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A reflective essay based on an episode of patient care. This is a reflective essay based on an episode of care that I was directly involved in managing during a community placement. This episode of care will be analysed using up to date references, health care policies and relevant models. Issues and theories relating to leadership qualities and management styles will also be explored, taking into consideration any legal, ethical and political factors that may have impacted on patient care. Care delivery, delegation and prioritisation will be examined along with team working, risk assessment and patient safety. I will also take into consideration my role as a supervised student nurse and analyse the roles and responsibilities of those supervising me and what influence this has on my practice. These issues will be debated and questioned within the framework of leadership and management theory.

In order that I could use this situation for crusaders termpaper my reflection the patient will be referred to as “Mrs A”. Coursework! In this assignment confidentiality will be maintained by the use of pseudonyms, this is to maintain privacy and confidentiality in crusaders termpaper line with the NMC Code of Professional Conduct (NMC, 2008), “as a registered nurse, midwife or health visitor, you must protect confidential information”, and to #8220;Treat information about patients and clients as confidential and use it only for psy 3315 coursework mansfield the purpose for which it was given.#8221; Starting an extended practice placement as a third year nursing student enables the student to develop their knowledge and skills in management and leadership ready for termpaper their role as a qualified adult nurse. During my extended practice placement there were many opportunities to develop these skills and cause world manage my own caseload of crusaders termpaper, patients and arrange many complex aspects of their care. During this placement an 88 year old patient, to be known as Mrs A, was due to be discharged from a rehab centre following recurrent falls, issues with safety at home, and self neglect, the referral had been made by a concerned General Practitioner. Mrs A had spent the last 6 weeks receiving holistic multidisciplinary care, including; intensive physiotherapy, occupational therapy and nursing care. Mrs A had made much improvement and was able to safely administer her own medication. Essays! One of the termpaper, Physiotherapists called Ken, had commented during handover, that Mrs A had seemed confused during their session together, and asked if the nurses would go in and review her. Thesis Grade Cv! Upon visiting Mrs A it was clearly evident that she was not herself, and seemed confused. Following discussion with my mentor I felt that Mrs A was not safe to administer her own medication. I recommended to the patient to crusaders termpaper, let the rehabilitation staff administer her medication.

Mrs A consented to this, thus reducing a great risk of Mrs A causing her-self harm. I delegated to the support workers to obtain a urine sample which was tested and confirmed that Mrs A had a urinary tract infection, antibiotics were prescribed by her GP. The team leader at the rehabilitation centre was informed of Mrs A’s infection and essay on aid or trade plan to handover the administration of her medication to them, she was happy with this decision and crusaders pleased that I had informed her. This episode of world war 1 essay, care was managed effectively as the underlying cause of the patients confusion was discovered and treated, a risk assessment was completed and a referral was promptly made to medicine management and a dossett box was supplied to Mrs A, to termpaper, help her manage her own medications safely. All members of the multi-disciplinary team were fully committed to the team approach to essays, care delivery and this facilitated efficient and organised care delivery. The care delivered was patient-centred and teamwork was integral to providing this care. First will be a discussion on the importance of self awareness and how this awareness enabled a more assertive and confidant approach to crusaders termpaper, be made to managing patient care.

Self awareness must be considered as the foundation for management and is a vital skill and quality needed in leadership. Psy 3315! If you wish to provide care that is of a high standard and improve your own performance as a skilled health care professional you need to manage the crusaders, cognitive, affective and behavioural self in order to engage effectively in therapeutic relationships. Self awareness is the process of understanding one’s own beliefs, thoughts, motivations, biases and limitations and psy 3315 coursework recognising how they affect the care and services provided (Whetten and crusaders termpaper Cameron, 2010). Without being self aware, recognising personal and cultural beliefs, and understanding interpersonal strengths and essay on aid or trade limitations, it is impossible to establish and termpaper maintain good relationship with co-workers and patients. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Theory (1954) depicts self-actualisation at the highest level of the hierarchy of needs. This relates to world war 1, the need to crusaders, maximise potential and cause world essay achieve a sense of crusaders termpaper, personal fulfilment, competence, and accomplishment (Maslow, 1954). It is important as a student nurse to white paper term, be completely aware of strengths and weaknesses, and to be conscious of any limitations, self-awareness helps to crusaders, exploit strengths and cope with weaknesses (Walshe and term Smith, 2006). Crusaders! When organising and planning patient care it is vital to have effective management and leadership skills, this is part of psy 3315, every nurse’s role, and involves planning, delivering and evaluating patient care. These management responsibilities are part of every nurse’s role (Sullivan and crusaders Garland, 2010) and to exhibit these professional behaviours demonstrates their value to the organisation (Huber, 1996). To understand nursing management it is crucial to understand what nursing management is and the theory behind it. Managers are defined as “a member of a specific professional group who manages resources and essay activities and usually has clearly defined subordinates” (Gopee Galloway, 2009).

Another definition of management is a process by which organisational goals are met through the application of skills and the use of resources (Huber, 1996). Borkowski (2010) argues that Douglas McGregor made a significant impact on organisational behaviour and was an crusaders termpaper American social psychologist that proposed the ‘ X-Y ’ theory of management and motivation. McGregor (1966) describes the ‘X-Y’ concept as the theory that underpins the practices and cause war 1 attitudes of managers with regard to their employees. Huber (2006) states that theory ‘X’ managers assume that employees are lazy, that they dislike responsibility, would rather be directed, oppose change and desire safety. Theory ‘X’ implies that employees are rational and termpaper easily motivated (either by psy 3315 coursework money or threat of punishment); therefore managers need to impose structure and control and be active managers (Huber, 2000). Huber (2000) asserts that the opposing theory, (‘Y’) assumes that people are not lazy and unreliable by nature rather that they are self-directed and creative if well motivated in order to release their true potential. Businenessballs.com (2002) asserts that most managers are inclined towards the crusaders termpaper, ‘X’ theory and psy 3315 usually obtain poor results whereas managers who implement the ‘Y’ theory produce better performance and results thus allowing people to grow and develop (Businessballs.com, 2002). Borkowski, N. (2009) Organizational behaviour, theory, and design in crusaders health care , USA: Jones Bartlett Publishers. Cameron, K. and Whetten, D. (2010) Developing Management Skills, USA: Prentice Hall. Gopee, N. and Galloway, J. (2009) Leadership in Management in Heathcare, London: Sage Publishers. Huber, D. (2006) Leadership and Nursing care Management.

3 rd Edn. USA: W.B Saunders Company. Maslow, A. (1954) Motivation and Personality, New York: Harper Row. McGregor, D. White Term Origin! (1966). The human side of enterprise. Crusaders Termpaper! Leadership and motivation. Cambridge: MA: The MIT Press. Sullivan, E. And Garland, G. (2010) Practical Leadership and Management in white paper term origin Nursing, Essex: Pearson Education Limited. Walshe, K. And Smith, J. (2006) Healthcare Management, New York: Open University Press. If you enjoyed this article, subscribe to receive more just like it. Including student tips and advice.

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The Origins of World War I: Assessing the Historiography. Spurred by modern warfare’s advanced technology, World War I proved to be an unprecedented display of death and devastation. From the rubble and termpaper, smoky haze of the term war’s aftermath emerged the equally unprecedented practice of crusaders termpaper, seeking out and essays, punishing those deemed responsible. Confused and traumatized by the horrors of the crusaders termpaper Great War, Europeans demanded an explanation, triggering—for the first time in history—a large-scale campaign waged by governments, politicians, journalists, novelists and thesis grade cv, scholars to ascribe blame to the guiltiest nation. This debate, debuting at the war’s start and ever intensifying with no end in sight, has resulted in termpaper what historian Christopher Clark describes as “an historical literature of essay or trade, unparalleled size, sophistication, and moral intensity.” [1] The pervasive and enduring discussion of entangling alliances and fierce international competition provides modern leaders with a case study in decision making. John F. Kennedy, for example, requested that his cabinet read Barbara Tuchman’s famous analysis of WWI, The Guns of August, during the Cuban Missile Crisis, while President Jimmy Carter has written about the termpaper value of considering the war’s origins when confronting today’s international crises. [2] In the past century, a variety of hypotheses regarding responsibility has been presented and certain schools have fallen in and out of on aid in pakistan, esteem. Crusaders Termpaper! The debate—originally centered on Germany’s alleged war-guilt—eventually drifted towards notions of collective culpability, giving rise in white paper term origin the1930s to the conviction that no single nation was to blame, only crusaders armaments, alliances, failed diplomacy and imperialistic capitalism. White Term Origin! [3] But this school has its inherent problems. The position relies on the examination of crusaders termpaper, broad forces and trends (like imperialism) at the expense of the actions of individuals. Its followers fail to take into account the unique nature of each of the great powers and the distinct ways in which nations pursued the very types of policies they criticize. The debate gradually subsided throughout the 1940s and 50s.

That is, until West German historian Fritz Fischer’s explosive work in the 1960s inspired new scholarship, portraying WWI as a conscious German design for coursework mansfield, either power or distraction from its growing social unrest. Termpaper! [4] Like other schools, these polemics have their merits, but they fail to fully answer the war-guilt question. Fischer and or trade in pakistan, his followers give the Second Reich too much credit for its ability to be efficient and organized. In fact, the Kaiserreich was particularly disorganized. Germany’s rootless policy and ill-defined ambitions would have been significant obstacles to termpaper, any strategic planning and execution of war. More recent scholarship tends to essays, examine individual countries. The British, French, and Russians have all been indicted, to varying degrees, for their isolation of Germany. Austria-Hungary has been blamed countless times for its methods in dealing with Serbia. Crusaders Termpaper! If the vast historiography has reached any consensus, it is that no country can be completely absolved of guilt. The tendency of the German nation, however, after 1890, to econometrics suggestions, act with negligence and a lack of focus in its misguided efforts to grapple with domestic turmoil and crusaders termpaper, navigate the cause world war 1 European system, resulted in crusaders a dangerously unpredictable, alienating policy, setting the stage for or trade, general conflagration in 1914. The encyclopedic discussion and dissection of the war, and Germany’s role in particular, exposes a certain ambivalence in the Second Reich’s politics.

Germany is regularly found at the root of many of the crusaders termpaper causes of conflict that are examined in WWI literature and the war’s extensive historiography—a historiography with as compelling a story as the war’s origins itself. According to historian Dennis Showalter, “The understanding of the First World War is connected more than that of psy 3315 mansfield, any other modern conflict with the war’s historiography” because its written history developed as soon as fighting did. At the onset of war in August 1914, “color books,” named for each country’s uniquely hued cover, were written for “domestic and crusaders, international consumption” in an attempt to rally support at home and war 1, sympathy abroad. [5] The Belgian Grey Book , the Austrian Red Book , the crusaders French Yellow Book , the Russian Black Book and the German White Book were edited collections of psy 3315 coursework, highly selective and dubious (half of the Deutsches Weissbuch ’s thirty documents are believed to be forgeries) political papers released by the state in order to prove the defensive, and therefore justifiable, nature of the termpaper respective government’s decision to fight. [6] Efforts continued in September as a German government-sponsored committee wrote a defense of cause, its country entitled Truth about Germany: Facts about the War . In England, six Oxford historians were charged with a similar task, producing Why We Are at termpaper War: Great Britain’s Case, a highly critical account of the Second Reich’s alleged militarism and paper, expansionist aims. [7] In May 1919, Germany published a second White Book, Deutschland Shuldig? ( Germany Guilty? ), as a means of preempting the coming Treaty of termpaper, Versailles. [8] The Treaty, signed June 28, 1919, dispensed harsh punishment to the war’s losers, forcing Germany to reduce its military, cede significant territory and pay reparations. The conditions of the paper term agreement were justified by termpaper a clause, Article 231, which expressly blamed Germany for the twentieth century’s great disaster. Horrified by the financial and in pakistan, moral implications of crusaders termpaper, this “war-guilt clause” (a French idea), Germany worked with alacrity to disprove the charges, granting unprecedented access to sources and archives to patriotic, nationalistic—and often government-funded—historians, encouraging pro-German work and investigations into the “war-guilt lie.” [9] In 1921, the Weimar Republic created the War Guilt Section. This government body consisted of one branch dedicated to disseminating literature to paper suggestions, trade unions and termpaper, various clubs and another concerned with scholarly research in Germany’s defense. [10] By 1930, this mass propaganda distribution center had 1,700 to 2,000 organizations working to undermine the legitimacy of the treaty as well as its own academic journal, Die Kriegsschuldfrage . [11] Historians Albrecht Menolelssohn-Bartholdy, Johannes Lepsius and econometrics term paper, Friedrich Thimme were asked to create a definitive defense and collection of German documents, leading to the controversial, forty-volume Die Grosse Politik der Europaischen Kabinette , published over the course of crusaders termpaper, 1922 to 1927. As German government official and industrialist Walter Ratheneau told the Reichstag on coursework mansfield June 13, 1922, the book was intended to absolve Germany morally, once and for termpaper, all. [12]

Fearing the prospect of a WWI historiography dictated by on aid or trade in pakistan Germany, Europe responded. Britain, France and crusaders termpaper, the newly-formed Soviet Union were quick to counter with their own edited accounts of the war, strategically placing blame where they saw fit. [13] London released British Documents on the Origins of the War 1898-1914 , an world war 1 essay, official collection ordered by Foreign Secretary Ramsay MacDonald, in installments from crusaders, 1926 to thesis grade cv, 1938 as an answer to Die Grosse Politik. In France, Raymond Poincare, president during the war, originally resisted any publications for fear they might undermine the presumption of German war guilt. Nonetheless, he eventually begged the crusaders high-ranking diplomat, Maurice Paleologue (who preferred a posthumous publication) to release documents, recognizing that the debate would carry on essays with or without France. Termpaper! The Ministry of Public Instruction, the government body responsible for in pakistan, historical inquiry into the war, created the journal, Revue d’histoire de la guerre mondiale , and published its own definitive collection, Documents diplomatiques francais 1871-1914 , in 1936. Crusaders Termpaper! [14] Russian WWI historiography has a unique origin. The Bolshevik Party came to power in November 1917 with an ostensible commitment to essays on morocco, abolishing secret diplomacy. [15] In keeping with that promise, the Soviet government vowed to release war-relevant documents, which were ultimately published through scattered sources and in an unfinished three-volume work. [16] The Soviets were also equally dedicated to, as historian Niall Ferguson says, portraying the war as “an imperialist self-immolation scene,” thus incriminating the tsarist regime. Crusaders! [17] A brainchild of the psy 3315 state, the termpaper journal Krasnyi Arkhiv , which published 106 issues from 1922 to 1941, focused on exposing the previous capitalistic, imperialistic government. Coursework Mansfield! [18] In an attempt to crusaders, legitimize the revolution, the econometrics suggestions Soviet Union, unlike other nations, strategically selected documents in hopes of implicating its own country in the war’s origins. The harsh conditions of the Treaty of Versailles sparked non-state sponsored debate as well. A school of crusaders, thought emerged in the 1920s that questioned the extreme notion of Germany’s sole responsibility and hoped to thesis grade cv, eradicate the war-guilt clause and massive reparations. These “revisionists” sought to find a more moderate truth, while some even proposed the idea of Triple Entente, specifically British, French and Russian, culpability.

Naturally, these ideas took the strongest hold in termpaper Germany. A pioneer in thesis grade cv revisionism, German historian Max Montgelas came to the defense of his country in The Case for the Central Powers , making claims that Germany and termpaper, Austria-Hungary had only intended to maintain the essays status quo. Instead, he argues, it was the Franco-Russian alliance that harbored belligerent goals, specifically the reclaiming of Alsace-Lorraine and the Straights that connected the Black and Mediterranean Sea. [19] Writing in crusaders termpaper 1927 at Leipzig University, historian Erich Brandenburg admitted his country’s possible “short-sightedness,” but insisted vehemently that Germany had never intended to incite a war. [20] Outside of Germany there were very few European scholars calling for the revision of Article 231, though British historians G. P. Gooch and essays on morocco, Edmund D. Morel and French historian George Demartial did argue against their profession’s complacency and advocated for truth over patriotism. [21] It was in fact the termpaper United States that became the biggest target for war-guilt propaganda. The German Foreign Ministry corresponded with American Senator Robert L. Owen, requesting a review of the war-guilt clause. This partnership engendered overseas discussion, prompting a speech before the U.S. Senate on December 18, 1923 in which Senator Owen made appeals on Germany’s behalf. Psy 3315 Mansfield! [22]

Many American scholars, like Harry Elmer Barnes, came to accept the revisionist philosophy. Termpaper! His work, The Genesis of the World War: An Introduction to the Problem of War Guilt is an angry critique of the essay or trade historiographical status quo and a fierce condemnation of the Versailles Treaty. In his 1926 treatise, he contends that Germany had every right to assemble a navy or expand its empire in the twentieth century just as all European powers had. In fact, Poincare and Russian diplomat Alexander Izvolsky were incendiary figures from the crusaders termpaper start, looking to convert Russian Foreign Minister Sergei Sazonov to their “war party.” [23] Another respected American historian, Sidney Bradshaw Fay, published Origins of the World War in 1928, which, while not an outright indictment of the Entente, supports much of what Barnes argues. [24] The German government went to great lengths to encourage this kind of American revisionism, regularly inviting Fay to paper origin, contribute to its historical journal, and purchasing 250 copies of his book to be issued to diplomats. The War Guilt Section provided Barnes with research material, propagated his writings, funded visits to Berlin, Munich and crusaders termpaper, Vienna and translated his book into cause world war 1 German and French to crusaders, be distributed overseas. Psy 3315 Coursework Mansfield! [25] The revisionists inevitably spawned the anti-revisionists, a group whose work was highly censored in the Weimar Republic. The scholarship of Bernadotte Schmitt, a professor of modern history at crusaders termpaper the University of Chicago, was never translated into German. [26] His study, The Origins of the First World War , upheld traditional views depicting Austria-Hungary as the instigator of war and Germany as its all-important ally and supporter. [27] Prominent French scholar, Pierre Renouvin, a professor of mansfield, contemporary history at the Sorbonne, published The Immediate Origins of the War in 1927 and was one of the first historians to directly respond to crusaders, and criticize the revisionists. [28] Also from the Sorbonne, Professor Camille Bloch wrote in defense of the Versailles verdict in 1935 in The Causes of the World War, claiming that the German Kaiser and Chancellor Theobald von Bethmann-Hollweg had intended violent conflict in hopes of capitalizing on paper origin France’s and Russia’s unpreparedness. [29] The debate’s extreme, polarizing nature waned as the end of the 1920s and beginning of the 1930s gave rise to a new, more palatable view.

A belief in shared culpability and a sort of fortuitous stumbling into conflict gained in popularity as nations tried to put the tensions of the First World War behind them. The rise of crusaders termpaper, Marxism and a general criticism of the post-industrialized society worked in concert with a more liberal Europe’s attempt to heal itself after the war, leading to essays on morocco, the creation of a new school of thought based on a collective responsibility. WWI was deemed by many a “war that no one wanted”—a “failure of systems rather than a product of decisions.” [30] Failed diplomacy, the arms race and the entangling alliances that dominated the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries were seen as chief causes for fighting’s outbreak. [31] The release of many famous wartime memoirs reinforced this idea. Bethmann-Hollweg’s and British Foreign Secretary Sir Edward Grey’s accounts, published between 1919 and crusaders termpaper, 1921, and in 1925, respectively, are descriptions of the impossible positions in which politicians found themselves in July 1914. First Lord of the war 1 essay Admiralty at the start of the crusaders war, Winston Churchill’s The World Crisis , published between 1923 and 1931, as well as the memoirs of Prime Minister David Lloyd George (1933), depict the world struggle as an inevitable phenomenon beyond anyone’s control. Essays On Morocco! [32] This change in historiography offered a chance to improve international relations—a development even more desirable after World War II. Termpaper! With the international community of scholars moving towards a consensus of collective accountability, French and German historians met in 1951 in Paris and Mainz to eliminate one-sided textbooks and create an thesis grade cv, agreed-upon, uniform, historical curriculum. [33] The conclusions of the crusaders French, led by Renouvin, and the Germans, under the leadership of historian Gerhard Ritter, marked a shift toward moderation on both sides: the portions of the report regarding WWI describe the term Franco-Russian pact as merely a natural product of the alliance system and any German aggression as the manifestation of very legitimate fears of encirclement. [34] Even those who preserved the creed of German guilt in the post-WWII era did so in a much more moderate way. Italian historian Luigi Albertini’s three-volume treatise, Le origini della guerra del 1914, published in Milan between 1942 and 1943, asserts that Germany urged Austria-Hungary to strike against Serbia in 1914, but not with the intent to termpaper, ignite a general conflict. While Albertini’s work ascribes most of the blame to the Central Powers, namely Austria-Hungary and Germany, it appealed to readers on both sides of the debate, as his scholarship is also highly critical of term, Poincare, Grey and crusaders, Sazonov. [35] In 1954, historian Raymond Aron published The Century of Total War . Although the work builds on the belief of thesis grade cv, Renouvin that the termpaper statesmen of Berlin and Vienna wrongfully risked war, it illustrates the complexities of the conflict that Aron contends cannot be reduced to the guilty and the guiltless. [36] The idea that war was accidental or simply a product of the flawed European system continued to appear in on morocco WWI literature.

One of the most legendary and popular portrayals of this stumbling into war was The Guns of August , published by historian Barbara Tuchman in 1962. Tuchman claims that as July 1914 came to termpaper, a close and war looked more and more probable, “governments struggled and paper term origin, twisted to fend it off,” but “it was no use.” [37] In a famous investigation into the power of army schedules released in 1969, British historian A. J. P. Taylor asserts that the extreme focus on speedy and efficient military timetables forced countries to become increasingly unwilling to turn to crusaders termpaper, diplomacy, for coursework mansfield, fear of becoming weeks, days, or even precious hours behind in their plans. Crusaders! [38] Taylor lays most of the responsibility on the Central Powers, yet he fits partially into the collective culpability school, believing the war was in no way “deliberate,” but actually “produced by muddle.” [39] Historian David Stevenson suggests in “The Politics of the Two Alliances” that while alliances were not solely to blame for war, it is impossible to explain the decisions made by on aid in pakistan the major powers during July 1914 without considering the hostile, two-bloc European system. [40] Equally concerned with international relations, historian John Keegan’s corpus describes a world that was turning away from diplomacy and towards military action. Keegan concedes that A. J. P. Taylor was too extreme in his conclusion that military timetables had caused war, but asserts that Prussia’s success with timetables in 1870 prompted Europe to crusaders, become increasingly concerned with mobilization dates and further entrenched in secret alliances and inflexible war plans. “Secret plans,” Keegan claims, “determined that any crisis not settled by sensible diplomacy would, in the circumstances prevailing in Europe in world 1914, lead to general war.” [41] Historian Paul Kennedy similarly cites the European environment, plagued by the effects of modernization, industrialization and urbanization, as a cause of war.

In The Rise and Fall of the Great Powers , Kennedy focuses on the growing suspicion and rivalries in Europe, coupled with the creation of agreements and military pacts. This coalition mentality, Kennedy argues, encouraged countries to act in termpaper haste during crises like that of July 1914. Essay On Aid In Pakistan! [42] Modris Eksteins, a historian also concerned with the active underlying forces of European society, goes so far as to termpaper, depict WWI as a sort of social conflict. He argues that a more progressive, avant-garde Germany was forced to assert itself to the conservative, old-fashioned Anglo-French. [43] There are fundamental problems with any school of thinking that holds all, or none, accountable. In her book, The War that Ended Peace: The Road to 1914 , historian Margaret MacMillan even describes it as “dangerous thinking” to psy 3315 mansfield, accept WWI as an inevitability. Crusaders Termpaper! Of course there were underlying factors—trends and circumstances—that helped to create an environment conducive to war, but there were also individuals responsible for white, their countries’ policies and decision-making. [44] Leading up to the conflict, Europe was a web of provocative alliances. Crusaders! Stevenson makes a valid point that general war was much more likely after “industrialization…transformed the power to produce and psy 3315 mansfield, destroy” and because “central military antagonism polarized the two big blocs.” [45] This arms race and sense of rivalry, however, is not evidence in itself that all nations were equally culpable.

More important is how the crusaders termpaper powers responded to term paper suggestions, this environment, and that one nation, above all, still felt powerful enough to termpaper, compete on econometrics the world stage, but that its position was becoming increasingly precarious. Germany, in other words, felt as though the window of opportunity to crusaders, prove itself in this type of coursework, tense, competitive Europe was quickly closing. [46] There is no significant evidence that any nation hoped for or designed a world war, but the Second Reich, with its fatalistic mentality, maintained a unique willingness to resort to violence. By 1912, most German military commanders painted a very bleak picture for their civilian government. They were convinced that the international geopolitical situation was turning against their country and crusaders, that Europe’s other armies were poised only to white paper term, become more potent and crusaders, better equipped as time went on. [47] As early as December 8, 1912 at white the now infamous “war council” held at crusaders termpaper the Royal Palace in Berlin, German government officials were already discussing the importance of thesis grade cv, British neutrality, the production of U-boats and crusaders, efforts to popularize war. [48] At the meeting, Germany’s leaders expressed confidence in the likelihood of a victory for psy 3315, their nation as long as fighting were to take place before Russian armament increases in crusaders termpaper 1916; as Helmuth von Moltke, the econometrics term paper German chief of staff put it: “War the sooner the better.” [49] Although this conference did not result in, as some historians would argue, a design for war (the specific naval expansion and propaganda campaign proposed by the Kaiser never came to crusaders termpaper, fruition), it showed, as Christopher Clark says, that Berlin was “strikingly untroubled by the prospect of such an outcome.” [50] More important, it exhibits the way in which the German generals doubted there being any chance to break their country’s encirclement through peaceful measures. Econometrics Term Suggestions! [51] In the years leading up to war, the Second Reich’s leaders did not want to fight, but felt increasingly like they might not have a choice. As conflict seemed more and termpaper, more inevitable, historian Michael Howard argues, “war avoidance” became a low priority. [52] In their clumsiness, the Germans even exposed their frighteningly cavalier attitude towards combat to the international community when, in thesis grade cv November 1913, King Albert of Belgium met with Wilhelm in Berlin. The Belgian military attache reported that the Kaiser talked of marching on Paris while Moltke spewed similar bellicosities about the likelihood of an impending war with France. [53] Even in the first half of crusaders, 1914, a peaceful time when conflict seemed less likely than it had in the past, men like Moltke and Generals Alfred von Waldersee and Alfred von Schlieffen still insisted war would prove unavoidable. [54] Moltke and Bethmann-Hollweg believed that if fighting must break out, it was imperative that it be before French and Russian military expansion in one or two years’ time. [55] Waldersee even wrote in his personal journals that though Germany had no reason to fear any imminent attacks, they had equally little reason to avoid war, as their success seemed probable. [56]

Some historians have nonetheless chosen to focus on systems, rather than these types of statements from psy 3315 mansfield, individuals. The shift in historiographical thinking in crusaders termpaper the 1930s, coupled with the rise of Marxism, also led to a more literal Marxist interpretation of the Great War—a view in which gluttonous capitalism and competitive imperialism were to essays on morocco, blame for hostilities. [57] This school had early origins with Lenin’s pamphlet “Imperialism: The Highest Stage of Capitalism” in 1916. Crusaders Termpaper! Lenin states that “under capitalism the white home market is termpaper, inevitably bound up with the foreign market” and because the capitalistic countries of the world had already seized and divided up all unoccupied territory by the turn of the twentieth century, only thesis grade cv redistribution, and therefore conflict, was possible. He also expresses his own perspective on termpaper the nascent historiography extant at econometrics paper the time of his work’s publication: “bourgeois scholars,” writes Lenin, were defending imperialism “in veiled forms” as they fumbled with “partial and secondary details,” ignoring the real crux of the issue. [58] Lenin laid the groundwork for a less widely-accepted way of thinking, but one that continued to appear periodically in WWI historiography. Some researchers investigating the origins of the crusaders First World War went so far as to say that the private sector—businessmen and manufacturing companies—encouraged governments to declare war, hoping to profit from the lucrative armaments market.

One German historian, Willibald Gutsche, rationalizes WWI as the work of greedy steel and mining companies, large banks, engineers and or trade in pakistan, shipping firms. [59] Left-wing British politician, Konni Zilliacus, makes the claim in his Mirror of the Past: A History of Secret Diplomacy (1946) that the plutocracy financed organizations like Navy, Air and Empire Leagues, Colonial Societies, and crusaders termpaper, British capitalist parties, which lobbied successfully for imperialism, protectionism and armaments. Zilliacus also asserts that each country was “defending its imperial interests” and, in a sense, fought a preventative war, attempting to preemptively restrain other powers from achieving economic dominance on the continent. [60] Similarly focused on imperialism, historian Eric Hobsbawm’s Age of Empire , published in 1987, scrutinizes the econometrics term pre-war fixation with competition and formal conquest. He concedes that the Marxist interpretation is crusaders, not a complete explanation, but believes that “the development of capitalism inevitably pushed the world in the direction of state rivalry, imperialistic expansion, conflict, and war” and hurried along the “uncontrolled slide” into catastrophe. Thesis Grade Cv! [61] Although, as historian Roland Stromberg observes, the idea that capitalism was at the root of WWI is “as old as the war itself,” this thesis is far from an answer to crusaders, the war-guilt question. [62] The biggest problem with this rationale is that Anglo-German trade had seen dramatic increases between 1904 and 1914. During this time, Great Britain was Germany’s best customer, and thesis grade cv, Germany was Great Britain’s second largest export market. [63] The overwhelming belief in London in crusaders the twentieth century was that war would induce economic chaos, not prosperity, and possibly even political dissent from the left. World! A motion put before the House of Commons in crusaders termpaper April 1897 had called attention to inadequate food production in England, leaving the nation’s leaders wary of the fiscal implications of fighting or blockade up until and throughout the war. [64] Furthermore, the most outspoken German advocates of war, like the Pan-German League and Parti Colonial were comprised of mostly teachers and essay on aid or trade, intellectuals who had virtually no connection to big business. [65] Capitalism did have its effect on world events in that the imperialism it helped, in part, to inspire was a major source of crusaders, tension and one of the chief catalysts in suggestions triggering confrontation. Countries like China, Morocco and Egypt became highly sought-after prizes and diplomatic battlegrounds as each country pursued its own goals of crusaders termpaper, economic expansion and worldwide prestige. As colonies and foreign markets were divided up among the powers, conflict naturally ensued and the world changed: according to historian Joachim Remak, had it not been for pressures and disagreements in Africa and Asia, British Foreign Secretary Lord Lansdowne would not have considered abandoning non-alignment when he came to power in on aid or trade 1900 or felt it necessary to termpaper, negotiate a defensive agreement with the French—the Entente Cordiale—In 1904 . [66] It was German imperialism, though, and German foreign policy that did the on morocco most irreversible damage.

Not unified until 1871, Germany had to organize and industrialize rapidly to crusaders termpaper, stay on mansfield par with the rest of the top nations of the world. Crusaders! It did not acquire many useful colonies—Germany had come late to the imperialistic party—and always felt left behind and world war 1 essay, inadequate as a world power. [67] When the country was ready to embrace overseas expansion, most of the world’s valuable possessions had already been claimed. Ironically, as historian Zara Steiner states: “It was the British example which provided both the impulse and crusaders, the obstacle to German expansion.” [68] The Second Reich’s leaders in 1890 did not heed the words of essays on morocco, their former Chancellor, Otto von Bismarck, that Germany was in fact a territorially satiated nation. [69] Instead, they adopted a bizarre foreign policy and crusaders, embarked on ever-changing, ambiguous goals of arbitrary imperialism. Great Britain was never against econometrics, legitimate German efforts to expand. Grey was only termpaper concerned about paper suggestions British possessions, not, for instance, German efforts to secure ports and coaling stations, penetration of Sweden, Denmark and Holland, or work on the Berlin-Baghdad Railroad. Termpaper! [70] Writing in a memorandum, British diplomat Sir Eyre Crowe acknowledges that his nation should not deter peaceful and legitimate German expansion. In the same document, however, Crowe describes Teutonic expansion as vague and unpredictable, instilling in him a genuine fear that Germany may be more forceful in paper further attempts to assert itself to the rest of termpaper, Europe. [71] It was not the idea of psy 3315 coursework mansfield, German imperialism per se that led to a hostile Europe, but rather the way in which its policies were carried out. Great Britain was left constantly guessing at the Germans’ actual aims, leading the British to misconstrue their motives. As Remak states, with an expanding industry, Germany had the right to seek out markets and natural resources, but so often its foreign policy defied “rational explanation” and was just “action for action’s sake.” [72]

Historian Richard Hamilton characterizes Wilhelmine imperialism along the lines of “bullying tactics.” In 1894 alone, Germany instigated arguments over termpaper Samoa, the Congo, the psy 3315 Sudan, Morocco, Turkey, and Portugal’s African colonies. “The tactics,” Hamilton says, “were unpleasant and the apparent lack of motive confused and annoyed the British without producing any serious gain for Germany.” [73] The effects of this alienating, alarming and seemingly random foreign policy became most apparent during the Moroccan Crises, as indiscriminate attempts to weaken Anglo-French relations only resulted in further German isolation. Crusaders! [74] In March 1905, the Kaiser landed in essays on morocco Tangier, Morocco and publicly announced his support for its independence. He then asked for an international conference to vote for an open door policy and crusaders, prohibit the cause war 1 essay French’s exclusive influence in the northwest African country. Despite France’s willingness to compromise (the influential anti-German diplomat, Theophile Delcasee, was dismissed and a part of Morocco was offered to Germany), the Wilhelmine government insisted on staging the conference, which convened in Algeciras in 1906. Remak describes the British as “disturbed” by the “German bullying” and when a vote was finally taken, only Austria-Hungary sided with Germany. [75] The incident at Tangier not only intensified the growing British suspicions of the Second Reich, but the initial capitulation of the French exposed Paris’s weakness, and London’s need to crusaders termpaper, protect its fellow Entente member. The Anglo-French relationship became stronger than ever before. [76] While no binding agreements were reached, the Moroccan Crisis sparked informal military discussions between the on morocco French and crusaders termpaper, the British about theoretical army sizes and coordinated strategies. [77] In 1911, there was a native revolt in Morocco, which warranted French military intervention.

The Germans, in a theatrical attempt to thesis grade cv, remind the French that Morocco was still nominally independent, yet ostensibly to protect German citizens in South Morocco (in true clandestine and unintelligible German fashion, the crusaders foreign ministry only used this excuse well after the event), sent a gunboat, the Panther , to Agadir during the crisis. [78] Germany had no real designs in Morocco. There were no hopes for gaining territory or any need to defend its commercial interests there. The Germans were simply motivated by misguided efforts to thesis grade cv, cultivate prestige and weaken British and crusaders termpaper, French relations. [79] In fact, although Germany intended to force France into negotiations, the Germans were in on morocco Morocco for an entire month before they decided what it was that they were demanding. Eventually, 100,000 square miles of territory in termpaper Central Africa was given to Germany in exchange for its recognition of a French protectorate over psy 3315 Morocco. [80] For such little actual gain, the Germans suffered significant diplomatic losses in the Agadir Crisis: the Anglo-French Entente grew stronger once again due to the growing mistrust in their mutual enemy and European leaders felt increasingly certain that they would never be able to understand or predict Germany’s opaque foreign policy. [81] Yet in the 1930s, WWI historiography’s early years of dissecting imperialism, many believed that colonization in general, not one country’s actions, generated enough conflict and crusaders, competition to precipitate war. As shared responsibility remained the econometrics term paper suggestions consensus among the scholarly community continuing into the 1940s, and Europe was distracted by the plunge into another world war, the once loud and heated debate fell nearly silent. Overshadowed by the horrors of WWII and crusaders, with a sense that the question had been answered, the war-guilt discussion lay dormant for many years. Nowhere in the world was there more unanimity about the war’s origins than in Germany.

The Weimar Republic’s innocence campaign had been so successful and so pervasive that German historians followed suit, becoming increasingly entrenched in their views and unapologetic in their defense of the Second Reich. Essay! Moreover, in crusaders termpaper the time of the Third Reich, those who voiced their support of the term Versailles verdict risked losing their jobs. Crusaders! Hitler put a stop to all WWI inquiry, fearing his regime might be undermined or eclipsed by memories of the thesis grade cv Kaiserreich . In the 1940s and 1950s, Germans continued to believe that their country held no–or at worst–secondary blame for WWI. [82] It was in this environment that historian Fritz Fischer published Griff nach der Weltmacht in West Germany in termpaper 1961. His book, eventually translated into white paper term origin English as Germany’s Aims in the First World War , though claiming to be “neither an indictment nor a defense,” implicated the Germans as being chiefly responsible for the war’s outbreak. Fischer describes Germany as unrelenting in its quest for world power, a navy comparable to England’s, a central European customs union and termpaper, an opportunity to overturn the colonial status quo.

The controversial historian argues that the Second Reich’s war-time goals and campaigns for thesis grade cv, dominance and annexation as laid out by Bethmann-Hollweg’s Septemberprogramme— German plans created in the first few weeks of WWI — were not a matter of opportunity, but a continuation of fully-formed ambitions discussed well before fighting began. Crusaders Termpaper! As early as 1912, he contends, Rathenau had completed plans for a Central European customs union, approved by essay on aid in pakistan Bethmann-Hollweg. Before the war, the German chancellor was concerned about crusaders Russia’s abundant natural resources and manpower and term paper, believed France to be a chief obstacle that needed to be eliminated. Germany, Fischer maintains, encouraged Austria-Hungary to confront Serbia in 1914. The Second Reich did so with “eyes wide open,” knowing that Russia would never let the dual monarchy “act in the Balkans unopposed” and that a general war was not only possible, but likely. Crusaders! [83]

The book sparked a furious backlash. In the introduction to a later, translated version, historian James Joll describes the work as being at “the centre of one of the cause war 1 most violent academic controversies,” reigniting the debate over a question thought to be long answered in West Germany. Crusaders Termpaper! [84] Internationally, Fischer did not present an entirely new view on the issue (his work agreed, in large part, with the popular and widely accepted scholarship of Albertini and Taylor), but domestically, it was a scandal. In an world, almost blasphemous betrayal of the patriotic self-censorship that had evolved as German tradition, Fischer became the first major West German historian to denounce his country as the crusaders termpaper principal instigator of WWI. These findings had serious implications. As Joll states: “One can understand why those Germans who are willing to accept Hitler’s responsibility for the Second World War and even, to some extent, Germany’s responsibility for thesis grade cv, Hitler, find it hard to reopen the whole question of war guilt in termpaper the First World War.” [85] If Prussian militarism was responsible for the entire twentieth century, Hitler was not the anomaly. As a result, Fischer and his “Hamburg School” of followers suffered personal attacks. Fischer was impugned by some as being supported by East Germany, a government striving to discredit its predecessors. [86] West German historian Wolfgang J. Mommsen wrote “The Debate on German War Aims” in term direct response to Fischer, criticizing him for exaggerating evidence and crusaders, ignoring context and the circumstances in which decisions were made. [87] Gerhard Ritter, known at white paper the time as the “dean of crusaders termpaper, German historians,” called Fischer an “old Nazi” and accused him in 1964 at the Congress of the German Historical Association in West Berlin of fabricating sources.

In that same year, the West German government cancelled funding for Fischer’s U.S. tour. [88] Ritter continued to be Fischer’s fiercest critic. In his work, he accuses Fischer of essays, taking politicians’ words out of context and crusaders, confusing nationalist, patriotic rhetoric for actual political intentions. [89] He criticizes Germany’s Aims as being too exaggerated in its depiction of a unique German preoccupation with world power and thesis grade cv, makes the case that other nations harbored expansionist strategies too. Termpaper! [90] Ritter believes that only the Second Reich’s generals pushed for annexation. He stands firm with the West German status quo that had developed up until the time of Fischer’s scholarship, depicting the army and the civilian government as having very different agendas, defending the chancellor and ascribing all notions of aggression to the armed forces. [91] Fischer’s disciples include historians like Dirk Stegmann, Barbara Vogel and Peter Christian Witt who went on to expand his theory. [92] The most outspoken defender of Fischer’s thesis was his student, Imanuel Geiss, a professor of modern history at the University of Breman. In his work, Geiss disputes what he sees as the illusion of encirclement, describing the two bloc alliances as springing mostly from German militarism and coursework mansfield, bad policy in their quest for power. [93] He believes that, in the time leading up to the events of crusaders termpaper, 1914, the white paper term German empire constituted the biggest threat to peace. Termpaper! Germany’s world policy, he maintains, “made war inevitable,” while its pact with Austria-Hungary and Italy was quickly transformed from a defensive agreement to a “basis for German ambitions as a fledgling world power.” [94] As the thesis grade cv Fischerite point of view gained more traction around the world and crusaders, its stigma in West Germany began to world, erode, the position inspired further theories of a German preemptive strike or an termpaper, especially aggressive Second Reich bent on world domination—ideas that have occasionally appeared in WWI historiography ever since.

Historian John C. G. White Paper Origin! Rohl believes that Germans were in termpaper fact trying to establish hegemony on the continent and thesis grade cv, that the Kaiser and his staff saw the controversy in crusaders July 1914 as a “golden opportunity” to or trade, fight the Franco-Russians. [95] In the legacy of Fischer, historian Jerzy Marczewski argues that Wilhelmine policy was nothing short of “maximum expansion,” while historian David Fromkin believes that Moltke and German General Erich von Falkenhayn seized control from the Austro-Hungarians during the Serbian crisis and crafted the preventative war they had always wanted. [96] Fischer’s treatise reignited an important dialogue and appropriately refocused scrutiny on crusaders termpaper the most deserving country, but did so through an over-extended, problematic philosophy. Germany was chiefly responsible for WWI; it was the most seemingly aggressive nation in the years leading up to war. The Germans should be held responsible, though, not for their assertive, defined goals, but their lack thereof. After Bismarck’s dismissal in 1890, German foreign policy and government decision-making took a dangerous turn.

His less cautious and less able successors abandoned his complex, well-structured plans for a poorly executed, haphazard pursuit of status and prestige. [97] While Germany’s policies were without a doubt the or trade in pakistan most alarming and troublesome of crusaders termpaper, that of all the powers, they were not the foundation of a bid for world domination, but were, rather, a result of the cause world essay government’s unclear aims and inability to navigate the European system. After 1890, Margaret MacMillan asserts, there was a degree of “indifference” in German foreign policy as leaders allowed their country to “drift” further into dependency upon the Triple Alliance. [98] Even within that relationship, Germany caused tension and confusion. Vienna was fearful of Germany’s inconsistent policies and termpaper, their overtly aggressive propaganda and naval armaments. [99] Austria-Hungary was not even sure whether it could regularly count on the support of econometrics paper suggestions, its much stronger ally. In November 1912, at his hunting lodge, the Kaiser personally promised Austrian Archduke Franz Ferdinand outright support in the First Balkan War (1912-1913), but as conflict broke out, Berlin eventually worked to restrain Vienna and cooperated with Britain in crusaders maintaining peace and undermining its partner. [100] Germany never had concrete plans to exploit tensions between the two blocs of powers and, in fact, even confused and alienated its own ally. The Second Reich maintained bizarre relationships with the other powers as well. The post-Bismarck era was marked by increasing British and French uncertainty of their Teutonic neighbors and their aims, which, as Paul Kennedy notes, “looked ambitious and dangerous” because they were so often unclear. [101] In 1898, the Germans rejected British statesman Joseph Chamberlain’s offer for a defensive alliance with the British, fearing that an on morocco, agreement of that kind would dash the hopes for good relations with the Russians. [102] Just a few years later, however, in 1901, Germany changed its strategy, aspiring to crusaders termpaper, ally itself with Great Britain and, accordingly, was hesitant to commit to supporting the French in Morocco. Nevertheless, in their usual desultory fashion, the Germans never reached out to the British to initiate any cooperation over the course of the white term six months following their rejection of the French. Termpaper! In the meantime, France, apprehensive from the failure to come to an agreement with Germany, began looking to the British for support. [103] It was Germany’s wandering policy, not a well-designed scheme that set the country on the path towards isolation. The Kaiser’s personal attempts to cultivate alliances or control foreign policy often exacerbated the essay situation for crusaders termpaper, the Germans. In 1905, while cruising together on the Baltic, Wilhelm convinced the Tsar of Russia, Nicholas II, to sign an on morocco, impromptu defensive treaty, effectively neutralizing Russia’s treaty with France. Afterwards, both governments were outraged at the actions of their respective heads of state and the agreement was immediately annulled, but the close call did have lasting effects for Germany.

Great Britain, which was already intrigued by the Franco-Russian alliance, grew suspicious of the inscrutable, underhanded game Germany seemed to be playing and reevaluated its relationship with Russia, concluding that it may need further security in the face of the termpaper Teutonic menace. Once again, it was mere German clumsiness that repelled other nations. During his rule, the Kaiser often alienated the international community. His erratic and unstable personality was worrisome to other nations; Europe’s leaders were unsure whether or not to take him at his word in his calls for German dominance and belligerence. Wilhelm’s bellicose speeches, bold correspondences and angry marginalia became infamous, as historian Max Hastings sardonically suggests, “the exclamation mark was his favoured instrument of paper, policy-making.” [104] The German emperor’s intentions were often ridiculous and crusaders termpaper, ephemeral (for a brief period he wanted to create a South American “New Germany” and encourage colonization in and migration to Brazil), but had little effect on actual policy. [105] While the country and the Kaiser’s ostensible aggression had a direct role in both bringing the Triple Entente closer together and on aid in pakistan, creating tension between the two opposing blocs, Wilhelm was not the termpaper mastermind behind a designed crusade for hegemony.

Even the paper term aggressive rhetoric recklessly thrown around by the Kaiser and his government was just that—rhetoric—and not an expression of tangible objectives. The principle of Weltpolitik , or world policy, perpetuated by Bulow and other leaders, included vague notions of termpaper, German expansionism and a dedication to finding its imperial “place in the sun.” This was inherently problematic—most land was either taken or, as in China, highly contentious. [106] As the Second Reich promoted propaganda and commissioned endless speeches constructed around Weltpolitik and the German call for ascendancy, neighboring powers naturally grew concerned. Great Britain in particular knew that its empire was the thesis grade cv greatest obstacle to German expansion and feared that a more autocratic state like Germany could transform grandiloquence into action overnight. [107] While Weltpolitik was a major contributor to the formation of a hostile Europe, it was not the basis of a German attempt at world domination. The policy, first of all, was impossible to define. Bulow never publicly expressed any of its actual aims. [108] Even within the government there was confusion. Waldersee wrote in his journal: “We are supposed to pursue Weltpolitik. If I only knew what that was supposed to be.” [109] MacMillan describes the oscillating foreign policy of Germany between 1890 and 1897 as “incoherent.” In 1894 Leo von Caprivi, chancellor at the time, told the German ambassador to London that the Solomon Islands were a crucially important imperialistic target, yet within two months, Berlin lost all interest there. [110] The German world policy never resulted in many actual gains.

Its practical achievements after 1897 included only the modest acquisition of the Caroline Island and a segment of crusaders termpaper, Samoa. [111] With its forceful rhetoric, aggressive speeches, and Weltpolitik, the on morocco German government postured itself as a threat to crusaders termpaper, peace, seriously alarming the major powers and psy 3315 mansfield, isolating the Second Reich. Termpaper! This heavy-handed approach had a direct effect on paper term origin Europe at large, and crusaders termpaper, set the stage for war in 1914. German stratagem remained at essays its core, however, illogical, indefinable, and crusaders termpaper, without conscious design. Among the scholars involved in the historiographical debate, many came to econometrics paper suggestions, see this point of view, questioning the extremism of Fischer’s thesis, while some still took a strong stance in his defense. Others were inspired by his work to termpaper, explore new ways of thinking about WWI. One particular offshoot, the “domestic crisis school,” argues that local, not global politics, was at the center of the war’s outbreak. [112] The work of West German historian Eckart Kehr (a contemporary of paper origin, Fischer whose ideas were actually published before Germany’s Aims ) became increasingly popular in the midst of the Fischer controversy, and his theory of der primat der innenpolitik , or the primacy of domestic politics, offered a new perspective. Kehr contends that solely considering diplomacy is not a thorough enough investigation. He argues that the Second Reich was chiefly responsible in starting the First World War, but only in crusaders termpaper that the state’s foreign policy was “a means to their domestic ends.” Essentially, much of Germany’s pre-war decisions were conservatives’ attempts to econometrics term paper, quell the social conflicts that arose in the 1890s and preserve patriarchal, agrarian capitalism. Kehr notes that the German agrarian elites originally rejected the termpaper building of a naval fleet in 1890, but came to embrace the idea at the turn of the century in world essay the spirit of Anglo opposition because the British—an industrialized power—victory over the Boers—an agrarian society—represented a blow to their traditional position of power. [113] Arno Mayer, a historian from Princeton University, takes the argument even further, claiming that because of internal turmoil, German policymakers were especially willing to engage in violence in 1914; their fear of revolution trumped their fear of combat. [114] In essence, the Second Reich fought a counter-revolutionary, diversionary war. [115] Historian Michael Gordon, writing in 2014, agrees that a sole focus on foreign policy is insufficient in understanding the crusaders termpaper First World War.

He describes the elites of the Wilhelmine era as living in an “anxiety-ridden condition,” disturbed by the societal vicissitudes that accompanied Germany’s budding modernism and or trade, remarkably quick industrialization. Inevitably, Gordon believes, this uneasiness informed subsequent government decision-making. [116] While the fear of social upheaval in pre-war Germany may have been very real, any organized attempts to crusaders termpaper, combat the issue or divert attention from in pakistan, it were not. The labor strikes that occurred in Germany and elites’ trepidation over a new, more progressive lower class were not unique problems, but ones that the Second Reich was especially ill equipped to manage. Their unreliable political system included a federal parliament, the termpaper Reichstag , which maintained the power to term, approve the national budget and a federal council, the Bundesrat , which oversaw foreign affairs and the army and termpaper, navy. The council never amassed much power. In Bismarck’s time, he designated himself not only Chancellor, but Prussian Minister-President and Foreign Minister, running foreign affairs out of the Prussian Foreign Ministry. With such broad control, when Bismarck was gone, it became unclear where responsibility and final authority lay. In this atmosphere, the Reichstag often tried to establish some sort of control and influence government policy by withholding approval of budgets, resulting in world war 1 devastating political paralysis in times of crisis. Crusaders! [117] Social uproar shed light on the inefficiency of the essays on morocco German system, but did not inspire notions of using war as a distraction. Crusaders Termpaper! In fact, Bethmann-Hollweg believed that this environment made war even riskier—defeat could open the door to revolution. [118]

The internal distress of the Second Reich was more of an indirect cause of WWI. Dissent led Germany to adopt certain policies that helped to on aid or trade, create an environment hospitable to crusaders, war in essays 1914. Just as Volker Berghahn, a historian who wrote on Germany’s domestic situation, argues, internal and external factors are interdependent. [119] In the late nineteenth century Bulow, the Kaiser and conservative advisors adopted a policy of Sammlungspolitik —a program dedicated to galvanizing nationalist support and crusaders, undermining socialism through, in essay part, an active foreign policy. Bulow once revealed that the Germans had taken Samoa, knowing it to be of no use, solely in hopes of inspiring pride and patriotic fervor at home. [120] Sammlungspolitik also involved state-sponsored propaganda. There were films, pamphlets, battleship launches and public ceremonies celebrating the crusaders termpaper fortitude of coursework, Germany.

Even naval armament, to some extent, had its origins in the quest to quell social unrest. Admiral Alfred von Tirpitz and crusaders termpaper, other officials believed the thesis grade cv expansion of the navy could inspire German prestige and develop as a project for citizens to rally behind. [121] However, this ostentatious bellicosity used as means of uniting Germans only worked to instill fear in the rest of the world. [122] Throughout the historiography of the war, the tense relationship between Great Britain and Germany—one exacerbated by the naval race—has been examined endlessly, yielding various hypotheses about how competition between the two nations was allowed to escalate into armed conflict. A viable, but less popular view, defended wholeheartedly by Ferguson in crusaders termpaper 1999 in The Pity of War , contends that London, not Berlin, was at the center of the sour relations. The author claims that any chance at Anglo-German cooperation broke down, not due to Germany’s strength or aggression, but as a byproduct, in fact, of its weakness: Britain felt it needed to appeal to stronger allies like Russia, France, or the United States, even if it meant marginalizing others. There is no doubt that Germany was outpacing Britain and France economically and industrially, Ferguson admits, but it was not beating them financially. By 1913, Britain had accumulated 3.9 billion pounds of foreign assets, while France had about half as much, and Germany only a quarter. Psy 3315 Coursework! [123] The historian also argues that Grey and his government were constantly overestimating the belligerence of the Second Reich, wrongly accusing them of Napoleonic schemes.

The threat posed by the German navy, for example, was exaggerated. In 1912, Germany had nine dreadnoughts to the British’s fifteen; at the start of war, the Entente had forty-three warships, while the Central Powers had only twenty. As other historians and defenders of the Second Reich often point out, Tirpitz’s plan for naval armaments were never connected to termpaper, any specific offensive campaigns. On Morocco! [124] Although Germany never formulated explicit plans for the navy, the program remained the most incendiary element of termpaper, Anglo-German relations. Coursework! Even a historian like Keegan, who tends to lay blame on abstract concepts, like diplomacy and termpaper, rivalry, admits that the worst rivalry of all was the one actively provoked by thesis grade cv the Germans when they decided to embark on building a fleet comparable to the best in the world—the British navy. [125] Although the British always maintained their naval supremacy, the German fleet was still a direct threat to crusaders termpaper, Britain, a country whose defense and coursework mansfield, security was based on the water. It was also a country that relied heavily on imports: Britain imported seven-eighths of crusaders termpaper, its raw materials (excluding coal) and half of its food supply. [126] An enemy blockade would be devastating. In addition, an agreement between Grey and French diplomat Paul Cambon specified that the French fleet protect all Entente interests in the Mediterranean while the British fleet protect the origin Channel. Therefore, Germany’s more realistic goal of building a navy as strong as France’s had huge implications for crusaders, the British as well. [127] Germany already maintained the biggest army of the on morocco twentieth century. Naval expansion, then, was an especially antagonistic, alarming practice as Britain and the other major countries worried that too much power would be concentrated in the hands of one nation. [128] Like much of Germany’s inexplicable policy, naval development was also seemingly unnecessary.

Tirpitz and crusaders termpaper, Bulow made claims that a fleet would benefit the Germans’ colonial exploits, and yet there was very little economic significance to their colonies after 1897. [129] As Geiss writes: some politicians in Britain were “disturbed and even frightened by the menace of the German fleet, of econometrics paper suggestions, Germany’s vague, ill-defined demands, her pretensions and the ostentatious display of her military and naval power.” [130] Unable to crusaders, discern the actual motivations behind the fleet, Great Britain and the rest of Europe often assumed the worst. The British were effectively alienated once again as a result of another German diplomatic blunder in January 1896. The incident—known today as the Kruger Telegram—involved a congratulatory message from the Kaiser to Paul Kruger, the president of the on morocco South African Republic, commending his work in repelling British invasion. Regarding Great Britain’s efforts in South Africa, most powers were in crusaders fact privately in support of Kruger, but were prudent enough to remain publicly neutral. White Term! [131] As Remak states: “the Germans did not even possess enough good sense to avoid policies that were bound to create friction…with Great Britain.” [132] Limited by their own tunnel vision, Germans remained seemingly blind to the realities of the world and unwittingly agitated the British with their unnecessary and unwise policies. Beyond the historical investigation of prewar Britain, much of the termpaper literature on the Great War’s origins also seeks to thesis grade cv, explain the termpaper nature of Franco-Russian tension with Germany. In the tradition of revisionists like Barnes, some recent scholarship still maintains Russia and essay or trade, France were motivated in going to crusaders termpaper, war, or at psy 3315 mansfield least in entering into crusaders their surprising and paper term origin, provocative alliance, because of their respective hopes of claiming the highly sought-after Straights and to recover the lost provinces of Alsace and Lorraine. [133] In other words, the partnership was based on expansion and revenge. Termpaper! In his 2011 book, The Russian Origins of the First World War , historian Sean McMeekin argues in this same vein, claiming that much of Russia’s foreign policy was centered on finding a warm water port and a fear that an improving Turkish army would make that objective difficult. Cause War 1 Essay! He argues that the historiography focuses more on Germany’s war aims only because its army’s early success provided the opportunity for leaders to consider expansion and more aggressive ambitions. If a battle like Tannenberg had had a different outcome, more historians would be debating Russia’s bellicosity. [134]

There is crusaders termpaper, very little evidence that either France or Russia designed a war for essays on morocco, expansion. French revanche has been dispelled by recent scholarship as a myth, and though a thorn in the side of crusaders termpaper, France, lost territory was far from a reason to risk world war. In fact, Alsace-Lorraine was a profitable center for the nations on essays on morocco either side as it served as the crusaders termpaper nexus between the very successful Franco-German banks and essay on aid or trade, industry. [135] In 1914, the Tsar and the Russian government had even less reason to provoke conflict, knowing that their country would be much better prepared in two years time upon the completion of their military plans and termpaper, armaments production. [136] The Franco-Russians cannot be considered blameless—their decision alone to ally with one another was antagonizing, turning German fears of encirclement into a reality. Their partnership, however, did not inspire, but rather was a result of a mutual distrust of Berlin and its strange policies and disturbing rhetoric. [137] In fact, it was the same strange German policy that directly led to its enemies’ union.

As historian George F. Kennan writes in essay on aid or trade in pakistan The Fateful Alliance , “the decline of the crusaders special Russo-German relationship was the prerequisite for the establishment of any significant political and military intimacy between Russia and essay on aid, France.” [138] When in 1890 the Tsar made an offer to termpaper, the Kaiser to thesis grade cv, renew the Reinsurance Treaty (an agreement designed by crusaders Bismarck three years earlier in which both nations consented to remain neutral if the other were to end up at war), the paper suggestions Germans rejected the Russian proposal, worried it may contradict their arrangement with Austria-Hungary. None of Bismarck’s successors had his propensity for judiciously maintaining foreign relations and skillfully fitting the country’s agreements and treaties neatly together. As a result, the Russians, fearing isolation, turned to the French, while the Germans became intrinsically more reliant on their only viable ally—Austria-Hungary. [139] More often than the Franco-Russians, the Austro-Hungarians have been cited as the principal instigator of WWI due to termpaper, their provocative ultimatum to Serbia on July 23, 1914. Landlocked Serbs wanted to expand, access more markets, and encourage subversion in the multi-cultural Austria-Hungary. [140] Their country, due to the Balkan Wars of 1912 and 1913, increased in size by econometrics paper suggestions 80 percent, while the dual monarchy was left in termpaper a very precarious position as a world power. [141] It was no secret then that Austria-Hungary was looking to war 1, absorb its chief rival and termpaper, biggest threat, Serbia, and that its chief of staff of the armed forces, Franz Conrad von Hotzendorf, was a zealous hawk who had been agitating for thesis grade cv, action against the Serbs since 1906. [142] Historian Max Hastings is among many who reserve harsh judgment for the Austro-Hungarians, criticizing their desperation to become a more formidable world power and crusaders termpaper, the speed with which their military leader’s impulse turned violent. Between January 1, 1913 and June 1, 1914, Hastings notes in white his book Catastrophe 1914: Europe Goes to War, Conrad asked his government for war a total of twenty-six times. [143] Austria-Hungary should bear secondary blame for the war. Its failure to act swiftly and decisively following the assassination of the crusaders termpaper Archduke Ferdinand on June 28, 1914 opened a window of opportunity for controversy and allowed events to econometrics term paper suggestions, escalate into crusaders termpaper chaos. The international community was initially sympathetic to the nation whose heir to the throne had just been murdered and had always considered Serbia an inherently violent and backward place.

If the dual monarchy had taken immediate, punitive action, there likely would have been no opposition. Thesis Grade Cv! It was Austria-Hungary’s decision to wait nearly a month (which incited fears that the Central Powers were planning a much larger war) and include its more powerful allies in a situation unrelated to them that led to termpaper, the outbreak of general conflict. [144] If Austria-Hungary should be held accountable for mishandling the events of July, the Germans should be afforded as much blame in the blind support of their inept ally. After the assassination, the Second Reich acted according to its typical reflexive and impetuous behavior. On July 5, 1914, Austria-Hungary’s foreign minister, Count Leopold Berchtold, sent Alexander Hoyos, his chief of staff, to Berlin to arrange a meeting between the Austro-Hungarian ambassador to Germany, Laszlo Szogyeny, and Wilhelm II to see what role the Germans were willing to play in the dual monarchy’s plans for war 1, action. Crusaders Termpaper! Despite confessing the term need for final confirmation from his chancellor, the Kaiser ultimately offered his nation’s support. By July 6, Bethmann-Hollweg had also sent the allies word of his agreeing to whatever aid the country requested in its strike against Serbia. This unwavering promise of support came to be known by historians as the “blank check.” The blank check, issued casually and without much consideration of the devastating alliance mechanism it could initiate, was vital in Austria-Hungary’s decision to take action. The question of German support had been on every leader’s mind since the commencement of crusaders, discussions of econometrics term, revenge. [145] The Austro-Hungarians, militarily and economically relatively weak, and crusaders, certainly isolated without the essays on morocco help of Germany, would have been far less likely to engage in conflict without the help of their ally. In fact, their monarch, Franz Joseph, refused to sign off on war until he was assured of German support. Termpaper! [146]

This blind faith—a pledge of support without hesitancy or reflection—was typical of the Second Reich, always plunging into cause world the tides of crusaders termpaper, conflict without sticking a toe in the water first. The issuing of the blank check was only the grand finale in white paper term origin a series of crusaders, German indiscretions and careless decision-making. The famous Prussian efficiency of the army never carried over into the civilian government in the forms of essays on morocco, diplomacy or foreign policy, as German leaders, with vague dreams of success, always seemed to have their hand in twice as many matters as the termpaper rest of the world, but with only half the results. The Germans’ reassurance to paper, Austria-Hungary, a country which holds secondary responsibility for its direct role in precipitating conflict, was the tipping point in a world disposed toward war—a world created, in large part, inadvertently by Germany. The Triple Entente is crusaders termpaper, not blameless in the events leading up to WWI. Essays! The British, the French and the Russians all participated in the same arms race and crusaders termpaper, secret diplomacy that made Europe such a powder keg in the late nineteenth and term paper, early twentieth centuries. Crusaders! They were quick to essay, grow suspicious and often acted on crusaders fears grounded in an overestimation of German belligerence. At the root of many of the Entente nations’ decisions, however, was German recklessness. Nevertheless, the essays Second Reich never forged concrete plans to spark a world war. Like so many of its gestures, the termpaper call to fight or desire to prove themselves was mostly rhetoric, uttered without thinking and without intention. Even the clearest expression of belligerence communicated by cause war 1 the men in Berlin on December 8, 1912, though alarming and proof of a unique German perspective, never resulted in the actual war preparations that were discussed.

It was Germany’s clumsy attempts to flourish, not devious, calculated plans that led to war. Encumbered with domestic turmoil, and suffering a sense of inadequacy on crusaders the continent, Germany’s policies unraveled in confusion and isolation after Bismarck’s dismissal in essay or trade in pakistan 1890. Patriotic, truculent propaganda and the insistence on developing a world-class navy were intended to serve the crusaders termpaper German people in their time of disunion, but only war 1 managed to inflame the international community. The Kaiser, prone to his fits of rage and his perpetually changing plans; Weltpolitik with its menacing bombast; and Germany’s seemingly arbitrary, antagonistic foreign policy (including the Moroccan Crises and the rejection of the Reinsurance Treaty), culminated in an anxiety-ridden Europe and an estranged two-bloc system. This Europe, crafted unskillfully by termpaper Teutonic leaders, was poised perfectly for war in July 1914.

With one bullet, one pledge of support, and one ultimatum, the world that Germany had unintentionally created, spiraled into an unprecedented catastrophe. Like other nations, the Second Reich was fearful of war, but less so. Leaders and politicians, like Wilhelm and on morocco, Bethmann-Hollweg, and military men, like Schlieffen and Waldersee, often expressed belief in the war’s inevitability. Moltke’s insistence on “war the crusaders termpaper sooner the better” has now become infamous and cited innumerable times throughout the voluminous historiography of WWI. In the literature of the past century, historians have focused on quotes like these and tried to make sense of the devastation and failure to compromise in 1914. The majority place responsibility on Germany, to varying degrees, but countless other creative and cogent theories have been promulgated. Thesis Grade Cv! Nonetheless, the blame game is less about condemning those from our past and more about termpaper ensuring the brightness of our future. Econometrics Term! As the investigation continues, without a conclusion in sight, historians provide the world with an in depth dissection of termpaper, rivalry and conflict—knowledge that may give the world a better chance at fending off the demons of division, competition and violence that plagued Europe in 1914. [1] Christopher Clark, The Sleepwalkers: How Europe Went to War in 1914 (New York: Harper, 2013), xxiii. [2] Holger Afflerbach and David Stevenson, eds ., An Improbable War? The Outbreak of World War I and European Political Culture before 1914 (New York: Berghahn Books, 2007), x-xii.

[3] Annika Mombauer, The Origins of the war 1 First World War: Controversies and Consensus (London: Pearson Education Limited, 2002), 106. [4] Frederick Hale, “Fritz Fischer and the Historiography of World War One,” [6] Niall Ferguson, The Pity of War: Explaining World War I (New York: Basic Books, 2009), xxxiii; Holger Herwig, “Of Men and Myths: The Use and Abuse of History and termpaper, the Great War,” in The Great War and the Twentieth Century , ed. Econometrics Term Paper Suggestions! Jay Winter, Geoffry Parker and Mary R. Habeck (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2000), 301. [9] John W. Langdon, July 1914: The Long Debate, 1918-1990 ( Oxford: Berg Publishers Inc., 1991), 2. [12] Keith Wilson, ed., Forging the Collective Memory: Government and International Historians through Two World Wars (Providence, RI: Berghahn Books, 1996), 11-12. [14] Jay Winter and Antoine Prost, The Great War in History: Debates and Controversies 1914 to termpaper, the Present (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2005), 9. [19] Max Montgelas, “The Case for the Central Powers,” in The Outbreak of the on morocco First World War: Who Was Responsible?, ed. Crusaders! Dwight E. Lee (Boston: D. C. Heath and Company, 1963), 5. [20] Erich Brandenburg, “From Bismarck to the World War,” in Lee, 8. [22] Herman Wittgens, “Senator Owen, the Schuldreferat, and the Debate over War Guilt in the 1920s,” in Wilson, 128-129. [23] Harry Elmer Barnes, The Genesis of the World War: An Introduction to the Problem of War Guilt (New York: Howard Fertig, 1970), 46-48, 138. [24] Sidney Bradshaw Fay, “Origins of the World War,” in Lee, 16, 19. [25] Holger Herwig, “Clio Deceived: Patriotic Self-Censorship in Germany after the Great War , ” in Wilson, 105. [27] Bernadotte E. Schmitt, “The Origins of the First World War,” in Lee, 74-75.

[29] Camille Bloch, “The Causes of the World War, in Lee, 22, 25. [34] Franco-German Textbook Commission, Franco-German Agreement on Controversial Issues in European History , in Lee, 64. [36] Raymond Aron, “The Century of Total War,” in Lee, 68. [37] Barabara Tuchman, The Guns of August (New York: The Macmillan Company, 1964), 72. [38] A. J. P. Taylor, War by Timetable: How the First World War Began (New York: American Heritage, 1969), 15, 18. [39] A. J. P. Taylor, “Fritz Fischer and His School,” The Journal of Modern History 47, no.

1 (March 1975): 121, accessed August 26, 2014, http://www.jstor.org/stable/1878926. [40] David Stevenson, “The Politics of the Two Alliances,” in Winter, Parker and Habeck, 78. [41] John Keegan, The First World War (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1999), 26-28, 48. [42] Paul Kennedy, The Rise and Fall of the Great Powers (New York: Random House Inc., 1987), 199, 249, 252-254. [43] Modris Eksteins, Rites of Spring: The Great War and the Birth of the Modern Age (Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1989), 82-83. [44] Margaret MacMillan, The War that Ended Peace: The Road to 1914 ( New York: Random House, 2013), xxvi, xxxv. [45] David Stevenson, Armaments and the Coming of War: Europe 1904-1914 (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1996), 9, 15. [48] Clark, 329; Max Hastings, Catastrophe 1914: Europe Goes to War (New York: Random House LLC, 2013), 30.

[52] Michael Howard, “The First World War Reconsidered,” in Winter, Parker and Habeck, 22-23. [54] Holger Afflerbach, “The Topos of Improbable War in Europe before 1914,” in Afflerbach and Stevenson, 162-163, 167. [58] V. J. Lenin, “Imperialism: The Highest Stage of Capitalism,” (New York: International Publishers, 1982), 68, 76, 109. [60] K. Zilliacus, “Mirror of the Past: A History of Secret Diplomacy, ” in Lee, 46. [61] Eric Hobsbawm, The Age of Empire: 1875-1914 (New York: Pantheon Books, 1987), 56, 315. [62] Roland Stromberg, “ On Chercher Le Financier : Comments on the Economic Interpretations of World War I,” The History Teacher 10, no. 3 (May, 1977): 435-436, accessed July 24, 2014, http://www.jstor.org/stable/491853. [63] Zara Steiner, Britain and the Origins of the First World War (New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1977), 62.

[64] David French, “The Edwardian Crisis and the Origins of the cause world First World War,” The International History Review 4, no. 2 (May 1982): 208, 210, 216, accessed August 19, 2014, http://www.jstor.org/stable/40105199. [66] Joachim, Remak, The Origins of World War I: 1871-1914 (New York: Holt, Rhinehart, and Winston, 1967), 37. [67] Volker Rolf Berghahn, Germany and the Approach of War in termpaper 1914 (New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1973), 19-20; H.W. Koch ed., Origins of the First World War: Great Power Rivalry and German War Aims (New York: Palgrave Taplinger Publishing Co., 1972), 2. [71] Imanuel Geiss, “Origins of the First World War,” in Koch, 50. [73] Richard F. Hamilton, “The European Wars: 1815-1914,” in The Origins of World War I , ed.

Richard F. Hamilton and paper suggestions, Holger Herwig (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2003), 83. [74] Michael Ekstein, “Sir Edward Grey and Imperial Germany in 1914,” Journal of Contemporary History 6, no. 3 (1971): 123, accessed July 14, 2014, http://www.jstor.org/stable/259883. [79] David E. Kaiser, “Germany and crusaders termpaper, the Origins of the First World War,” The Journal of Modern History 55, no. 3 (September 1983): 452, accessed June 22, 2014, http://www.jstor.org/stable/1878597. [83] Fritz Fischer, Germany’s Aims in the First World War (New York: W. W. Psy 3315 Coursework Mansfield! Norton Company Inc., 1967), 8, 10-11, 28-29, 34-35, 52, 63. [84] James Joll, introduction to Fischer, xviii. [87] Wolfgang J. Crusaders! Mommsen, “The Debate on German War Aims,” in 1914: The Coming of the First World War , ed. Walter Laqueur and George L. Mosse (New York: Harper Row Publishers Inc., 1966), 54-55. [90] Klaus Epstein, “Gerhard Ritter and the First World War,” in Laqueur and Mosse, 188, 192. [93] Imanuel Geiss, “The Outbreak of the First World War and German War Aims,” in Laqueur and Mosse, 76-77.

[94] Imanuel Geiss, “Origins of the First World War,” 36-37, 45. [95] Holger H. Herwig, “Germany,” in Hamilton and Herwig, 150; John C. G. Rohl, “The Curious Case of the Kaiser’s Disappearing War Guilt: Wilhelm II in on aid July 1914,” in Afflerbach and Stevenson, 78-79. [96] Jerzy Marczewski, “German Historiography and the Problem of Germany’s Responsibility for World War I,” Polish Western Affairs 12, no. 2 (1977): 289, accessed August 26, 2014, http://proxy3.noblenet.org/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true#038;AuthType=ip#038;db=30h#038;AN=46400273#038;site=ehost-live#038;scope=site; David Fromkin, Europe’s Last Summer: Who Started the Great War in 1914? (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 2004), 290-291. [97] Michael Epkenhans, “Was a Peaceful Outcome Thinkable?: The Naval Race before 1914,” in Afflerbach and Stevenson, 116. [99] Samuel R. Williamson Jr., Austria-Hungary and the Origins of the termpaper First World War (New York: St.

Martin’s Press, 1991), 86-87, 143. [103] John F. Or Trade! V. Keiger, France and the Origins of the termpaper First World War (New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1983), 18, 21. [113] Eckart Kehr, Economic Interest, Militarism, and Foreign Policy: Essays on thesis grade cv German History , ed. Gordon A. Craig, trans. Grete Heinz (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1977), 23-24, 27. [115] Michael. R Gordon, “Domestic Conflict and termpaper, the Origins of the First World War: The British and the German Cases,” The Journal of Modern History 46, no. 2 (June 1974): 193, accessed August 1, 2014, http://www.jstor.org/stable/1877519, 193. [127] Sean McMeekin, July 1914: Countdown to War (New York: Basic Books, 2013), 72-73.

[130] Geiss, “Origins of the First World War,” 48. [134] Sean McMeekin, The Russian Origins of the essay First World War (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2011), 30-31, 77. [137] D. C. B. Lieven, Russia and the Origins of the crusaders termpaper First World War (New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1983), 27. [138] George F. Kennan, The Fateful Alliance: France, Russia, and the Coming of the econometrics paper First World War ( New York: Pantheon Books, 1984), xii.

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Crusaders termpaper

Ridiculous Things on Bikes in Vietnam: A Photo Essay. I recently spent ten days on a scooter road trip around the Mekong Delta with Dave and Stuart, similar to the one we did in crusaders Northern Thailand last year. Our time in cause war 1 the Delta was filled with rice paddies, river ferries, bad roads and, well, people carrying strange things on the back of their bikes. It began just outside of Saigon. As I was happily snapping photos of the changing scenery from the back of Dave’s bike, we found ourselves riding behind a guy carrying a door on termpaper, the back of a scooter. Essay. Yes, an actual door. I’d heard of and seen photos online of the termpaper, ridiculously enormous things that are carried around on white paper term, bikes in Southeast Asia but up until Vietnam I hadn’t actually witnessed it for myself. Over the next ten days, I set myself the challenge of trying to get a photo of termpaper, every overloaded bike we passed and paper term, had a lot of crusaders termpaper, fun sorting through them for this post. These are some of my favourites: The photo that started it all: carrying a door on the back of a scooter.

Ten minutes later, we passed something equally as large and even more surprising, I assume this is some kind of essay on aid, ladder and I especially love the fact that the driver is also driving while holding something and has his leg up in termpaper the air! And then we passed this guy, with a scooter piled high with vegetables. I have no idea how he managed to keep everything balanced while riding! This was one of my favourites! I can’t imagine this was particularly comfortable to hold on the pot-holed roads… Leaving M? Tho the following morning, I was delighted to see that the crazy carrying madness continuing on term, from the previous day. I loved seeing this guy carrying huge balls of hay on either side of a stick. And then a whole assortment of items precariously balanced on this bike! We arrived in B?n Tre and termpaper, were greeted by another one of my favourites: Santa Claus outfits for children being sold on the back of a bicycle! On the drive to psy 3315 mansfield, Tra Vinh, I couldn’t stop laughing at the ridiculous amount of bananas being carried on the back of crusaders termpaper, this bike.

And the crazy number of vegetables crammed onto this lady’s scooter. I have no idea what’s in thesis grade cv this sack, spotted on our drive to Soc Trang, but I can’t help but feel it’s a little off-balance… Of course, the crusaders, items carried on world war 1 essay, scooters aren’t just limited to crusaders, objects. On the econometrics, ride to B?c Lieu we spotted a sleeping baby being carried on the back! We left Ca Mau for crusaders R?ch Gia and soon came across this guy. I love the vibrant pink feather dusters and really long broomsticks along the side! As we neared R?ch Gia, I managed to snap a quick photo of this guy who was carrying a selection of precariously-balanced skateboards for kids. After being told it would take around four hours to get from C?n Tho to Saigon, we weren’t expecting our final day to white, take almost 12 hours! There were still plenty of crusaders, things to keep me amused though, including this smelly scooter stacked high with durian! Also seen on the drive was this scooter, carrying hundreds of psy 3315 coursework, broomsticks.

We arrived safely back in Saigon after 10 days of Mekong Madness. Crusaders Termpaper. I was glad to see there was still plenty of crazy items carried on scooters in Saigon, though here it was common to coursework mansfield, see people riding bikes stacked high with electronics. And finally, showing that the bizarre items carried are not limited to crusaders termpaper, just bikes, I present this: a water buffalo being transported along a river, spotted on our ride from R?ch Gia to C?n Tho. As we were very slowly bumping our way down yet another terrible road, it was often the crazy things on scooters that kept me amused and helped me to forget the econometrics term paper, pain shooting up and down my spine. I’m excited to announce that I’ll be returning to Saigon in a couple of months and though I won’t be embarking on any road trips, I can’t wait to spend my days attempting not to get run over by crusaders termpaper ridiculous items gliding past on two wheels. Which photo is your favourite? Next post And Then She Went to Australia. Previous Article Liberazione: What to paper term origin, Expect From Italy’s Liberation Day.

Flying in French Polynesia is termpaper, Spectacular. Month 52: Travel Summary and Statistics. Month 35: Travel Summary and Statistics. I would’ve stayed far away from the essay on aid or trade, scooter carrying durian. Ha! Yeah, fortunately we quickly overtook him so I didn’t have to termpaper, smell it for too long! My three favorites from term paper my time there: 1) A crate of live pigs. 2) A full size old-style lamp post (probably 6m long trailing off the back) 3) A full size refrigerator (full-sized for crusaders termpaper Vietnam,anyway – fortunately not an American-sized monolith) All amazing.

I’d love to see a lamp post though… that’s ridiculous and sounds hilarious! I started making a list, once, of all the crazy things I’ve seen on motorbikes here. (Cos you can’t take photos when you’re on the front of a bike.) The list included a kitchen sink, four toilets and a guy with an old-fashioned BIG television ON TOP OF A FRIDGE on the back of essays on morocco, his bike. What’s this about you returning. Yeah, I think Dave’s grateful I’m on the back taking photos of all the things we see! Ah, I’m so excited to return! I think we’ll be heading back in May for 6 weeks or so. I’m going to crusaders, bathe in thesis grade cv pho! Get yourself a GoPro camera and a helmet or chest mount.

Film and termpaper, get photos from the footage or just take pics. Great little unit for a person like yourself. I love mine! My boyfriend actually purchased a GoPro last week with the intention of using it on origin, future scooter trips! :-) And my wife is crusaders, concerned about me driving a scooter in Thailand with her on psy 3315 coursework mansfield, the back! Awesome pics. Thanks for sharing.

Ha! You’ll be much safer driving with her on the back than 4000 bananas! The picture of the crusaders, person carrying a million bananas on the back of (in fact, all over) their scooter is on morocco, amazing! I actually laughed out loud! That’s one of my favourites! I couldn’t believe how many were piled on there! They don’t care about bruising them , maybe they think it adds some flavour? i think this is one of the most amusing things I’ve read in crusaders a while! That buffalo in the boat made me chuckle! I saw 4 camels shoved in the back of a pickup truck last week in Morocco…rather bizarre! Ahh I miss seeing camels roaming around in war 1 essay Morocco!

This is one great collection! I love this subject. I have to share with you one of my pics. Termpaper. Please feel free to delete this comment :) We arrived into Luang Prabang last night and mansfield, the game is just beginning. Crusaders Termpaper. Top spot so far was the lady so surrounded in binbags that it looked like noone was riding. Loved your durian photo. Essays On Morocco. We’d have made him pull over to swap bikes, happily. Hahaha! Isn’t it so much fun spotting the termpaper, crazy things whizzing past? One of my favourite things about on morocco, Southeast Asia!

One of my favourite photo essays of all time, what a star photographer you are. Hahaha, thank you so much, George! Lauren, you are a GENIUS. I think my favourite here has to be the water buffalo. But if we’re limiting it to things on bikes…the feather dusters. Just because I imagine them being used as costume accessories by a budget-conscious Vietnamese drag queen. Also, I’d have totally pushed over the scooter with the durian.

I can’t stand the stuff. Thanks, Tom! It was so much fun taking photos of everything — you’d have laughed so hard at the ridiculousness! Hahahahaha this is crusaders, AMAZING xx. Great photos. You didn’t get the classic of essays on morocco, squeezing a whole family of 5 on a bike ;-) Happy travels, Becks :o) I know!

I saw so many but was never quick enough to snap a photo of it! I must admit, these “stuff on bikes” posts never cease to amuse me. WTF is up with the tiny Santa outfits?? I know! Aren’t they so bizarre?

They were all over this one town but I never saw anybody wearing them… maybe they’re for crusaders decoration?! Here in Quang Ngai they dress their little kids in the Santa suits, which made me laugh, they are probably Buddhists. Priceless, so funny specially the Poor looking buffalo :) hope to essay or trade, ride with you and Dave one time. The buffalo was hilarious! :) Hope to ride with you guys too! Haha, classic! My favourite has to be the bonus photo of the water buffalo!

I can barely manage taking a handbag on the tube, let alone half my belongings on crusaders termpaper, a scooter. Impressive! I know, right?! It astonishes me just how much stuff they can fit on there… and on aid or trade, not topple over too! How do they even balance it on there in the first place?! I loved the crusaders termpaper, boat and the ox hitching a ride! Classic SE Asia moment. I have a quick question: did you need an international driver’s license to rent a scooter in on morocco Vietnam? My husband and I live in Taiwan and own two scooters. We don’t have international or local licenses and no one cares.

Is the same true for crusaders Vietnam? We plan on scooting from Saigon to Hanoi over summer and were wondering if our lack of licenses would be an issue. Term. Thanks! But basically if you don’t have a local license (and to get one of these you need to sit a test in Vietnamese) then you have to leave your passport behind at the rental shop… and you need your passport to check into termpaper, every hotel in Vietnam. Fortunately, Dave has two passports but we still had some hassle along the way as he didn’t have a visa in the passport we were giving to hotels. Also, if a cop pulls you over and you don’t have a local license then they impound the thesis grade cv, bike and the rental shop you bought it from termpaper has to term, collect it. I can’t imagine anywhere would let you rent a bike up to Hanoi… we had enough trouble getting it to the Mekong Delta!

I’d probably recommend buying the scooters to be honest… I heard rumours that they were going to pass laws in Vietnam that meant you wouldn’t be able to ride scooters that you didn’t own anymore… The main problem I see with getting your licence changed to VN, ( here in the Province’s anyway ), is the 2 or 3 week wait to crusaders termpaper, pick up your new licence. If you carry a letter from the previous bike owner, it isn’t usually a problem, I’ve been here 2 1/2 years , done about 15,000kms and never been pulled up, ( been close though, towing my bike trailer, didn’t know where I live must be the only place in VN where bike trailers are banned, although you still see heaps of them being used everyday ). Great information, Chris! Considering the amount of scooters in Vietnam, I found it surprising at how tough it was for us to rent one and take it out of Saigon! Thanks for the info! Perhaps we’ll bicycle instead. Pity I can’t copy and term, paste my photo’s of my bike and crusaders termpaper, my dog, who I carrying around with me most of the time, ( used to carry 2 but the thesis grade cv, cops only termpaper, allowed me to carry 1 , and he has to go into origin, a big cage on the back of my bike, certainly get some looks. Crusaders Termpaper. ( great, takes the attention away from me ). Hahaha, that’s awesome! I’d love to see those photos! Haha, I so wish I had taken photos of essays on morocco, all the crazy stuff I saw being hauled around on bikes in Vietnam!

Where there’s a will there’s a way – and in Vietnam they’re always willing to termpaper, jump on a scooter and carry whatever they need! I know! I guess if that’s you’re only option… you gotta make it work! The craziest thing I have ever seen on a scooter is psy 3315 mansfield, another scooter. I swear and even have photographic evidence. :-) Wow! Now that’s impressive! My favorite photo is the crusaders termpaper, one of the water buffalo on paper, the boat. I imagine they’ve been transporting animals that way for crusaders centuries, though the water buffalo does look a bit concerned ;-) I’d love to psy 3315 coursework, have one of crusaders termpaper, those brooms. Nice craftsmanship.

The Netherlands has taken bike transport a bit further, with wooden barrows on the front for stowing the kids or the groceries :-) I loved watching the bikes in Amsterdam — there was always something interested being carried there too. Ha, this is insane! I am going to be posting about this from my time in psy 3315 mansfield Haiti! It is WILD what people transport on crusaders termpaper, these little bikes!

I saw one guy who had a refrigerator! Some people can’t even drive with a person. Loved this, thanks! Awesome! I can’t wait to see them! Love this! Think my favourite are the banana ones.

Weirdest thing I’ve seen was probably about 30 chickens strapped to a bike in Morocco – not so funny! I saw some interesting things in Morocco too… I loved seeing camels transporting things around there. Isn’t this the best?! My favorite part about visiting Vietnam. One that I could never get a picture of, it’s rare but so funny, a family of essays on morocco, 5 on a scooter! We’ve also seen people transporting ducks and termpaper, little gold fishies. Hehehehe.

Yes! I saw that so many times too but never had my camera on me. I can’t believe they manage to cram so many people onto one scooter. When Dave and I went on a scooter tour to the Southernmost point of Vietnam, we ended up having to both cram onto thesis grade cv, the back of the bike, which was… cosy. Haha! I love the pictures! We get a lot of crusaders, them back home in paper Indonesia too, I once saw a motorbike carrying a family of 5! Crazy! I guess safety isn’t really our biggest concern : That’s always one of my favourites to see. Ha, I love these photos–I think my favorite is the one with the crusaders, hay–too funny! It’s crazy how they can balance!

I know! I know I’d definitely topple over if I attempted to do any of white origin, this! Something similar happens in Taiwan too, lol but I never do that because it’s a bit dangerous. :-) Hahaha, we could have explored Sun Moon Lake with me, you and your mum crammed onto a scooter! No joke aside from the termpaper, people and food watching bikes cary ridiculous things was my favorite thing about Vietnam.

I mean really… it’s crazier in Vietnam than an other place I’ve ever visited. So Funny! I was in Vietnam last year and could not believe everything people tried to coursework mansfield, carry. I remember seeing a box of crusaders, live piglets on cause world war 1 essay, the back of crusaders, a bike in Hanoi! Ha, that sounds amazing! He he, just looking through your old blog posts for Vietnam for ideas and world essay, saw this.

Last week on termpaper, Phou Quoc we saw a guy sitting on the back of a moped with an absolutely massive window! His face was turned sideways and you could see it squashed against the other side of the glass. It really tickled me, wish I had a picture of it. Your pictures are brilliant, you have really captured the paper, madness well. Hahaha, that’s hilarious! I love it. Crusaders Termpaper. It is thesis grade cv, always amazing the things they can manage to carry. I think the worse thing I ever saw was two guys with a mattress that had to crusaders, be queen sized between them.

It was like a sail that had to be unwieldy and holding them back. Thanks for world sharing. Hahaha, that sounds incredible! Welcome to Never Ending Footsteps About Lauren. In 2011, I quit my job and sold everything I owned to crusaders termpaper, travel around the world forever. Never Ending Footsteps is where I write about my travels, my stories, and my misadventures. At the cause, end of each month, I send out a kickass email, giving you a behind-the-scenes look at my life as a digital nomad. I'll give you the full lowdown on my recent travels, share a ton of ridiculous stories I haven't written about termpaper, here, and offer real advice on how you can start living a life of freedom.

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analyze tone essay Despite what your grade-school teacher might have told you, poetry isn’t all hearts and flowers, especially not when you have to analyze a poem in an essay. When you delve into the realm of poetry, you’re much more likely to stumble into madness and crusaders, decay , especially if you are reading Edgar Allen Poe or Charles Bukowski! Okay, I’m exaggerating (a little). Cause Essay. Poetry can be fun. And full of puns. Like this one. Regardless, don’t lose your head just yet–I have some tips on how to termpaper, analyze a poem in a way that doesn’t bring doom and gloom to your grades. The vast majority of the cause war 1 essay time, your instructor will tell you which poem to analyze. However, on the off chance that you have to choose a poem yourself, choosing the crusaders right poem can make learning how to analyze a poem much, much easier. When you are choosing a poem, ask yourself the following questions: Do you like the poem?

Do you have notes from class that could help you start your essay? Do you understand the language in the poem? Could you summarize the cause war 1 essay poem in your own words? Are there resources online that you could use to understand the poem better? Does the poem have obvious literary elements (rhyme, meter, metaphor, etc.)? If you answered “yes” to many of those questions, then the poem you have will likely work great for your analysis. Before you can really start writing your analysis, you need to crusaders termpaper, know what your instructor expects of you. A poem analysis is much like any other literary analysis, but it caters more specifically to on morocco, poems. For instance, since poems are typically short, the analyses are also often short. Few instructors will make you write a poetry analysis for more than about 3-5 pages. Whew!

However, the shorter length doesn’t let you off the termpaper hook. World Essay. With your poetry analysis, you need to termpaper, focus on two main aspects of the poem you choose: theme and econometrics term, the literary elements that proves that theme . Crusaders. Your thesis statement needs to contain both of those aspects, and you’ll spend your body paragraphs discussing examples of the literary elements and how they relate back to the theme. Now, let’s get into more detail. Summarizing and on morocco, Paraphrasing a Poem. Learning how to analyze a poem gets a lot simpler when you start by summarizing or paraphrasing the poem and termpaper, figuring out on aid what the heck the termpaper poet is even talking about. I’m going to use “Desert Places” by Robert Frost to help you understand what I mean. White Paper Origin. (And, no, I will not use “The Road Not Taken”! Frost did write other poems, people!) Here’s “Desert Places” in case you aren’t familiar with it: Snow falling and night falling fast, oh, fast. In a field I looked into going past, And the ground almost covered smooth in snow, But a few weeds and stubble showing last. The woods around it have it – it is crusaders theirs. Coursework. All animals are smothered in their lairs.

I am too absent-spirited to count; The loneliness includes me unawares. And lonely as it is, that loneliness. Will be more lonely ere it will be less – A blanker whiteness of crusaders termpaper benighted snow. WIth no expression, nothing to express. Psy 3315 Mansfield. They cannot scare me with their empty spaces. Between stars – on stars where no human race is.

I have it in me so much nearer home. Crusaders. To scare myself with my own desert places. (Frost) Frost, Robert, and Robert Hunter. “Desert Places.” Poemhunter.com. Web. In Pakistan. 30 June 2015. If I’m to summarize this poem, I might write something like the following: The narrator walked past a snow-covered field in the late evening and felt insignificant next to the forests and crusaders, the hibernating animals. The narrator becomes lonely and expects to become lonelier. As the thesis grade cv narrator looks up at the stars, he or she realizes that nothing could feel as empty as he or she feels inside. Note that you would not use the above summary in crusaders an essay.

However, putting a poem in your own words can really help you understand the essays feeling of the poem and what the crusaders termpaper author is in pakistan trying to convey. If you wanted to go further in depth with your understanding, you could paraphrase the poem, which basically means rewriting every line in termpaper your own words rather than condensing the essay in pakistan information. Once you understand what the poem is trying to say, you need to termpaper, come up with a theme. A theme is a central idea in a poem. In “Desert Places,” Frost talks a lot about loneliness , and since the narrator in the poem is alone, I can say that loneliness and cause world war 1, isolation are main ideas or themes in the poem. When you are searching for a theme in your poem, look for concepts or notions that seem to crusaders, pop up several times. Think about the feeling the poem might be trying to white term, convey. That will often lead you straight to the theme . If you can’t think of a theme, you can either talk to termpaper, your instructor about it or look online to see what scholars say about the themes in the poem. Resources such as Sparknotes.com can also help you get on the right track. World War 1 Essay. Choosing a Literary Device or Element. To complete your essay topic, you need to termpaper, choose one or more literary elements the poem uses to point toward the theme you chose.

Here are some examples of literary devices you could be looking for: There are many more literary devices to econometrics paper suggestions, choose from; see a longer list here. Crusaders. I would suggest choosing one or two devices for most essays. Make sure that you can relate them back to the theme you chose. If I were to write a poetic analysis of “Desert Places” specifically on paper term origin the topic of loneliness and isolation, I would choose rhyme as one of my literary devices. Rather than a traditional a/a/b/b or a/b/a/b rhyme scheme for crusaders termpaper, his quatrains (stanzas with four lines), Frost chose an a/a/b/a rhyme scheme. Since one of the words in each stanza does not rhyme with anything, it could be said that the poet has isolated one word in each stanza , which demonstrates the loneliness the speaker talks about in the content of the poem. Mark where the literary device occurs in the poem and world war 1 essay, keep those notes for later. You can use them as examples for when you start writing your analysis.

I’ve said it before, and I’ll say it again: having a good thesis statement means that the rest of your paper will be a breeze. Essentially, a good thesis statement becomes a one-sentence outline of your paper. Here’s what my thesis statement for my “Desert Places” analysis might look like: In “Desert Places,” Robert Frost uses an unusual rhyme scheme, specifically an a/a/b/a rhyme scheme, to demonstrate the crusaders termpaper narrator’s isolation and psy 3315, loneliness. This would be a great thesis statement for a short poetry analysis (1-2 pages). Crusaders Termpaper. For a longer poetry analysis (3-5 pages), you might want to choose two or three literary devices that explicate your theme. Essay. When you write your thesis, you might find this template helpful: In [poem’s name], [poet] employs [literary devices] to demonstrate [theme]. Here, it is important that you are specific. Crusaders Termpaper. In my example, I made sure to econometrics paper, specify how the crusaders rhyme scheme was unusual rather than just leaving it at that.

Make sure you do the same. For more help building out a winning thesis statement, see Kibin’s thesis statement builder! Analyzing a Poem in Body Paragraphs. Though writing your introduction and thesis statement is essays certainly half the battle, you need to win your audience over with your supporting body paragraphs. Think about it this way: your head wouldn’t do you much good without all the crusaders organs and systems that comprise your body. (Didn’t think you were going to get an anatomy lesson in psy 3315 mansfield a poetry post, did you?) As you write your body paragraphs, adhere to the following guidelines: Keep your paragraphs to about half a page doubled spaced (shorter paragraphs improve readability).

Start your paragraph with your topic sentence, which should relate to everything you are going to say in the paragraph (think of it as the paragraph’s thesis statement). Crusaders Termpaper. Use only essays on morocco, one piece of evidence per paragraph, either a quote or a paraphrased example from the crusaders text. Always end a paragraph in your own words and make sure to coursework mansfield, include analysis (why the crusaders termpaper evidence supports your thesis statement) at the end of each paragraph. By following those guidelines, you’ll set yourself up for an essay that knocks your instructor’s socks off. A Few More Tips on How to Analyze a Poem. Though you have learned how to analyze a poem, I haven’t really mentioned how you can sound smart doing it. Psy 3315. Now, this doesn’t mean that you should go crazy and crusaders termpaper, throw in a bunch of fancy synonyms (see How to Become a Better Writer: Don’t Use Words that Sound Smart). What it does mean is using vocabulary that is appropriate for on morocco, poems. I already gave you a list of literary terms and their definitions, which should catapult you to termpaper, greatness in your analysis already, but here are some important tidbits to remember when you write a poetic analysis: Don’t assume that the poet and the speaker/narrator in cause world essay the poem are the same person. Instead, refer to termpaper, the person in the poem as “he or she” or just “the speaker” or “the narrator.” Don’t use words like “obviously” or “clearly” in your poetic analysis. If it were so obvious, you wouldn’t have to write an essay about thesis grade cv, it.

Don’t spend time summarizing the poem in your essay. Assume your reader has already read the poem. Don’t worry too much about working through the poem line by line or in order. Use the crusaders evidence that best supports your claim in the order that makes sense for your argument. Don’t forget to cause world essay, cite your poem according to MLA formatting . Any quote you use should have an crusaders, in-text citation. Check out these examples of poetic analyses written by thesis grade cv students like you for more inspiration and ideas. Make Sure Your Paper Is Polished before You Turn It in! If you are still stuck or nervous about writing your analysis, that’s okay. Sometimes, just getting something out on paper will give you the courage you need to keep going and revise what you’ve written to fit the above-mentioned guidelines. As you’re revising, I highly recommend reading your analysis out crusaders termpaper loud. Doing so will help you find awkward or confusing areas so you can pinpoint what still needs work.

You can also get a friend, family member, or professional editor to look your paper over. At Kibin, our editors are ready to polish your essay at any time of thesis grade cv day or night. Whether you need some advice on what you’ve written so far or want our talented editors to polish your essay into analytic gold, our editing services can help you! Now that you know how to analyze a poem, put your skills to the test on your own essay! Psst. 98% of Kibin users report better grades! Get inspiration from over termpaper, 500,000 example essays.

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Essay On Summer Holidays Essays and Research Papers. SUMMER Scotland Guid Nychburris - mid June This is crusaders, a Dumfries festival which has its origins in a court which resolved disputes between . neighbours to make them Guid Nychburris or good neighbours. The Queen of the South is crowned during the or trade in pakistan week-long festivities. Lanimer Day - 17th June Held in Lanark, Lanimer Day (a corruption of crusaders, landemark or boundary) is when the houses are decorated with greenery and there is a Lanimer Fair. Essay On Aid Or Trade? Selkirk Common Riding - 18th June A ceremony of Riding.

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British literature , Canada , Canadian literature 983 Words | 3 Pages. there is risk that if the child was born, s/he would have physical or mental abnormalities as to be seriously handicapped. The procedure of abortion contains . many ethical issues and is a complex subject which can lead to econometrics term suggestions conflicting discussions. This essay will explain all the mixed views about abortion and explore the crusaders ethical perspectives regarding the topic. Christianity has always conflicted with abortion throughout history.

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| |18th May 2013 |PTM . | |19th May to 7thJuly 2013 | Summer Vacation | |20th May to 25th May 2013 |Workshop For Teachers . 442 Words | 4 Pages. Most Famous Books Published: * The Structure of crusaders, Social Action (1937) * The Social System (1951) * Essays in Sociological . Theory (1964) * Societies: Evolutionary and essays on morocco Comparative Perspectives (1966) * Politics and crusaders Social Structure (1969) Most Famous Books Published: * The Structure of Social Action (1937) * The Social System (1951) * Essays in Sociological Theory (1964) * Societies: Evolutionary and Comparative Perspectives (1966) * Politics and essays on morocco Social. Anthropology , Culture , Max Weber 541 Words | 2 Pages. gets hyped up over, parents planning activities for the family to spend quality time with and school children ( as well as teachers) jumping for joy. Hello, . waking up late, celebrating, goin for tuition and best of all, vacations! In myy case, a holiday I would never forget is termpaper, a fruitful one I expereinced five years ago, where my family I spent six days in the land of K-Pop and cause world ' kimchi '- Korea. Finally, after ages of waiting, our family arrived in crusaders termpaper, beautiful Korea. Stepping out of the. Dissociative identity disorder , Hotel , Korean cuisine 1190 Words | 3 Pages. Describe how you have spent summer (or long school) vacations during the past two years. Few years ago, we took a vacation to my . grandmother’s place.

It was a long exhausting journey to our destination I remember traveling in that crowded bus and from then on I don’t remember how I got from econometrics paper suggestions, that bus to my grandmother’s home. I just recall sleeping through out the crusaders entire journey. The very next morning we decided to essay or trade in pakistan leave for crusaders termpaper, a nearby waterfall. I took the responsibility to pack our snacks. 2008 albums , Autumn , Bungee jumping 556 Words | 2 Pages.

?In the poem, “The Summer Day”, by econometrics paper, Mary Oliver, there are many examples poetic devices that are extremely effective and termpaper help to reinforce the . thematic theme of the poem. A few that I found to be particularly effective are the examples of metaphors, repetition and irony. Term Paper Suggestions? The most interesting poetic device found in the poem was the crusaders termpaper use of econometrics term paper, extended metaphor. It is evident in lines three to ten: Who made the grasshopper? This grasshopper, I mean – the one who flung herself out of the crusaders grass. Academy Award for war 1, Best Picture , English-language films , Genre 922 Words | 3 Pages. ? Summer Activity Several businesses, such as Primark and Nestle, have been accused of being unethical in recent years. Do you think it is . essential for managers to take ethics into termpaper account consideration when making business decisions nowadays? Justify your answer with reference to on morocco Primark, Nestle and other businesses that you know. (40 marks) Business ethics refer to what is regarded as right or wrong in relation to crusaders termpaper business behaviour. Thesis Grade Cv? I think that managers should worry about ethics as it. Applied ethics , Business , Business ethics 681 Words | 3 Pages.

?Summer’s getting drowsy now Soon she will be fast asleep Missing summer , the trees begin to weep It’s autumn time so leave and take a bow I . heard the autumns singing. The wind it sprints through the trees. The air is crusaders termpaper, getting crispier and a chilly nip is in the breeze. Psy 3315 Coursework? On autumns night a luminous pearl hangs in termpaper, the radiant night sky. Journeying to warmer land, the birds ‘gossip loudly as they fly. When orange and red are burnished on leaves, They glide down like a silent pack of essays on morocco, thieves. Crusaders Termpaper? The.

Autumn , Bus , Fake Noise from a Box of Toys 537 Words | 3 Pages. Scale Development: Conception, Application and Future Reflections, Apex Press New York London Samir Amin (2012), ‘The South Challenges . Globalization’(PDF), zcommunications.org Thursday, April 12, 2012 Part I: Four Seminars – Discussion and Essay Topics 1. CAPITALISM AND FREEDOM Friedman is a libertarian who believes in reducing the role of the State in econometrics, order to increase the freedom of the individual. Explain his conviction that paternalism is incompatible with individual autonomy. Crusaders? Assess. Capitalism , Communism , French Revolution 1175 Words | 7 Pages. Statement of Intent/ISP Proposal U2A6 – ISP Progress Report #1 (here you will review your ISP novel) U4A1 – ISP Annotated Bibliography U5A1 – ISP Progress . Report #2 (here you will review your ISP film) U5A2 – ISP Thesis/Outline U5A4 – Final ISP Essay ISP TOPICS FILM CHOICES NOVEL CHOICES Personal Liberation/Redemption Gran Torino Rocky Balboa Albert Camus, The Outsider Carol Shields, The Stone Diaries Ernest Gaines, A Lesson Before Dying Ian McEwan, Atonement Jane Urqhart, The Stone. American novelists , Canada Reads , Canadian novelists 625 Words | 4 Pages. My ideal summer holiday After my hard and busy school year my summer holidays began. I felt happy . and began to plan a lot of wonderful things to do during my summer vocation.

There are many ways to spend our holidays . I like travelling very much. In the old days people had to travel several days, weeks and months to get to essays on morocco the place they needed. They either went on foot, by coaches driven by horses or on horseback or by crusaders termpaper, boats and ships. Then trains, trams, cars, buses, airplanes, underground. Travel , Waterpark 473 Words | 2 Pages. There are ten federal holidays in world war 1, Canada that could effect affect message transmission or delivery options for the senders in crusaders termpaper, the United States . and receivers in Canada. The first holiday is New Years day. It is world war 1 essay, celebrated on January 1st each year. It is a statutory holiday in all Canadian provinces and territories.

Many people start January 1 at parties to welcome the termpaper New Year on the evening of December 31. Essays On Morocco? However, in some people rural areas, particularly in the province of Quebec, spend the night. Canada , Holidays in Canada , New Brunswick 1284 Words | 4 Pages. Summer Reading Essay/ Deadline/ Hannah Campbell. Summer Reading Essay Deadline Hannah Campbell Deadline Essay The note said, “It wasn’t an accident.” The so . called “accident” that killed Jake’s best friends turns into a question that Jake is desperate to ?nd answers to. At this rough time in his life, Jake must deal with making a di?cult choice. Jake is forced to deal with pressure when he meets suspicious FBI agents. He is convinced that they need one another to solve their respective mysteries, but they leave Jake wondering what their mystery.

2000s American television series , 2000s music groups , American films 744 Words | 3 Pages. were playing holidays , to sport would be as tedious as to work.” I believe that many of crusaders termpaper, us can have different views on what the . holidays really are. To many they are just a time to receive gifts and to others they are a time to reunite with family I believe a lot of us have gotten confused as to what the holidays really are. Essay Or Trade? Every advertisement in this years Thanksgiving edition of the Boston Globe was a command to hurry up and termpaper spend money for the holidays . It seems worse now. Christmas controversy 583 Words | 2 Pages. about holidays celebrated by many Americans, such as New Year's Day, Independence Day, and Thanksgiving. Americans celebrate a variety of . federal holidays and other national observances throughout the year. American holidays can be secular, religious, international, or uniquely American. With the wide variety of federal holidays , and thesis grade cv the many levels of American government, it can be confusing to determine what public and private facilities are open on or around a given federal holiday . You can. Federal holidays in the United States , Holidays in termpaper, the United States , Lyndon B. Johnson 1124 Words | 4 Pages.

Holiday representative: Resort representatives look after and address the concerns of holidaymakers. The majority of essays on morocco, resort . Crusaders? representatives work overseas. Thesis Grade Cv? Resort representatives are employed by holiday resorts to promote activities and liaise with guests. Crusaders Termpaper? As a resort representative, it will be your job to psy 3315 coursework mansfield meet and crusaders termpaper greet visitors, answer questions, accompany guests on excursions and essay on aid or trade in pakistan participate in events. Most representatives work on a seasonal basis and, whilst wage rates can vary, the opportunity. Destination hotel , Employment , Hotel 1950 Words | 7 Pages. Heubel Eng 101 Section 1130 Essay 2 Final draft Tis the Season For most people the termpaper holiday season is a very happy time. . It is a time for laughter and rejoicing. It is during the holiday season that we begin to on aid see and hear from crusaders, loved ones that may not always be in touch. Friends and family from essay or trade, everywhere begin to make contact during this time of year in hopes to send merry wishes for the year and year to come. However not all people are overcome with the “ holiday spirit,” but are rather plagued.

Christmas controversy , English-language films 1173 Words | 3 Pages. Christmas holiday ?Christian festival celebrating the birth of Jesus. The English term Christmas (“mass on Christ’s day”) is of fairly . recent origin. Crusaders Termpaper? The earlier term Yule may have derived from the Germanic jol or the Anglo-Saxon geol, which referred to the feast of the winter solstice. The corresponding terms in other languages—Navidad in Spanish, Natale in Italian, Noel in French—all probably denote nativity. The German word Weihnachten denotes “hallowed night.” Since the early 20th century. Advent , Calendar of thesis grade cv, saints , Christianity 1698 Words | 5 Pages. The summer i had was amazing.

I did so many different things. I went to camp, went to USA, and went to the beach. I had so much fun. I just . hope next summer is as exciting as this one. First of crusaders termpaper, all I went to my camp with tons of my friends. Econometrics Term Paper Suggestions? (name of camp) was so much fun! I spent money on ______ and me and my friends did so much different things. The only problem is that i had to wake up early. That was a bummer. Secondly i went to USA. I woke up early, and took a long bus ride. Crusaders? That wasnt that.

High school , Writing 1795 Words | 4 Pages. Summer Holidays Are Too Long (Analysis) ? The present summer holiday is or trade in pakistan, too long. Kids get bored by the start of August ? Most parents have their annual . holidays during July or August. The present system allows children and parents to be on holiday at the same time ? Schools could reduce heating bills by having longer holidays in the winter rather than the crusaders termpaper summer ? Older pupils work during summer to econometrics term suggestions earn money because the job is only available at crusaders termpaper this time, and it is econometrics paper, suitable for them ? Shorter summer means more holidays throughout the. Cost , Present , Time 390 Words | 2 Pages. We count five seasons in America. Summer is one of them. Crusaders? It is the hot season. It rules over June, July, and August. On Morocco? How it is crusaders, caused . The earth moves round the sun. The part of cause world war 1 essay, it, which comes nearer the crusaders termpaper sun, gets the summer season.

Because here the sun's rays are straight and direct. Advantages In summer , everything is neat and clean. The earth is dry. Hence, there is no mud or marsh. Ways and paths are open to very place. Mangoes ripe in paper origin, summer . We get plenty of mangoes. we get jack-fruits.

Climate , Earth , Rain 373 Words | 2 Pages. Federal Holidays in the United States. History In 1882, Matthew Maguire, a machinist, first proposed the holiday while serving as secretary of the CLU (Central Labor Union) of crusaders, New . York.[1] Others argue that it was first proposed by Peter J. McGuire of the world war 1 essay American Federation of crusaders, Labor in essay on aid in pakistan, May 1882,[2] after witnessing the annual labor festival held in Toronto, Canada.[3] Oregon was the first state to make it a holiday on February 21, 1887. By the time it became a federal holiday in crusaders termpaper, 1894, thirty states officially celebrated Labor Day.[2] Following. Employment , Federal holidays in the United States , Grover Cleveland 791 Words | 3 Pages. words holiday or vacation have related meanings in different English-speaking countries and continents, but will usually refer to one of the . following activities or events: A general leave of absence from essay in pakistan, a regular occupation for rest or recreation A specific trip or journey for crusaders, the purposes of recreation / tourism Official or unofficial observances of religious/national/cultural/other significance, often accompanied by in pakistan, celebrations or festivities (public/religious holiday ) A holiday or vacation. Australia Day , Calendar of saints , Employment compensation 1149 Words | 5 Pages. During the crusaders summer holidays I have no hurry to wake up, hence I wake up slowly and prepare myself a nice full breakfast. On the . table I always find a paper with the grocery needs and some money my mother would have left before going to essays work. I put on some clothes and leave quietly to do the termpaper errand, but I never expected that a simple run to the grocer would change my perspective towards life.

One particular day I carried out the same procedure and cause as I got in crusaders termpaper, the supermarket, I took a trolley and started. Andy Summers , Cash , Grocery store 610 Words | 2 Pages. happen that need to solve to implement the education system that learning English at elementary school. Words 520…( did not find data) What did you . do last summer vacation and what will you do this summer vacation. Essay On Aid Or Trade? The summer holidays are really meaningful in my life since it makes me the days of recreation and crusaders rest. Thesis Grade Cv? Last summer vacation, I was only thinking how to spend the vacation pleasantly, in visiting places, in reading of literature. After the declaration of the result, I caught. Fushimi Inari-taisha , Inari Shrine , Kyoto 1001 Words | 2 Pages. Summer Vacation Holiday Homework Class: VII SUB: -ASSAMESE 1) aToc]c» YcPo» O‘oaV` ?YO] Eo?[yToc?Oo ]CFOso Eo?» ?_Fc %c»O . _GaTo Eo?PoX `?a[yc» [yc?$Jo =?_^c+ %Ui ?_Fc * (Write in C/W copy ) SUB: - BIOLOGY To prepare a report on Project Khoj SUBJECT- PHYSICS Draw and label the following – (a) Land breeze (b) Sea breeze (c) Clinical thermometer (d) Laboratory thermometer SUB: -CHEMISTRY Make a poster on conservation of water. SUB: - French . Arithmetic mean , Following , Islamic architecture 570 Words | 3 Pages.

student will be expected to crusaders choose from the list of cause world essay, titles for summer reading. Returning to school in crusaders, September is much easier for war 1, those who . Crusaders? have maintained the habit of responsive reading during the summer . Summer reading provides a pleasurable broadening of a teenager’s experiences. Thesis Grade Cv? Students who read as a source of both intellectual stimulation and crusaders termpaper overall relaxation are likely to become lifelong readers. Those who read over the summer months achieve speaking and writing skills, which align with. Ben Kingsley , High school , Jane Eyre 1693 Words | 7 Pages.

?WRITING AN ESSAY (See simplified example at the end) Intro: Actually state the question or title that you are going to answer Say what you . are going to do: State that you will define the key words and concepts That you will discuss the background to the key concepts and major, relvant, opposing theories That you will weigh up the pros and cons, strengths and weaknesses, arguments for and against or trade in pakistan And state that you will then summarise the crusaders question, i.e “…in order to paper origin summarise and amswer. Debate , Emotion , Essay 644 Words | 2 Pages. The Greatest Season Summer is crusaders, one of the white paper term origin most anticipated times of the year. It is considered by most as their long holiday or . freedom from crusaders termpaper, their jobs or schools. While some people maintain that spring, fall, or even winter are the essays best seasons, there are many reasons that summer is crusaders termpaper, much better than any of the on morocco others. One of the main attractions of summer is termpaper, its temperature. When one hears the word summer the white paper term first thing to pop into his or her mind is either, heat, holiday , or sports. Though some. Automobile , Autumn , Heat 631 Words | 2 Pages.

Apwh Summer Essay/River Valley Civilization. APWH Summer Essay /River Valley Civilization My duties for this question are to compare and contrast Mesopotamian and . Egyptian civilizations. Crusaders Termpaper? While it is true that both civilizations originated approximately around the same time they do hold many differences which will be outline in the paragraphs below to the best of my ability. However vast, the difference may be, both civilizations also hold some similarities that will also be outline in the following paragraphs.The Mesopotamian. Ancient Egypt , Ancient Near East , Cairo 786 Words | 3 Pages. Introduction My friends and I decided to white paper origin go on a one week holiday this summer to a place we didn't visit before. We were . thinking about the romantic Paris or exotic Madrid. We have a budget of ?1000 each and we are four of us. We also have to crusaders termpaper bear in mind that being in a foreign place we need to psy 3315 coursework have some extra cash left just in crusaders termpaper, case, and we also want to buy souvenirs for friends and family and essay on aid in pakistan maybe treat ourselves.

We had to take into account the advantages and disadvantages of both places. Eiffel Tower , Louvre , Madrid 1316 Words | 5 Pages. ?Creative Writing Essay 2 Summer Ventures If a journey of a thousand miles begins with a single step, then Summer . Ventures was a leap. The closest I have ever gotten to actually living a college life was when I went to termpaper Summer Ventures in Science and essays on morocco Mathematics for four weeks in the summer of my sophomore year. My experience at Summer Ventures was truly an un-forgetful one. Not only did I meet new friends and enjoyed my stay at East Carolina University, taking part in Summer Ventures made me realize. Trojan War 969 Words | 3 Pages. ------------------------------------------------- Summer . A field during summer in Belgium. | | Summer is . the warmest of the four temperate seasons, between spring and crusaders autumn. Essays On Morocco? At the summer solstice, the crusaders days are longest and coursework mansfield the nights are shortest, with day-length decreasing as the season progresses after the solstice. The date of the beginning of summer varies according to crusaders termpaper climate, culture, and tradition, but when it is summer in the Northern Hemisphere it is winter in the Southern Hemisphere. Atlantic Ocean , Equator , Northern Hemisphere 436 Words | 2 Pages.

Question 4 Public Holidays And Celebrations. ?Public holidays and cause world celebrations in crusaders, Great Britain Great Britain is a country of world, customs and traditions. A lot of them have very long . Crusaders? histories. Some of them are funny, some are strange. But they all are interesting and they are an essential part of the British way of life. There are fewer public holidays in Great Britain than in other European countries.

They are the days when most of offices and shops are closed and people don't need to go to essays work. Termpaper? In Scotland, England, Wales and Northern. Bank holiday , Christmas , Christmas Eve 1885 Words | 5 Pages. Summer Reading 1. Econometrics Paper? Capturing the Main Point of termpaper, Essays I chose three essays from thesis grade cv, The Signet Book of American . Essays based on the sections that appealed to my interests. In “The Meaning of crusaders, This Hour,” Abraham Joshua Heschel claims that the world is a world living inhumanely because there is a lack of God’s presence and glory. George Plimpton’s “Desperately Seeking Humor” describes the great lengths a group of comedians and world writers went through to termpaper put a humor section in an edition of a magazine. Abraham Joshua Heschel , Erma Bombeck , United States 756 Words | 3 Pages.

Working holiday and Travelling in England. Working holiday and Travelling in England Student No Student Name 10766455 Cheung Yi Lok Introduction • Working holiday is . very popul ar in Hong Kong. • Long history, glorious royal, a ttractive sceneries and psy 3315 coursework a mild climate attract people to com e. • The United Kingdom is not str ange for Hong Kong people. Working holiday in brief • https:// www.youtube.com/watch?v=E2rvhlyqbqQ • Applying visa • Be independent • Agency can help you to adapt • Travelling in that regions And I am going to share. British Empire , British nationality law , British overseas territories 653 Words | 24 Pages. ?My best holidays . Everyone likes holidays . Termpaper? It seems to me that holidays give us a splendid opportunity to relax . and white term have fun, you can do whatever you like, you don’t need to termpaper wake up early in the morning and essay on aid think how to earn for a living. You have a lot of time to take up all kinds of hobbies or sports. Crusaders Termpaper? I firmly believe that holidays always offer a wealth of new experiences. And now I’d like to tell you about the best holiday I have ever had. To begin with during my summer holidays I used to go. Debut albums , English-language films , Greatest hits 608 Words | 2 Pages.

SUMMER TRAINING PROJECT REPORT ON AN ANALYSIS OF SELECTION PROCESS AT ITC LIMITED [pic] Submitted For the partial fulfillment . towards the award of the essay degree in crusaders, Master of Business Administration of U.P.Technical University,Lucknow Submitted To: Submitted By: Mrs. Essays On Morocco? Rinku Sanjeev Ekta Sharma Faculty Guide Roll no.- MBA-3rd Sem [2008-10] Dronacharya College of Engineering Greater NOida I hereby declare that. Board of directors , Corporate governance , Executive director 15983 Words | 67 Pages. ?ASAM 30: Asian American Issues Through Film City College of crusaders, San Francisco Instructor: Roger Chung Summer 2014 Location: MUB 150, TWR . 6:00-9:15pm Email: [email protected] Office Hours: 5-6pm, Thursday, MUB 150 CATALOG DESCRIPTION: This course will explore both historical and contemporary themes in Asian American film. Beginning chronologically with early representations of essays on morocco, race, gender and sexuality, the crusaders course will move towards new representations in films made by econometrics paper, and about Asian. Asian American , Better Luck Tomorrow , Cinema of the crusaders United States 1401 Words | 5 Pages.

American holidays are strikingly different in origin and psy 3315 show surprising similarities in the manner of their celebration. No matter what the . holiday's origin is, they all seem to be the same thing. A holiday has simply become, for most Americans, a day off from crusaders termpaper, work, though some (for example, Thanksgiving and Christmas) retain some individuality. The major holidays in the USA are: New Year's Day, January, 1st: People stay awake until after midnight on thesis grade cv, December 31st to watch the Old Year out. Christmas , Halloween , Holiday 999 Words | 3 Pages. Musical Notation and Holidays Homework. MODERN PUBLIC SCHOOL SHALIMAR BAGH, DELHI-110088 HOLIDAYS ’ HOMEWORK, 2013 Dear Parent(s), Summer Vacations are at our . Crusaders Termpaper? doorsteps.

Holidays are a well deserved opportunity to relax and rewind by indulging in activities that are pleasurable and at the same time educative. It is origin, also a time to explore the exciting city of Delhi, visit places of interest and gather information about the magnificent monuments. Holidays ’ Homework has been designed to fire the imagination of students while exciting them. Management , Musical notation , Need to termpaper know 1697 Words | 7 Pages. Culturally, Americans have a common trend; the celebration of holidays . Thesis Grade Cv? In most recent days, holidays have been condensed to a . Termpaper? festival of bargains, retail finds and materialistic trinkets.

We have reduced some of our most sacred holidays into giving and world essay receiving gifts. Crusaders Termpaper? Christmas, Valentine’s Day, Halloween, and Thanksgiving are just a few examples of how today’s society has skewed the mansfield true religious, diverse meaning of the crusaders termpaper holiday . The prime example would be Christmas. Christmas is supposed. Abraham Lincoln , Christianity , Christmas 1103 Words | 3 Pages. THE WINNING ESSAY IDEA is happy to announce Aisa Ovshiyeva from Russia the winner of the IDEA Declaration of Interdependence . essay contest.

Honorable mention also goes to thesis grade cv Syed Hashim Zaidi, the ?rst runner up from crusaders, Pakistan and Feshko Yliana the second runner up from Ukraine who will receive IDEA publications. Essays On Morocco? Aisa will receive a trip to the Interdependence Day Celebration in Rome, Italy on September 12, 2004. Idebate Magazine would like to congratulate Aisa and we invite our readers to read. Africa , BBC World Service , Globalization 1182 Words | 4 Pages.

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Essay on City Life vs. Village Life (2465 words) Essay on City Life vs. Village Life! One of the most striking features of industrial age is the growth of city life. In ancient times the people mostly lived in villages being engaged in agriculture. Cities arose here and there as centres of crusaders termpaper, trade or seats of government.

Today in essays all industrialized countries the situation has been reversed. The urban population in England and the United States has expanded continuously over the rural population. New facilities of transport and communication have brought thousands of people nearer to crusaders, each other and made it convenient for them to paper term origin, live together in crusaders termpaper large aggregations. Econometrics Term Paper Suggestions. The growth of cities is a special feature of modern age and as the city grows the whole character of society undergoes a change. There is crusaders a sharp difference between the city and village life though with the cause war 1 essay expansion of urban influence on the village this difference is becoming more and crusaders, more a matter of degree. However, in spite of the recent trends of on morocco, urbanisation the villages still retain many of their traditional features and present a sharp contrast with the urban life. In rural community the force of traditional mores and the bonds of family solidarity are more dominant than in the urban community. According to Biesanz and Biesanz, “In the rural community custom is the king, the folkways and mores control most of behaviour,” The sense of group responsibility which tends to termpaper, be more and more dissolved in the growth of the city prevails in village life.

The type of suggestions, village family is generally patriarchal in which the status of the individual is the status of his family. There is less individual questioning and rebellion. The family determines as to whether and whom the individual should marry for termpaper, the maintenance of family name. World War 1. There is lesser freedom in the selection of termpaper, life partner. There are few love-marriages.

Not only cause world, marriage but also religion, recreation, occupation pre determined by family traditions. Any deviation from the establish-id family traditions especially in sex matters, is regarded an offence against family unity and crusaders, hardly tolerated. The life of all men and women is merged in family life. Paper. In short, family dominates individual’s life in village community. Moreover, the village community is too small to support a missionary society, like a Rotary Club. The family is the only organisation which performs the task of aid and protection.

For such functions there is no formal organisation with a president and secretary. On the other hand, in the city community life is termpaper conspicuous by the absence of family life. The anonymous character of the city frees the urban dweller from close moral control. Social control becomes the activity of cause war 1 essay, specialized agencies. Family control is lessened. Police and courts, teachers and social workers take over the regulatory functions of the family circle. A “free lance” detached from family bonds is looked askance at in the village while such a person, even his norms of conduct, sexual and crusaders termpaper, otherwise may pass unnoticed in the city and be admitted to those places where high class gentry goes. If a person violates family marriage customs he- is not boycotted by the urban community, an on morocco impersonalized world. According to Davis, “He can escape the oppressive control of termpaper, any primary group when he wishes, simply by disappearing into the sea of strangers.” It may also be noted that the urban life is more regulated by the State than the rural life is paper term origin regulated.

Even minor matters like disposal of crusaders termpaper, garbage and refuse cannot be left to econometrics term paper, voluntary action. The government acquires many functions, some of which are community housekeeping duties. Thus, in a city as opposed to the village the mores and folkways are least counted on to handle the crusaders situation. In other words, the larger the city, the greater becomes the problem of control and the more complex the agencies of secondary control. Secondly, a village community is marked by immediate contacts between its members. There is a strong ‘we-feeling’ in paper origin the rural community. Termpaper. We find members in a village community helping each other and sharing the joys and sorrows of each other.

In the village everybody is known to everybody. Their relations are personal. Customers are not mere strangers but persons with whom all are acquainted. From such contacts each person knows a great deal about his neighbours, their activities, preferences and or trade, attitudes. Status of each one in the village community is well known. Written contracts are less important than a word of honour. Crime in village community is rare. Since there is little secrecy, stolen goods cannot be used and are difficult to dispose of. Things are done by mutual understanding. Crusaders Termpaper. In city life, on the other hand, nearness counts much less. The inhabitants of term origin, a city hardly know each other.

Sometimes, they do not know even their next-door neighbour nothing to termpaper, speak of influencing their activities. In a big city like Bombay people living in the lower storey do not know the people living in the third or fourth storey. There is an thesis grade cv atmosphere of indifference and callousness in termpaper a city. In a city like Calcutta, an inhabitant may spend a whole day in the street and cause world essay, never see a person he knows, though he may see tens of thousands of people. Even friend are likely to be known only in a particular context and in a particular segment of life. In the termpaper words of Gist and Halbert, ‘The city encourages impersonal rather than personal relationships.” Most of the relations are indirect. Competition has a far greater velocity in the city than in the village.

Life in essay on aid a village community is simple and crusaders termpaper, uniform. There are few ambitious men and fewer excitements. The villagers lead a uniform life tilling land and rearing animals. Psy 3315 Coursework Mansfield. Their standard of living is lower than that of the town because the means of earning money are limited. They view land as the most substantial of all heritages. Agriculture is their major occupation.

When oppressive taxes or other measures threaten their ownership of land, they align themselves with radical movements as happened in Soviet Russia. The standard of living of the urban people is higher. They are more prodigal than the village people. Country life suggests ‘save’, City life suggests ‘spend’. The poor turning rich overnight or the rich being reduced to beggary in one day are cases unknown in the village. The man of crusaders, enterprise and adventurous spirit has no place in rural community. The city dweller becomes indifferent to on morocco, extremes of all kinds.

Indeed the distinction between public and private, between what is shown and what is concealed, is much sharper in the city. Termpaper. It is the public behaviour that the city regulates, the private behaviour it ignores. Another contrast between village and urban community is concerning the modes of production. In the village as a rule, only a predominant type of psy 3315 mansfield, occupation, Le., agriculture prevails. Each family bakes its own bread and does its own washing, for all the environment, physical as well as social, is the same. Crusaders Termpaper. The city, on the other hand, is the place for all, the semiskilled worker, the skilled artisan, the cause world war 1 essay “paper-expert”, the technician, the artist, the banker, the teacher, the social reformer and termpaper, many others. It is a heterogeneous group of people engaged in various pursuits. The city tasks are divided and sub-divided to such an extreme that even the work of unskilled labour becomes specialized. The trend in the urban world is clearly in the direction of a larger percentage of specialized work leading to on morocco, a multiplicity of organisations, economic and social.

The residents of a city become affiliated with a number of organisations. Their social relations are mostly indirect and secondary. Members of a single family frequently belong to different organisations. Since these various organisations have different customs and procedures, there is opportunity for confusion and lack of understanding. The process of selection for the specialized work is keener. The management selects those who are best specialized in the work and ruthlessly reject all those who fall below the competitive standard. The owner of crusaders, special ability has greater chances of quick promotion. The individual is coursework mansfield rated more in terms of accomplishments than he is rated in the rural community. The city sifts and segregates all of the members according to their ability and finds a fit place for each.

It provides public schools for the wealthy and private schools for the poor. It also provides distinctive schools for elementary, higher, technical, cultural and professional education. It even provides separate schools for defective persons, e.g. Deaf and Dumb school. The city requires and promotes great social mobility. It lays emphasis on achievement rather than the ascription of status.

The urban dweller can raise or lower his status to a remarkable degree during his life time. The caste element in social stratification is crusaders termpaper minimized. Status centres on the occupation, on the nature and competence of the activity, rather than on the accident of birth. Thesis Grade Cv. As opposed to the village in a city social climbing is most prevalent. Sorokin and Zimmermann have written, “The rural community is similar to calm waters in a pool and the urban community to boiling water in a kettle.

Stability is the typical trait for the one mobility is the typical trait for the other.” Specialization is also seen in the physical structure of the city. Distinctive areas are marked for different activities. Chandigarh, the capital of Punjab State, has been divided into termpaper, different sectors, each sector with marked peculiarities. In the western world specialization of areas has been carried to a greater extent than in India. The structure varies from city to city in accordance with the size, site and needs, of the city, but generally everywhere in the western world there is a clear division of space into zones of business activity, of low rentals and residential congestion, of transitory abode, of “middle-class” residence, of industrial concentration, and so forth. Specialization in the city has also influenced the life of women.

If the social life had remained predominantly a village life, women would have been the drudges in econometrics term the household. Industrialization and specialization have brought women to workshop and factory. They have entered into termpaper, the wider life which has altered their outlook and habits and liberated them from the exclusiveness of domesticity. As MacIver observes, ‘The individualization of women has been fostered by urban life and the resulting freer reciprocity of relationship between men and women, as individuals, is exercising and will doubtless continue to exercise, since the process is still advancing, a significant influence on the whole structure of society.” The city community evokes in man the qualities which stand in sharp contrast with those demanded by rural community. The village calls for persistence, a more stern and dogged fidelity to the way of life. He is fatalistic and is in constant contact with nature. Coursework. He sees nature as the practical worker who must wrest a living from the soil. He sees nature as friend and enemy, as the ripened of crops and sender of rains.

The forces of nature are beyond his control and reckoning. He is attached to- rituals and becomes superstitious and religious. The city requires alertness and termpaper, quicker responses to changing situations. The city dweller is on morocco more tolerant in matters of religious beliefs, modes of life, tastes and opinions. According to Bogardus, “Rural people are frank, open and genuine; they scorn the artificiality or many phases of city life.” The city is ruled by impersonality of law and the caprice of fashion. In a rural community the rural moral codes are fixed and strict. Any violation of them leads to bitter estrangements and sometimes to personal tragedies.

In a rural community there is much mutual aid. If a house is to crusaders termpaper, be mud plastered, a feast given or a sickness nursed, the neighbours come in to help. There is an atmosphere of kindliness. There is on morocco a good deal of visiting, several times daily, between the people. In an urban community there is no strong ‘we feeling’. The absence of a common mode of occupation and the great impersonality of city life narrow the urbanite’s attachments and detract from his feeling of identification with the whole community. The secondary and crusaders, voluntary character of urban association, the multiplicity of opportunities, and the social mobility all force the individual to make his own decisions and to plan his life as a career. The city instead of suppressing the individuality emphasizes it. The competitiveness of the city places the individual over against everyone else he is not inexorably tied to any particular relationship or cause. He leaves one city to live in another city and essay, does not feel any loss; but a countryman when uprooted from his village surroundings sheds tears from his eyes.

Economic advancement and abundance of opportunities are common incentives of the city. The young men and women leave the rural community for urban community because the latter affords those more opportunities for employment and profits. But sometimes the men coming from the village may have to crusaders, face disappointment and despair in econometrics suggestions the city. So one should leave the village for city after a deep and careful thought. The above are then the features that distinguish rural from urban life. In the city “opposite conditions are found”, aggregation ; instead of termpaper, physical isolation; associations of many kind’s supplementing or supplanting the functions of coursework, family or categorical relationships; contacts with human beings and civilization diversity superseding contacts with nature; differentiation of economic classes and specialization of economic tasks, ranking and grading men in ways often unknown in the country; limited and intensified work, with its endless varieties and crusaders, disparities of opportunity and of fortune creating an intricate design of competitive living traditionally alien to mansfield, the rural sense.” It may, however, be pointed out that urbanization of the rural population has reduced the differences between rural and urban community. The urban influence on the rural people can be seen in matters like social organisation, family organisation, food habits, standard of living, dress habits, cosmetics, religion, rituals, beliefs etc. The rural people are taking over the urban modes of crusaders, life and as this has been happening, the rural way of life has been withering away. The more the villages are linked with the city through modes of transport and communication, the faster will be the urban influence on the rural life. This may lead to cause world, assimilation of the crusaders rural people into on morocco, the urban way of life thereby eliminating the attitudinal and other cultural differences between townsmen and countrymen. Leave a Reply Click here to cancel reply.

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