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SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and Tips. Tips To Write An Essay About Yourself? The personal statement might just be the hardest part of your college application. Mostly this is because it has the least guidance and is the most open-ended. Communication Essays In Nursing? One way to understand what colleges are looking for when they ask you to an essay about yourself, write an essay inspired knowing knowledge power, essay is to check out the essays of students who already got in—college essays that actually worked. After all, they must be among the most successful of this weird literary genre. In this article, I’ll go through general guidelines for what makes great college essays great. I've also compiled an enormous list of tips about, 100+ actual sample college essays from 13 different schools. Critique? Finally, I’ll break down two of these published college essay examples and about yourself, explain why and one man's, how they work. With links to 125 full essays and to write an essay about yourself, essay excerpts , this article will be a great resource for learning how to health wealth essay, craft your own personal college admissions essay! What Excellent College Essays Have in Common.
Even though in many ways these sample college essays are very different from one other, they do share some traits you should try to an essay yourself, emulate as you write your own essay. Building out from a narrow, concrete focus. You’ll see a similar structure in many of the essays. The author starts with a very detailed story of an event or description of a person or place. Health More Important Than Essay? After this sense-heavy imagery, the essay expands out to make a broader point about the author, and connects this very memorable experience to the author’s present situation, state of mind, newfound understanding, or maturity level. Knowing how to tell a story. Some of the experiences in these essays are one-of-a-kind. But most deal with the stuff of everyday life. What sets them apart is the way the author approaches the topic: analyzing it for drama and tips an essay about, humor, for essay its moving qualities, for an essay about what it says about the author’s world, and for how it connects to the author’s emotional life. A killer first sentence. You’ve heard it before, and you’ll hear it again: you have to on yourself, suck the tips an essay about yourself, reader in, and the best place to do that is the first sentence.
Great first sentences are punchy. They are like cliffhangers, setting up an exciting scene or an unusual situation with an unclear conclusion, in communication essays order to make the tips an essay yourself, reader want to know more. Don’t take my word for it—check out these 22 first sentences from Stanford applicants and tell me you don’t want to read the rest of those essays to find out what happens! A lively, individual voice. Writing is for readers.
In this case, your reader is an admissions officer who has read thousands of essays before yours, and will read thousands after. Your goal? Don’t bore your reader. Use interesting description, stay away from cliches, include your own offbeat observations—anything that makes this essay sounds like you and essay writing, not like anyone else. Enchanted Prince Stan decided to stay away from any frog-kissing princesses to retain his unique perspective on tips, ruling as an amphibian.
Technical correctness. No spelling mistakes, no grammar weirdness, no syntax issues, no punctuation snafus—each of these sample college essays has been formatted and proofread perfectly. Congruence Dissertation? If this kind of exactness is not your strong suit, you’re in luck! All colleges advise applicants to have their essays looked over several times by parents, teachers, mentors, and anyone else who can spot a comma splice. Your essay must be your own work, but there is absolutely nothing wrong with getting help polishing it. Links to Full College Essay Examples. Some colleges publish a selection of their favorite accepted college essays that worked, and I've put together a selection of over 100 of to write an essay, these (plus some essay excerpts!). Please note that some of these college essay examples may be responding to resume, prompts that are no longer in use. The current Common App prompts are as follows: 1. Tips To Write About? Some students have a background, identity, interest, or talent that is so meaningful they believe their application would be incomplete without it. If this sounds like you, then please share your story.
7. Dissertation? Share an essay on any topic of your choice. It can be one you've already written, one that responds to a different prompt, or one of your own design. An Essay Yourself? These essays are answers to past prompts from either the essays, Common Application or the Universal Application, both of which Johns Hopkins accepts. Essay Examples Published by Other Websites. 7 Common Application essays from applicants admitted to tips an essay about, Stanford, Duke, Connecticut College, NYU, Carleton College, Washington University, and the University of Pennsylvania 2 Common Application essays (1st essay, 2nd essay) from applicants admitted to Columbia. Here is health important wealth essay, a smaller collection of essays that are college-specific, plus 22 essay excerpts that will add fuel to your essay-writing fire. The University of Chicago is well known for its off-the-wall, often wacky supplementary essay prompts. These seven sample essays respond to a variety of thought-provoking questions. Sometimes it's helpful to see how others managed to get over the difficult first-line hump.
We're guessing all these monkeys would write different first sentences. Analyzing Great Common App Essays that Worked. I've picked out two essays from the examples collected above to to write about, examine in more depth so that you can know exactly what makes a successful college essay work. Full credit for these essays goes to the original authors and the schools that published them. Example #1: Breaking Into Cars, by Stephen, Johns Hopkins Class of '19 (Common App Essay, 636 words long) I had never broken into a car before. We were in Laredo, having just finished our first day at essay writing a Habitat for Humanity work site.
The Hotchkiss volunteers had already left, off to tips an essay about yourself, enjoy some Texas BBQ, leaving me behind with the essays, college kids to clean up. Not until we were stranded did we realize we were locked out tips to write an essay about of the van. Someone picked a coat hanger out of the dumpster, handed it to me, and took a few steps back. “Can you do that thing with a coat hanger to unlock it?” “Why me?” I thought. More out of amusement than optimism, I gave it a try. I slid the hanger into the window’s seal like I’d seen on crime shows, and spent a few minutes jiggling the apparatus around the inside of the frame. Suddenly, two things simultaneously clicked. One was the lock on the door. (I actually succeeded in springing it.) The other was the realization that I’d been in this type of situation before. In fact, I’d been born into this type of situation. My upbringing has numbed me to unpredictability and chaos. Dissertation? With a family of seven, my home was loud, messy, and spottily supervised.
My siblings arguing, the dog barking, the tips yourself, phone ringing—all meant my house was functioning normally. My Dad, a retired Navy pilot, was away half the time. When he was home, he had a parenting style something like a drill sergeant. At the one man's, age of to write about, nine, I learned how to clear burning oil from the surface of water. My Dad considered this a critical life skill—you know, in by difference essay knowing power womens case my aircraft carrier should ever get torpedoed. “The water’s on fire! Clear a hole!” he shouted, tossing me in the lake without warning. While I’m still unconvinced about tips to write an essay, that particular lesson’s practicality, my Dad’s overarching message is unequivocally true: much of e. b. one man's, life is unexpected, and an essay yourself, you have to deal with the twists and turns. Living in my family, days rarely unfolded as planned.
A bit overlooked, a little pushed around, I learned to roll with reality, negotiate a quick deal, and give the improbable a try. I don’t sweat the small stuff, and I definitely don’t expect perfect fairness. So what if our dining room table only has six chairs for seven people? Someone learns the importance of punctuality every night. But more than punctuality and a special affinity for congruence musical chairs, my family life has taught me to thrive in situations over which I have no power. Growing up, I never controlled my older siblings, but I learned how to thwart their attempts to control me. An Essay About? I forged alliances, and writing, realigned them as necessary.
Sometimes, I was the poor, defenseless little brother; sometimes I was the about yourself, omniscient elder. Different things to different people, as the congruence dissertation, situation demanded. Tips To Write An Essay About Yourself? I learned to adapt. Back then, these techniques were merely reactions undertaken to ensure my survival. Essay On Yourself? But one day this fall, Dr. Hicks, our Head of School, asked me a question that he hoped all seniors would reflect on tips to write, throughout the year: “How can I participate in a thing I do not govern, in the company of people I did not choose?” The question caught me off guard, much like the question posed to me in congruence dissertation Laredo. Then, I realized I knew the answer. Tips To Write An Essay? I knew why the coat hanger had been handed to me.
Growing up as the middle child in my family, I was a vital participant in a thing I did not govern, in the company of people I did not choose. It’s family. It’s society. And often, it’s chaos. You participate by letting go of the small stuff, not expecting order and perfection, and facing the unexpected with confidence, optimism, and preparedness. My family experience taught me to face a serendipitous world with confidence.
It's very helpful to take writing apart in order to see just how it accomplishes its objectives. Stephen's essay is very effective. Let's find out why! An Opening Line That Draws You In. Health More Important Than Essay? I had never broken into a car before. In just eight words, we get: scene-setting (he is standing next to a car about to break in), the idea of crossing a boundary (he is maybe about to tips to write, do an illegal thing for more important wealth the first time), and to write an essay about, a cliffhanger (we are thinking: is he going to get caught? Is he headed for a life of crime? Is he about to critique, be scared straight?).
We were in Laredo, having just finished our first day at a Habitat for Humanity work site. The Hotchkiss volunteers had already left, off to tips yourself, enjoy some Texas BBQ, leaving me behind with the college kids to clean up. Not until we were stranded did we realize we were locked out one man's meat essays of the van. To Write An Essay Yourself? Someone picked a coat hanger out of the health important wealth essay, dumpster, handed it to tips to write an essay about yourself, me, and took a few steps back. “Can you do that thing with a coat hanger to unlock it?” “Why me?” I thought. More out of critique, amusement than optimism, I gave it a try.
I slid the hanger into the window’s seal like I’d seen on crime shows, and spent a few minutes jiggling the apparatus around the inside of the frame. It’s the details that really make this small experience come alive. Notice how whenever he can, Stephen uses a more specific, descriptive word in place of a more generic one. The volunteers aren’t going to get food or dinner; they’re going for “Texas BBQ.” The coat hanger comes from “a dumpster.” Stephen doesn’t just move the coat hanger—he “jiggles” it. Details also help us visualize the emotions of the tips to write an essay yourself, people in the scene.
The person who hands Stephen the coat hanger isn’t just uncomfortable or nervous; he “takes a few steps back”—a description of movement that conveys feelings. Finally, the detail of actual speech makes the scene pop. Instead of writing that the other guy asked him to unlock the essay knowledge power ways, van, Stephen has the to write about yourself, guy actually say his own words in a way that sounds like a teenager talking. E. B. One Man's? Coat hangers: not just for to write yourself crows' nests any more! (Gotz/Wikimedia) Turning a Specific Incident Into a Deeper Insight. Suddenly, two things simultaneously clicked. Essay Knowing Ways? One was the lock on the door. (I actually succeeded in springing it.) The other was the tips to write about yourself, realization that I’d been in this type of situation before. In fact, I’d been born into this type of situation. Not only does Stephen make the by difference essay knowing knowledge power ways, locked car experience a meaningful illustration of an essay yourself, how he has learned to be resourceful and ready for anything, but he also makes this turn from the specific to the broad through an elegant play on the two meanings of the word “click.” Using Concrete Examples When Making Abstract Claims. Critique Resume? My upbringing has numbed me to unpredictability and chaos.
With a family of seven, my home was loud, messy, and spottily supervised. To Write? My siblings arguing, the dog barking, the phone ringing—all meant my house was functioning normally. “Unpredictability and chaos” are very abstract, not easily visualized concepts. Not only critique that, but they could mean any number of things—violence, abandonment, poverty, mental instability. By instantly following up with highly finite and unambiguous illustrations like “family of seven” and “siblings arguing, the dog barking, the phone ringing,” Stephen grounds the abstraction in something that is easy to to write yourself, picture: a large, noisy family. Using Small Bits of Humor and Casual Word Choice. My Dad, a retired Navy pilot, was away half the time. When he was home, he had a parenting style something like a drill sergeant. At the age of nine, I learned how to clear burning oil from the surface of water.
My Dad considered this a critical life skill—you know, in case my aircraft carrier should ever get torpedoed. Obviously, knowing how to clean burning oil is not high on the list of things every 9-year-old needs to congruence dissertation, know. To Write An Essay? To emphasize this, Stephen uses sarcasm by bringing up a situation that is clearly over-the-top: “in case my aircraft carrier should ever get torpedoed.” The humor also feels relaxed. Part of this is because he introduces it with the colloquial phrase “you know,” so it sounds like he is talking to us in person. White? This approach also diffuses the potential discomfort of the an essay, reader with his father’s strictness—since he is making jokes about it, clearly he is OK. Notice, though, that this doesn’t occur very much in the essay. This helps keep the tone meaningful and serious rather than flippant. E. B. White? Mr.
President? There's been an oil spill! Then I want our best elementary school students on it, STAT. About Yourself? An Ending That Stretches the Insight Into the Future. But one day this fall, Dr. Hicks, our Head of School, asked me a question that he hoped all seniors would reflect on throughout the year: “How can I participate in a thing I do not govern, in the company of people I did not choose?” The question caught me off guard, much like the question posed to me in Laredo.
Then, I realized I knew the answer. I knew why the coat hanger had been handed to me. Growing up as the middle child in congruence dissertation my family, I was a vital participant in to write an essay about a thing I did not govern, in the company of people I did not choose. It’s family. It’s society. And often, it’s chaos. You participate by letting go of the small stuff, not expecting order and knowledge power, perfection, and facing the unexpected with confidence, optimism, and preparedness. My family experience taught me to face a serendipitous world with confidence. The ending of the essay reveals that Stephen’s life has been one long preparation for the future.
He has emerged from chaos and his dad’s approach to tips about, parenting as a person who can thrive in a world that he can’t control. This connection of past experience to current maturity and self-knowledge is a key element in all successful personal essays. Colleges are very much looking for mature, self-aware applicants. These are the qualities of communication in nursing, successful college students, who will be able to navigate the independence college classes require and tips an essay yourself, the responsibility and quasi-adulthood of college life. Critique Resume? What Could This Essay Do Even Better? Even the about, best essays aren't perfect, and even the critique resume, world's greatest writers will tell you that writing is never finished—just due.
So what would we tweak in about this essay if we could? Replace some of the cliched language. Stephen uses handy phrases like twists and turns and writing, don’t sweat the an essay, small stuff as a kind of shorthand for explaining his relationship to chaos and unpredictability. But using too many of these ready-made expressions runs the essay writing on yourself, risk of tips, clouding out on yourself your own voice and tips about, replacing it with something expected and critique, boring. Use another example from recent life. Tips To Write An Essay About Yourself? Stephen's first example (breaking into the van in Laredo) is a great illustration of being resourceful in an unexpected situation. One Man's Meat? But his essay also emphasizes that he learned to adapt by being different things to different people. It would be great to see how this plays out tips to write an essay about yourself outside his family, either in the situation in Laredo or another context.
Example #2: By Bridget Collins, Tufts Class of '19 (Common App Essay, 608 words long) I have always loved riding in resume cars. After a long day in first grade, I used to fall asleep to the engine purring in my mother's Honda Odyssey, even though it was only a 5-minute drive home. As I grew, and graduated into the shotgun seat, it became natural and enjoyable to look out the window. Seeing my world passing by through that smudged glass, I would daydream what I could do with it. Tips An Essay About Yourself? In elementary school, I already knew my career path: I was going to be Emperor of the World. While I sat in the car and watched the miles pass by, I developed the writing, plan for my empire.
I reasoned that, for the world to run smoothly, it would have to look presentable. I would assign people, aptly named Fixer-Uppers, to fix everything that needed fixing. That old man down the street with chipping paint on tips, his house would have a fresh coat in no time. Critique Resume? The boy who accidentally tossed his Frisbee onto tips an essay yourself the roof of the resume, school would get it back. The big pothole on Elm Street that my mother managed to hit every single day on the way to school would be filled-in. It made perfect sense! All the tips about yourself, people that didn't have a job could be Fixer-Uppers. Communication? I was like a ten-year-old FDR.
Seven years down the road, I still take a second glance at the sidewalk cracks and think of my Fixer-Uppers, but now I'm doing so from the driver's seat. Tips An Essay About? As much as I would enjoy it, I now accept that I won't become Emperor of the World, and that the Fixer-Uppers will have to communication essays, remain in my car ride imaginings. Or do they? I always pictured a Fixer-Upper as a smiling man in an orange T-Shirt. Maybe instead, a Fixer-Upper could be a tall girl with a deep love for Yankee Candles. Maybe it could be me.
Bridget the Fixer-Upper will be slightly different than the imaginary one who paints houses and tips to write an essay, fetches Frisbees. I was lucky enough to discover what I am passionate about congruence dissertation, when I was a freshman in high school. A self-admitted Phys. Ed. addict, I volunteered to tips to write an essay yourself, help out with the Adapted PE class. On my first day, I learned that it was for critique resume developmentally-disabled students. To be honest, I was really nervous. I hadn't had too much interaction with special needs students before, and wasn't sure how to handle myself around them.
Long story short, I got hooked. Three years have passed helping out in APE and eventually becoming a teacher in the Applied Behavior Analysis summer program. Tips An Essay About? I love working with the students and knowing ways womens, watching them progress. When senior year arrived, college meetings began, and my counselor asked me what I wanted to tips an essay about, do for a career, I didn't say Emperor of the World. Instead, I told him I wanted to become a board-certified behavior analyst.
A BCBA helps develop learning plans for students with autism and other disabilities. Basically, I would get to do what I love for the rest of my life. He laughed and told me that it was a nice change that a seventeen-year-old knew so specifically what she wanted to do. I smiled, thanked him, and left. But it occurred to me that, while my desired occupation was decided, my true goal in congruence dissertation life was still to tips an essay yourself, become a Fixer-Upper. So, maybe I'll be like Sue Storm and her alter-ego, the critique resume, Invisible Woman. To Write About Yourself? I'll do one thing during the day, then spend my off-hours helping people where I can. Resume? Instead of tips yourself, flying like Sue, though, I'll opt for a nice performance automobile. My childhood self would appreciate that. Bridget takes a somewhat different approach than Stephen, but her essay is just as detailed and engaging.
Let's go through some of the strengths of her essay. A Structure That’s Easy to Follow and Understand. Congruence Dissertation? The essay is arranged chronologically. Bridget starts each paragraph with a clear signpost of where we are in time: Paragraph 1: “after a long day in first grade” Paragraph 2: “in elementary school” Paragraph 3: “seven years down the to write about, road” Paragraph 4: “when I was a freshman in high school” Paragraph 5: “when senior year arrived” This keeps the reader oriented without being distracting or gimmicky. Essays In Nursing? I would assign people, aptly named Fixer-Uppers, to tips an essay, fix everything that needed fixing. That old man down the street with chipping paint on his house would have a fresh coat in no time.
The boy who accidentally tossed his Frisbee onto the roof of the school would get it back. Seven years down the on yourself, road, I still take a second glance at the sidewalk cracks and think of my Fixer-Uppers, but now I'm doing so from the driver's seat. As much as I would enjoy it, I now accept that I won't become Emperor of the tips to write an essay about yourself, World, and that the ways, Fixer-Uppers will have to remain in my car ride imaginings. Or do they? I always pictured a Fixer-Upper as a smiling man in an orange T-Shirt. Maybe instead, a Fixer-Upper could be a tall girl with a deep love for Yankee Candles. Maybe it could be me.
I wanted to become a board-certified behavior analyst. To Write An Essay About Yourself? A BCBA helps develop learning plans for students with autism and on yourself, other disabilities. Basically, I would get to do what I love for to write an essay yourself the rest of my life. …But it occurred to me that, while my desired occupation was decided, my true goal in critique life was still to tips to write an essay, become a Fixer-Upper. What makes this essay fun to read is that Bridget takes a child’s idea of a world made better through quasi-magical helpers and turns it into than wealth essay a metaphor for the author’s future aspirations. It helps that the metaphor is tips to write an essay yourself, a very clear one: people who work with students with disabilities are making the world better one abstract fix at a time, just like imaginary Fixer-Uppers would make the world better one concrete physical fix at e. b. one man's essays a time.
Every childhood Fixer-Upper ever. Ask your parents to explain the back row to you. (JD Hancock/Flickr) This essay uses many techniques that make Bridget sound genuine and make the reader feel like we already know her. Technique #1: humor. Notice Bridget's gentle and relaxed humor that lightly mocks her younger self’s grand ambitions (this is different from the more sarcastic kind of humor used by Stephen in tips about yourself the first essay—you could never mistake one writer for the other). In elementary school, I already knew my career path: I was going to be Emperor of the World. I was like a ten-year-old FDR. Technique #2: invented terminology. The second technique is the way Bridget coins her own terms, carrying them through the whole essay.
It would be easy enough to simply describe the people she imagined in childhood as helpers or assistants, and to simply say that as a child she wanted to rule the world. Instead, she invents the capitalized (and thus official-sounding) titles “Fixer-Upper” and critique resume, “Emperor of the tips to write an essay about, World,” making these childish conceits at once charming and iconic. What's also key is that the than wealth essay, titles feed into the central metaphor of the essay, which keeps them from sounding like strange quirks that don’t go anywhere. Technique #3: playing with syntax. The third technique is to use sentences of to write about yourself, varying length, syntax, and structure.
Most of the congruence, essay's written in standard English and uses grammatically correct sentences. To Write An Essay About Yourself? However, at key moments, Bridget emphasizes that the reader needs to sit up and pay attention by switching to short, colloquial, differently punctuated, and sometimes fragmented sentences. The big pothole on Elm Street that my mother managed to hit every single day on the way to school would be filled-in. It made perfect sense! All the people that didn't have a job could be Fixer-Uppers. Congruence Dissertation? When she is narrating her childhood thought process, the sudden short sentence “It made perfect sense!” (especially its exclamation point) is tips to write yourself, basically the essay version of drawing a light bulb turning on over someone’s head. As much as I would enjoy it, I now accept that I won't become Emperor of the World, and that the Fixer-Uppers will have to ways, remain in my car ride imaginings. To Write An Essay Yourself? Or do they? Similarly, when the communication essays, essay turns from her childhood imagination to her present-day aspirations, the turn is to write an essay yourself, marked with “Or do they?”—a tiny and arresting half-sentence question.
Maybe instead, a Fixer-Upper could be a tall girl with a deep love for e. b. white one man's meat Yankee Candles. Tips About? Maybe it could be me. The first time when the comparison between magical fixer-upper’s and the future disability specialist is made is when Bridget turns her metaphor onto herself. The essay emphasizes the importance of the in nursing, moment through repetition (two sentences structured similarly, both starting with the tips an essay, word “maybe”) and the use of a very short sentence: “Maybe it could be me.” To be honest, I was really nervous. I hadn't had too much interaction with special needs students before, and wasn't sure how to handle myself around them. Long story short, I got hooked.
The last key moment that gets the essay, small-sentence treatment is the emotional crux of the tips to write about, essay. As we watch Bridget go from nervously trying to help disabled students to falling in love with this specialty field, she undercuts the essay, potential sappiness of the moment by relying on tips to write an essay, changed-up sentence length and slang: “Long story short, I got hooked.” The best essays convey emotions just as clearly as this image. Congruence Dissertation? What Could This Essay Do Even Better? Bridget's essay is very strong, but there are still a few little things that could be improved. Explain the car connection better. The essay begins and ends with Bridget's enjoying a car ride, but this doesn't seem to tips to write an essay yourself, be related either to communication essays, the Fixer-Upper idea or to her passion for working with special-needs students.
It would be great to either connect this into tips to write an essay yourself the essay more, or to take it out altogether and essays in nursing, create more space for something else. Give more details about being a teacher in the Applied Behavior Analysis summer program. It makes perfect sense that Bridget doesn't want to put her students on display. It would take the focus off of her and possibly read as offensive or condescending. But, rather than saying long story short, maybe she could elaborate on her own feelings here a bit more. What is tips, it about e. b. meat, this kind of about yourself, teaching that she loves?
What is she hoping to bring to the lives of white one man's, her future clients? 3 Essential Tips for Writing Your Own Essay. How can you use this discussion to better your own college essay? Here are some suggestions for ways to use this resource effectively. #1: Take Apart the Other Essays in the Links. As you go through the essays we've compiled for you above, ask yourself the following questions: Can you explain to yourself (or someone else!) why the opening sentence works well? Look for the essay's detailed personal anecdote.
What senses is the author describing? Can you easily picture the scene in your mind's eye? Find the place where this anecdote bridges into a larger insight about the author. An Essay About? How does the essay connect the two? How does the anecdote work as an example of the health important than essay, author's characteristic, trait, or skill? Check out the essay's tone. If it's funny, can you find the places where the humor comes from? If it's sad and moving, can you find the imagery and description of feelings that make you moved?
If it's serious, can you see how word choice adds to this tone? When you figure out how all the to write yourself, cogs fit together, you'll be able to build your own . um . Congruence? whatever this is. All of these essays rely on connecting with the reader through a heartfelt, highly descriptive scene from the an essay about yourself, author's life. Critique? It can either be very dramatic (did you survive a plane crash?) or it can be completely mundane (did you finally beat your dad at Scrabble?). Tips To Write An Essay About? Either way, it should be personal and revealing about you, your personality, and the way you are now that you are entering the adult world. Let me level with you: the best writing isn't writing at all. It's rewriting. By Difference Essay Power Ways Womens? And in order to have time to rewrite, you have to start way before the application deadline. My advice is to write your first draft at least two months before your applications are due.
Let it sit for a few days untouched. Then come back to it with fresh eyes and to write yourself, think critically about what you've written. What's extra? What's missing? What is in the wrong place? What doesn't make sense? Don't be afraid to take it apart and rearrange sections. Do this several times over, and essay, your essay will be much better for it!
Want to to write an essay about, improve your SAT score by 160 points or your ACT score by 4 points? We've written a guide for each test about the by difference inspired knowing knowledge womens, top 5 strategies you must be using to have a shot at an essay improving your score. Download it for free now: Have friends who also need help with test prep? Share this article! Anna scored in the 99th percentile on her SATs in high school, and went on to major in English at Princeton and to get her doctorate in by difference essay inspired knowing knowledge womens English Literature at Columbia. She is passionate about improving student access to higher education. You should definitely follow us on tips to write yourself, social media. You'll get updates on dissertation, our latest articles right on your feed.
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OPEC – The Organisation of Petroleum Exporting Countries Essay Sample. The Organisation of about yourself Petroleum Exporting Countries has merely become the most popular name related to oil, overnight. Today the countries are thoroughly dependent on its operations, and without OPEC, it can be a nightmare for all of them. OPEC has got a sheer power to operate the governments of various countries. Regardless of the fact that there have been all sorts of ups and downs in oil production, OPEC still has got a firm control on the oil supply of the free world. The weaker nations are all lucky to have a support of OPEC as well as stronger, the e. b. meat essays weaker nations get the support from the stronger ones all because of an tips to write about operating body like OPEC. OPEC has found its geopolitical strength and has realised its power suddenly and has become an important force playing an important part in regions like Asia and Africa. It has brought the huge multinational oil companies under control who could have done so many wrong acts otherwise, but now they all are on their knees, OPEC has made them merely impotent in the decision-making process, which is a good sign as there aim of profitability can disturb many other economies. It has forced the Western nations to have its favour on numerous occasions.
There is a growing recognition in the Western world that the critique resume industrialised countries cannot solve the problems of chronic inflation and economic stagnation permanently unless they force OPEC to abandon its stand of raising oil prices ever higher and disrupt supplies to about yourself the oil consuming nations, but imagine what they could have done if OPEC was not there. The dependence on OPEC increased considerably in congruence dissertation, the United States during the last decade and a half. Tips To Write An Essay? According to a study by by difference essay womens the Federal Energy Administration (FEA), U.S. oil imports raised 150 percent between 1968 and 1973, from about 2.5 million barrels a day in 1968 to an essay 6.3 mb/d in 1973. Imports from the communication essays in nursing Arab oil producing countries were raised to 31.9 percent in 1976 from a negligible 2 percent of total U.S. oil imports in 1970. On the whole, the reliance of the United States on foreign oil had increased disturbingly. In 1970, the United States depended on foreign oil for 23 percent of its total oil consumption, which was quite clearly showing what could have happened in no oil situation.
In 1974, the tips to write about yourself figure was raised to 37 percent, and in 1976, oil imports were about 44 percent of total U.S. consumption. In 1977, the oil imports reached the pinnacle at an average of 8.7 mb/d. That represented approximately 48 percent of the writing total domestic supply, which averaged 18.4 mb/d in that year. The FEA’s figures also showed that the consumption of oil in United States was raised by 3.7 percent in tips an essay, 1976 as compared to communication in nursing 1975, with gasoline use advancing at 6.7 percent and distillate by 7.9 percent. At the same time, the domestic production during 1975 and 1976 had decreased from 8.24 mb/d of tips to write yourself crude oil to critique resume 7.93 mb/d.
The nation’s refineries ran at tips to write about yourself 86 percent of capacity in that period compared to 87.1 percent in essay, 1975, which is a considerable difference in the short run. It has also been identified that the Arab nations and Nigeria were increasing their share of the U.S. market while the nation’s traditional suppliers such as, Venezuela and Canada were contributing a smaller share, fundamentally because of the high price of Canadian oil and the restricted output of to write about yourself Venezuela. It was for the first time in 1976 that Saudi Arabia had overtaken Venezuela as the critique resume United State’s chief overseas supplier of crude oil. On the other hand countries like Algeria and the United Arab Emirates (UAE) have all increased their shipments, while Canada is pointing out its shipments to the United States. The conditions took a big change during 1979-1981.
Suddenly, the oil crisis gave a rise to yourself the oil surplus, it was perhaps due to the remarkable changes in the balance between demand and supply which is the base of economics and also famous for changing any country’s fate. By Difference Knowing Power? The oil consumption in the Western side of the world dropped more than 7 percent between 1979 and 1980, and declined another 3 percent in 1981 that gave birth to so many questions. In the United States, it decreased by to write an essay about 5.8 percent during 1980 and 1981. The country’s oil import in 1980 was on average 5.3 mb/d, a much smaller figure as compared to in nursing that of previous years. Oil consumption in the United States fell an to write an essay about estimated 5 percent in 1980 to its lowest level in four years. Where as the world consumption of petroleum products also fell to 2.38 billion tons, or about 18.33 billion barrels, while gasoline consumption in industrial nations decreased merely by 30 million tons to 52.3 million, or about 231 million barrels. Health Important? On the other hand the motor fuel consumption, accounting for nearly one third of tips about yourself total oil demand in essays in nursing, industrial nations, also decreased by 5 percent in 1980, after a 2 percent fall in 1979. The reasons behind this great disturbance of oil consumption were of course, the higher price of crude oil and the collapsing conditions prevailing in the Western side of the world. The price of crude oil raised an average 74 percent in 1980, and in the first three months of 1981, it was 17 percent higher than the first three months of 1980.
The price rose from $13 per barrel in 1978 and 1979 to $34 per barrel in November 1981. Also, the economies of the tips to write about Western world grew at just over 1 percent in 1980, as compared to congruence dissertation a 3.3 percent growth in an essay, 1979, and this decline has been a major contributor to a lower demand. Within the same situation, the world output of crude oil also decreased in 1980 by 123 million tons, or nearly about 4 percent, because of a 12 percent reduction among OPEC members. OPEC production had almost declined by critique 1 mb/d, from 31.1 to tips to write an essay yourself 30.2 from 1973 to 1978. Meanwhile, the health important wealth essay non-OPEC production raised by nearly about 6 mb/d, from 27 million in 1973 to 32.8 million in 1978, which was showing the change in about, roles. The output of the Communist trading area such as China, extended sharply by about 45 percent, and the developing countries production rose by approximately 88 percent in 1980, according to the General Agreement on important wealth Tariffs and Trade (GATT) annual report. As a consequence of each and every act, the demand for oil lessened considerably in the Western world mainly because of the tips yourself downturn, preservation and because of the higher oil prices, resulting in the surplus of excess oil supplies, which damaged the OPEC association vitally. “Thus the oil-consuming nations of the world are truly between Scylla and Charybdis.
If their economies recover, OPEC gets stronger. If their economies decline, OPEC weakens. Under present circumstances, it would mean that only a world depression would suffice to completely crack the critique OPEC bloc”(Ghosh 8: 1983). Oil Demand and Supply Situation in the United States, 1980-1981. So far we have discussed the tips about yourself background of OPEC, which is potentially showing you all the health more important than ups and downs of OPEC, particularly its operations in relation to the countries that are supporting its regime and to write an essay about yourself also those because of which it has paid a heavy price for. From now and onwards we would be discussing its recent operations that would give you a hint of its effectiveness, which was even there way back in 1980s. As a modern organisation, OPEC is an essay writing on yourself organisation of oil producing governments that assist to tips an essay manage oil supply and prices in order to maximise the revenues of the member states and promote stability in the oil market, it is in nursing, playing a role which is no different than the role of tips to write about WTO or any other organisation which is working for critique, the equitable distribution of wealth. There are ten producer governments that have made OPEC, most of them are being operated in the Middle East, they are economies that are highly dependent on oil revenues, they are also having quotas but Iraq, which is the eleventh member, currently is having no quota because it is an essay, trying to critique re-establish its former oil production after the Iraq war in 2003.
OPEC is acting like a union as it is pursuing Iraq’s economic and political objectives. This all has at least given Iraq a hope, proving the effectiveness of OPEC in tips to write, the modern world. The role played by OPEC and its importance can be visualised from the point that OPEC has about 75 percent of the critique world’s oil reserves and it is currently comprising of only about 35 percent of world oil production, which is not in comparison to the 60-65 percent it controlled at the time of the to write an essay yourself oil shocks in health important wealth, the 1970s. There goes a chance for non-OPEC producers, which are playing an important role, led by an essay yourself Russia, whose production is growing day by day, and the United States, whose production is e. b. white one man's meat, surprisingly turning down. To Write About? OPEC has although got success in most phases in controlling the essays in nursing oil markets but it has also made mistakes, at various occasions it has been facing challenges that are perhaps beyond its control, as in tips an essay yourself, 2004. “This rise in forward prices was matched by increases in health more wealth essay, prices bid for high-quality equity units offering investors a return directly linked to oil prices. To Write An Essay About? Share prices offered for the BP Prudhoe Bay Royalty Trust, a trust issued by British Petroleum for production from Prudhoe Bay in health important than wealth essay, Alaska, rose from tips to write about yourself, $14 per share in May 2004 to almost $40 per share. The increase in the BP share price corresponds to a change in investor expectations regarding the essay rate of increase in future oil prices”(Verleger 22, Vol 18: 2004). By the end of to write an essay about yourself November 1997, at the failure of Jakarta meeting, the OPEC increased the oil production regardless of the oil issues in the Asian economies, which led to a decrease in demand in 1998 and a price collapse to US$10 per barrel.
The price fall down caused severe damage to communication essays the economies of oil producing countries. The union was able to tips to write an essay regroup and cut production in March 1999 with the assistance of non-OPEC producers, which was a joint step to solve the situation, specifically Mexico, Russia, Norway, and Oman. Oil prices recovered and increased above US$30 per barrel by early 2000, determined partially by Asian recovery and low Organisation of Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) oil stocks. Critique? OPEC exceeded its goal of restoring prices to the US$20 range. In the year 2000, the OPEC increased its output by merely four times in a try to reduce the high oil prices that endangered to lessen the oil demand. In its Vienna meeting in March of year 2000, OPEC turned its 1999 decision, down and increased production, again got some assistance by to write an essay about the many of the non-OPEC producers.
It also announced a price band mechanism designed to keep oil prices in a target range of US$22 to US$28 per barrel for the OPEC basket of crudes, in relation to its goal of maintaining it with in the range of US$20. “The OPEC basket is a weighted average of Saudi light and six other OPEC crude oils. It includes an automatic production adjustment mechanism that is implemented if the price goes above or below the band, though the mechanism has not always been implemented. Other production increases followed in June, September, and October 2000, but oil prices remained stubbornly high, finally dropping at the year’s end”(Kohl 68, Vol 26: 2005). The settlement of the basket is useful in terms that the record of the OPEC basket price is a very good indicator of the OPEC’s success or failure in running the more important than world oil market. The OPEC basket price tends to run about US$2 below the US benchmark oil price for West Texas Intermediate crude (WTI), which is the price quoted on the New York Mercantile Exchange, which is showing a complete planning done by OPEC to overestimate the expenses and underestimate the outcome. In the tips yourself year 2001, OPEC faced an economic collapse in essay knowing ways womens, the United States that gradually widened away in the world and reduced oil demand. Following several OPEC production ups and an essay downs, the OPEC basket price initially remained in the US$20 range. However, the 9/11 attacks were followed by a decrease in air travel and writing a decline in the stock market that even extended the downturn. Eventually the oil demand chopped off, and oil prices sooner fell even below US$20 per barrel. In response to the situation, the OPEC called an emergency meeting in late November and announced a production cut of 1.5 mb/d, in January 2002, on to write the condition that non-OPEC producers led by Russia would contribute an additional cut of 500,000 barrels per day.
The OPEC strategy was largely successful, which was another point proving their effectiveness in planning of the oil controlling market. Lets discuss the year 2002, with some more details. Right in the start of 2002, the health more wealth essay OPEC was confronted by a global economic slowdown and a slump in tips to write about yourself, oil demand. But OPEC was determined to avoid a further fall down of prices and important than essay restrained production. At the same point of time, political tensions also raised in the Middle East side with new Israeli attacks against the Palestinians and to write an essay about yourself US threats against Iraq that was also determined to keep the practice alive, they continued their practice of interrupting oil exports. One of the good things which was supporting the OPEC was its quotas that were lowest since 1991, assisted in keeping the oil stocks as low as possible and also helped in bringing oil prices back into the US$20 to US$25 range by spring 2003.
The OPEC’s basket prices were again within the dissertation price band settled earlier. In December 2002, OPEC again raised its production maximum to 23 mb/d to support it with real production. In discussion of the year 2003, a strike of Venezuelan oil production workers in the early 2003 removed most of that producer’s oil production and exports, which eventually resulted in a shortfall in the market. At the tips to write an essay about yourself same time, turbulence in Nigeria decreased that country’s production, as a result, at by difference essay inspired knowledge power ways its January 2003 meeting, OPEC determined to raise its production by 1.5 mb/d to about yourself 24.5 mb/. It was mainly to essay writing on yourself compensate the Venezuelan shortfall.
Later on in march, the WTI drove up the prices to to write about yourself US$40 per barrel as a result of the communication essays in nursing war threat in Iraq. OPEC stood up and gave a hope by indicating that it would keep the to write an essay about oil market well supplied in crisis and the International Energy Agency (IEA) agreed to let OPEC challenge this before responding with any release of strategic oil supplies. When the war broke out in Iraq, the oil prices again declined to US$30, as WTI was in expectation of a short war, which was not really a case. OPEC tackled the congruence situation of lost production in Iraq by to write an essay yourself increasing the resume production in Saudi Arabia, Kuwait and tips to write about Algeria. By the end of April 2003, OPEC agreed to cut actual production by 2 mb/d to 25.4 mb/d on the hypothesis that there would be a seasonal fall in demand and Iraq would be slowly get settled into the market. Saudi oil Minister, Ali al-Naimi made a good effort to keep the price as close to white one man's US$25 per barrel as possible. Iraqi production began to slowly recover which OPEC earlier anticipated. Now oil prices were at the top of the price band. But then in tips an essay yourself, August when the Iraq export pipeline was damaged and UN headquarters were bombed in on yourself, Baghdad, the to write yourself oil prices were facing a pressure to get raised again. OPEC took a very surprising decision later on in September 2003, by deciding to cut production and return to the February plan of maximizing the production to 24.5 mb/d to e. b. one man's meat essays obstruct stock build in an essay about, the fourth quarter and maintain prices in the upper part of the price band.
OPEC took this decision under the hypothesis that the world economy was slowly improving and that Iraq’s production and exports were slowly expanding as discussed earlier. Naimi said that OPEC would not raise the price band despite a proposal from Venezuela to do so. Oil prices rose to between US$28 and US$29 per barrel in September and to between US$30 and US$32 per barrel by November. Both US President George W. Bush and essay writing on yourself IEA Executive Director Claude Mandil showed great disappointment at the September decision, as they perceived it harmful for the economic growth. In the last month of 2003, OPEC confirmed its September decision, keeping in mind the disorder in Iraq and the continuing weakness of the US dollar, which worsened OPEC purchasing power. Meanwhile, Iraq’s production reached 2.35 mb/d and the OPEC basket price had exceeded US$28, But OPEC, in tips to write an essay about, response resisted this action, fearing that demand would be dropped by the second quarter of 2004. Lets now discuss the year 2004, it was sooner that OPEC lost control of oil prices in 2004, In the first three quarters of e. b. one man's meat that year, the OPEC basket price remained above US$40 per barrel which was far above from US$28 per barrel, however it fell slightly below US$40 per barrel later on in September. There were so many reasons behind that, such as a largely unanticipated flow in oil demand spurred by high economic growth in China and the United States, low oil inventories, deepening violence and instability in Iraq, declining OPEC additional capacity, and blockage in the gasoline market. OPEC, led by Saudi Arabia, began the tips to write about yourself year by misunderstanding the market when it announced its intention to decrease overproduction and stick to a 24.5 mb/d of maximum production.
Naimi confirmed his belief in a US$25 per barrel price for health wealth essay, the OPEC basket, mentioning concern about yourself, falling demand and a large stock build in the second quarter, and was determined not to repeat the previous mistakes of 1997 to e. b. white meat 1999. In March, WTI prices reached a high of between US$36 and US$38 per barrel and the OPEC basket price ranged from between US$32 and US$33 per barrel was yet not according to the plan and willingness of many other associates. Sooner OPEC confirmed its earlier decision of tips to write yourself cutting the output by 1 mb/d to 23.5 mb/d despite high oil prices. OPEC also tried to cut many of the supplies of market, however ministers insisted that the market was very well supplied with oil and critique resume thus OPEC should not allow any shortages in world oil markets, but they were all determined to keep inventories low and prices high. White House and US Department of tips yourself Energy officials criticised OPEC’s production cuts while prices were high. Congruence? In the to write about meantime, Venezuela, Nigeria, and Iran argued for the need to raise the price band, causing disagreement within OPEC. In the face of growing oil demand and essay inspired ways womens attacks on oil facilities in tips an essay yourself, Iraq and essays in nursing Saudi Arabia, oil prices rose above US$40 per barrel in May, which was because of a side never perceived by to write about OPEC. Naimi finally began calling for a production increase.
He got his wish at the June 3 meeting in Beirut when OPEC raised its production to a maximum by 2 mb/d to e. b. one man's meat essays 25.5 mb/d from July 1, and by a further 500 kilo barrels per day from August 1. This was a negotiation between Saudi Arabia, which wanted an instant increase to 26 mb/d, and Iran, which would initially only accept 25.5 mb/d. To Write An Essay Yourself? The measures were taken only to ensure ample supply and give a clear signal of communication essays in nursing OPEC’s commitment to market stability and to an essay yourself maintaining prices at acceptable levels to both producers and health more wealth essay consumers, according to a June 7 OPEC statement. Actual OPEC output was reported as 26 mb/d in tips about yourself, April increasing to about 27 mb/d in June, with Saudi Arabia increasing to 9.1 mb/d. As a result, remaining OPEC extra capacity was significantly reduced to about 1 mb/d in Saudi Arabia, then again conditions turned very tight in the summer of resume 2004, in July, the IEA enlarged its oil demand projection for the year by an additional 2.5 mb/d.
OPEC canceled its July meeting but proceeded with its planned August increase in supply of an essay 500,000 barrels to a maximum of 26 mb/d. Yet OPEC actions were insufficient to prevent further price increases. The WTI oil prices again moved above US$40 per barrel in essays, July and hit record highs of US$44.73 on August 5 and US$48.75 on August 19, which again was an indication that OPEC’s planning was not implemented as decided. Another major factor for the outcome was the disturbance in Iraq, which heated up and spread to tips yourself the oil rich southern regions with attacks on the South oil company pipelines. The U.S. oil inventories were still low compared with demand, refineries continued at peak production, and there was continuing concern about the small OPEC additional capacity to meet any supply disruption, which was originally about communication, 1 to 1.5 mb/d. Saudi Arabia continued to secure the price band, but other countries, including Iran, Nigeria, and Venezuela, were satisfied with oil prices in tips to write yourself, the US$30 to US$40 range. OPEC facing continuing high prices was in a weaker position at its September 15 meeting. With additional capacity reduced to about 1 mb/d in Saudi Arabia, OPEC required to than wealth cure high prices by announcing an increase in its production with a maximum from 26 to tips an essay yourself 27 mb/d in November. This was more a signal than an actual change because current production from the OPEC was already known to be 28 mb/d.
Regardless of interest by several members, a decision was delayed on more important whether to raise the price band or not, which by this point had become inappropriate. An Essay? Naimi clearly opposed the raise, saying it should only resume, be raised if there was a structural change in the market. Saudi Arabia, now producing 9.5 mb/d, also announced just before the meeting that it would add 800,000 barrels per day of production capacity in two new fields by the end of September. Kuwait was also planning to have an expansion. The WTI crude price decreased slightly after the tips about yourself meeting to US$43.58. The higher oil prices and health more essay expanded production has greatly benefited OPEC in the past two years through the oil export revenue. Tips An Essay Yourself? In June 2004, the Energy Information Administration (EIA) estimated OPEC’s net oil export revenues for 2004 at US$286 billion, up from US$240 billion in 2003 and US$195 billion in more, 2002.
Certainly all these revenues have helped OPEC in its recovery and curing from the price collapse of 1997 to 1999. However, OPEC has a very less per capita income for adjusting inflation and rapid population growth. It should be noted that many countries are greatly thankful from the tips yourself period of lower oil prices from the mid 1980s to the late 1990s, and many OPEC countries are moving slowly on required economic restructuring. Saudi Arabia which is OPEC’s largest oil producer and a leader in OPEC production decisions, will possibly earn US$100 billion from oil export revenues in 2004 based on average oil production of 8.7 mb/d, it is white one man's essays, quite predictable as well since the earnings for 2003 were US$86 billion. Last year, Saudi Arabia experienced healthy gross domestic product growth and a government surplus, greatly improving the country’s economic situation.
However, Saudi Arabia’s 2003 surplus was only the second surplus in the past 20 years, during which the government had run deficits and trade imbalances. Total government debt has been nearly 100 percent of GDP, surpluses in 2003 and 2004 are likely to be used to increase foreign assets and pay off some government debt, which would stable the tips to write about country’s situation more importantly. In Saudi Arabia, oil exports put in over 90 percent of export earnings, 70 to 80 percent of state revenues, and about 40 percent of GDP, which gives a hint of its heavy dependence on oil sector. Oil export revenues per capita were about US$3,683 in 2003, which in critique, real terms are much lower than the per to write about yourself, capita figure for 1980 at the high point of oil prices, which was only about US$22. Saudi Arabia continues to health more essay face serious economic challenges of fast population growth, which is tips an essay about, about 3 percent per year, which is not a healthy sign and relating them to other economies, which are not doing well because of similar population growth, such as Pakistan. Also Saudi Arabia is having high unemployment, which is about 15 to congruence dissertation 20 percent. More recently, the threat of domestic terrorism has provided a new challenge and will require more government spending on to write an essay yourself security, which is again in relation to the increased transportation which than has a relation with the oil pricing. The large financial needs of the state have been estimated to require a stable oil price of US$30 per barrel, which helps explain recent Saudi unwillingness and disagreement at essays in nursing OPEC meetings to press for lower oil prices. Other OPEC members face similar challenges with even larger populations and immense financial needs. Yourself? The only exceptions are Kuwait and the United Arab Emirates, which have small populations and large GDP per capita.
The Stock traders in New York, London, and Singapore, which are all aware of both economic fundamentals and geopolitical risks, ultimately have set the price of oil. In recent months the risk premium on the oil price may have grown to US$10 to US$15 per communication essays in nursing, barrel. To Write An Essay About? However the OPEC actions to than wealth essay increase production have not been sufficient to reduce the upward price acceleration, which if left free, will slow economic growth and lessen the future oil demand. Yourself? OPEC continues to be in a weak position by the fact that as a group of independent countries, it has no enforcement method. Therefore, exceeding quotas is power ways womens, a continuous problem, which weakens its efforts to manage the market. The financial needs of tips yourself Saudi Arabia and other OPEC countries appear to require oil prices well above the price band as discussed earlier in relation to the population growth and unemployment, still the members have delayed making a decision about whether to admit this or not and this delay has damaged OPEC’s market standing. It is difficult to trust Saudi statements that they would be happy with an critique resume oil price at to write an essay about yourself US$25 per barrel for the OPEC basket when they clearly are not trying to achieve this and their financial needs are demanding a much higher price. OPEC can certainly not control unexpected shifts in demand or geopolitical risks. The oil market is difficult to essays manage and would remain this way as OPEC has limited tools and tips an essay about also at times inadequate information to take decisions. Ford N, “ The Middle East: Keeping OPEC Together ”, (n.p.), Issue 339: November 2003. Ghosh A, “ The Petroleum Industry and United States Energy Policy ”, West Port, CT, Quorum Books: 1983.
Kohl W.L, “ Harvard International Review: The Perfect Storm ”, Vol 26, Issue 4: 2005. Siddiqi M.A, “ The Middle East: OPEC Maintains Firm Resolve ”, (n.p.): May 2001. Verleger P.K, “ The International Economy: Why Oil Could Go to $60 ”, Vol 18, Issue 4: 2004. Is this the perfect essay for you? Save time and order OPEC – The Organisation of e. b. essays Petroleum Exporting Countries. essay editing for only $13.9 per page. Top grades and quality guaranteed! Relevant essay suggestions for OPEC – The Organisation of Petroleum Exporting Countries. Definition of ‘Organization Of Petroleum Exporting Countries – OPEC’ An organization consisting of the world’s major oil-exporting nations.
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A Business Plan Doubles Your Chances for tips to write an essay about yourself Success, Says a New Survey. The value of writing a business plan is often debated in the entrepreneurial community. Writing? For every successful business that was launched with a well-thought-out business plan, it seems you can find an equally successful one that was launched with nothing more than some scribbles on the back of to write yourself, a napkin. In fact, the contrarian approach may be the one you hear most about #8212; i.e., entrepreneurs dismissing a business plan as something they wrote and in nursing, then stuffed in the bottom of a drawer. Palo Alto Software founder Tim Berry (a contributor here at Small Business Trends ) recently reported on some new data showing the value of business plans.
Palo Alto did a survey that asked thousands of its Business Plan Pro software users questions about their businesses, goals and business planning. The responses showed that those who completed business plans were nearly twice as likely to successfully grow their businesses or obtain capital as those who didn#8217;t write a plan. Tim gave this breakdown of the numbers: 2,877 people completed the survey. Tips To Write About Yourself? Of those, 995 had completed a plan. 297 of them (36%) secured a loan 280 of them (36%) secured investment capital 499 of them (64%) had grown their business. 1,556 of the 2,877 had not yet completed their plan. 222 of health more important than essay, them (18%) secured a loan 219 of them (18%) secured investment capital 501 of them (43%) had grown their business.
Of course, as author of the original Business Plan Pro software program and founder of Palo Alto Software, Tim admits he#8217;s a little biased in tips to write about yourself, favor of business plans. Health More Important Than? And people who respond to a survey by the company that made their software may be biased in favor of saying good things. Tips To Write About Yourself? So Tim had the University of Oregon Department of Economics assess the validity of the data. Eason Ding and critique resume, Tim Hursey wrote a report on the data with the supervision of Professor Joe Stone. #8220;Results suggest that planning with software is highly correlated with subsequent successes for to write an essay a variety of firms,#8221; they wrote. Regardless of the type of company, the growth stage of the critique, company and the intent for the business plan, Ding and Hursey#8217;s analysis found that writing a business plan correlated with increased success in every one of the business goals included in the study . These were: obtaining a loan, getting investment capital, making a major purchase, recruiting a new team member, thinking more strategically and growing the company.
The authors concluded: #8220;Except in a small number of cases, business planning appeared to tips be positively correlated with business success as measured by our variables. While our analysis cannot say that completing a business plan will lead to success, it does indicate that the by difference inspired knowing knowledge power, type of entrepreneur who completes a business plan is an essay also more likely to writing run a successful business.#8221; And if I correctly interpret the last sentence in the quote above, the act of tips an essay yourself, going through the congruence, business planning process may make you a better entrepreneur. So there you have it: you#8217;re better off WITH a business plan than without one. To Write Yourself? In fact, based on the survey, you are twice as likely to writing on yourself grow your business or achieve funding if you have taken the time to write a business plan. That#8217;s interesting, but I#8217;m going to have to nitpick your conclusion. The quotes you used say that there#8217;s a correlation between writing a business plan and being successful. Tips An Essay? It seems like this data would have tremendous selection bias, so I don#8217;t think there#8217;s any evidence to support the e. b. white one man's meat, claim that writing a business plan makes you any more likely to succeed. It makes perfect sense that the type of person that would write a business plan is to write about more organized, dedicated, intelligent, talented, and/or experienced than someone that doesn#8217;t write a business plan.
This doesn#8217;t mean that writing a business plan improves any of those qualities. Even still, that#8217;s a pretty interesting study. Thanks for sharing it. Do you have stats on how much they were writing business plans during the so called Dot Com era? No way! You mean that having an actual plan before you start a business is a good idea?
Cmon!I suppose that the next thing you#8217;ll tell me is that Palo Alto Software makes the best of the best in business plan software! The Franchise King. nice post i am glad to e. b. white one man's left comment here. Taking the tips to write, time and making the effort to produce a business plan shows organization, determination and forethought. Critique Resume? All of which would tend to preselect toward successful individuals, so I#8217;m not sure if this is the chicken or the about, egg#8230; A great article with many truisms. Resume? having been in the business of writing strategic plans most of my life I would have to agree wholeheartedly with the conclusions. Tips Yourself? It never ceases to amaze me how many people will use GPS or Google Maps for congruence dissertation a trip somewhere but when it comes to tips to write about starting a business they think they can do it without any strategy, without any guiding road-map. Critique Resume? I am not saying the plan has to be set in concrete, but just like in sports where you know what the goal of the game is, in business you need to have clear idea of what you want to accomplish and then how do you wish to yourself accomplish that goal.
Right on! Business plans are very important to success, not because they set out all the one man's meat essays, solutions to to write an essay potential problems but because the process itself makes you aware of opportunities and challenges. Fore-warned is fore-armed! This is so interesting to dissertation me. To Write? I just gave a speech about congruence dissertation, effective business planning. My premise was that unless you are looking for to write an essay funding you don#8217;t need the lengthy, detailed, business plan created by the Business Plan Pro software. HOWEVER, you DO need a plan! How can you go anywhere if you don#8217;t know where you are going or how you are going to get there?
Business planning is critically important to business success. The 3 key elements in my estimation are: vision, planning, and critique resume, communication. Biased or objective I am not surprised by to write an essay the conclusion. Demings#8217; Plan-Do-Check-Act cycle is a proven concept is the field of management and certainly applies to one man's meat essays the process of setting up and developing a small business. Without a plan, how do you know where to focus your efforts?
How do you know if you#8217;re on target? If you don#8217;t have a business plan any result you achieve (even a poor one) is good since you don#8217;t have a plan to compare it to. An Essay? So yes, having a sound business plan is a vital part of setting up a small business. Not just to convince others that you have thought things through but also for yourself as a baseline reference for your level of success. It#8217;s the planning, not the plan that impacts chances of success. Those who take the time to think things through, consider consequences and alternatives, determine the definition of essay power ways womens, success and the steps necessary to reach it are significantly more prepared than those who wing it. Ok it does seem an obvious truth. Tips About Yourself? But even more important than the plan and the process of writing the plan I think, is measuring yourself up against how far you are in achieving the plan. Setting up systematic ways of measuring progress to the plan, even a plan written on critique, a napkin, will contribute the most to success. Very useful survey, and another proof that business plan is an essay about yourself important, whether it#8217;s a one-page or 100-page plan. Biz plan gives you clearer path to essay inspired knowing knowledge womens help you navigate your business better I consider it like our personal to do list: shop for an essay about yourself groceries, pick up kids from school, etc.
Also, it#8217;s obvious that bizzes with biz plans will secure loans better lenders want to know how you would use their money, and biz plan can do this for you. Great Post. Entrepreneurs have to be excellent managers of resources #8212; human, financial, informational, technological, material and time. If you are organized, savvy with finances. Health Than? This research is a classic example of an essay about, #8220;there are lies, damnable lies, and statistics#8221; (from Twain who got it from by difference essay knowing power, someone else). My second book (to be published in to write an essay, December 2010) is titled #8220;Bad Plans Carried Out Violently#8221; and promotes the idea that DOING SOMETHING trumps pre-planning almost without exception. I#8217;ve talked with hundreds of successful business owners and asked them four questions: 1) Did you do a business plan before you started your business? 2) If you did, how well did it project what actually happened over 1 yr, 3 yrs and 5 yrs? 3) Do you do ongoing strategic planning you fully update each quarter (this is not the classic January Business Plan or investor doc), to incorporate the feedback you get as you are doing business in the trenches? 4) If you do ongoing Strategic Planning vs. an annual Business Plan, how much do you find your plan changing over time as a result of doing ongoing dynamic strategic planning? The number of successful business owners who do a business plan before starting their business is statistically insignificant well less than 1%.
The only reason the small minority gave for doing one is because they had to in order to e. b. white essays get money from a bank or investor (almost no one does one just for themselves). That should tell you something about the classic #8220;pre-planning#8221; Business Plan we#8217;re all taught is an essay so important. Almost no one who is by difference knowing power successful does one, yet we continue to pound the tips to write, idea that it#8217;s necessary. Of those very few that did do a Business Plan before starting, virtually none of writing on yourself, them say their Business Plan projected accurately what actually happened in the next 12 months, or 3yr or 5 yrs. An Essay About Yourself? To the contrary most said their Business Plan was wildly off from what actually happened in writing, the real world. So most biz owners don#8217;t do one, and tips to write an essay about, those that do find they don#8217;t reflect reality, yet we continue with the Business Plan mantra. Very few biz owners do ongoing quarterly Strategic Plans, but of those that do, they are unanimous in inspired knowing knowledge power ways, saying that the reason they do is because business, just like life, changes so much and to write an essay about, so rapidly, that a once a year Business Plan is useless, and that the purpose of the classic Business Plan is resume simply to get a loan. Otherwise it has no value in their business. The conclusion is that successful business owners don#8217;t do a classic Business Plan unless they are forced to by a bank or investor, and that they never look at it after that.
So it clearly has value for getting a loan, but not for running a business. The proper planning analogy (which is chapter one in tips to write an essay about, my book) planning is critique a rudder on a ship. The rudder is a necessary but VERY small part of ship and is absolutely useless without movement. You do not steer a ship with a rudder, you steer it with movement the same thing is true for a business. And the faster you move the ship, the less rudder (planning) it takes to affect a right or left turn.
Stop planning and get moving! #8220;Committed Movement in a Purposeful Direction#8221; and #8220;Implement Now. Perfect as You Go.#8221; two concepts from my book are much more instructive to success than pre-planning. Knowing the end goal is extremely important knowing beforehand the path for an essay how you will get there is fortune-telling. See the new book from 37Signals.com called #8220;Rework#8221; for others affirming this as well. Hi Chuck, I agree entirely. To summarise the reason most businesses have a problem with planning is communication essays in nursing that they see it as an event when in fact its a process. Sometimes, even the task of writing a business plan can be daunting. At the same time, it#8217;s important to get something on paper. That#8217;s why I created a Back of the Napkin business plan exercise http://myshingle.com/2010/06/articles/ideas-tips/back-of-the-napkin-business-plan/ to get down vision as well as specific tasks to accomplish. My thanks to Rieva for an excellent summary of my earlier post, and thanks to to write an essay yourself all of you whose comments point out that what really matters is the writing on yourself, planning, the planning process, the live plan that is reviewed and revised regularly according to plan vs. actual results. That becomes management, steering the tips yourself, business.
The formal plan isn#8217;t the point; the first plan is just the first step towards planning as steering and management. Ironically, a lot of people who would agree with the above criticize the meat, business plan per-se, without realizing that you can#8217;t have planning process or management or steering without the tips to write an essay yourself, plan as the first step. Let#8217;s not throw out business planning just because some people stop at essay knowing power, the end of a single plan, without following up. Good business practices don#8217;t become bad just because a few people misuse or exaggerate. Good points, Tim. The problem is that the Business Plan is yourself almost universally seen as 1) a very thorough, thick, and detailed documentation of what is supposed to happen, and 2) a static document that you might review once in a while but rarely change more than once a year. Writing? The problem with #1 is that complexity breeds paralysis the better we capture everything we think might happen going forward in great detail, the more likely the weight of all that detail is going to tips about keep us from critique resume, understanding the plan itself. Simplicity breeds movement; once we got our business owners to stop doing a business plan and start doing a simple two-page strategic plan that captured the to write an essay about yourself, few things that really need to be done, we found they started using it because it was easily grasped and easily managed. Perhaps most importantly (from my perspective admittedly) is in nursing that at tips to write an essay about, every turn when business owners ask what#8217;s the most important thing they should do to writing on yourself become successful, they are told #8220;do a business plan#8221;, and tips an essay yourself, the examples they are given of what that means are always complex and full of #8220;thud factor#8221; (they make a loud noise when dropped on a table). Visit the SBA site or many other small biz sites and they all tell you to do a complex business plan first.
Where are the communication essays, people telling business owners to do a very simple one or two page strategic plan for how they will sell something, and get moving. Why aren#8217;t we focused on tips an essay about, giving them very simple processes for health essay doing that instead? There is much more compelling evidence that Speed of Execution creates success than does business planning, but we still tell people to sit around and think about things. It could be in fact, that the reason the study found people who finished their business plan to be more successful was simply because they have a higher Speed of Execution and get moving on everything they do, not just their plan. If we put planning in tips about, its proper context as a SUPPORT MECHANISM for movement, it#8217;s a tremendous tool. But I almost never see it shared that way. It#8217;a always some kind of magic bullet do a Business Plan as if writing what you think might happen someday actually makes it happen. Movement is the essays, gift, and planning is its faithful servant.
We have these two things backwards. Tips About Yourself? We worship and power ways womens, serve the servant and have forgotten the gift (concept borrowed from Einstein). A business plan helps, that is for tips an essay yourself sure but needs to be well done otherwise is essay useless. Then, it has to contain real market figures if you want to tips get some fundings from it. Essay Writing On Yourself? You need also to be able to see outside it when starting your business as things change and you need to be able not to only stick to it. As a CPA and tips yourself, financial consultant, there is health more wealth no doubt in my mind that a business plan serves as a plan, guide, feasibility study, road map, etc. An Essay About? It is health more than essay imperative to communicating your company plan to key stakeholders investors, bankers, managers, although the most used section is the financial section as these stakeholders want to know if the business will make profit and tips about yourself, cashflow. In the past 30 years, I have found it necessary to take the financial snapshot portion of the business plan and congruence, turn it into about yourself, a dynamic real-time cashflow management system that is linked to historical financials and future forecasts.
It then becomes the CEOs day to day financial management system, focused on e. b. one man's meat, both financial managing the business as proactively analyzing #8220;what if#8221; business decisions. The book #8220;Drive Your Business to Financial Success#8221; is to write an essay about a quick read for small business CEOs, owners, etc. that teaches both financial concepts and more important wealth, a real-time cashflow management system. We are a non-profit lender and one of the to write an essay, first criteria for obtaining funding with us is a business plan. If you are going to inspired knowledge power ways womens ask someone to invest in you and your business a well thought out business plan is essential. Tips To Write? A good business plan should serve as a guide and on yourself, reference tool, something you review and refer back to often to gauge where you have been, thought you would be and your current position. I know there are many people who start and run successful businesses with no formal business plan and this is not meant to an essay about detract from critique, their success in anyway. Even successful businesses very often need to borrow money from a lender to tips to write an essay about yourself reach their next goal and dissertation, if you do, you are going to an essay about yourself need to present a business plan as part of the application process. Essays? It helps convey to the lender that you are serious, organized, prepared and an essay yourself, a good risk. Important Than? All good qualities in lenders eyes! Lenders ask for business plans because they don#8217;t usually know how to assess the likelihood of success from real world metrics/experience, etc. But that doesn#8217;t make them a good idea, just a necessary one when dealing with a lender.
But lenders should stop asking for them because they don#8217;t have any correlation with success. Here#8217;s something to think about an essay yourself, regarding whether business plans are a good way to start a business. 1) Not a single Fortune 500 was started with a business plan not one. Than Wealth Essay? 2) And as we research it, I#8217;m willing to tips about bet that not a single Fortune 5000 (or maybe no more than a handful) were started with a business plan, either. 3) After asking thousands of business owners around the world about them, only 3-6% do one if they don#8217;t need a loan.
And to date, we have yet to by difference essay inspired knowledge find a single one of these businesses that worked out anywhere close to what was in tips yourself, the plan. Yet we keep trying. But there are MUCH better predictors of success that lenders could use if they understood what makes people successful and what doesn#8217;t. Having a business plan or not having one when you start is in nursing not one of them. I agree with those that see the true value of a business plan as a process. Tips To Write An Essay About Yourself? You can come up with brilliant ideas, but the real key to success is in pre-planning and organization. The most important use of the business plan, other than financing, is in the planning process. It forces you to important than wealth essay realistically assess the tips to write an essay yourself, who, what, when, where, why, how and critique, how much for tips about yourself planning and implemention of inspired knowing knowledge power womens, your enterprise. It allows you to plan for asset acquisition, location, business parameters, manning levels, cash flow projections, ad nauseum. Once the business is running, you enter the observation and tweaking arena wherein you make adjustments based on results.
At that point the plan is not as strategically important, but there have to be controls and a means to analyze progress and implement adjustments. My thanks to Rieva for an excellent summary of my earlier post, and thanks to to write yourself all of you whose comments point out essay inspired knowing knowledge power womens, that what really matters is the planning, the planning process, the live plan that is reviewed and revised regularly according to plan vs. Tips To Write An Essay Yourself? actual results. Congruence? That becomes management, steering the business. The formal plan isn’t the point; the tips to write yourself, first plan is essay inspired knowing power just the first step towards planning as steering and to write an essay about, management. Ironically, a lot of dissertation, people who would agree with the tips an essay yourself, above criticize the business plan per-se, without realizing that you can’t have planning process or management or steering without the plan as the first step.
Let’s not throw out business planning just because some people stop at the end of communication in nursing, a single plan, without following up. Good business practices don’t become bad just because a few people misuse or exaggerate. It makes perfect sense that the type of person that would write a business plan is more organized, dedicated, intelligent, talented, and/or experienced than someone that doesn’t write a business plan. This doesn’t mean that writing a business plan improves any of those qualities. The dot com era makes it double trouble. It’s the tips to write, planning, not the plan that impacts chances of success. Those who take the e. b. one man's, time to think things through, consider consequences and alternatives, determine the definition of success and the steps necessary to reach it are significantly more prepared than those who wing it.
Very useful survey, and another proof that business plan is important, whether it’s a one-page or 100-page plan. An Essay About? Nice#8230; Hi Rieva, useful insights here and I linked you back as one of the critique resume, more useful sources of statistics on an essay about, business plan success. Inspired Knowledge Womens? However I wanted to add that there are a fair amount of success factors which make or break achieving the business plan#8217;s objective, namely founder#8217;s performance in the credit interviews and the existence or lack thereof of tips to write an essay about yourself, supporting documents. Have a look maybe at this article we wrote, it latches onto the ideas stated in your article and might be useful to congruence dissertation your readers: Regards much continued success for everyone#8217;s projects! Pingback: Tweets that mention A Business Plan Doubles Your Chances for Success, Says a New Survey | Small Business Trends -- Topsy.com. Pingback: Best Blogs for Women | Web Business Woman. Pingback: Is Resistance to Planning About Fear of Mistakes? | Business in General. Pingback: The March Group Shares: A Business Plan Can Double Your Success | tmg test blog. Pingback: How to Make a Living in to write about yourself, the Web Industry | Design City. Pingback: The Value of a Business Plan Towson University’s Outreach Blog. Pingback: Not IF#8230;but WHEN #124; Extraordinary Business | Extraordinary Small Business Consutling | Operations Strategy | Aepiphanni.
Pingback: Not IF#8230;but WHEN #124; Extraordinary Business | Extraordinary Small Business Consutling | Operations Strategy | Aepiphanni. Job Growth Among Small Businesses Continues to essay inspired knowledge power ways womens Stagnate, Wages Continue to Climb Slowly. Spotlight: Milk Eggs Startup Provides an Online Farmers Market in Los Angeles. Founded in 2003, Small Business Trends is an award-winning online publication for small business owners, entrepreneurs and the people who interact with them. It is one of the tips about yourself, most popular independent small business publications on the web. Together with hundreds of expert contributors, Small Business Trends brings you the news, advice and resources you need. Small business success. delivered daily. Health More Than Wealth Essay? Copyright 2003 - 2017, Small Business Trends LLC. All rights reserved.
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Diagnosis and Treatment of PTSD-Related Compulsive Checking Behaviors in Veterans of the Iraq War: The Influence of Military Context on about, the Expression of PTSD Symptoms. This case study presents an overview of the conceptualization and critique resume treatment of two veterans of the Iraq War who presented for combat-related treatment at a Veterans Administration Medical Center. Tips To Write An Essay About Yourself! In addition to posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms of reexperiencing, arousal, and avoidance, the veterans exhibited compulsive checking behaviors that appear to be influenced by theater-specific combat duties and traumatic events. Congruence Dissertation! These cases represent what the authors believe to be an increasingly common expression of PTSD in veterans of the Iraq and Afghanistan wars. Both veterans were treated with prolonged exposure therapy, which includes imaginal and in vivo exposure to anxiety-provoking stimuli, processing of traumatic events, and self-assessment of anxiety. Treatment also included in vivo exposure with response prevention techniques borrowed from the literature on tips to write about yourself, obsessive-compulsive disorder to address compulsive checking behaviors within the ecological context of each patient’s symptom presentation. Measures related to PTSD and depression were obtained before, during, and after treatment. Treatment was associated with significant declines in symptom severity and improved functioning for both veterans.
The unique nature of the conflict in the Middle East represents role challenges for soldiers that affect symptom presentation. Variations in symptom presentation can in turn complicate efforts to identify and appropriately address PTSD-related health concerns in this population. Thus, clinicians and researchers must remain cognizant of by difference essay knowing ways womens, how theater-specific duties influence the manifestation and treatment of PTSD in order to provide optimal care to a new generation of veterans. Since 2001, more than 1.5 million U.S. troops have been deployed to Iraq or Afghanistan as part of Operations Iraqi Freedom and tips to write an essay about Enduring Freedom (OIF/OEF) (1) . A significant number have returned with psychiatric problems and resume concomitant mental health service needs. A recent large-scale study of OIF/OEF Army and Marine personnel indicated that 10%–20% of personnel meet criteria for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depending on the stringency of the yourself, diagnostic standard used (2) . A similar picture emerged from the Army Surgeon General’s Mental Health Advisory Team V (3) and from a report by the Rand Corporation (1) , both indicating that up to 20% of OIF/OEF personnel experience symptoms of PTSD.
These data suggest that hundreds of thousands of individuals returning from Iraq and e. b. one man's meat Afghanistan suffer from at least some posttraumatic stress symptoms. Although such estimates of risk for PTSD may seem inflated, it is yourself reasonable to expect that multiple deployments, the experiencing of numerous traumas, and the long periods of sustained threat associated with OIF/OEF deployment would increase the risk of by difference, developing PTSD. When the sheer scale of these military efforts is about taken into account, even more modest estimates of risk translate into communication essays in nursing, large numbers of individuals who may need mental health services. Even using the most conservative criteria, the number of to write an essay yourself, troops returning with postdeployment PTSD will be in the tens of thousands. Such projected estimates raise public health concerns that may transcend the capacities of the congruence dissertation, Department of Defense and Department of to write an essay about, Veterans Affairs (VA) health care systems. While efficacious cognitive-behavioral interventions for PTSD have been developed (4 , 5) , we need to improve methods for disseminating such treatments to communication essays, community- and hospital-based clinics where mental health professionals provide day- to-day services to patients with PTSD. Although meeting the mental health needs of OIF/OEF personnel presents challenges, doing so provides new opportunities to refine our understanding of tips to write about, PTSD and continue to dissertation, improve on methods of identification, engagement, and treatment of the to write, disorder.
One important aspect of e. b. white one man's meat, refining our understanding of to write an essay, combat-related PTSD may be to communication essays, consider how theater-specific duties and experiences affect symptom presentation and treatment. Tips To Write About! Our clinical observation suggests that compulsive checking as a safety behavior may be a frequent component of OIF/OEF-related PTSD symptom presentation (25%–30% of writing on yourself, OIF/OEF veterans diagnosed with PTSD who present to to write yourself, our clinic engage in by difference inspired knowledge ways, compulsive checking); however, appropriate research has not been conducted to investigate this observation. The clinical sample that forms the basis of these observations is not ideal for establishing base rates for checking behaviors in PTSD patients in general or for to write about investigating the correlates of PTSD-related checking behavior. Such data are also difficult to gather without objective measures in place to assess checking behaviors in a reliable and valid manner or otherwise establish objective criteria for distinguishing general hypervigilance from white one man's compulsive checking. Very little is known about the most effective way to identify and operationalize this clinical presentation of symptoms. Our goal in this article is to discuss how to conceptualize and treat what we believe to tips yourself, be a common expression of PTSD in OIF/OEF veterans.
To that end, we present a case study overview of two veterans of the war in Iraq with combat-related PTSD served by a VA medical center in the southeastern United States. In addition to PTSD symptoms of important than wealth, reexperiencing, avoidance, and arousal, the veterans also presented with compulsive checking behaviors that were clearly influenced by the context of their traumatic event exposure. The compulsive checking behaviors did not qualify these patients for a concomitant diagnosis of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) because the criteria for OCD specify that compulsions cannot be restricted to the context of another axis I diagnosis—in this case, PTSD. The patients are not presented as unique idiosyncratic cases, but rather as two examples that appear to represent a sizable proportion of returning OIF/OEF veterans with PTSD—veterans with PTSD and combat-specific compulsive checking behaviors. We then discuss these case presentations within the broader context of OIF/OEF-related PTSD, particularly with regard to implications of compulsive checking behaviors for diagnostic considerations and tips to write an essay about yourself treatment planning. Three instruments for diagnostic assessment and ongoing treatment planning were used in both of the cases presented: the PTSD module of the Structured Clinical Interview for writing DSM-IV (SCID) (6) ; the PTSD Checklist–Military Version (7) , and the Beck Depression Inventory–II (BDI) (8) . Both patients were treated with prolonged exposure therapy (9) , which included imaginal and in vivo exposure exercises, processing of traumatic events, and patient self-assessment using subjective units of yourself, distress (10) . In addition to traditional in vivo exposure, treatment also included the use of in vivo exposure with response prevention techniques (11 , 12) borrowed from the treatment literature on OCD to address compulsive checking symptoms. Exposure with response prevention involves exposure to stimuli that cause unrealistic fear or distress paired with an active preventing of the compulsive rituals that patients use to manage such stress (13 , 14) . The VA clinicians delivering treatment were clinical psychologists employed in congruence dissertation, the medical center’s posttraumatic stress clinical team. Most treatment was delivered on-site, but out-of-office visits (15 , 16) were also used to conduct in yourself, vivo exposure with response prevention within the ecological context of each patient’s target symptoms. A 24-year-old Caucasian Marine veteran with a history of one deployment to Iraq presented to by difference essay knowing power, the VA medical center to to write an essay about yourself, establish health care. On intake to primary care, he screened positive for PTSD and was referred for specialty services to the posttraumatic stress clinical team.
The patient reported that his primary combat duties included going from house to house and clearing rooms one at a time to secure neighborhoods. In the health than wealth, context of that duty he reported being exposed to multiple life-threatening situations and firefights, witnessing dead and mutilated bodies, making many split-second life-or-death decisions, and losing two of his friends to combat-related death. Tips To Write About! After returning to the United States he began to experience at essays in nursing, least eight distinct intrusive memories and nightmares from to write an essay yourself these combat experiences. He engaged in avoidance through attempted thought suppression, excessive work, and alcohol abuse. He avoided crowds and social situations and dropped out of college because he felt unable to focus on his academic duties as a result of his symptoms. On presentation to the posttraumatic stress clinical team, he was diagnosed with PTSD according to the SCID, and he scored in writing on yourself, the clinical range on the PTSD Checklist (a score of 69 out of a possible 85) and tips to write yourself the BDI (a score of 30 out of a possible 63). Essay Knowing Knowledge Ways! In addition to his other symptoms, the patient reported engaging in compulsive checking behaviors. He reported checking his front door lock 10 to 30 times a day and peeking out of to write, his window blinds 30 to 50 times per day. Essay Inspired Knowing Power Ways! The patient also reported engaging in checking behaviors whenever he had an intrusive memory or nightmare, whenever he heard anything “suspicious” (e.g., a car door closing or a dog barking), and whenever he was about to relax, as a preemptive measure to assuage potential anxiety. One month before beginning prolonged exposure therapy, the patient was treated with the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) citalopram at a maximum dose of 40 mg daily.
Although SSRIs have established efficacy for treating OCD (17) and PTSD, the patient continued to have functionally impairing PTSD symptoms, including compulsive checking behaviors. The patient was an active participant in prolonged exposure treatment and presented to to write an essay yourself, all 12 of his 90-minute sessions on time. The in-session imaginal exposure exercises consisted of vivid retelling and visualizations of the traumas he experienced as intrusive memories and nightmares. The imaginal exposures began with his most frequent and distressing intrusive memory and subsequently focused on less distressing intrusions as the patient began to experience symptom amelioration. The patient’s homework consisted of in vivo exposures to safe situations that the patient had been avoiding (i.e., going to the post office to mail his bills or to the food court at by difference knowledge power ways, the mall during a weekday). The patient’s intrusions responded fairly quickly with regard to both symptom frequency and intensity after in-session imaginal exposure exercises. After five sessions, the patient scored a 40 on the PTSD Checklist and a 22 on the BDI, and he expressed having some relief from his intrusions. However, he retained a SCID diagnosis of PTSD and reported having difficulty habituating to his in vivo exposure exercises. During this period of treatment, the patient’s compulsive door and tips an essay about yourself window checking were reduced as a result of the amelioration of intrusions, which were often the impetus for his checking in the first place. However, the actual behavioral reinforcement of communication, checking whenever he did feel anxious continued and remained clinically significant. The pattern sustained as treatment progressed—that is, the overall frequency and severity of the patient’s intrusions decreased, but his compulsive checking behaviors were maintained.
The treatment team hypothesized that the behavioral reinforcement he received via immediate anxiety reduction on checking was interfering with his progress on in vivo homework exposures. That is, the patient’s self-reinforcing checking behaviors in response to anxiety at to write, home made it more difficult for him to e. b. white meat essays, tolerate any anxiety long enough to experience success outside the home in regaining prepathological social functioning. Attempts to assign him in vivo homework not to check were unsuccessful. As he explained, “It’s so easy to do [checking to relieve symptoms] and so hard to stop.” Attempts at cognitive restructuring were also largely unsuccessful, perhaps because the yourself, patient’s checking process was already ego-dystonic. As the by difference knowing, patient explained, “Sitting here [in the clinic], I know that a bunch of Iraqi insurgents are not going to bust in to write yourself, my door, but at home when I’m amped up, I can’t help myself, I’m up and I’m checking.” The eighth treatment meeting consisted of an in-home exposure session where response prevention was added to the in e. b. meat, vivo exposure paradigm. The patient and therapist sat in the patient’s living room and about waited for naturally occurring sounds—car doors closing, dogs barking, trucks going over potholes, and the like—from the outside to induce anxiety. Essay Writing On Yourself! When such a sound occurred, the tips to write, patient was counseled and encouraged not to check the window or door lock. By Difference Inspired Knowing Knowledge Power Ways Womens! The patient used self-reported subjective units of distress and other skills he had learned via earlier imaginal and in vivo exposures to tips to write an essay about, monitor his anxiety. Anxiety-inducing sounds occurred about health important than, every 4 minutes on average.
The patient was able to refrain from checking behaviors and also was able to habituate to normal neighborhood sounds within the session. The treatment team hypothesized that the patient was able to experience such success because of the increased support and accountability resulting from the therapist being present in the ecological context of his symptoms. Once the patient habituated to the normal sounds of his neighborhood in the presence of the therapist, the therapist went outside and periodically made additional noises. The patient knew the therapist was going to do this and was instructed not to check the window. Although the an essay about yourself, patient knew the therapist was making the noise, he reported having a more difficult time not checking because the noise was “a little louder and closer.” The patient described “muscle memory” involving springing toward the window on hearing the sounds and having to sit back down after he had “caught” himself unintentionally off of the couch. The therapist had also noticed such automatic movements during the earlier exposures. These movements may explain why cognitive restructuring, emotional processing of the white one man's meat, patient’s traumas, and assigned in vivo homework had not led to about, extinction of the checking behaviors; the patient’s checking behaviors were ingrained enough to be “overlearned” and appeared to be operating, at least in part, independently of executive functioning. However, focused and repeated practice of in vivo exposure and response prevention led to health important wealth essay, within-session extinction of the urge to check. The patient also reported that the home visit session helped him to begin decreasing his checking behavior by himself. The remaining four sessions focused on consolidating treatment gains concerning the patient’s intrusions, strengthening his ability to refrain from checking behaviors, and about expanding his tolerance for participating in social and functional activities that involved crowds.
Our hypothesis that the checking behaviors at home interfered with the dissertation, patient’s frustration tolerance while attempting out of home in tips an essay, vivo exposures cannot be empirically confirmed. However, subsequent to the home visit, the patient was much more willing to engage in his in vivo homework assignments and experienced greater success in doing them. After the 12-session treatment the patient no longer met criteria for more important a SCID diagnosis of PTSD, his PTSD Checklist score was 23, and his BDI score was 9. A 38-year-old married black Army veteran of two deployments to Iraq presented to the VA medical center posttraumatic stress clinical team stating, “My commanding officer suggested that I get help.” The patient’s primary duties during both of his tours included providing security for truck convoys by to write an essay yourself, patrolling alongside them in an armed Humvee. In the course of these duties he was exposed to congruence, multiple life-threatening situations, witnessed an improvised explosive device detonate during a convoy, witnessed dead and tips to write yourself mutilated bodies, witnessed a motor vehicle run over a little girl, and was responsible for essay writing checking the convoy trucks and tips to write an essay about yourself accompanying vehicles for bombs. At the time of intake he was experiencing more than 10 distinct intrusive memories. He engaged in avoidance through attempted thought suppression, doing his errands late at essay writing, night to avoid people, and staying home as much as possible while not at work. On presentation to tips an essay about, the posttraumatic stress clinical team, he was diagnosed with PTSD according to congruence, SCID criteria and scored in the clinical range on the PTSD Checklist (a score of 68) and the BDI (a score of 31). The patient also engaged in compulsive checking behaviors. He checked under his car and under the hood of his car for bombs every time he needed to drive (two to eight times per day). He expressed insight that his car checking behavior was not normative and that he was embarrassed by it, but he felt that the danger of an essay, someone placing a bomb under his car was too great not to check.
The patient was treated with citalopram, at a maximum dose of 40 mg, for 7 weeks before beginning prolonged exposure therapy but continued to white meat essays, have a significant PTSD symptom burden, including compulsive behaviors. The patient was an active participant in prolonged exposure therapy and about yourself arrived on time to 15 sessions. Early in treatment, he evidenced an essay inspired power especially low tolerance to his PTSD-related physiological arousal during initial imaginal exposure exercises (e.g., speeding heart, shortness of breath, and tingling in his hands). Accordingly, treatment incorporated interoceptive exposure (18) exercises to help desensitize the an essay about yourself, patient to these specific physiological symptoms. The interoceptive exercises involved helping the patient to become aware of and more wealth essay tolerate his physiological symptoms, without overinterpreting their significance as somehow dangerous or “out of control.” The exposures were conducted without the use of tips an essay about yourself, specific external trauma cues; that is, target physical symptoms were induced through doing jumping jacks, breathing through a straw, and rubbing both hands with force. Thus, the essays, patient learned to tips an essay yourself, sit with and tolerate the by difference inspired knowledge power ways womens, simulated feeling of his activated sympathetic nervous system.
The interoceptive exercises were completed by both the patient and the clinician, improving rapport, encouraging levity in the treatment process, and tips about yourself instilling a sense of teamwork. Additionally, as suggested by earlier work investigating augmentation of by difference knowledge power womens, PTSD-oriented exposure therapy with other cognitive-behavioral techniques (19) , the interoceptive exposures were done in addition to tips to write yourself, imaginal and in vivo exposures. That is, overall treatment time was expanded to accommodate the added component of the interoceptive exposures without encroaching on time devoted to essay writing, imaginal and in vivo exposures. After the patient experienced success at anxiety reduction through the to write an essay about, interoceptive exercises, he more eagerly approached the imaginal exposures to critique resume, the traumatic memory in session. The patient’s reexperiencing symptoms often manifested as a rapid succession of intrusive memories. That is, he reported that whenever one intrusive memory was cued, all of to write an essay yourself, them would “cycle through.” Because the intrusive memories seemed related and were experienced with high levels of distress at the same time, it would often take the patient 2 or 3 weeks to essays, realize that he had not experienced a distinct intrusive memory subsequent to to write an essay, exposure and processing. This aspect complicated treatment progress because the patient was not comprehending or experiencing positive reinforcement (i.e., the communication, knowledge of symptom amelioration) for engaging in prolonged exposure therapy. Nonetheless, the to write about yourself, patient and e. b. white one man's meat essays therapist maintained good rapport, and the patient began to realize significant decreases in intrusive memories by the ninth session (PTSD Checklist score=45, BDI score=19). At the same time, however, the patient was making little progress in limiting his car checking behaviors or in successfully habituating to, or completing, in vivo exposure activities. The 10th treatment session consisted of in-home in vivo exposure and to write an essay about yourself response prevention exercises.
The patient and therapist practiced leaving the patient’s home and getting into his car without checking under the car or the car hood for critique bombs. Much like the first patient described above, this patient also exhibited an overlearned “muscle memory” for the checking behavior evidenced by a quick jerky hand movement toward the hood release latch while opening the car door. After 30 consecutive trials of getting into the car and getting out of the car without checking, the patient was able to get into tips to write about, his car and start the engine without experiencing distress. The patient’s behavior logs over the next 5 weeks indicated a successive decrease in car checking behavior, going 7 days in a row without checking by the last week of treatment. The patient also began to resume, experience success in his in vivo community exposure exercises—shopping during the day, going to church, and taking his wife out on dates. At the 15th session the patient scored 32 on the PTSD Checklist and 17 on the BDI. The PTSD-related compulsive checking behaviors presented here appear to have a functional role similar to general PTSD hypervigilance. Both behaviors are negatively reinforced as a means of anxiety control, and the impetus for an essay about yourself both can be explained by a failure to completely process traumatic experiences.
The distinction between the two may be important only inasmuch as it can inform differential treatment delivery and outcomes. In theory, in more important wealth, vivo exposure (to address hypervigilance) and exposure with response prevention (to address compulsive checking) differ only in that the tips an essay about yourself, latter focuses on preventing a patient’s specific compulsive response(s) to critique, anxiety-provoking stimuli. However, in practice, in an essay, vivo exposure also prevents a patient’s behavioral response to anxiety, which typically involves avoidance and withdrawal. Furthermore, working from the basic principles of communication essays, nonavoidance and anxiety tolerance to tips an essay, objectively safe stimuli, any experienced exposure therapist would encourage his or her patients with PTSD not to repeatedly check locks or check cars for bombs. However, one potentially important distinction for treatment is that there is a robust OCD literature and history concerning the benefits of essays in nursing, conducting in vivo exposure and response prevention within the ecological context of the symptoms by using out-of-office therapist-assisted sessions (14 , 15) . Although in vivo exposure, by definition, emphasizes the need to address symptoms within the tips, context in which they occur, the technique is usually assigned to critique resume, patients as “homework,” to be done without the direct presence and support of a therapist. To Write About! Often patients excel at completing and habituating to their homework assignments, especially if the in vivo exposure hierarchies are graded appropriately (10) . However, many patients who, like those presented in these two case studies, have more severe symptoms and less intrinsic coping skills have a difficult time tolerating anxiety by themselves long enough to succeed at or even sincerely attempt in vivo homework assignments. For such patients, out-of-office therapist visits can be a useful tool to essay, help them address their checking behaviors and increase tolerance for anxiety. Tips An Essay! Expert consensus in the treatment of OCD converges on the usefulness of home visits for patients with particularly severe symptoms (14) . While this question is not addressed in the PTSD literature, clinicians treating PTSD can borrow knowledge from the OCD literature on effective ways to address treatment-resistant, negatively reinforced checking behaviors. Parenthetically, the cases presented here provide anecdotal evidence that even one home visit can yield significant positive clinical outcomes. The adaptation of compulsive checking measures, such as the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (20) , for essay use in PTSD populations may give researchers a useful tool for tips to write an essay about yourself assessing the impact of home visits on compulsive checking behaviors. The cases presented, and essay inspired knowing power womens the observed frequency of such cases in OIF/OEF veterans in general, are also of interest from the tips to write an essay, perspective of dissertation, historical context.
The patient described in the first case took part in multiple forceful home intrusions as part of his military duties, and these experiences subsequently had an impact on his sense of safety at home. Behaviors that started as executive functioning decisions to check his windows and doors turned into overlearned automatic reactions to anxiety. By the to write an essay yourself, time the behaviors were ingrained, it was not only thoughts about his home being invaded that spurred checking, but anxiety of any kind. Similarly, the patient in resume, the second case routinely checked under cars for to write an essay bombs as part of his duty. That behavior directly translated into car checking after he returned home. Communication Essays! The military context, the rigid following of procedures and orders that the military ingrains and relies upon for the survival of its troops, may also play a role in tips to write yourself, symptom presentation and maintenance. Whereas a civilian victim of violence with PTSD may find himself rechecking locks or scanning the environment, in most cases these behaviors were never socially and professionally reinforced. Multiple, repetitive, and sustained manifestations of critique resume, hypervigilance are rewarded in many OIF/OEF combat situations, by tips to write about yourself, both superiors and peers.
This reward structure may operate as a parallel process to PTSD which encourages the manifestation of PTSD symptoms as repetitive checking behaviors and on yourself socially ingrains those behaviors so as to make extinction more difficult. We presented these cases to stimulate discussion on tips to write about yourself, what we believe to be an increasingly common expression of combat-related PTSD (i.e., PTSD with combat-specific compulsive checking behaviors). It will be important for clinicians and researchers to remain mindful of how OIF/OEF veterans present with symptoms and how they subsequently respond to traditional treatments for the disorder. As noted in the case presentations, the inclusion of response prevention within the ecological context of each patient’s symptoms appears to have resulted in significant treatment gains that may not have occurred otherwise. Writing! Furthermore, the manifestation of specific compulsive checking behaviors is of interest from an essay about a broader historical perspective.
Military historians have noted that the context and circumstances in which traumas occur can influence symptom presentation and by difference essay inspired knowing knowledge power ways womens how we conceptualize the disorder (21) . That is, while combat exposure can obviously cause significant distress and pathology, there is reason to to write an essay, believe that specific reactions to combat are to some degree mediated by historical context and military culture. Historical reviews indicate that the prevalence of combat-related PTSD and particular symptoms can change over dissertation, time within a population, and these changes are only partly explained by improvements in diagnostic procedures (21 – 24) . The nature of the conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan creates unique role challenges for our veterans that will likely shape symptom presentation and clinical outcomes. Variations in to write about, symptom presentation can in turn complicate mental health efforts to dissertation, identify and appropriately address PTSD-related public health concerns. An Essay! We encourage ongoing consideration of the cases and issues presented here in order to ensure that OIF/OEF veterans receive mental health services that are appropriately tailored to health more important essay, their needs. Received Sept. 3, 2008; revision received Jan. 3, 2009; accepted Jan. 21, 2009 (doi: 10.1176/appi.ajp.2009.08091315). From the Ralph H. Johnson Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Post Traumatic Stress Clinical Team, Charleston, S.C.; the Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston; and the Department of tips, Psychiatry, Center for the Treatment and Study of Anxiety, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia. Critique! Address correspondence and reprint requests to Dr.
Tuerk, Charleston VAMC, Mental Health 116, 109 Bee St., Charleston, SC 29401; [email protected] (e-mail). Drs. Tuerk and Grubaugh report no competing interests. To Write About Yourself! Dr. Hamner has received research grant support from Janssen, Organon, and Otsuka and holds stock in Merck and communication essays Pfizer. Dr. Foa reports research support from tips an essay about Pfizer, Solvay, Eli Lilly, SmithKlineBeecham, GlaxoSmithKline, Cephalon, Bristol-Myers Squibb, Forest, Ciba Geigy, and Kali-Duphar. She has also been a speaker for Pfizer, GlaxoSmithKline, Forest Pharmaceuticals, and Jazz Pharmaceuticals and a consultant for health than Acetelion Pharmaceuticals. We have redesigned the delivery of The American Journal of Psychiatry’s continuing medical education courses (AJPCME). AJPCME courses are available through the American Psychiatric Association’s online education portal.
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‘Inland Empire’: The Purest David Lynch Experience Since ‘Eraserhead’ David Lynch, a name that is for many film enthusiasts the to write about, epitome for health more than wealth essay, weird, surreal, and bizarre, surprised many people when he had characterised himself as a Boy Scout from Missoula, Montana. He is also known as “Jimmy Stewart from Mars,” or “Jimmy Stewart on acid”—a very polite, happy-go-lucky, enthusiastic individual, who unironically uses words and phrases like “Golly!,” “Holy jumping George!,” “Howdy!” etc., and who just happens to have a vivid imagination that has been the basis of nightmares for many of his viewers. Contrary to popular belief, Lynch is not the type of about a guy who, for congruence, instance, chops off his fingernails in his grandmother’s basement and then puts them in his dinner salad, but is to write about yourself, somebody who is actually trying, through foundations, meditation recommendations and charity work, to essay on yourself, promote, and achieve without a hint of irony, peace and to write prosperity. Critique! But Lynch’s worlds are full of such contradictions, full of idealists who also happen to be scoundrels below the surface, and Lynch is fascinated with the dark and perverse facet of the human condition, but also on the profound and to write yourself gentle side of dissertation humanity, a soulful aspect of his work that doesn’t get nearly mentioned as the former one.
The oblique and mysterious nature of Lynch’s work draws many to become obsessed with finding a universal explanation or an enlightened meaning to his films. But Lynch insists on never revealing what the abstractions in his films “mean,” and he suggests to tips to write an essay about yourself, his viewers that they also try to find out for e. b. essays, themselves more on tips an essay about yourself, an intuitive than a rational level as to what the disturbing visuals, the resume, labyrinthian plots and the unreliable characters truly convey. Lynch claims that everybody is about, a detective, but it is also important to note that Lynch’s movies are not merely a puzzle to be solved: they are to be experienced, after which a powerful cinema-going epiphany may come out of his best work. This set of essays will try and derive certain interpretations and explanations of Lynch’s ideas, but they are in no way to be understood as definitive or let alone indicative of what the director himself was thinking. Every reader should be an communication essays autonomous detective indeed. After an 11-year break from tips to write about filmmaking, Lynch returns for, as he puts it, an 18-hour feature divided into 18 parts, called Twin Peaks , which sounds familiar to pretty much anyone remotely acquainted with the man’s work. Critique Resume! Lynch’s cult television show that originally aired in 1990 and 1991 and to write an essay about revolutionized television storytelling returns, against all odds, for a special event series starring Kyle MacLachlan as Agent Dale Cooper.
Very little is known about the plot or the characters, apart from the fact that it is indeed happening again, 25 years after the murder of Laura Palmer, the teenage homecoming queen whose death has set the plot of the old Twin Peaks into critique, motion. A 200+ cast list has been released, including newcomers such as Naomi Watts, Laura Dern, Jennifer Jason Leigh, Tim Roth and Tom Sizemore. This mammoth project for to write an essay, a 71-year-old Lynch will, therefore, serve as a jumping point for Cinephilia Beyond to go to the past and health wealth essay explore his ten feature films, starting from the tips to write about, debut film Eraserhead in 1977, all the way to Inland Empire in 2006. His short film, web, commercial and television work will not be included, with the clear and notable exception of Twin Peaks itself, which is an essential component for this retrospective. With Inland Empire , his final feature film to date, Lynch went back to his Eraserhead roots, making a film that is the “purest” David Lynch since his debut, a film that he had written, produced, directed, edited and scored. Congruence Dissertation! It was also his most loosely filmed work, since the script wasn’t near finished when Lynch started production. New script pages came every day for tips an essay, the cast and crew to work on it, and the improvisational feel is reflected in the impenetrable plot of congruence dissertation Inland Empire , making it a far bigger challenge to interpret and tips yourself make sense of, even on the intuitive side, than either Lost Highway or Mulholland Drive , the other parts of the unofficial L.A. trilogy. Laura Dern plays an actress playing a role in a movie that is bound to be cursed– and the psychological descent into role-switching madness and harassment ensues. For a Lynch veteran such as Dern, the challenge of taking on a role whose character arc is communication in nursing, not known from the beginning—since there was no complete movie script—was immense, and to write about yourself the result is one of the strongest performances in any Lynch film. Dern is playing at least two roles here—one of the actresses Nikki Blue and the other of a molested wife Sue, the character Nikki is essay inspired knowledge power womens, playing in the film—and she does it with exceptional skill and tips to write prowess. It’s a magnificently dedicated performance, and meat the weird crying faces and tips to write an essay general over-the-topness that plagued her work in Blue Velvet and Wild at Heart are long gone.
Whether it is the sweet, charming actress, or the battered, worn down wife—the latter part being especially convincing and powerful during a scene where, in a set of profane monologues, the wife elaborates on her violent marriage and the consequences arising from that—Dern is in critique, absolute control of the work that could have gone into parody territory, considering the way the movie was shot. Dern’s performance stands tall in a pantheon of amazing female performances in David Lynch films, right next to Naomi Watts’ Diane Selwyn in Mulholland Drive and Isabella Rossellini’s Dorothy Vallens in Blue Velvet . In order to show his gratitude to Dern’s dedication to the role, Lynch went on a Hollywood crossing with a chair and a cow in broad daylight, trying to promote Dern’s performance for an essay yourself, a recognition by the Academy, with a sign saying “Without cheese there would be no Inland Empire .” This most original type of marketing did not go well with the dissertation, conservative Academy voters, and Dern was alas not nominated for an Oscar. The always reliable Jeremy Irons, having his first David Lynch experience with this movie, excels in tips to write, the role of the flamboyant director of the film, while Justin Theroux brings out the combination of charm and humor to put the character of Devon to life. Harry Dean Stanton provides his funniest performance in a David Lynch film to date as the director’s assistant, but the real surprises lie in the emotional performances of Polish actors such as Peter J. Critique! Lucas, Karolina Gruszka and Krzysztof Majchrzak. Krzysztof Majchrzak proves himself to be quite comfortable with the tips to write yourself, role of the chief antagonist of Inland Empire , only known as “The Phantom,” a character that has his fair share of by difference essay inspired disturbing scenes, bringing horror and terror to the world of tips to write an essay about yourself Inland Empire , another one of dissertation those unforgettable Lynchian evil-as-a-force bearers. To Write About! Never has a man with a lightbulb in his mouth been more frightening. Peter J. Lucas does not disappoint with his intimidating performance as the abusive, threatening husband, but also bringing certain pathos to the role which could have easily been one-dimensional.
One interpretation of health more than wealth essay Inland Empire is to write an essay yourself, that it all takes place in the mind of congruence The Lost Girl, played by Karolina Gruszka, who is freed of her past abusers by the successful completion of the movie. Inland Empire provides what is possibly the most optimistic ending of Lynch’s career, where Nikki sets the Lost Girl loose to go back to to write an essay about, her life without any of the tragedies that have befallen her: this is a step far from the resume, tragedies of Mulholland Drive or Fire Walk with Me , and both the fate of the Lost Girl and an essay about yourself of Nikki are wrapped in success and gentle liberation. The ending of health important essay Inland Empire seems perfectly deserved and an essay about lacking any sense of in nursing irony that was prevalent in the finishing scenes of Blue Velvet . It is a long way to an essay, get to communication in nursing, the ending—the film is exactly three hours long, and there are moments where the film does run out of an essay yourself steam and does not necessarily justify the long running time (did the silly street scene involving homeless people explaining the location of Pomona while Nikki’s character is dying need to be that long?). Nevertheless, Dern’s fearless performance carries the film into many of critique resume its uncharted waters and tips to write an essay yourself tributaries and keeps it alive and health more important wealth vital until the end. Many discussions arose due to the way the film was shot, with an about yourself inexpensive, cheap-looking Sony DSR-PD150 digital camera, making the look of the writing, film much less polished, more gritty and ugly. Gone is the immaculately photographed style of films like Mulholland Drive and Lost Highway , replacing it with the style that fits the tips to write about, fractured narrative of resume Inland Empire , providing Lynch with some disturbing close-ups of to write an essay actors and e. b. white meat essays terrifying, muddy scenes (Laura Dern’s distorted face or shrieking into the camera never ceases to lose its potency… or the images of the scariest possible clown faces). Lynch was delighted with the freedom of digital video—no need to wait for dailies to see what was filmed, no need to wait for film reloads, freedom to tips to write, have as many takes as possible in a short amount of time etc. Even though he supposedly fell in love with film again when working on The Missing Pieces , a collection of resume deleted scenes from Fire Walk with Me which came out on the Blu-ray edition of Twin Peaks , the new series of Twin Peaks was shot on digital, although this time Lynch has the assistance of Peter Deming, whose excellent cinematography work on both Lost Highway and Mulholland Drive make him very much qualified for to write an essay yourself, the job. This was also the health more wealth essay, first occasion Lynch filmed outside of the States since Dune (and previously The Elephant Man )—where the plot is occurring outside of the U.S.—and the foggy, gloomy and snowy streets of the Polish city of Lodz seem ideal for Lynch to get out an essay yourself a bit of his comfort zone. As a self-confessed fan of factories, Eastern Europe seems like a fertile ground for Lynchland to find its new roots outside of the home country.
It is also a question as to where the scenes involving humanoid rabbits, voiced by Mulholland Drive veterans Naomi Watts, Laura Harring and Scott Coffey, actually take place, but this Edward Hopper-inspired, spooky realm does not have any geographical background apart from the very weird place that is David Lynch’s brain. Rabbits is a short David Lynch film, whose material the director incorporated later into Inland Empire , pushing his improvisational skills, including majorly redefining a previous work to give it new meaning in this film, to the limit. In what may seem like a parody of sitcoms in a dystopian, rainy, lonely subworld, the by difference inspired power ways womens, three rabbits serve as observers to the maddening events of Inland Empire , Lynchian version of Rosencrantz and Guildenstern if there ever was one. Inland Empire can also be seen as an allegory of the creative process. Nikki goes to to write an essay about, amazing, ferocious lengths to bring the character to life, almost sacrificing her mental and physical health during filming, but also “lifting the curse” from a movie that involved real-life murders. For Lynch, creativity is a healing process, where lost girls can be expelled from inspired power womens their prisons of life traumas. But the road to a successful product of tips creative energy can be paved with good intentions, even as those intentions are materialized in hard work filled with pain and sacrifices.
Lynch had enough confidence when creating Inland Empire that he himself scored the whole film—the Badalamenti-influenced music makes the dramatic moments of the film even more potent (the scene where Laura Dern suddenly finds herself in Lodz, Poland when opening her eyes, accompanied by Lynch-sung and composed track “Strange,” is essay, Lynch at the top of his form; along with the emotional ending where the singer Chrysta Bell launches her own long collaboration with Lynch), and Lynch’s use of Beck’s Black Tambourine in a crucial scene makes this one of his most successful utilizations of tips an essay about pop music in his work. It has been eleven years since Inland Empire , and only now, with the essays, 18-part Twin Peaks coming, which Lynch definitively calls a long movie, a continuing story and not a TV series, one can only an essay speculate as to how much his more opaque later work will influence the storytelling on Twin Peaks . Critique! One thing is for sure—Lynch has never, ever cared about the audience’s expectations or about the wishes of the to write an essay, masses; his storytelling technique has changed a lot since the original run of Twin Peaks , as Inland Empire undeniably shows, and audience members who are bigger fans of dissertation Lynch’s entire filmography than of the series might be more comfortable with the an essay about yourself, material than those who are Twin Peaks fans first, and David Lynch fans second. The latter can be delighted with the fact that the 71-year-old director has successfully finished this mammoth, 18-hour endeavour, featuring more than 200 actors, including Peaks newbies such as Naomi Watts and Laura Dern (if their performances in the new Twin Peaks are half as good as their turns in Mulholland Drive and Inland Empire , respectively, one will be naturally inclined to celebrate this), and new faces for Lynch’s world such as Jennifer Jason Leigh, Tim Roth and Jim Belushi, and expectations are running sky high. One thing is certain: it will not be dull, but what in the world of David Lynch ever was? One should hope that the director’s return to the saddle will result in another triumph, because he is more than capable of achieving that kind of level of success, as Inland Empire had also shown. Here are several photos taken behind-the-scenes during production of David Lynch’s Inland Empire . Still photographers: Michael Roberts Deverill Weekes © StudioCanal, Fundacja Kultury, Camerimage Festival, Absurda, Asymmetrical Productions, Inland Empire Productions. Intended for editorial use only. All material for educational and noncommercial purposes only. Get Cinephilia Beyond in your inbox by signing in.
‘Mulholland Drive’: Reality Is the True Nightmare. ‘The Straight Story’: Lynch Going Straight for communication essays, His Most Experimental Film. ‘Lost Highway’: Inventing a New Persona of an tips to write Inexplicable Filmmaker. ‘Twin Peaks’: The ‘Auteur Television’ at essay on yourself Its First Peak. ‘Wild at Heart’: A Twisted, Romantic Road Movie as a Lynchian Homage to tips yourself, ‘The Wizard of Oz’ ‘Blue Velvet’: A Warning Sign for All Voyeurs Reaching for the Underworld of Perversion. My filmmaking education consisted of finding out what filmmakers I liked were watching, then seeing those films. Essay Power Ways Womens! I learned the technical stuff from tips about books and magazines, and with the writing, new technology you can watch entire movies accompanied by commentary from the director. You can learn more from John Sturges' audio track on the 'Bad Day at Black Rock' LaserDisc than you can in 4 years of film school. Tips An Essay! Film school is a complete con, because the important than wealth, information is there if you want it. –P.T.
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