery of the goddess. The statue is made of grey sandstone and is not all that large measuring in at around 61 centimeters tall. It is estimated that the statue of Durga is from the late 10th century which is also. Art Institute of Atlanta , Devi , Goddess 1091 Words | 3 Pages. Buddhism puja are acts of honour, worship and devotional attention, acts of puja include bowing, offerings and chanting. Have? Buddha’s . preferred not to see puja as a form of worship, as it is regularly implied with the idea of god, this Buddha’s do not believe exists.
Instead Buddha’s believe worship to be an activity or attitude directed something at something considered worthy, and the Buddha certainly is worth it, Buddhists prefer to self reflexive, call it veneration that suggests worship rather than worship. Pay To Written? Puja is warming, carried. Buddhahood , Buddhism , Dharma 686 Words | 1 Pages. Puja (Worship) Puja which literally means worship is performed before the pay to paper written, deities’ images by both priests and laypeople in . temples and self reflexive essay, homes throughout India. Puja in a large temple, especially in the blackness enveloping the innermost shrines, has a powerful sensual impact, often amplified by the press of pay to a large crowd of devotees in a hot, confined space (Fuller, 57). The image in front of which puja is self reflexive, carried out can be natural like a tree, plant, rock or can be manmade such as constructed out. Deity , God , Goddess 605 Words | 2 Pages. and shopper’s time. • Increasing the efficiencies of sales persons. • Being a silent sales person – giving information and doing suggestive selling. Paper Written? . Themes Exterior of South City Mall Durga Puja The Entrance Cluster of South City Mall - Durga Puja Contd. Props used at reflexive essay South City Mall – Durga Puja Design Basics • Point – is an pay to have paper element that has position but no extension.
It is a single mark in space • Line – an element that has both length and direction. Lines create form. Lines. Color , Color theory , Display device 776 Words | 4 Pages. Noise Pollution Details in Kolkata. Pollution survey in project how to Kolkata during Kali puja Diwali Festivals- 2005 Introduction: The use of loudspeakers is regulated in terms of the Rules . under the pay to written, Environment Protection Act (1986) as well as the orders of the Supreme Court and the Calcutta High Court. The Police is empowered to enforce these rules and the orders.
While the legal restrictions are mostly known by and large, special vigilance becomes necessary during festivals such as the Durga Puja , Kali Puja Diwali. To have a clear idea about. Acoustics , Diwali , Kolkata 1677 Words | 5 Pages. Festival and Its Environment Impact. joyous. People enjoy the festivals with family and friends.
The religious significance of the festivals too can hardly be denied. Here are some of the very . popular festivals that take place throughout India. There are many festivals in India like Durga Puja ,Navratri,Dussehra,Ganesh Chaturthi,Holi,Diwali,etc. In India, festivals do not just offer people a temporary reprieve from their daily grind. Imbued with deep inner significance, each festival is a multifaceted celebration. British Imperialism? The day on pay to have paper written which a particular. Diwali , Festival , Festivals in India 1583 Words | 5 Pages. temple of ‘Chaturdash Debta', a traditional festival of the indigenous tribals, in the month of July while tribals–and for how to bubbly, that matter-the entire population . enthusiastically participate in and enjoy the festivities associated with the five day ‘ Durga Puja '. This process has gained in momentum by the catholicity of culture practised by the kings of Manikya dynasty who ruled the state for more than five centuries and their magnanimous espousal of cultural cross-currents.
The inevitable fall-out of. Bangladesh , Bengal , Bengali people 1988 Words | 7 Pages. Festivals in India and Friday Monday Saturday. NO.OF DAYS 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 9 1 1 25 EVENT BIRTHDAY OF PROPHET MOHAMMAD REPUBLIC DAY BASANTA PANCHAMI HOLI GOOD FRIDAY UTKAL DIWAS SHREERAM . Pay To Have Written? NAVAMI RAJA SANKRANTI RATH YATRA Id-Ul-Fitre INDEPENDENCE DAY JANMASTAMI GANESH PUJA GANDHI JAYANTI DURGA PUJA KUMAR PURNIMA MUHARRAM X MAS Sunday : Maha Shivratri (10.03.2013), Maha Bisubha Sankranti (14.04.2013), Diwali (03.11.2013) Sd/Registrar KIIT University, Bhubaneswar HOLIDAY LIST FOR THE YEAR 2013 (Teaching Non- Teaching. Eastern Christian liturgy , Fasting , Festivals in in africa India 328 Words | 2 Pages.