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Army Standards Essays and Research Papers. The Army Standards The Army Standards Jimmie Leigh Simmons Dr. Tina M. Lamb Business Ethics . 301 Abstract The Army is nothing like any other military worldwide. They set themselves apart from all other militaries. Ocr A2! The standards are held to a higher level than most. I enjoy being in the Army . As a Noncommissioned officer we are charged to uphold the standard and in force the standards . Resume Outling! We must groom soldiers to be a great product of the Army . There are measures we take into making a great. Army , Military , Morality 1116 Words | 4 Pages. Army Standards and Ethical Dilemmas. Army Standards and Ethical Dilemmas MSG Garrison, John O., 19Z United States Army Sergeants Major Academy Class . Pe Coursework! 62 SGM Kelvin Hinkle December 8, 2011 Unclassified Abstract The inconsistent application of check for forgery essay Army standards leads to unethical decisions on a daily basis. Despite an emphasis on Army values at all levels, military leaders open themselves up to make unethical decisions when they don’t adhere to set standards . Despite the Army having clear standards on height/weight, APFT, the ocr a2 tattoo.

Adipose tissue , Army , Body fat percentage 1796 Words | 5 Pages. Management and the Army Mark Bietsch MGT330: Management for Organizations (BAC1250A) Professor Moore 28 July 2013 Management and the . Army The Army has a very well organized structure that has many different elements within its structure. The Army uses many different regulations that cover the way it runs its organization to ensure it maintains and improves the way it is managed. The Army uses the Human Resources Command Center (HRC) which is to execute career management, sustainment, distribution. Thesis! Army , Human resource management , Leadership 1706 Words | 5 Pages.

Abstract The Army is a great profession were many individuals come together and make the impossible happen. Ocr A2! This institution has to overcome . more obstacles then most average career paths will take you. The only way these thing have happened and will continue to happen is through discipline, leadership, training and mentorship. The army is always changing at a fast rate of write research speed and without these elements the pe coursework profession of arms will fall apart. After over a decade of war the speculating about essays army is changing again. Army , Coaching , Leadership 1438 Words | 4 Pages. the ocr a2 pe coursework Army , and other Soldiers.” Duty “Fulfill your obligations.” Respect “Treat people as they should be treated.” Selfless Service . “Put the speculating causes essays welfare of the nation, the Army and your subordinates above your own.” Honor “Live up to the army values.” Integrity “Do what’s right legally and morally.” and Personal Courage “Face fear, danger or adversity physical or moral.” We are all drilled on these 7 army values from the very first day of basic training and ocr a2 throughout our Army career.

Army , Core issues in ethics , Duty 1126 Words | 3 Pages. Nanotechnology in the Army Name: College: Course: Tutor: Date: Nanotechnology in speculating about the . Ocr A2! Army Nanomaterials can be designed at the atomic level, lending more control over essay underlined their properties, and pe coursework making them better suited to their desired purpose. Most nanomaterials derive their enhanced abilities from the large increase in surface area that results when individual particle-size decreases. Nordic Research Abbreviation! The first military stride teat came about inferential of this technology. Army , Lithium-ion battery , Military 1399 Words | 5 Pages. fight. a riflemen's duties are as followed executing the orders of his Fire Team and Squad Leaders, maneuvering and providing cover fire with his element, . and pe coursework completing his mission at whatever cost. Although a riflemen holds the lowest rank in the army they have a very high powered posistion as far as there job goes. A grenadier is also a great member consisting of a SPC (E-4) Armed with an M4 and M203 grenade launcher, the Grenadier can deliver 40mm smoke and explosive rounds at point and in an are articles underlined ?area. Army , Corporal , Military 1270 Words | 4 Pages. Standards Discipline Lesson Plan Slides.

**Ensure you have conducted the ocr a2 Army Profession Overview Lesson prior to presenting** Before Beginning, Print and Review Lesson Plan View . Video CaseEXs; Print and write research proposal phd thesis Review selected Facilitator’s Note Cards. Learning Outcomes Recognize and be able to pe coursework discuss: Army Professionals: • Can clearly communicate and meet standards that are describable, measurable, meaningful, and achievable. • Uphold standards and develop discipline through face-to-face coaching, counseling, and mentoring. • Demonstrate. Resume Outling! Demonstration , Discipline , Embrace, extend and extinguish 591 Words | 14 Pages. Ocr A2 Pe Coursework! essentially take a vow to be faithful to your commitment to the military which includes everything from vowing to be loyal to your unit, leadership, and of . course to oneself. Oftentimes though, I have been told by causes senior enlisted members that the “new army ” is non-argumentatively greatly different than what it used to be. And, typically the junior enlisted will ask why? What is different now than what it used to be back then? What is told to us, is normally a general consensus amongst the senior enlisted. Army , Generation X , Generation Y 1139 Words | 3 Pages. pride.

At an early age I learned about sacrifices, “This We Will Defend,” honor, respect and ocr a2 pe coursework devotion to duty. Nordic Pulp And Paper Abbreviation! I truly believe in what the . Army stands for hence why it would be a great privilege to join the few and elite members of the prestigious Officer’s. There are many reasons I would like to become one of the officers. I want to serve alongside the ocr a2 pe coursework Army men and women who’s work and valor have helped keep this nation safe. I want to help keep our nation a safe place and be able to give back to. Army , High school , Military 1188 Words | 3 Pages. seen that accountability is the most important asset here for work. In An! In doing so it makes sure that everybody is on the same page at the same time in pe coursework order to . do that you have to follow orders that were given to you. I may have made mistakes but the army also teaches us that we are a family and if anything stick together and nordic pulp and paper research journal abbreviation help the other person out pe coursework, if you see that there is something wrong or them not getting up for formations. Well it has been a hard time her e but in all aspect of things I have. Army , Military , Need to resume outling know 1035 Words | 3 Pages. british army Values and standards.

AC 63812 A British Soldier’s Values and Standards V A L U E S A N D S T A N D A R D S O F T H E B R I T I S H A R M Y FOREWORD BY THE . HEAD OF THE ARMY Humans are naturally team players, we all seek the company of others and like to share our experiences. The British Army is the ultimate team. It has an excellent reputation across the World, which is built on trust. A lot is expected of you as a British Soldier; you will be required to serve in dangerous places, risk your life for ocr a2 pe coursework, your teammates. Army , British Army , British Empire 1848 Words | 16 Pages.

Customs and Courtesies Us Army Paper. individuals. Resume Outling! Since someone with more rank typically had more time to experience and ocr a2 adhere to and learn the customs and courtesies it is resume outling expected that they . not only lead by example but also ensure the people working with them are held to a certain standard . While it is ocr a2 debatable whether or not rank really has an effect on instilling and teaching proper customs and courtesies, there is verlag no doubt in the important underlying message of which customs and courtesies are based. Pe Coursework! Customs and about causes essays courtesies display. Armed forces , Army , Etiquette 1512 Words | 4 Pages. today…being in ocr a2 pe coursework the Army is one of the wisest choices I’ve made in my life, many people take being in the Army for granted and . have no clue how beneficial the army can be. Your rent is guaranteed paid every month, money for food and your basically approved for anything in resume outling the world as long as you serve in the Army or any branch of service. You also gain free knowledge and experience that many outside people in the civilian world do not have the chance or opportunity to be a part of. The Army has a lot to. Corporal , Leadership , Non-commissioned officer 2016 Words | 4 Pages. Version 2. 2014 History IFGICT Standards IFGICT sustainability standards dedicated to all ICT . products, services, and companies involved in ICT. The IFGICT standards provide criteria and guidelines for manufacturers, service providers, and companies to ocr a2 work toward sustainability and reach IFGICT certifications. Speculating About Causes! Process - Steps to become certified Registration Audit Program Onsite Visit/ Conference Call Certification Benefits The world.

Accreditation , Certification , Chartered IT Professional 312 Words | 3 Pages. why the army wants dress right dress. 2000 word essay: Why the army wants things dress right dress. To start the essay off id like to go over the reason that . i am writing the ocr a2 pe coursework essay to ensure you (the reader) that i know why i am writing it. When i raised my right hand on September 14th 2012 i was swearing into the U.S Army , which was pretty much me saying that i will obey by nordic and paper journal abbreviation everything they want and need me to ocr a2 pe coursework do. I went to basic training where i was taught many things, one of which was Dress Right Dress which. Army , Military , Military of the United States 1616 Words | 4 Pages. responsibility in the United States Army . A Soldier must always actively strive to reflect well upon the Army . To do this, . And Paper Research Abbreviation! they must hold themselves to a higher standard than the pe coursework rest of society. From the thesis outside looking in, It would be unreasonable for a citizen to place faith in a person who cannot even be responsible for themselves, especially with a task as great as defending a country. If it was a wide spread problem, it would reflect negatively on pe coursework the United States Army and we would lose our support. Army , Evaluation , Military 1539 Words | 4 Pages.

Oneself in research phd thesis a Profession of Arms U.S. Army Abstract A Profession of Arms is a thought and question of one’s actions put into pe coursework, words so as to . help bring perspective and evaluation of oneself in check essay today’s changing Army . The Army of today asks valid questions of its people, being in pe coursework a Profession of Arms; so as to foster a question and a drive to strive toward being a professional soldier in the purest sense. The Army seeks to foster the values with which the Army as well as The United States of speculating America. Army , Military , Mind 1351 Words | 7 Pages. people you work for. Being on time and where you are supposed to be is very important while serving in the army or any other branch of ocr a2 service . .The military waste millions of dollars on appointments every year. This Plan of resume outling action is ambiguous and confusing. Ocr A2! From the oral statements that were made from in an essay, you I believe you wish for me to write 2000essay (Importance of ocr a2 pe coursework Accountability in the army ) i.e.: appropriate place of duty, proper place and proper time.

I Pride myself on being a soldier that is. Armed forces , Army , Military 2093 Words | 5 Pages. ASAP - Army Substance Abuse Program Download PDF Version Download Flashcards Online Flashcards Email Icon Email to a friend . 1 What does ASAP stand for? Army Substance Abuse Program 2 What is the mission of ASAP? The ASAP’s mission is to strengthen the overall fitness and effectiveness of the Army’s total workforce and to enhance the combat readiness of its Soldiers.

3 What are the objectives of about causes ASAP? •Increase individual fitness and pe coursework overall unit readiness. Addiction , Army , Benzodiazepine 748 Words | 5 Pages. Introduction to Roles of Army Engineers. CONTRIBUTIONS OF THE NIGERIAN ARMY ENGINEERS TO NATION BUILDING: CHALLENGES AND PROSPECTS INTRODUCTION 1. Nations of the world set . objectives which they continually strive to achieve. These objectives which are regarded to be of resume outling benefit to the citizens of the country are collectively known as national interest. The extent to which a nation can achieve its national interest and indeed the influence it wields in the international community depends largely on its level of development.

Nation. Army , Bailey bridge , Construction 970 Words | 3 Pages. performance or productivity of the unit will also suffer. Respect is ocr a2 pe coursework just one of the many building blocks that make up the check essay United States Army’s Ecosystem. . These basic elements are outlined in the Army Values. The army values are; loyalty, duty, respect, selfless Service, honor, Integrity, and Personal Courage.

The army values are ordered in pe coursework such a way not so as to essays list which of our values are greater or more important than that of another. It is merely for drilling these staples of core fundamental values. Armed forces , Army , Enlisted rank 1027 Words | 3 Pages. One of the values the United States Army most seeks in pe coursework its soldiers is accountability. According to Army Regulation 600-8-14, . the wear of identification tags is governed in such a way requiring each and every soldier to wear their identification tags when in a field environment, while traveling via aircraft carrier, and when the soldier is resume outling outside the continental United States. All personnel should be wearing identification tags around their neck except when there are safety considerations such. Army , Army Combat Uniform , Military 1281 Words | 3 Pages.

Accountability in the Army Essay 7. In case something happens and someone needs t know where a soldier is accountability comes into play. Army Regulation 600-20 IAW Discipline. . Why is discipline so important? Because to be accounted for is a part of disciplinary actions, and a part of being a professional and a soldier is by pe coursework living the army values none more overpowering then the in an essay are articles other. So yes Discipline along with the other Army Values is very important. A good leader should always have accountability for their soldiers but it. Army , Artillery , Court-martial 1050 Words | 3 Pages. Being in the Right Place at ocr a2, the Right Time; Army. The main reason for this essay is because I did not follow standard operating procedure and was not at the correct place of duty for . accountability of thesis egg my person while on quarters as prescribed by my doctor. Regardless of my reasons for absence, there is no excuse as to pe coursework why I was not in my barracks room as I had been ordered to be or at a minimum give a courtesy call to my chain of write research proposal phd thesis command if I needed to go anywhere for any reason. I want to be an excellent soldier and I want to excel in the military. Army , Debut albums , English-language films 1148 Words | 3 Pages.

0200 Non-Duty days before duty days 1000-2200.I will be inspecting your room regularly and will not tolerate any violations. PHYSICAL FITNESS: Physical . fitness is pe coursework a must. You are to be in the standard at all times. Essay! If you are unaware of the standard you can discuss it with me or reference the Army Regulation. Army , Counseling psychology , If You Have to Ask 389 Words | 2 Pages. morally side with the ocr a2 pe coursework idea that using tobacco products in uniform presents an unprofessional appearance. Therefore, this should be avoided.

My actions today . were only underlined, wrong in the moral sense, not the ocr a2 legal. The United States Army enforces and upholds only the highest standards for its Soldiers, both on and off duty. Causes Essays! Each post has its only rules and regulations which can only further restrict form the “Big Mother Army’s” rules and pe coursework regulations. As Specialists, we are charged with teaching our junior. Army , Military , Sergeant 1050 Words | 3 Pages. ETHICAL CULTURE AUDIT of the United States Army By: Andrew Driscoll March 16, 2013 Each soldier in the United States Army , . In An Essay Are Articles Underlined! or any military service, will have very different experiences with the ethical culture of their unit.

Is this experience due to ocr a2 pe coursework the organizational culture or how its leaders operate within that culture that creates such an unique experience for every soldier? The point is that if you ask 10 soldiers to conduct an ethical culture audit of the military, I believe you will. Army , Chairman of the thesis verlag egg Joint Chiefs of Staff , LDRSHIP 2027 Words | 6 Pages. Army Reserve: A Better Choice Stacy Tharpe Devry University With tensions building around the globe, it takes a multi-tiered force of . highly trained, committed Soldiers to protect our freedoms and uphold democracy. This force consists of Active Duty Soldiers and Soldiers in pe coursework the Army Reserve. (US Army ) Many families struggle with the speculating about decision to enlist Army Reserve or Active Duty. Evaluating your current living situation can help in the final decision.

Army Reserve allows you to serve your country. Army , Military , Paisley Park Records 1016 Words | 3 Pages. Ocr A2! course is done and the student has passed the course. Resume Outling! I can not stress enough the pe coursework fact the just passing the nordic research abbreviation first course at the fast pace that the pe coursework military . expects us to pass it in is a feat in itself, guaranteed most the people that come into the army at that stage in resume outling their life is ocr a2 pe coursework going to essay have a hard time learning all the ocr a2 material at such a fast pace that most people other than instructors in the course would not pass the first course in their late twenties. So to expect someone at that age to. Army , Do the Right Thing , Military 1140 Words | 2 Pages. Army Wives Wendy Agbay Baker College The American public’s perception of military spouses is skewed due to resume outling a lack of information and pe coursework . incorrect media interpretation. Military spouses must be willing to sacrifice, as well as have courage and integrity to in an underlined make their family work under extreme circumstances. This cannot be portrayed in the media accurately. Television shows such as Army Wives makes light of what a military spouse has to ocr a2 pe coursework endure. In turn, this hurts the check for forgery reputation of the military. Army , Improvised explosive device , Marriage 1686 Words | 5 Pages.

Washington’s Army With the Revolutionary War set to begin, the recruitment of soldiers was fully on. Reasons to enlist in the Continental . Army were quite candid for numerous individuals. Motives ranged from pe coursework, looking for a fresh start to wanting to thesis verlag honor friendship/family, or even for the sole purpose of securing regular pay. Many looked to reap the benefits that were promised to them for enlisting in pe coursework the army . As the Revolutionary War waged on for years to come, soldiers of the Continental Army continued. American Revolutionary War , Army , Continental Army 1584 Words | 4 Pages. Personal Appearance Regarding Personnel in causes essays the Army. Regarding Personnel Currently Serving in the United States Army . As stated in AR 670-1, Wear and ocr a2 Appearance of Army . Uniforms and nordic Insignia, paragraph 1-7 A, “General.

The Army is ocr a2 pe coursework a uniformed service where discipline is judged, in write research phd thesis part, by the manner in which a soldier wears a prescribed uniform, as well as by the individual’s personal appearance. Therefore, a neat and well-groomed appearance by all soldiers is fundamental to the Army and contributes to building the pride and ocr a2 esprit essential. Thesis Verlag! Army , Army Combat Uniform , Beard 1211 Words | 4 Pages. Responsibility is one of the most important things in the Army . Accountability is ocr a2 also a very important part of being in the army . and it goes hand in hand with responsibility. I failed to maintain accountability of my weapon while at Yakima Training Center.

This was not an example of being a responsible soldier. This essay will explain what happened and why I think responsibilty is so important in the US Army . I had set my weapon down in the tool room so that I can go grab a couple of things. Army , Artillery , Military 1315 Words | 3 Pages. The Salvation Army The Salvation Army is an international movement, an evangelical part of the universal Christian church. Nordic And Paper Research Journal! It . is dedicated to the propagation of the Christian faith and to the furnishing of various forms of assistance to persons in need of spiritual solace and material aid. The Salvation Army was founded in 1865 in London by the English Methodist minister William Booth. Ocr A2 Pe Coursework! It was originally founded as the thesis verlag egg Christian Mission, with the aim of carrying on ocr a2 pe coursework evangelical and social-welfare.

Baptism , Catherine Booth , Christendom 1310 Words | 4 Pages. to: SHAMIR TABLE OF CONTENT custmore service standards 3 Introduction 3 Defining custmore service standards 3 Policies and . About! procedures of custmore service standards 4 Planning and implementation 6 Monitoring custmore service standards 7 Conclusion 8 Customer service standards Introduction We are used to such phrases as ‘100% reliable’ and ‘works every time‘as they relate to ocr a2 pe coursework products. Speculating Causes! These product quality standards have developed over pe coursework time, as consumers have become more. Customer , Customer service , Definition 1503 Words | 8 Pages. for write phd thesis, the maintenance of a standing army results in an inconsistency in the concept of a person. The inconsistency in turn undermines the ocr a2 pe coursework . possibility for the only check for forgery, form of government that is consistent with possibility of ocr a2 pe coursework perpetual peace, a republican government.” - J. Gabriel The Article by J. Gabriel, aims to essay are articles underlined present Rousseau and Kant’s argument that having to pay for standing armies deprives humans of their freedom. The cause for the need of standing armies is pe coursework that even with the presence of. Speculating Causes Essays! Army , Democracy , Human rights 2001 Words | 5 Pages. ?Serving in the Army A 1. In the text, ”Why They Serve” by Sarah Palin she discusses why her own son Track enlisted in the military and . deployment in Iraq.

In her opinion the men and women who serve in ocr a2 pe coursework the US Army and especially those who are deployed overseas serve with an outstanding sense of duty and nordic and paper abbreviation patriotism. She wrote the text when she was governor of Alaska and with a possibility of becoming vice-president. She speaks about pe coursework, how she admires the young soldiers who have possibly never known. Army , Combat , English-language films 861 Words | 3 Pages. ? SOP, or standard operating procedure, is write a detailed, written instruction to achieve uniformity of the performance and pe coursework appearance of a . Pulp! specific function. In the military the sop is suppose to pe coursework be a reference for soldiers to consult whenever they have doubts about their knowledge on the proper way to complete an action. They have both operational and in an essay are articles technical components, and they are essential to the development and deployment of solutions, as well as daily operations. My introduction to the Barracks. Pe Coursework! Army , Combat , Military 1503 Words | 4 Pages. ?The Complete Roman Army Introduction The Roman Empire was arguably once one of the resume outling most powerful civilizations of our ancient world. Their . reign lasted over 1000 years and covered nearly all of ocr a2 pe coursework Europe, and parts of Africa and The Middle East.

Adrian Goldsworthy, author of The Complete Roman Army , outlines many details pertinent to the ancient Roman Army . Today, scholars know a multitude of various facts about the Roman Army and why they were successful. Nordic Pulp And Paper Research Journal Abbreviation! Details such as the pe coursework weapons used, types. Ancient Rome , Army , Augustus 954 Words | 4 Pages. Army Physical Fitness Training Standards. Resume Outling! Marc Smurr English 101 January 28, 2011 Responding to Another’s Voice New Army Physical Fitness Training Standards The . United States Army Physical Fitness test, or Pt test consist of a two mile run, push ups and sit ups, each event is ocr a2 pe coursework graded based on age, and sex. There is a simple pass or fail in each category and this is based on how many repetitions, whether it being sit-ups or pushed up, the person can complete in a two minute time period. The two mile run is based on age, sex, and time.

Army , Exercise , Military 802 Words | 2 Pages. ? What are the standards ? Standards are documented agreements containing technical specifications or other precise criteria . to be used consistently as rules, guidelines, or definitions of characteristics, to ensure that materials, products, processes and services are fit for their purpose. For example, the format of the credit cards, phone cards, and for forgery essay smart cards that have become commonplace is derived from an ISO International Standard . Adhering to the standard , which defines such features. International Electrotechnical Commission , International Organization for Standardization , International standard 892 Words | 4 Pages. Battle of Thermopylae and Spartan Army. Athens, with here brilliant culture, freedom-loving but fickle democracy and cult of the individual. Ocr A2 Pe Coursework! Sparta was a model of for forgery essay stability, order and discipline or . of reaction, regimentation and repression. ? The organization of ocr a2 pe coursework your state is that of an army camp, not of people who live in a town' Plato#. Sparta Growing up in Sparta was a much different experience than their neighboring States.

A Spartan was brought up in a very regimented lifestyle taught that the greatest glory was death in battle#. Ancient Greece , Army , Battle of Thermopylae 1920 Words | 6 Pages. Wear and verlag Appearance of the Army Uniform. Ocr A2 Pe Coursework! In the army there are many uniforms a soldier has to wear. This is for the different activities a soldier does.

For everything from their daily . Physical Training (PT), their regular working uniform Army Combat Uniform (ACU), or their dress uniform either the essays Army Service Uniform (ASU), or the Army Green Service Uniform (Class A). Each uniform is design to fit a specific task and to be worn a in certain way. A great resource for either the ASU or the Class A is the “U.S. Ocr A2 Pe Coursework! ARMY UNIFORM GUIDE.” I found. Army , Army Combat Uniform , Clothing 1488 Words | 4 Pages. their way of fighting was so organized that every able bodied man could fight in the army and know the Roman system perfectly. Important . things about Polybius are that he was born in Greece but was deported to Rome in 168 BCE after the nordic and paper research defeat of the King of Macedon, Persius. While in Rome he became friends with people like Scipio who was a leading aristocrat in Rome at the time following his success in ocr a2 the army at Carthage and about causes Corinth. Polybius followed around Scipio on his journeys and wrote.

Ancient history , Ancient Rome , Augustus 1305 Words | 8 Pages. NAPOLEON’S INFLUENCE ON MODERN WESTERN MILITARY ARMIES. Ocr A2 Pe Coursework! NAPOLEON’S INFLUENCE ON MODERN WESTERN MILITARY ARMIES History 100, Staff Group A, CGSC Class 14-001 27 March 2014 1 Throughout history, . Verlag Egg! military leaders have immortalized their legacies by vanquishing their enemies in the battlefield against overwhelming odds. Soldiers and historians have revered their accomplishments by studying their mastery in the art of warfare with the hopes mimicking their accomplishments. Of them all, Napoleon Bonaparte is ocr a2 considered the best military leader in causes essays the history.

Army , Brigade , Iraq War 1866 Words | 6 Pages. Professionalism by ocr a2 SPC Murray Professionals in the United States Army stand apart from others engaged in check for forgery essay particular careers in the . civilian world. While many vocations contain some of the characteristics of professional, a lot of careers do not include all of the elements necessary to distinguish themselves as being as close to a professional as a United States soldier. Professionalism grows depending on the time and service they have in the Army . A professional has specialized knowledge and skill which. Integrity , Management , Military 1916 Words | 5 Pages.

Profession of Arms 2012 Shaping of the Army after 10 Years of Conflict SSG Hinch Leo C. . Small Group Leader: SFC Wilson Senior Leader Course 91X-12-034 01 June 2012 Abstract The changes that the Army has underwent over the past ten years on a Soldiers point of view while serving within the ocr a2 pe coursework organization. It assess the impacts of a decade of check essay persistent conflict on pe coursework the all-volunteer Army rationalization and shape for about causes essays, which changes. Armed forces , Army , Combat 887 Words | 3 Pages. Army. Corrective Training for Infractions. 1565Pages: 7Views: 1522Popularity Rank: 4322 Accountability Professionalism in the United States of America's ARMY DMI's ESSAY . September 5, 2008 Outline Intro, Definition of Essay, I. Infraction II. Pe Coursework! The affect it has on my unit and myself II. The importance of resume outling accountability in the army III.

The importance of professionalism in the army IV. The 7 Army Core Values BACKFGROUND This paper is an essay that was assigned for me to do as a means of corrective training. Confederate States of America , Continental Army , Joint Chiefs of Staff 1805 Words | 7 Pages. An army (from Latin arma arms, weapons via Old French armee, armed (feminine)), is a fighting force that fights primarily on land. In the . broadest sense, it is the land-based military branch, service branch or armed service of a nation or state. It may also include other branches of the military such as the air force via means of aviation corps. Within a national military force, the word army may also mean a field army . They differ from army reserves who are activated only during such times as. American Revolutionary War , Army , British Army 2392 Words | 8 Pages. Women’s Army Auxiliary Corps Take the women into ocr a2, the armed service, who then will do the cooking, the washing, the mending, the humble and in an . Ocr A2 Pe Coursework! homey tasks to which every woman has devoted herself? From the mouth of a man who was against women joining the Armed Forces of the United States during World Wars I (WWI) and check for forgery II (WWII) (Monahan).

In 1917, thousands of women served during World War I (WWI), constantly fighting a battle to ocr a2 pe coursework become part of the United States Army , a battle they were not winning. Armed forces , Army , Conscription 1119 Words | 3 Pages. Discipline: United States Army and check for forgery Soldier. appearance In The U.S. Army The following essay is a compilation of my personal experiences, definitions, and examples of how discipline is . important to surviving in today’s U.S. Army . Discipline is pe coursework increased when one constantly adheres to the standards set by his superiors and maintains not only his bering, but appearance as well. Discipline is: acting in accordance with the rules put in place and behaving in accordance to the rules of conduct as well as maintaing the standard set by resume outling superiors (i. Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff , Continental Army , LDRSHIP 977 Words | 3 Pages.

An Assessment of the ocr a2 pe coursework Profession of nordic pulp and paper journal abbreviation Arms. in ocr a2 a work environment that conforms to the standards of skill, with competence and resume outling character. After nearly a decade of war the ocr a2 pe coursework . Write Proposal! Army has decided to ocr a2 focus on creating professionals rather than just creating warriors. Leaders have realized the importance of being a professional and want to ensure that every soldier and civilian member of the Army understands the same importance. Therefore, the Army has begun implementing the Profession of write proposal Arms. “The Army is an American Profession of Arms, a vocation. Army , Ethics , Military 1237 Words | 4 Pages. Profession of ocr a2 Arms Argumentative Paper. ? IS THE ARMY A PROFESSION? ARGUING THE ARMY’S STATUS AS A PROFESSION OF ARMS EINSTEIN Is the Army a . Pulp And Paper Abbreviation! Profession? The bond between the professional and ocr a2 the client has been around for thousands of years and in the proceeding millennia, there has been minimal change to the principles governing the speculating about causes essays service client relationship. These principles in ocr a2 pe coursework include trust between the professional and the client, uniquely expert work provided, and intrinsically motivated employees.1 Like.

Army , Business ethics , Ethics 818 Words | 7 Pages. The Bonus Army In 1924, a grateful Congress voted to give a bonus to and paper World War I veterans, $1.25 for each day served overseas, and $1.00 . for ocr a2 pe coursework, each day served in the States. Resume Outling! (Bartlett) However the payment would not be made until 1945. Unfortunately, by 1932 the nation had become engulfed into the Depression and the unemployed veterans obviously wanted their money immediately so that they could support their families. Ocr A2! Nearly one-third of write working Americans were unemployed and desperate for relief. Ocr A2! Bonus Army , Douglas MacArthur , Dwight D. Eisenhower 765 Words | 3 Pages. Egg! AR 670-1 Army Regulation 670-1 is 'WEAR AND APPEARANCE OF ARMY UNIFORMS AND INSIGNIA' which requires the soldier to always put . on a full army uniform and ocr a2 all its symbolism. This regulation prescribes the resume outling authorization for ocr a2, wear, composition, and in an essay underlined classification of uniforms, and the occasions for wearing all personal (clothing bag issue), optional, and commonly worn organizational Army uniforms. It also prescribes the pe coursework awards, insignia, and accouterments authorized for resume outling, wear on the uniform, and pe coursework how. Army , Battle Dress Uniform , Beard 1386 Words | 4 Pages.

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nsf 2 page resume Proposals to the National Science Foundation. sfinger at Carnegie Mellon University. Updated April 2015.

The original version of this advice was written in pe coursework the late 1980s. At a high level, the advice still applies, but some of the details have changed dramatically. What follows is a collection of advice for writing research grants to pulp and paper research journal abbreviation, the National Science Foundation. It includes some guidelines on how to write an NSF proposal and how to get the latest version of the NSF forms. Some required NSF forms, such as the Disclosure of ocr a2 pe coursework, Lobbying Activities, will usually be provided by your institution’s grants office.

This document focuses on nordic research journal, writing proposals to NSF, but the general advice can be applied to writing any proposal. Always read the RFP (request for ocr a2 pe coursework proposal) to resume outling, find out what the funders want. They will give you money only if you can help them reach their goals. The goals of funding agencies (public and private) vary dramatically. A successful proposal to NSF looks nothing like a successful proposal to NASA. Even within an agency, the style of ocr a2, proposals can be different among internal divisions. Find out about the agency, its goals, and its review system. All proposals should answer the following questions in one form or another. What is the problem being addressed? (What is the essay are articles goal of the ocr a2 pe coursework research being proposed? What is the speculating about hypothesis being tested?) Why is the problem important and interesting?

To the world? To the funders? What will you DO to address the problem? If you complete the plan, will that bring you closer to pe coursework, an answer to the question? Do you have the resources (equipment, graduate students, access to industry . ) necessary to complete the research? NSF is organized a lot like a university, except that instead of departments and colleges it has divisions and directorates.

The Program Directors (PDs, also equivalently called program managers and program officers) are like professors (and a lot of them are professors on phd thesis, leaves of absence). They have areas of specialization which correspond to the research areas covered by pe coursework their programs. The division directors are like department chairs. They oversee the broad research areas covered by the programs and deal with administrative issues. The Assistant Directors are like Deans of Colleges. They lead the nordic and paper journal directorates and are responsible for the major research directions in Engineering, Physical Sciences, etc. The Director of NSF, who is like a university president or chancellor, is responsible for the overall direction of Science and Engineering Research. While the structure of NSF is similar to ocr a2 pe coursework, a university, unlike a university, NSF reorganizes constantly.

This means that you may get to know a program director who may suddenly return to research proposal phd thesis, his or her university or may be reassigned to another program -- or that your program may be merged with a different program. While this is disconcerting in the short run, in the long run it keeps programs from stagnating and ocr a2 pe coursework, helps NSF keep on the forefront of check for forgery, research areas. Find out ocr a2 which program supports your research area. (It's not always obvious). You can ask your colleagues to find out about which programs support your research area. Check! Find out if there are other people at NSF you should talk to pe coursework, and what special initiatives might apply to you. You can find the list of telephone numbers and research proposal phd thesis, e-mail addresses from the NSF web site ( Read the program announcements before you contact the PD so that your questions will be direct and ocr a2 pe coursework, specific. The easiest way to get started is to send a brief email to the program director stating which program you are interested in applying to, a short statement of your relevant research interests, your availability by phone or email, and a one-page attachment that covers the first three questions above: what’s the problem, why it’s important, and resume outling, what your key idea is. Ocr A2! Don’t spend a lot of time/space giving the big picture on, e.g. cybersecurity; you are talking to check for forgery essay, an expert your area. Some PDs prefer e-mail; some prefer phone calls.

Some like to talk to Principal Investigators (PIs); some don’t. PDs are as varied in their personalities as your other professional colleagues are. If you do talk to ocr a2, a PD on the phone, remember to listen; don’t just pitch your idea non-stop. You are calling to get advice, not to sell your idea – that happens in the proposal itself. Remember to resume outling, say thank you. (Don't be discouraged if they are rough on you.

They spend most of the day on the computer and the phone and the rest of the time they're traveling and staying in ocr a2 government-rate hotels.) Treat the PDs as if they are intelligent people (even if you doubt it). The PD will assign the reviewers and will make the check for forgery essay final decision. You don't have to be a sycophant, just be polite. (This advice comes from a former NSF program director.) Most of your correspondence with NSF will be through email, but if you call, you will probably get the PD's voice mail. Most program directors let their calls roll to ocr a2 pe coursework, voice mail because the message is nordic and paper, transferred into pe coursework, email, so they can listen no matter where they are. Also, if you are calling about a proposal or a grant, include the NSF proposal number so the PD has all the information at hand when returning your call. Resume Outling! When you call, · clearly state who you are, · your institutional affiliation, · why you are calling, · give the proposal or grant number if you have it, and.

· provide several times when you will be available for a call back. Also, oddly, the NSF phone system displays the caller ID when the call is in progress, but the number disappears after the call is over and, as far as I could tell, there is no way to get it back. So don't count on pe coursework, the program officer being able to see that you called. Nordic Abbreviation! Leave a message if you want them to know that you called. The instructions to proposers get more specific every year, and ocr a2, FastLane (the NSF submission system) gets better at rejecting proposals that don't meet the requirements. Resume Outling! You are responsible for ensuring that your proposal meets all the particular program requirements. Follow the directions! (The NSF secretaries are often heard muttering things like: If they're so smart, why can't they read?) The number of proposals submitted to NSF has increased dramatically over ocr a2 the last decade. As a result, fewer proposals are funded. And as a result, each PI submits more proposals because the odds on each one are lower. DO NOT submit essentially the same proposal to several programs.

The proposal will probably go to resume outling, at least one duplicate reviewer, who will get angry that you are burdening the system, will recommend that both proposals be rejected, and ocr a2, will put a black mark next to your name. DO NOT submit a proposal that is rushed and write proposal, not the best that you can do. Not only pe coursework, are you burdening the system by making everyone go through the work of speculating about essays, declining your proposal, you are also damaging your reputation with your peers. No matter what incentives you have from your university for submitting proposals, poorly thought out proposals are not worth the damage done to you and to the peer review system. NSF recently revised the merit review criteria to emphasize the importance of broader impacts in the evaluation process. The following excerpt is ocr a2, from the instructions to NSF reviewers:

When evaluating NSF proposals, reviewers should consider what the proposers want to resume outling, do, why they want to ocr a2, do it, how they plan to do it, how they will know if they succeed, and what benefits would accrue if the resume outling project is successful. These issues apply both to ocr a2, the technical aspects of the proposal and the way in which the project may make broader contributions. To that end, reviewers are asked to evaluate all proposals against check essay, two criteria: · Intellectual Merit: The intellectual Merit criterion encompasses the potential to advance knowledge; and. · Broader Impacts: The Broader Impacts criterion encompasses the pe coursework potential to benefit society and contribute to the achievement of specific, desired societal outcomes. The following elements should be considered in the review for both criteria:

1. What is the potential for thesis egg the proposed activity to. a. advance knowledge and understanding within its own field or across different fields (Intellectual Merit); and. b. benefit society or advance desired societal outcomes (Broader Impacts)? 2. To what extent do the proposed activities suggest and explore creative, original, or potentially transformative concepts? 3. Is the pe coursework plan for carrying out the proposed activities well-reasoned, well-organized, and based on a sound rationale? Does the plan incorporate a mechanism to assess success? 4. Essays! How well qualified is the individual, team, or institution to conduct the ocr a2 proposed activities? 5. Are there adequate resources available to the PI (either at the home institution or through collaborations) to carry out the proposed activities?

As you write your proposal, you should keep the review criteria in write research proposal mind. As academics, we understand the intellectual merit criterion because that is how we have been evaluated throughout our careers. However, many academics struggle with the broader impacts criterion. You need to convince the pe coursework reviewers that your question is not just intellectually challenging, but also that the resulting knowledge will benefit society and that you have a feasible plan to get the knowledge out of the university and get it used in the world. IV. Putting together your proposal.

This section follows the general flow of creating the forms and text for an NSF proposal. Once you have a rough draft of your proposal, ask someone who is senior to you to read your proposal as if he or she were an NSF reviewer. The ideal reader is a senior trusted colleague in your field who has had NSF funding, who has served on NSF panels, and who will not be used by NSF as a reviewer. (See Section 2.5.e on conflicts of interest.) The formatting requirements for proposals are given in the Grant Proposal Guide (GPG), which you can get from the NSF Web site. (The link changes with each new edition, so you will need to search for the GPG.) Before you start to put together your proposal, go to the NSF website and in an are articles underlined, be sure you have the latest version. The guide is updated almost every year and you are expected to follow the ocr a2 current requirements. Your proposal may be returned without review if you don’t do this. In general, NSF lets the community know about research opportunities through two mechanisms: Program Descriptions and Solicitations. A Program Description covers a broad research area such as Physical Oceanography or Science of Organizations. Resume Outling! A program description usually gives you either a deadline or target date.

Deadlines are hard dates, and you must get your proposal in by midnight (your local time) on ocr a2, the given date or your proposal will not be considered in the current round of thesis, funding. Target dates are soft dates, and your proposal will still be accepted after the given date; however, there is no guarantee that your proposal will get a timely review if your proposal arrives after the target date. If there are no due dates, then the program accepts proposals continuously and probably uses more ad hoc reviews than panel reviews. (Section V explains the difference between these types of reviews.) A Solicitation is ocr a2 pe coursework, more specific than a Program Description. Solicitations have a specified length of time for resume outling which they are active (usually 1 to 3 years). One of the major differences between solicitations and ocr a2, program descriptions is that solicitations can include special requirements, such as letters of underlined, commitment from industrial collaborators or tables of specific data required for review. When you respond to a solicitation be sure to read the solicitation in its entirety and to respond to any special requirements since they can differ from those given in the standard GPG. I often start by ocr a2 pasting the body of the solicitation into the draft of egg, my proposal so that I am sure to cover all the requirements.

NSF also issues Dear Colleague Letters (DCLs) when there is a special funding opportunity or when a policy change is pe coursework, made that affects the current GPG. You can stay up to date with NSF announcements of new programs, solicitations and DCLs through the NSF News office. To receive email updates, go to and select Get News Updates by Email. You can select which research areas you are interested in, whether you want a daily digests or individual emails, etc. For Forgery! I get a daily digest, and I over- rather than under-select options. That way, I am sure to ocr a2 pe coursework, get all of the announcements I’m interested in, and it’s all contained in one email a day. The summary is a one page overview of the proposal. It is resume outling, not an abstract. It is pe coursework, a self-contained, third-person description of objectives, methods, significance. If you are funded, this goes into essay, NSF's Summary of Awards publication as well as being published on the website. It will be read by your colleagues, the general public, and pe coursework, Congress.

Because PIs were not explicitly addressing Intellectual Merit and Broader Impacts as instructed, NSF has changed the summary page to a form with separate sections for the overview, the statement of Intellectual Merit and the statement of Broader Impact. Note: the resume outling Project Summary form accepts ASCII text only. If you copy and paste from a Word document, all the special characters like left and right quotation marks, hyphens, etc. will show up as question marks in the final version. Be sure to proofread the PDF copy of your project summary before you submit your proposal. Reviewers often unconsciously make the implicit assumption that if you are sloppy in your writing and can’t be bothered to proofread, then you are also sloppy in your research. There is a provision to upload a PDF if your project summary requires special formatting for equations or other technical content; however, the PDF must follow the ocr a2 pe coursework project summary requirements with separate headings for the overview, statement of Intellectual Merit and check for forgery, the statement of Broader Impact. The project description has a 15 page limit. Proposals over ocr a2 this limit are returned without review. Write Research Proposal Phd Thesis! You can include links in your proposal, but the reviewers may or may not follow them. All of the information they need to ocr a2 pe coursework, evaluate your proposal must be contained within the 15 page limit.

If you do include links, be sure they are active, informative, and up-to-date just in case a reviewer does decide to phd thesis, follow them. 2.1 Objectives and Expected Significance. This part of the proposal should answer the question: What are the main scientific challenges? Emphasize what the new ideas are. Briefly describe the project's major goals and their impact on the state of the art. Give the reviewer the ocr a2 pe coursework context for resume outling the proposal. Clearly state the question you will address: Why is it important?

What makes something important varies with the ocr a2 pe coursework field. For some fields, the intellectual challenge should be emphasized, for others the practical applications should be emphasized. Why is it an interesting/difficult/challenging question? It must be neither trivial nor impossible. What long-term technical goals will this work serve? What are the main barriers to progress? What has led to success so far and what limitations remain? What is the write proposal missing knowledge? What aspects of the current state-of-the-art lead to this proposal? Why are these the ocr a2 right issues to be addressing now?

What lessons from past and current research motivate your work? What value will your research provide? What is it that your results will make possible? What is the relation to the present state of knowledge, to current work here and elsewhere? Cite those whose work you're building on (and who you would like to have review your proposal). Don't insult anyone. For example, don't say another’s work is write research proposal phd thesis, inadequate; rather, identify the issues the work didn't address. Surprisingly, this section can kill a proposal. You need to be able to pe coursework, put your work in context. Often, a proposal will appear naive because the relevant literature is not cited. If it looks like you are planning to reinvent the wheel (and have no idea that wheels already exist), then no matter how good your research proposal itself is, your proposal won't get funded.

If you trash everyone else in your research field, saying their work is no good, you also will not get funded. One of the primary rules of proposal writing is: Don't piss off the reviewers. You can build your credentials in this section by speculating summarizing other people's work clearly and concisely and by stating how your work uses their ideas and how it differs from ocr a2 theirs. This section should include a technical description of your research plan: the activities, methods, data, and theory. This should be equivalent to a PhD thesis proposal for the big leagues.

Write to convince the best person in your field that your idea deserves funding. Simultaneously, you must convince someone who is very smart but has no background in your sub-area. Thesis! The goal of your proposal is to persuade the reviewers that your ideas are so important that they will take money out of the taxpayers' pockets and ocr a2 pe coursework, hand it to you. This is the part that counts. WHAT will you do? Why is your strategy an appropriate one to pursue? What is the key idea that makes it possible for to speculating about causes essays, answer this question? HOW will you achieve your goals? Concisely and coherently, this section should complete the arguments developed earlier and present your initial pass on how to solve the problems posed. Avoid repetitions and digressions. In general, NSF is more interested in ideas than in deliverables.

The question is: What will we know when you're done that we don't know now? The question is not: What will we have that we don't have now? That is, rather than saying that you will develop a system that will do X, Y and ocr a2, Z, instead say why it is important to be able to do X, Y and Z; why X, Y and Z can't be done now; what knowledge is needed to causes essays, make X, Y, and Z possible, your plan that will make it possible to do X, Y and ocr a2, Z; and, by the way, you will demonstrate X, Y and Z in a system. Right now, NSF is more open to write phd thesis, application-oriented research. They need to ocr a2, show Congress that the money spent on research benefits the US economy. Some years ago, the word applied was a bad word at NSF. Now it's a good word.

The pendulum between focusing on basic or applied research has about a 20 year periodicity. Check For Forgery! You always need to check to find out where it is at the moment. Check with the PD and knowledgeable colleagues. 2.4 Broader Impacts of the Proposed Work. In the review criteria, Intellectual Merit and Broader Impacts have the same weight. From the GPG (emphasis mine):

The Project Description must contain, as a separate section within the narrative, a section labeled Broader Impacts of the Proposed Work. Broader impacts may be accomplished through the research itself, through the ocr a2 pe coursework activities that are directly related to specific research projects, or through activities that are supported by, but are complementary to about essays, the project. Ocr A2 Pe Coursework! NSF values the advancement of scientific knowledge and activities that contribute to the achievement of societally relevant outcomes. Such outcomes include, but are not limited to: full participation of women, persons with disabilities, and underrepresented minorities in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM); improved STEM education and educator development at any level; increased public scientific literacy and nordic pulp and paper research journal abbreviation, public engagement with science and ocr a2 pe coursework, technology; improved well-being of speculating about, individuals in society; development of a diverse, globally competitive STEM workforce; increased partnerships between academia, industry, and others; improved national security; increased economic competitiveness of the United States; and enhanced infrastructure for research and education. Remember that all of the pe coursework proposals going to a review panel are in the same area of research, so you need to verlag, distinguish your proposal by what YOU are going to do to help NSF get the knowledge out of the academy and into ocr a2, the world. You should think deeply and and paper abbreviation, critically about activities that will enable your work to have a positive, measurable impact on the overall endeavor of STEM research. Present a plan for how you will go about addressing/attacking/solving the ocr a2 questions you have raised. Discuss expected results and your plan for evaluating the are articles results. How will you measure progress? Include a discussion of milestones and expected dates of completion. (Three months is the about the smallest time chunk you should include in an NSF research plan.) You are not committed to pe coursework, following this plan - but you must present a FEASIBLE plan to speculating about, convince the reviewers that you know how to go about pe coursework, getting research results. For new PIs, this is often the hardest section to write.

You don't have to write the in an are articles plan that you will follow no matter what. Think of pe coursework, it instead as presenting a possible path from where you are now to for forgery, where you want to be at the end of the research. Give as much detail as you can. (You will always have at least one reviewer who is a stickler for details.) If any of the ocr a2 PIs have received NSF support in the past 5 years, you must include a summary of the results of previous work. The pages in this section count toward the total 15 pages. You can use this section to discuss your prior research and how it supports your current proposal. Note that you must report both on the results for Intellectual Merit and Broader Impacts. One of the purposes of this section is to help the reviewers evaluate your track record, so be sure to make a strong case for write phd thesis your results in both categories. Award #, amount, period Title Summary of results: The results must be separately described under two distinct headings: Intellectual Merit and Broader Impacts ; List of publications acknowledging NSF; if none, state No publications were produced under this award. To save space, you do not need to ocr a2 pe coursework, include the complete citations in resume outling this section. You can cite them as references, included in the References section.

Evidence of research products and their availability, including, but not limited to: data, publications, samples, physical collections, software, and models, as described in any Data Management Plan; and For renewals: relation to pe coursework, proposed work. The references are a separate section that lists the pertinent literature that has been referenced within the project description. Remember to thesis verlag egg, proofread the reference list. Reviewers may follow up on an interesting citation, so be sure author name, journal name, year etc. are correct. Program directors often look in the bibliography for ocr a2 pe coursework potential reviewers, and speculating about causes, reviewers often look in the bibliography to pe coursework, see if their work is cited. If your bibliography has a lot of resume outling, peripheral references, your proposal may be sent to reviewers whose work is not directly related to pe coursework, yours and thesis, who may not understand your proposal. On the other hand, if you do not cite the relevant literature, your proposal may be sent to reviewers who are not cited and who will criticize you for not knowing the literature.

The references do not count in the 15 page proposal limit. Check the GPG for ocr a2 pe coursework the specific requirements for are articles biographical sketches because the requirements change occasionally. The goal of the biosketch is to provide reviewers with your credentials that will help them evaluate whether you have the background, knowledge and skills to perform the proposed research. Ocr A2! The biosketch also helps identify your conflicts of interest. Your biographical sketch should include the highlights that a reviewer of the proposal needs to essay, know about you. Be sure your name, institution, professional email and phone number appear prominently at ocr a2 pe coursework the top of your biosketch. Be sure that you do not include any personally identifying information including your cell phone number, home address, private email address, etc. If your proposal has multiple PIs, you will look more like a team if your biosketches all use the same format.

The current requirements are: a) Your professional preparation: undergraduate, graduate nd postdoctoral. Include the institution, major, degree and year. b) Appointments: List in reverse chronological order all of your academic and professional appointments. Include your current appointment. c) Publications: List up to five publications, patents, copyrights, or software systems relevant to the current proposal , plus up to five other significant publications. You should fine tune the first five publications to essay are articles underlined, be sure they demonstrate your knowledge in the proposed research area.

Sometimes grants offices keep biosketches on pe coursework, file to include in proposals. However, you want to be sure that you include your most recent archival work; you don’t want it to resume outling, look like you stopped publishing 10 year ago. Also, if you work in several areas or want to highlight a particular area of expertise, be sure to ocr a2 pe coursework, select your five works most relevant to the current proposal. d) Synergistic Activities: List up to pulp and paper research journal abbreviation, five examples of your professional and scholarly work that demonstrate your participation in and commitment to the broader impact goals of NSF. e) Collaborators and pe coursework, other affiliations; Conflicts of are articles underlined, Interest (COI): This section has three parts: a) collaborators and co-editors; b) your graduate and ocr a2 pe coursework, post graduate advisors and nordic and paper research journal abbreviation, c) the current and former students who you advised as graduate or post graduate students. Ocr A2 Pe Coursework! (See the GPG for the exact requirements.) The information in this section serves many purposes.

A reviewer may be interested in resume outling the number of PhD students you have advised and ocr a2 pe coursework, what kinds of careers they have gone on resume outling, to; they may look at pe coursework your collaborators to check essay, see whether you work with industry, with people from other fields, or with people at other universities. PDs use this information to ocr a2, identify those with whom you have a Conflict of Interest (COI). The people listed in part a) have a limited duration COI (24 to 48 months depending on the nature of the collaboration.) The people listed in b) and c) have a life-time COI. You also have a COI with anyone at your current institution, at an institution you have just left, or an institution to which have applied for employment. NSF will not send your proposal to your close colleagues, your thesis advisor, your advisees, nor to anyone at write research proposal your current institution. You may list such people explicitly, if you wish. In general, NSF grants are for three years and most of the money goes toward supporting PhD students.

A typical budget for pe coursework a single PI grant is about $100K/year, which will pay for a graduate student (tuition and stipend), about 10% of the professor's time to supervise the student, a little bit of travel, copying, and overhead. However, the are articles grant size varies from ocr a2 division to check essay, division. Ask someone in your area what is pe coursework, typical. Be sure to include all the support costs that you will need including computer services, travel, supplies, etc. NSF may cut your budget, but they'll never give you more than you ask for, so be sure to ask for everything you need. Describe, justify, and estimate cost of equipment items $5000 or more. (Double check the speculating about essays GPG for pe coursework the current dollar limit.) If your equipment needs change between the time you submit the proposal and the time it is and paper journal abbreviation, granted, you can still buy what you need -- But be sure to talk to the university grants office BEFORE you buy the new equipment. Ocr A2! There are special rules about equipment money because it is usually exempt from essay overhead charges. Also, NSF will only provide equipment money for ocr a2 pe coursework research computers. Under normal circumstances, you cannot use NSF funds to purchase a general-purpose computer that is used by underlined only one person. The business manager in your department or grants office will usually help you fill out the budget form once you have identified your direct costs. However, you should be sure that the Budget Justification pages are complete and pe coursework, correct.

Reviewers often look at the budget pages because they give insights into the research plan. Who is being paid to do the work? What priorities are reflected in the budget? Are the resources requested sufficient to carry out the plan? Does the budget look padded or lean? For example, if you ask for thousands of dollars in resume outling international travel which isn’t justified within your proposal, this will raise red flags with the reviewers. Note that NSF does not allow voluntary cost sharing. Unless a solicitation gives special instructions for overhead rates, you must use the overhead rate negotiated by your university; you cannot reduce the bottom line on ocr a2, your budget by and paper changing the overhead rate. List all current and ocr a2 pe coursework, pending support on essay are articles, the given forms.

Your institution’s grants office can probably help with these. If you have submitted the pe coursework same proposal to more than one agency, be sure that you declare it on the cover page and in the current and pending support section. If you don't and the same reviewer is picked by both agencies, you won't get funded and your reputation will be damaged. Remember that only a few people, most of whom you probably already know, are qualified to review your proposal. 8. Facilities and Special Considerations. This section should focus on the facilities available to you that you need to do your research. Nordic Pulp Journal Abbreviation! If you will rely on any specialized equipment, describe it. The question in the reviewer's mind is: Do you have the ocr a2 necessary resources to carry out the research? In addition, if you are asking for equipment in your proposal, you will want to make clear what equipment you don't have. If some of the work will occur off-campus, you should describe the facility where the work will take place.

9. Postdoctoral Researcher Mentoring Plan. If your proposal includes funding for postdoctoral researchers, you must include a one-page supplementary document that describes the mentoring activities that will be provided for such individuals. In this document, you should discuss specific activities designed to thesis egg, advance the careers of post-docs supported by the grant. Ocr A2! Examples of activities are given in the GPG and you can find examples on the web; however, you should tailor the plan for your research area and your university. All proposals to the NSF must include a two-page supplementary document that describes how the write proposal phd thesis results of the research will be made available to the public. The plan should cover: the types of data, samples, physical collections, software, curriculum materials, and pe coursework, other materials to be produced in the course of the nordic and paper journal project; the standards to be used for data and metadata format and content (where existing standards are absent or deemed inadequate, this should be documented along with any proposed solutions or remedies); policies for access and sharing including provisions for ocr a2 appropriate protection of privacy, confidentiality, security, intellectual property, or other rights or requirements; policies and thesis verlag egg, provisions for re-use, re-distribution, and the production of derivatives; and plans for archiving data, samples, and other research products, and for preservation of access to them.

Check to pe coursework, see if there is special guidance for the program you are applying to. In An Are Articles! Some programs and directorates have specific data-archiving requirements. Even though this section’s title uses the word “data,” you should think of it as “results.” NSF gives you the option to include just the statement that no detailed plan is needed, but you should not use this option because you are basically saying that you will have no results to disseminate. If you are collecting data that is covered either by FERPA or the ocr a2 Privacy Act, be sure that you discuss how sensitive data will be protected. Be careful how you write this section; you want to be able to publish your results while still maintaining the privacy of your subjects.

NSF’s goal is to get the research results out to the public (who are the ones who paid for it), while maintaining privacy and intellectual property rights. Again, you can find many sample data management plans on resume outling, the web. Ocr A2! Be sure that your plan is relevant to your research and check essay, your university. V. What happens to your proposal after it is submitted to NSF? All proposals arrive at NSF electronically - mostly through and occasionally through The proposals are routed based on the program announcement number or the NSF division given by the PI. (On the cover page you are asked to identify what division in NSF should consider your proposal.) Occasionally after the initial sorting is done, program directors will assign proposals to ocr a2 pe coursework, a different program if the for forgery essay proposed research doesn't match what is funded in the named program. Once the ocr a2 proposal has been assigned to a program director, it is ready for review.

There are two basic review mechanisms used at NSF: ad hoc review and panel review. Both are single blind peer review mechanisms: that is, the reviewers (who are the PI's peers) know who the PI is, but the PI does not know who the reviewers are. Panel reviews are the most common because of the large volume of proposals that NSF receives. Here's the math: Most reviewers will not write reviews for more than 10 proposals a year without revolting (reviewing a proposal is a lot of work). If 150 proposals are submitted to a program, then 900 review requests must be sent out. That means a minimum of 180 reviewers must be sent at resume outling most 5 proposals each. Three reviews per person per year is more realistic - so that means the program director must have access to pe coursework, 300 of the proposal writers' peers in order to get the peer review system to work.

And that's just for one program. Nordic Pulp And Paper Research Abbreviation! All the other program directors are working with the same numbers -- and the expertise of many reviewers overlaps several programs. Panel review: For a panel review, the ocr a2 program director selects 10 to 15 experts in in an essay underlined a field and ocr a2 pe coursework, asks them review a set of related proposals. These panelists are a mix of academics, industry and government reviewers, with academics being the majority. Each panelist reviews a subset of the proposals ahead of time through the Fastlane system. The panelists then come together to discuss which proposals should get funded. Most reviewers find it easier to rank a set of resume outling, proposals than to write a detailed review of each proposal. The reviews from a panel are often not as detailed as the ones from an ad hoc review (described below) -- but they usually are more directed. If one reviewer completely misses the ocr a2 point of speculating, a proposal (which they sometimes do), this will come out during the ocr a2 panel discussion so you get fewer out-in-left-field reviews from panels than from ad hoc review.

The panel makes a recommendation to the program director about which proposals should be funded. Ad hoc review: The program director can assign an individual to review a proposal outside the panel system. Ad hoc reviews may be used when the pulp research journal abbreviation expertise of a panel does not cover a particular aspect of ocr a2 pe coursework, a proposal. They may also be used when a proposal arrives outside the normal funding cycle. The proposal is assigned to check for forgery, ad hoc reviewers through the Fastlane system.

The reviewer is ocr a2 pe coursework, given about two weeks to a month to review the proposal. Again, the review happens within the Fastlane system. Reviewers are usually a mix of university, industry, and resume outling, government researchers. Ocr A2 Pe Coursework! Almost always, the majority are academics. The PD reviews the proposal, the panel recommendation, and any ad hoc reviews, then makes a decision to fund or decline the proposal. The PDs must exercise judgment. For example, a reviewer might appear to check for forgery, be a perfect match for a proposal -- but when the review comes in, it may be obvious that the PI's work conflicts with the reviewers work, and the reviewer is biased.

Often the ocr a2 pe coursework decision to fund involves deciding whether to fund the proposal at the full or reduced amount. The PD makes the decision based on the program budget, the proposals that have been funded, and the pending proposals. The PD writes an analysis of the proposal and the reviews to in an underlined, support the decision. The proposal goes to the division director who must concur with the decision for it to be official. Ocr A2 Pe Coursework! You are notified by in an essay are articles underlined email once the decision is pe coursework, final. If your proposal is funded, the NSF grants office deals with all the (electronic) paper work required to in an underlined, make a grant. NSF always releases the anonymous reviews to ocr a2 pe coursework, you after the decision is made. If you haven’t received notification within 6 months of your submittal, check your spam folder for email from NSF. (The email comes from a server and check, many people report that it ends up in spam unless they white-list You can also login to Fastlane to check the status. Only call the PD as a last resort. Note: A grant from NSF goes to the institution, not to the PI.

If you change institutions, it is usually easy to ocr a2 pe coursework, take an NSF grant with you. However, you must negotiate with your current and future institution. NSF will not intervene in speculating essays these negotiations. Declined proposals are confidential -- even the fact that a proposal was declined is confidential. For grants, the titles, abstracts, PIs, funding amounts, .. are public information, but the proposal itself is confidential.

Almost all NSF information is available over the web. The main NSF web page gives you access to all NSF program descriptions, publications (including the pe coursework NSF Grant Proposal Guide), program descriptions and current deadlines, the phone numbers and e-mail addresses of causes essays, project directors, etc. The FastLane system is an interactive real-time system used to conduct NSF business over the Internet. Ocr A2! All programs now require that proposals be submitted electronically either through FastLane or through The grants office at your institution can set up an account for you so that you can submit proposals and check their status through FastLane. If you are asked to write a review or be on a panel, the proposal program officer will give you an id and password to ocr a2 pe coursework, give you access to the proposals.

Aside on Fastlane: The first time I was a PD at NSF in the mid 1980s, Fastlane was just coming into existence through the efforts of Erich Bloch, then the Director of speculating essays, NSF and a former IBM researcher and executive. Pe Coursework! I returned to NSF as a PD in 2010 and that was the resume outling first year that all proposal processing was done completely electronically. In order to update the software methods and ocr a2 pe coursework, make NSF funding more transparent to resume outling, the public, the current plan is to migrate the functions of Fastlane to pe coursework, and to As of now, only the reporting functions have been completely migrated to You can submit your proposal either through Fastlane, NSF’s specialized proposal submission system, or through, the submission system for all proposals to for forgery, the US government. At least as of now (2015), I strongly recommend that you use Fastlane because there are several NSF-specific features in Fastlane that are not available in pe coursework

Using Fastlane ensures that you meet all NSF submission requirements and ensures that you receive timely feedback if there are problems with your submission. In the long run, Fastlane will almost certainly be subsumed by in an essay underlined, but the pe coursework research community will receive many warnings and updates before this occurs. If your institution’s grants office requires you to use, don’t worry that your proposal will be penalized. It just requires more work on the part of the NSF support staff both to get the proposal from check for forgery essay into pe coursework, NSF’s internal proposal processing system and may require more back and forth to ensure that all special requirements are met. Start early if you haven’t used Fastlane before. There are many sections and research proposal, forms to fill out. Pe Coursework! The program gives you the opportunity to proofread every section as you upload it. Always click Proofread PDF button. READ the pdf and be sure it is OK before you hit the Accept button. Do not treat the Accept button like a Yeah, Sure, Whatever button. Don’t call the in an essay underlined PD and ask to replace a corrupt file with the correct one.

You clicked the button that said you had proofread the file and ocr a2, it was correct. Remember that for every proposal you submit to NSF, at least five or six of research proposal phd thesis, your peers take the time to read it, write a review, and travel to DC to discuss it. Although, if you are a junior faculty member, the reviewers aren't exactly your peers. Ocr A2! Panels tend to in an, be weighted toward more senior members of the community, and these are the ocr a2 people who will be asked to research proposal phd thesis, write letters for your promotion and tenure case and they are also are the people who are on program committees and editorial boards. Only submit your best work! If you are invited to be on a panel or to pe coursework, review a proposal, you should accept if possible. Being on a panel will help you will gain insight into what gets funded and how panels work. The peer review system only works if you, as a member of your community, understand that for every proposal you submit, you incur a debt of speculating, six proposals to ocr a2, review.

Usually this debt is collected as you become more senior, but you still owe it to the system. Here are a few common NSF acronyms. Each directorate, division and program has an acronym, but because these are continually changing, you will need to search the NSF website to get an up-to-date-list of these acronyms. Assistant Director (despite the write proposal phd thesis name, this is ocr a2 pe coursework, a dean-like position. The AD is one level below the speculating about Director of NSF. Conflict of interest. Dear Colleague Letter. NSF electronic system for ocr a2 pe coursework proposal submission, review and egg, management.

Grant Proposal Guide. The functions of fastlane are in pe coursework the process of being transitioned to write research phd thesis, Return without review: If proposals do not following the ocr a2 requirements of the GPG or a particular solicitation, they are returned without review. Science, Technology, Engineering and Math: the resume outling purview of NSF.

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The Psychology of Attraction Essay Sample. Attraction is a feeling of allured or interested to another person. Psychologists have attempted to study the issue of attraction specifically in the context of social beings. This papers talks about the psychology of attraction which is the power or act of ocr a2, alluring, getting close to, welcoming, or engaging; an attractive quality; as, the attraction of prettiness or expression. The papers talks about relationships.

The paper shall discuss about laws of courtship whereby it focuses on the start of a relationship and its success. Nordic And Paper Journal. It talks about the various ways in which we get attracted to others and pe coursework, what brings about this kind of attraction. It will again talk about the issues of thesis egg, attraction whereby we get that the law of attraction states that anything we give our attention or focus to should be actually attracted to our lives. If one has positive thoughts, he will attract the positive dealings in his or her live. It also talks about how to identify and also the views in which we get reason why something attractive tend to change. The paper is also going to talk about the reasons why the change occurs and what causes the change. The papers states that changes occur due to pe coursework, making wrong choices whereby one regrets after it is write research too late. A conclusion shall be drawn based on the discussion and arguments made in this paper. The psychology of attraction. The psychology of attraction is a very interesting topic most efficiently determining the laws of courtship, the system of getting drawn to certain group of people, the ocr a2 starting point of comradeship and without forgetting the egg success of relationships. People usually get attraction through social, evolutionary and biological process.

For one to love he or she has to get attracted first. People get attracted to others through social reasons as they are able to ascertain social understanding with these same individuals. Where they develop a reinforcement of positive social responses among certain persons with frequent interaction, the ocr a2 pe coursework feelings of loving and lust, then the attraction will be developed along with a logic of check essay, being comfortable with one another which develops a sense of familiarity (Saberi, 2007). As far as social dimensions of attractions are concerned there are two contradictory reasons in ocr a2 which someone might get attracted to another person. One is when one gets familiar to somebody or feeling more relaxed with another person and lastly is a feeling of resume outling, mystery or peculiarity that leads us to some people and these social reasons are greater in the psychology of attraction. Ocr A2 Pe Coursework. Attraction however comes about physical and individual dimensions and we get attracted to persons physically for resume outling two reasons; may be because this people looks like us or may be if the other person looks totally different from us whereby this differences really attracts us. Mostly couples date one another because they look similar or they are having same levels of prettiness or simple look like family members so automatically one gets more comfortable when he or she is dating this person (Saberi, 2007). As much as we love ourselves in the first place, we are able to fall in love with some people who look like us. Similarity comes about individual dimensions of pe coursework, likings and religion plus people with related social backgrounds. However those people with totally different tastes, background or religion may maneuver us and we are supposed to speak out these two dissimilar approaches to attraction may work to others even though in others one might change the other. In other words we get that there are people who get attracted to people who looks totally different from them in terms of religion or background.

There are not many individuals who get attracted to different people. If there is, these people are seekers of thesis egg, novelty. In some instances if you are a most artistic person and a dreamer as well then you may get attracted to somebody who is more practical and if you are strung, definitely you will like somebody who is more controlled and calm. The way you reflect yourself in the other is again attractive despite the ocr a2 pe coursework differences these similar individuality amongst them may lead to verlag, a superior levels of attraction (Saberi, 2007). Automatically we get attracted to pe coursework, some people who look like us but not closely similar and people who are opposite to use but not exactly opposite. We get that when people are more similar in terms of attraction that kind of about, relationship does not last for a long period of time. There are many reasons why one person is considered more attractive compared to others, traditionally men are considered to be attractive only when they have powers, riches, and their social status. Women are basically judged according to their looks which represents fruitfulness. The reason for this is because she is always the one who gives birth to the children and she provides everything for these children. Although, these days all men and women take up similar responsibilities whereby in future both men and women are going to pe coursework, be charged equally in the sense of their youth, looks, social status, riches and fertility.

Consequently these are paramount psychoanalyzed and verlag, understood so that such thoughts of lust could be best channeled towards other directions ( John, 1930). These laws of attraction actually have similar explanation in case homosexuality, bisexuality and heterosexuality. Homosexuality is largely based on narcissism. A bisexual gets attracted to ocr a2, like and unlike individuals. It sounds so strange that repulsion leads to attraction simply because the opposite intrigue. In some instances if one person develops hatred over another person who are of the same or the opposite about essays, sex, definitely a sexual attraction may precede or follow in some instances.

This however, has more to do with difficult emotions of love and hatred which will need a separate discussion. Finally there are ways in which we express or understand our attraction. In the first place it is a science of dating and ocr a2, courtship which is discussed further by all dating gurus and misery aunts. However, to express attraction is really a difficult process even if it is important and it can lead to making or breaking a relationship. Causes. Most men tend to express their attraction towards a lady extra aggressively while indirectly they focus on themselves may by trying to show off his credentials and status. Men want to ocr a2, get noticed.

They can even tell you that may now I don’t have time we will meet later whereby actually they don’t have anything to do at in an underlined, that moment but he only wants a woman to pe coursework, see that he is always a busy man. The issue of psychology of attraction will be used to understand the people we are potentially capable of getting attracted to and actually what we are supposed to nordic pulp, do or not to pe coursework, do about it. The issues of attraction. The law of thesis egg, attraction states that anything we give our attention or focus to ocr a2 pe coursework, be actually attracted to our lives ( John, 1930). If one has positive thoughts, he will attract the positive dealings in to our lives. If at all we keep on thinking about the negative side of others for example debts, relationships which are not going on well definitely we are inviting the phd thesis same. Identify how our views of what is attractive changes. We understand changes from what we have been attracted to through may be staying with a product for ocr a2 pe coursework a long time and as much as you are still using it, you definitely experience the changes that you did not except when you were buying it because you got attracted to it. Resume Outling. In the issue of ocr a2, a relationship one gets attracted to somebody, but as they keep on dating or interacting one is able to know this person more and in one way or the other, he or she will get that he got attracted to the wrong person. It may occur that when one gets attracted to somebody when h e or she was drunk, but when he gets sober he realizes that he had made a wrong choice.

Or you may get attracted to somebody who is exactly opposite your parents as a major way of pulp abbreviation, avoiding the difficulties of those premature relations (Mark, 1979). So relationships with the exact opposite bring about similar results. Ocr A2 Pe Coursework. For example you can get a young girl choosing a mate who does not like conflicts because of growing in a family whereby a father is a rage aholic. So this girl can choose a mate thinking that he is in an are articles going to do better than her father only to be disappointed later on to get that the person looks like the father. The two seemingly opposite ends produce same kind of ocr a2 pe coursework, results. In one way or the other, your own attraction might direct you towards somebody more like your parents because even those kinds of relationships were safe at for forgery, the beginning and quite satisfying.

We get that opposites present unique opportunities which balances you out. So we get that those at ocr a2, first attractive personalities frequently convert into the most frustrating relationship. He got attracted to somebody in resume outling the first place but now the relationship has become quite annoying and overbearing. One chooses somebody eventually he ends up experiencing problems and ocr a2 pe coursework, endless conflicts. Most of for forgery essay, this conflicts come about through education, respect for one another and character differences. When people get married their personalities don’t dissolve simultaneously. Couples honor their differences and don’t have regurgitated point of views as a result (Swami, 2008). Why they change and what causes the change.

One might change having that he was once married, and ocr a2, later on he starts experiencing sexual attractions to other women more commonly. One is so happy with the marriage but later on he begins to see that other women are hotter and react in a way that he has never done before. But I would put emphasis on what counts as significant change depends on what one is paying attention to. For Forgery Essay. Relationships change because one tends to pretend when they meet. Once can pretend to what he is not because he just wants to win somebody. And we get that one can get convinced that he or she has gotten the right person.

After they have stayed in love for quite some time, changes begin. This person can start showing other characters that he did not show before. Changes occur in small children the time they grow up. They begin analyzing things on their own and eventually they will come up with solutions on their own. We get that when people have began to ask themselves questions concerning their changes, the arguments start and they begin debating on ocr a2, this same issue all the time (Swami, 2008). They don’t have peace among themselves.

They don’t address the most fundamental issues, so those are the people who make change happen through the way they think and the kind of choices they make. Changes don’t come as a result of taking orders or taking charges; it needs internal discussion, the taking of nordic pulp and paper research, personal responsibilities in acting and shifting of one’s own thinking. People need to pe coursework, take action and responsibilities and their own choices. These are real change assets. Management changes in stimulating others to take responsibilities in doing things differently (Morris, 1990). The reasons why people change is for forgery through the ocr a2 inspiration whereby we get that one has a desire to be a different person than the way one perceives himself to be today. Desperation is another thing which forces people to are articles, examine one’s life by some event through emotional, physical and ocr a2, mental which occurs in write proposal one’s life. All this things motivate changes. People deal with changes either well or poorly in their daily life.

To manage changes it means that one has to be stress free and must have more time to feel content, fulfilled and joyful ( John, 1930). There are some ways in which one can manage these changes one of them is pe coursework that one has to allow the desire of change to come from himself whereby one has to change his or her mind and the feelings. It is important if one is supported from the family members or friends though one is in an supposed to be solely responsible for making decisions whenever these changes occur. Secondly, one has to understand that these changes are inevitable. Ocr A2. It will reach a time whereby the resume outling future will be just like the pe coursework past and vice versa though there is phd thesis no evidence about it. If at all we are aware that tomorrow must be different, then automatically we are able to accept this kind of changes whenever they appear. Ocr A2 Pe Coursework. We should learn to enjoy this kind of changes even if changes always cause stress. The paper tells us to work for write the changes we desire.

We need to expect changes whether we like it or not. Ocr A2. Lastly we need to relax. Whether one likes it or not, the and paper research abbreviation change has already occurred, so one needs to relax and enjoy life as usual. These are the only ways in which one has to deal with this change. The paper gives a summary of the essay by giving the ways in which attraction is being made. Ways in which one gets attracted to another. Pe Coursework. And the paper actually has found out essays ways in which one is supposed to ocr a2, deal with this kind of changes. Are Articles Underlined. The paper has analyzed that desperation cause changes in relationships. Finally, it found out that one has to make a good choice in order to avoid this kind of changes in his or her life. John, J. Ocr A2 Pe Coursework. (1930).

Social Psychology . Nordic And Paper Research. New York: R. G. Badger. Mark, C. (1979). Love and ocr a2 pe coursework, Attraction . Washington: Pergamon Press. Morris, R. (1990). Social Psychology . Chicago: Transaction Publishers. Saberi, R. (2007). The Psychology of resume outling, Attraction . NY: Publishing House. Swami, B. (2008). The Psychology of pe coursework, Physical Attraction . New Jersey: Taylor Francis Group. Is this the in an underlined perfect essay for you?

Save time and order The Psychology of Attraction. essay editing for only $13.9 per page. Top grades and quality guaranteed! Relevant essay suggestions for The Psychology of Attraction. What is interpersonal attraction? “Interpersonal attraction refers to the positive feelings toward one another” (Weiten, 463).

Most people choose a companion based on pe coursework, interpersonal attractions. It is no news that… Attraction and Liking. “Familiarity Does Indeed Promote Attraction in Live Interaction,” by speculating about essays Reis et al., explores the ocr a2 pe coursework issue of whether familiarity breeds attraction within individuals in live interaction. The study’s purpose was to… Individual Assignment Social Psychology Paper. Define social psychology. Analyze the four key characteristics of social psychology as outlined in for forgery Social Beings. Explain the concept of situationism and the role that it plays in social psychology….

Describe and ocr a2, evaluate two psychological theories of interpersonal attraction. In this consider the extent to which attraction is determined by research journal cultural and pe coursework, social factors, rather than an act of choice…. Law of Attraction. A. Background of the Study As with everything in this world, it is governed by laws. Nordic Pulp And Paper Abbreviation. Some people understand laws of physics, natural laws and ocr a2, even laws created by resume outling humans….

The Science of pe coursework, Attraction. Nothing is perhaps more important in thesis people’s lives than their relationships with others, and consequently, it is ocr a2 not surprising that liking and loving have become a major focus of and paper journal abbreviation, interest…

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A Metabolic Biofuel Cell: Conversion of Human Leukocyte Metabolic Activity to ocr a2 pe coursework, Electrical Currents. © Justin et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2011. Received: 23 September 2010. In An Essay Underlined? An investigation of the electrochemical activity of ocr a2 human white blood cells (WBC) for biofuel cell (BFC) applications is described. Nordic Pulp Research Journal? WBCs isolated from whole human blood were suspended in PBS and ocr a2 pe coursework introduced into the anode compartment of a proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell. The cathode compartment contained a 50 mM potassium ferricyanide solution. Average current densities between 0.9 and 1.6 ?A cm -2 and open circuit potentials (V oc ) between 83 and 102 mV were obtained, which were both higher than control values. Cyclic voltammetry was used to investigate the electrochemical activity of the activated WBCs in an attempt to elucidate the mechanism of electron transfer between the cells and electrode. Voltammograms were obtained for the WBCs, including peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs - a lymphocyte-monocyte mixture isolated on a Ficoll gradient), a B lymphoblastoid cell line (BLCL), and two leukemia cell lines, namely K562 and Jurkat. An oxidation peak at about 363 mV vs. SCE for the PMA (phorbol ester) activated primary cells, with a notable absence of resume outling a reduction peak was observed.

Oxidation peaks were not observed for ocr a2 the BLCL, K562 or Jurkat cell lines. HPLC confirmed the release of serotonin (5-HT) from the PMA activated primary cells. Write Research? It is believed that serotonin, among other biochemical species released by the activated cells, contributes to the observed BFC currents. Presently, there are few options for supplying power to implantable medical devices. The ultimate goal of this preliminary work is to pe coursework, develop an implantable biofuel cell device that may be used within the physiological environment for low-power implantable medical device applications (such as miniature biosensors) [ 1 – 3 ]. A biofuel cell (BFC) is an electrochemical or galvanic device that couples the oxidation of a biofuel (such as glucose) at the anode to the reduction of thesis egg molecular oxygen to ocr a2 pe coursework, water at thesis verlag, the cathode. Through this reactive coupling, electrical currents can be generated to ocr a2, power an implanted device. With the movement of electrons through the circuit from the anode to causes, the cathode through the device, it is necessary to ocr a2 pe coursework, also have the simultaneous movement of positive charge between the two electrodes to satisfy the requirements of a closed circuit. This positive charge takes the resume outling form of protons that travel from the anode through an ocr a2, electrolyte to the cathode where water is the resume outling final byproduct. Microbial organisms have previously been used as miniature bioreactors for electricity generation from BFCs.

The microbes metabolize a substrate (such as glucose or acetate) and subsequently transfer high energy electrons to the anode of the BFC [ 4 – 14 ]. Electrons derived from these biofuels are subsequently transferred to the anode across the plasma membrane of the cells, while protons are also simultaneously released by the cells into the extracellular space. In another type of BFC - referred to ocr a2, here as an in an underlined, enzymatic biofuel cell (EnzBFC) for differentiation - specific enzymes are immobilized at the anode and cathode [ 15 – 21 ]. At the anode, glucose oxidase may be used to oxidize glucose to ocr a2, gluconolactone, while a laccase enzyme or bilirubin oxidase may be tethered to the cathode surface to reduce oxygen to water. Electron transfer between cellular metabolic processes and electrodes has previously only been observed for microbes confined to nordic pulp and paper research abbreviation, the anode of ocr a2 a biofuel cell (BFC). Electron mediators, such as neutral red, have been employed to about, increase the ocr a2 pe coursework efficiency of speculating causes electron transfer between the ocr a2 microbes and the electrode surface [ 6 ]. Other microbes, such as Geobacter, have been shown to be capable of directly transferring electrons to an electrode without the resume outling aid of mediators and are often termed metal-reducing bacteria [ 11 – 13 ]. In this study, we investigate the feasibility of transducing the biochemical energy of white blood cells into electrical energy, essentially utilizing these eukaryotic cells as bioreactors at a biofuel cell anode. A. Measurement of open circuit potential and current from ocr a2 BFC device. Nordic And Paper Research? This study was approved by the Institutional Review Board (IRB) for ocr a2 pe coursework Human Subject Research of the University of Pittsburgh.

White blood cells (WBC) were isolated from 5 healthy adult human subjects using a red blood cell (RBC) lysis technique (Qiagen, Valencia, CA). Approximately 10 mL of anticoagulated peripheral blood was mixed with three volumes of RBC Lysis solution and incubated for 10 minutes at room temperature. Speculating About Causes Essays? WBC was recovered by centrifugation at 930 g for 10 minutes at 4°C. The supernatant containing the lysed RBC was transferred to a new tube and subsequently either saved for later study or discarded. The remaining WBC pellets were washed multiple times (at least thrice) in 1 ? phosphate buffered saline (PBS) solution and resuspended in PBS to a final volume of ocr a2 pe coursework 15 mL. For specific isolation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), a Ficoll-Paque™ density gradient was used. Whole blood was gently added to an equivalent volume of the Ficoll-Paque™ solution to obtain two clearly defined layers. After centrifugation at 930 g for 20 minutes, four layers can be discerned - red blood cells at the bottom, followed by thesis verlag egg a larger volume of the ocr a2 Ficoll solution, then a thin layer of write research white blood cells - the PBMCs (consisting primarily of B and T lymphocytes and monocytes) - and finally a larger volume of ocr a2 pe coursework blood plasma. The PBMCs were carefully recovered and washed twice in thesis PBS (pH 7.4) by pe coursework centrifugation at 800 g for for forgery 15 minutes and were finally resuspended in 15 mL PBS. (A) WBC biofuel cell experimental setup; (B) SEM of carbon fiber electrode . Ocr A2 Pe Coursework? Cyclic voltammetry was performed using the Gamry Potentiostat, FAS2/Femtostat under control of the Gamry Framework Software from research proposal Gamry Instruments (Warminster, PA). A three-electrode setup was used, where carbon fiber and platinum served as the working and ocr a2 pe coursework counter electrodes, respectively, while a saturated calomel electrode (SCE) served as the reference.

PMA (5 ng mL -1 ) and calcium ionomycin (500 ng mL -1 ) were used to about essays, activate the white blood cells. PBMC isolated from the healthy volunteers, K562, Jurkat and a primary human B lymphoblastoid cell line were analyzed in this study. Human white blood cells were isolated from ocr a2 pe coursework approximately 12 mL of whole blood using a Ficoll-Paque™ density gradient as described previously. Cell density was determined using a light microscope and resume outling hematocytometer. K562, BLCL and Jurkat cell lines were also cultured over a period of one week in RPMI with 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS). Pe Coursework? The cells were isolated from the culture medium by centrifugation, washed twice with PBS and finally resuspended in check for forgery essay 1 ? PBS. Cell density was determined as described above. The WBC suspended in ocr a2 pe coursework PBS solution was scanned within a potential range of -0.5 V to 1.2 V vs. SCE at a scan rate of 100 mV s -1 . The total working volume employed for the cyclic voltammetry setup was 15 mL.

The white blood cells were activated by addition of are articles 1 ?L each of phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA) and ionomycin per 1 mL of the pe coursework total working volume to achieve final concentrations of for forgery 5 ng mL -1 and 500 ng mL -1 , respectively. Pe Coursework? The effect of variable glucose concentrations was investigated. Current-potential (i-V) curve acquired from the cyclic voltammetry of activated human WBCs suspended in PBS . An oxidation peak is observed at ca. Pulp And Paper Research Journal? 400 mV. In vitro microdialysis [ 22 ] was used in these experiments to extract the released biochemical content from the ocr a2 pe coursework cell suspension, while high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with electrochemical detection was subsequently used to validate whether or not serotonin was released by the cells, as well as to quantify the amount of in an essay are articles underlined serotonin released upon cell activation. The microdialysis probe was constructed from 23-gauge stainless steel tubing, with a hollow fiber that ran through the length of the tubing. A small length of the pe coursework hollow fiber (approx 1.5 - 2.0 mm) was allowed to protrude from the end of the stainless steel tube and remained in contact with the surrounding solution. Within the hollow fiber was vitreous silicate tubing. This silicate tubing served as an pulp abbreviation, inlet section for the perfusing buffer, while the outlet section was housed in ocr a2 pe coursework the 23-G steel tubing. Since the cells were suspended in PBS, a PBS buffer solution could also be used for perfusion.

White blood cells were isolated as described previously. The cell samples were placed on ice for later microdialysis and HPLC analysis. K562, BLCL and Jurkat cell lines were also analyzed. Speculating About? 1.5 mL samples (at cell densities of approximately 10 6 cells mL -1 ) were placed in microcentrifuge tubes. The hollow fiber to ocr a2, be used for microdialysis was allowed to equilibrate in thesis verlag egg fresh distilled water (dH 2 O) for a period of 30 minutes to one hour. PMA and ionomycin were introduced for 20 - 30 minutes for cell activation prior to the isolation of 5-HT released by the cells using microdialysis. Three samples were collected from microdialysis of the pe coursework cell suspensions and controls (perfusion rate of 5 ?L min -1 for 2 minutes) in autosampler tubes. The hollow fiber of the microdialysis probe was made approximately 1 cm long to improve the rate of recovery. For washing, the hollow fiber was placed in fresh distilled water (dH 2 O) and are articles underlined allowed to dialyze at a rate of ocr a2 pe coursework 20 ?L min -1 for verlag 2 minutes. Ocr A2? It was then placed in fresh dH 2 O for 3 minutes between samples to wash out any residual 5-HT.

8.2 ?L sample volumes were injected into the HPLC by speculating about causes essays a FAMOS autosampler. Pe Coursework? Detection of any 5-HT was determined electrochemically using an Antec-Leyden Intro amperometric detector (Zoeterwoude, The Netherlands). A. Measurement of Open Circuit Potential and Current from nordic pulp BFC device. Ocr A2? Currents produced from the PEM fuel cell following introduction of activated WBCs and subsequent replacement of the WBC suspension with PBS (n = 3) . A significant decrease in the current output occurs, indicating that the WBC suspension is the primary contributor to the observed currents (p 0.05). Comparison of currents obtained from WBCs and PBMCs . Comparison of open circuit potentials (bars) and currents (lines) obtained from the supernatant (PBS used to wash the cells during the initial Ficoll isolation procedure) for in an are articles underlined both the WBCs (top) and PBMCs (bottom) . Relatively small currents to no currents were observed for the PEM fuel cell apparatus. These results imply that within the general WBC population, certain cells or the ocr a2 pe coursework molecules released by certain cells are electrochemically active at the electrode surface. These can be attributable to the oxidation of electrochemically active species that are either released by the cells into the extracellular environment (such as serotonin) or by nordic and paper research journal abbreviation redox active species that are present in ocr a2 pe coursework the cell membrane (such as flavohemoproteins of the NADPH oxidase complex, coenzyme A). In order to be able to produce a current from the BFC, protons must also be released by the cells into the extracellular space.

The increase in proton concentration in the anode compartment is important to create a diffusion gradient, whereby the protons can traverse the PEM to react with molecular oxygen to form water at the cathode. Placing either PBS solution or deionized water in both the anode and for forgery cathode compartments did not produce any detectable currents and were associated with open circuit potentials that were less than 20 mV. Cyclic voltammetry studies of white blood cells. Nakamura et al. (1991) [ 23 ] Basal plane pyrolytic graphite. 0.33 V and 0.68 V (leucocytes) and ocr a2 pe coursework 0.68 V (erythrocytes) 0.36-0.58 ?A per 10 6 cells for E p = 0.33 V. Resume Outling? Serotonin (0.29-0.34 V) CoA (0.65-0.74 V for microorganisms) Matsunaga et al. (1989) [ 24 ] Rat basophilic leukemia cells (RBL-1) and mouse lymphocytes.

Basal plane pyrolytic graphite. Pe Coursework? 0.34 V and nordic and paper research journal abbreviation 0.68 V (RBL-1) 0.65 V (mouse lymphocytes) 0.76 ?A per 10 5 cells for E p = 0.34 V. Serotonin (0.29-0.34 V) CoA (0.65-0.74 V for microorganisms) White rabbit leukocytes and erythrocytes. 0.32 V (leukocytes) 0.73 V (erythrocytes) 1 ?A per 10 5 cells for E p = 0.32 V. All measurements were made in PBS with a saturated calomel electrode (SCE) as the reference electrode. where i p is peak current, ? is the electron transfer coefficient, n is the number of electrons transferred, A is surface area, D o is the diffusion coefficient, C o * is the concentration of the species in the bulk solution and v is the scan rate [ 28 ]. Ocr A2? Variation in resume outling the amplitude of the oxidation peak current is plotted with PBMC density . Increasing the ocr a2 pe coursework cell density is resume outling, associated with an apparent non-linear increase in the oxidation peak. It is pe coursework, well known that several types of cells contain protein complexes in their cell membranes that function as electron transport chains. The NADPH oxidase complex, for example, comprises structures within the plasma membrane that upon association in essay are articles underlined an activated state transfer electrons between the pentose phosphate pathway of glucose metabolism and extracellular oxygen. Many types of white blood cells, particularly human PMLs (neutrophils [ 29 , 30 ] and eosinophils [ 31 – 33 ]), express this enzyme complex. Ocr A2 Pe Coursework? NADPH oxidase is similar to the electron transport chains found in several microorganisms. Previous research performed by others demonstrated the electron transfer ability of microbial organisms. It is known that these microorganisms can transfer electrons to electrodes by about causes essays various mechanisms, including: i) the use of pe coursework artificial electron mediators (electronophores) such as neutral red; ii) using mediators produced by the microorganisms themselves; iii) direct electron transfer across the bacterial cell membrane [ 6 ]. Without an electron mediator, the essay electron transfer process is very inefficient. Release of serotonin from activated WBCs and pe coursework more specifically, PBMCs . Following the microdialysis (dial) of 5-HT (500 nM), PBS, PBMCs and nordic research activated PBMCs, 5-HT was determined using HPLC.

A recovery estimate of 9% (+/- 1%) was determined for the microdialysis probe (as calculated from 5-HT standard and ocr a2 dial 5-HT in A). Based on this estimate, a 5-HT concentration of approximately 291 nM (+/- 34 nM) was calculated to check essay, be associated with the activation of PBMCs at a cell density of 10 6 cells mL -1 (B). 5-HT HPLC peaks for dial PBS and dial PBMC is likely due to residual contamination of the microdialysis probe. Electron transport, pervasive in the plasma membranes of microbes, is generally not observed across the extracellular membranes of eukaryotic cells. Ocr A2? The presence of an pulp journal, electron transport chain in the extracellular membranes of microbes provides a likelihood of ocr a2 electron tunneling occurring between the membrane-bound species and the electrode surface. In eukaryotic cells, electron transport is a process that is essays, normally relegated to the membranes of intracellular mitochondria.

However, a number of ocr a2 research articles have been published demonstrating that such electron currents do in fact also exist among certain white blood cells. Schrenzel et al. (1998) showed that small currents can be measured across the plasma membranes of human eosinophil granulocytes [ 29 ]. The experiments were performed based on the hypothesis that the membrane associated enzyme NADPH oxidase, found in blood phagocytes (e.g. neutrophils and eosinophils), generates superoxide through electron transfer from NADPH to extracellular oxygen. The magnitudes of the currents recorded across the extracellular membranes were on the order of 10 to thesis, 20 pA per cell in pe coursework these studies. NADPH oxidase is in an are articles underlined, a complex of several proteins that associate with each other upon cell activation [ 32 , 33 ]. Ocr A2 Pe Coursework? Activation in vitro is normally achieved by thesis application of a phorbol ester, phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA) [ 29 , 30 , 33 ]. Activation most likely occurs through the protein kinase C (PKC) pathway [ 34 , 35 ]. The enzyme complex and its analogs have also increasingly been found in a variety of pe coursework different cell types including microglia [ 36 ], vascular smooth muscle [ 37 ], hematopoietic stem cells [ 38 ], and endothelial cells [ 39 ]. The presence of an electron transport chain in the plasma membranes of white blood cells means that it may be possible to hijack these high energy electrons in are articles underlined order to divert them to a nearby electrode. Under such a situation, a biofuel cell based on white blood cell glucose metabolism could theoretically be designed. The electrical interactions between the cells and ocr a2 pe coursework the electrode surface become important for are articles underlined such a direct electron transfer process to take place. The idea of using electrons derived from NADPH oxidase to ocr a2, power a biofuel cell was first proposed by Justin and thesis egg colleagues [ 1 – 3 , 40 – 45 ] and then more recently by Sakai and colleagues [ 46 ]. In the pe coursework studies performed by Justin and colleagues, including this one, human white blood cells were isolated directly from whole human blood. Check? The vast majority of the pe coursework cell population isolated comprised PBMC cells (B and T lymphocytes).

The activity of K562 and Jurkat white blood cell lines were also investigated. However, in the Sakai study, the specific cells used were THP-1 human monocytic cells stimulated to differentiate into macrophages. The Sakai study demonstrated that the current output from a BFC incorporating macrophages at write proposal phd thesis, the anode could be disrupted by application of NADPH oxidase inhibitors such as diphenylene iodinium (DPI). The current study described in this paper suggests; however, that other electron transfer processes may occur between the cell and the electrode. As demonstrated in this work, serotonin released from activated white blood cells is ocr a2 pe coursework, a likely mediator for electron transfer between the cells and the electrode. Despite confirmation of this by employing electrochemical techniques such as cyclic voltammetry and pulp and paper research journal HPLC for validation, it is difficult to dispute the possibility that NADPH oxidase is also active.

One of the pe coursework reasons that our studies did not reveal CV redox peaks due to NADPH oxidase may have been due to write proposal phd thesis, NADPH oxidase not being as active among PBMCs compared to macrophages such as neutrophils and pe coursework eosinophils. Only very low levels of macrophages would normally be isolated from healthy individuals, as was the case in check essay our study - a necessary requirement for Institutional Review Board (IRB) compliance. Therefore, the effect of NADPH oxidase activity specifically on the biofuel cell currents would not have been as predominant as culturing differentiated macrophages onto ocr a2 pe coursework, electrodes as performed by Sakai and check for forgery colleagues. It is surprising that in the work by ocr a2 Sakai and colleagues that a larger background current associated with serotonin was not observed. This suggests that serotonin may not be produced by and paper research the differentiated monocytes, unlike the phenomenon of ocr a2 pe coursework release demonstrated by the cells used in our studies. Vastly different mechanisms of resume outling electron transfer for the specific white blood cells used in the two studies are very likely. The idea of ocr a2 harvesting electrons from whole cells is in an essay are articles underlined, not a new one. Previous studies performed by other researchers on microbial fuel cells suggested that under normal conditions, it is very difficult to ocr a2, achieve direct electron transfer between the cell membrane components of the microbes and an interfacing electrode [ 14 ]. An important reason for this is the fact that the redox active groups are generally embedded within integral membrane proteins, resulting in a significant energy barrier that increases with increased distance between electron donor and receptor pairs.

Electron tunneling between the membrane components and the electrode surface is in an essay underlined, further discouraged because of the ocr a2 thermodynamically unfavorable conditions surrounding the movement of free electrons through an aqueous solution. In order to overcome this challenge, many microbial fuel cell researchers employed electron mediators that were capable of shuttling electrons between the membrane-bound redox active components of the microbes and the electrode. Essay Are Articles? Electron mediators such as neutral red [ 6 ] have previously been employed. The use of these electron mediators significantly increased the pe coursework efficiency in electron transfer and thus the current output of the microbial fuel cells. A future goal in continuing the work described in this paper would be to explore means of in an are articles enhancing the ocr a2 electron transfer efficiency of human leukocytes for enhancing current and for forgery essay power densities in implantable biofuel cell applications.

In this study, we proposed the development of a novel biological fuel cell that can utilize the body's own resources to generate electricity, through specific electrochemical interactions between cells and electrodes in close proximity. The motivation of this study is to develop a BFC that can be used to power implantable medical devices, including micro- and nano- biosensors for either therapeutic or physiological monitoring purposes. The study seeks to demonstrate that electron transfer between human white blood cells and an interfacing electrode can occur through any or all of ocr a2 pe coursework three possible mechanisms: 1) direct electron transfer through membrane bound redox species (such as the nordic and paper research abbreviation flavocytochrome of ocr a2 NADPH oxidase); 2) indirect electron transfer through exocytosed non-metabolic biochemical species (e.g. serotonin); and write proposal 3) indirect electron transfer through exocytosed metabolically relevant biochemical species. Our results indicate that activated white blood cells can generate small electrical currents when introduced into the anode compartment of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell, with ferricyanide in the cathode compartment. Cyclic voltammetry of the white blood cells reveal oxidation peaks at about 360 mV vs.

SCE. Peaks at this potential have been attributed to ocr a2 pe coursework, serotonin release. HPLC has been used to verify that human white blood cells release serotonin upon activation. Various white blood cell lines do not release serotonin, indicating that the speculating isolated cells may uptake serotonin from the blood stream rather than metabolize it themselves. The authors would like to thank Dr. Pe Coursework? Harvey Borovetz and Dr. Proposal Phd Thesis? David Waldeck for their helpful thoughts and insights throughout the course of pe coursework this work. About Causes? Special thanks also to the past and current members of the Laboratory for Computational Neuroscience (LCN) and the Neural Tissue/Electrode Interface and Neural Tissue Engineering Laboratory at the University of ocr a2 Pittsburgh.

This research was supported in part by the National Institutes of Health grant No. R01EB002099, US Army SBIR W81XWH-05-C-0047, and Computational Diagnostics, Inc. Authors' original submitted files for images. The authors declare that they have no competing interests. GJ performed the BFC current and about causes essays potential measurements, electrochemical measurements and pe coursework microdialysis and HPLC as well as drafted the manuscript. Essay? YZ was responsible for pe coursework culturing the research proposal phd thesis cell lines. XC helped in the design and implementation of the pe coursework electrochemical experiments. Thesis Verlag Egg? CB helped in the design and ocr a2 implementation of the microdialysis and HPLC experiments.

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essay god helios sun Helios, Christos, the Sun: Ferrying the ocr a2 pe coursework Archetypal Zodiac Disciples. by Ralph Monday. The Christian religion is a parody on the worship of the Sun, in which they put a man whom they call Christ, in the place of the Sun, and pay him the same adoration which was originally paid to the Sun .Thomas Paine. The Zodiac, therefore, is the Path or Way.

When Christ spoke to His disciples as the Cosmic Christ, He told them I am the Way, and to this it is possible to give an astrological significance, for all three types of lives tread this cosmic Way, the Cosmic Christ, the Planetary Spirit and the human being (Path of the Soul). C hristianity views Jesus as being the light of the world, and indeed he is, but not in the way the essay story is told in the New Testament. If one has the courage to throw off religious fetters and abandon a blind acceptance of subjective faith dogma, and instead employ reason, abundant evidence can be examined that is the basis for an argument where the story of Christ is neither new, original, nor unique, but is instead the creation of the church, a powerful astrotheological archetypal symbol to solidify and consolidate power over the mind of pe coursework, culture. Christianity, and beginning with the Catholic Church in particular, has molded and transformed the figure of Christ into its own peculiar votive offering served up during the course of a year, but the majority of the influence is focused around Easter and Christmas, the vernal equinox and the winter solstice, for the one year story of Christ's ministry on write research phd thesis earth is an allegory of the passing of the sun through the twelve signs of the zodiac, Christ as the symbol of the sun and the twelve disciples as corresponding allegorical symbols of the astrological progression of the zodiac through the seasons, the connection of the earth to the heavens--As above, so below--observation of ocr a2, natural phenomenon that has been of great interest to resume outling, the race since time immemorial, the cycles of the heavens given a supernatural interpretation and overlay that to this day remains as a powerful crucible molded around the minds of countless millions of people. But before examining the astrotheological basis for Christ, a brief review is presented in regard to the historicity of ocr a2 pe coursework, this monumental symbol of nordic pulp and paper research journal abbreviation, western civilization. An Historical Christ.

The quest for an historical Christ is doomed to failure, much like the quest for the Holy Grail. More is known about the Big Bang theory than is known about a biography of Christ. The vast majority of all that is known about probably the most famous figure in Western history is contained in the New Testament, and to ocr a2, large extent the essay underlined four Canonical Gospels of the Bible. This evidence is definitely second hand, questionable hearsay, for the Gospels were written long after the death of Jesus. Pe Coursework! The information grew out of oral story telling for at least several decades before the church began to resume outling, create the mythical demigod that is so familiar today. Walker affirms this point: …[T]hese Gospels did not come into the Bible as original and authoritative from the authors themselves, but rather from the influence of early church fathers, especially the most influential of them all: Irenaeus of Lyon who lived in the middle of the second century. Many heretical gospels existed by that time, but Irenaeus considered only some of them for mystical reasons. Ocr A2 Pe Coursework! He claimed only four in number; according to nordic and paper research journal, Romer, like the four zones of the world, the four winds, the four divisions of man's estate, and ocr a2 the four forms of the first living creatures-- the and paper research journal lion of Mark, the calf of Luke, the man of Matthew, the eagle of John .The four gospels then became Church cannon for the orthodox faith.

Most of the other claimed gospel writings were burned, destroyed, or lost. Ocr A2! (Romer, qtd. in Walker) That no historian wrote about the crowds of check for forgery, thousands that purportedly followed Jesus, the miracles that he performed, his crucifixion and resurrection, defies and ocr a2 challenges reason. Nor is there a single contemporary Roman record verifying that a Pontius Pilate executed a man named Jesus, and the Romans, creators of the first great bureaucratic state, kept extensive records. Proposal! The non-Christian sources that are invariably used by pe coursework Christian apologists in an attempt to establish the historicity of Christ were all written after the time when Christ was supposed to have lived and for forgery essay are hardly eye witness accounts. The most commonly referenced sources are Josephus Flavius, Pliny the Younger, Tacitus, and Suetonius. Josephus lived from 37-100 C.E. In his Antiquities of the Jews written in 93 C.E. Ocr A2! a famous reference is made to, About this time there lived Jesus, a wise man, if indeed one ought to call him a man. For he was one who performed surprising deeds and was a teacher of resume outling, such people as accept the truth gladly. He won over many Jews and many of the Greeks.

He was the Messiah… (qtd. in Goldberg). Ocr A2 Pe Coursework! The debate over the authenticity of this passage is well known, and speculating will not be recounted here. Suffice to say that the vast majority of biblical scholars since the nineteenth century hold that it is a later Christian interpolation, an assertion that can easily be verified if the reader cares to examine the matter further. Of the remaining three references, Pliny the Younger (B 62 C.E.), Tacitus (B 64 C.E.), and Suetonius (B 69 C.E.), were all born well after the time of Jesus, and again, none are held to be reliable by most biblical scholars; there is no need to go into ocr a2 the matter further in this essay; the arguments questioning the authenticity of these passages are well known, and the historicity of Christ is not the major thesis. Robert Keable, in his work, The Great Galilean makes note of this strange history of thesis verlag egg, silence: No man knows sufficient of the ocr a2 pe coursework early life of Jesus to write a biography of him. For that matter, no one knows enough for the normal Times obituary notice of a great man. If regard were had to what we should call, in correct speech, definitely historical facts, scarcely three lines could be filled. Moreover, if newspapers had been in existence, and if that obituary notice had had to be written in the year of his death, no editor could have found in the literature of his day so much as his name. Yet few periods of the ancient world were so well documented as the period of Augustus and pulp and paper research journal Tiberius.

But no contemporary knew of his existence. Even a generation later, a spurious passage in Josephus, a questionable reference in Suetonius, and ocr a2 the mention of a name that may be his by Tacitus-that is all. His first mention in any surviving document, secular or religious, is twenty years after. (qtd. in Jackson) Earl Doherty in his provocative work The Jesus Puzzle also makes note of the strange silence of history, and in perhaps one of the greatest feats of twentieth century biblical scholarship, constructs a compelling argument that questions the very existence of a historical Jesus. In regard to the four Gospels, Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John, no one knows who wrote them.

All four Gospels are anonymous, and the names of the purported authors were applied to these works in the second century C.E. Verlag! In regard to the composition of the Gospels, Remsberg notes that, Justin Martyr, the most eminent of the early Fathers, wrote around the middle of the second century and makes more than three hundred quotations from the pe coursework books of the Old Testament, and nearly one hundred from the nordic research journal abbreviation Apocryphal books; but none from the ocr a2 pe coursework Four Gospels. -- In the in an essay are articles underlined latter half of the pe coursework second century, between the time of Justin and egg Papias, and the time of Theophilus and Irenaeus, the Four Gospels were undoubtedly written or compiled. (The Gospels: Second Century Writings) As for the dates of the composition of the four Gospels some conservative scholars believe that Matthew was written between 60-65 C.E., while other biblical authorities date it to the seventies, some even as late as 85 C.E. In regard to Mark, most scholars assign a date no later than 70-73 C.E., but a large majority of moderate and conservative scribes assign to Mark a composition date between 65 and 70 C.E., while Luke's composition date is assigned between 60-64 C.E. For John, conservative scholars believe the gospel to ocr a2 pe coursework, have been written at about 85 C.E., while others place the composition to a later date or early second century (New Testament).

This evidence is presented in proposal, establishing that so little is known about the authorship of the Gospels, and the historicity of Christ, that an alternative hypothesis can be advanced, namely that the story of Jesus can be interpreted as being a mythologized allegory of the pe coursework progression of the sun through the yearly zodiac, an astronomical phenomenon that was well known and extremely important to about, the ancient world. The early church fathers were privy to the resemblance between Christ and earlier dying and resurrected gods, and of the problem of history. Justin Martyr, Tertullian, and Irenaeus, for example, explained away the resemblance of the Christ mythos to earlier pagan gods by asserting that Satan had previously created these imitators in order to confuse and deceive when Christ incarnated, and Pope Leo X said, What profit has not that fable of Christ brought us! (qtd. in Acharya S). And Justin Martyr writing to a pagan in the second century C.E. also had these words to ocr a2, relate: When we say that the Word, who is the first-birth of God, was produced without sexual union, and that He, Jesus Christ, our Teacher, was crucified and died, and rose again, and research phd thesis ascended into heaven, we propound nothing different from what you believe regarding those whom you esteem sons of Jupiter (Savior Myth). As reported in The Christ Myth, also interesting is the fact that there are no images of the crucified Christ dated to the first three centuries, and Constantine envisioned Christ as a beautiful young man rather like Apollo. The Dead Sea scrolls, unearthed in 1947, hold no record of this savior who is held to have so tremendously impacted the entire world, and in point of fact, Paul is the only person known to have first used the term Christ or the name Jesus (Rogge). The preceding assertions set the stage for an examination of the grand drama of the heavens, one that has been eternally played out upon the earth in a cosmic pantomime beginning with the foundation of astrology as an indicator of as above, so below. Astrology, Mythology-Heavens and Earth-Origin of the Zodiac. Sometime between 3000-2000 B.C.E. in Mesopotamia the earliest evidence is found for pe coursework the emergent disciplines of astronomy, mathematics and mythology, a triplicate that together would become the basis of astrology and the linkage between the heavens and the earth. Campion has noted that the history of astrology is symbiotically intertwined with religious history. Notwithstanding the practical importance of correlations between such occurrences as the sun's annual rhythm through the heavens and the corresponding seasons, symbolic linkages also began to develop: the human life cycle progressing through birth to death was interlinked with the research journal abbreviation sun's birth in the east each morning and death in pe coursework, the west each evening, bringing with it the transition from proposal phd thesis, darkness to light, and the annual cycle of vegetation throughout the seasons.

Thus the observance of the calendar became, as it still is, an object of religious ritual, and there was a measure of interchange between heavenly sky deities and earth-bound vegetation deities (Origins of Astrology). An examination of comparative mythology inevitably leads to the conclusion that in the myths and sacred narratives of the ocr a2 majority of all civilized nations the Zodiac signs are prominent. According to Kennedy, If you go back in for forgery essay, time to Rome, or beyond that to ocr a2, Greece, or before that to Egypt, Persia, Assyria, or Babylonia-regardless of how far back you go, there is a remarkable phenomenon: Nearly all nations had the same twelve signs, representing the same twelve things, placed in the same order (qtd. in Horn). The origin of the Zodiac has long been of interest to phd thesis, not only astronomers, but scholars as well. Ocr A2 Pe Coursework! Gilman notes that, […] the narrow strip in the sky in which we observe and measure the movements of the Sun, Moon and the planets, was undoubtedly recognized in Babylon 4,000 or so years ago. It was not apparently until about abbreviation, 520 B.C. that the twelve Signs were actually defined. This seems to have been done by Cleostratos of Tenedos, […] who divided the ocr a2 pe coursework ecliptic into twelve equal parts and is said to have recognized the Signs of the Zodiac. He reputedly described them in a now-lost poem, Astrologia . (Twelve Gods) Also, early in the 19th century Pieree-Simnon de Laplace stated that, The names of the zodiacal constellations were not haphazard fancies. They reflected relationships that were the subject of many inquiries or attempts at a systematic organization. Research has gradually revealed that the resume outling signs of the zodiac and their corresponding relationship to observation earth phenomena, is an ancient inheritance, a cultural chain linked from the Romans, to the Greeks, and ocr a2 pe coursework from there stretching back to the Babylonians.

The Babylonians, in turn, are heir to the even more ancient cultures of Sumer and thesis verlag egg Akkad, and some scholars believe the ocr a2 pe coursework origin of the signs is even more primeval, placing their emergence around or even before 4000 B.C.E. Even more surprising than this antiquity is the stability of the constellations over nordic research journal abbreviation, the centuries, even with the attempt by Christian authors to reshape the stars to fit their particular interest in biblical stories, the original names and shapes have survived (Johnson and van Berkel 6-7). From the earliest written records, the Sumerian/Babylonian Epic of Gilgamesh , (whose history may have been transmitted to the Greeks by the Phoenicians) where this ancient demigod of Uruk passes through twelve stages on pe coursework his underground journey to thesis verlag egg, Dilmun, to the civilizations of the Greek and Roman, an ancient astronomical religion is ocr a2 pe coursework clearly in evidence, one that developed geographically over the entire Mediterranean region. In recognition of speculating causes, this religion of astronomy Richer argues that: …astronomers before the eighth century [B.C.E.] used stars of pe coursework, first magnitude as the principal celestial markers. About Essays! In the ancient Egyptian calendar, for example, the ocr a2 pe coursework beginning of the proposal year was related to the heliacal rising of Spica. Ocr A2 Pe Coursework! This harked back to a more ancient age, the Age of Gemini…, when the equinoxes occurred in Gemini and Sagittarius, a period corresponding to around 6500 [B.C.E.]. The star-based system was eventually integrated with the zodiacal system, which has been traced back in its current form to at least 2000 [B.C.E.] in the ancient Near East. Resume Outling! Considering precessional correspondences,…[this indicates] a system of ocr a2, coordinates based on the four seasons and four cardinal points…introduced into Greece between 2000 and 1900 [B.C.E.]….The zodiacal signs most likely were introduced into in an are articles Greece from Sumer and Babylonia, with the Hittites and ocr a2 Phoenicians as intermediaries. The adoption of a full-blown zodiacal projection onto Greek territory seems to have coincided with the Greek adoption of the Phoenician alphabet between 1000-850 [B.C.E]. (qtd. in Dougherty)

Dougherty also notes that ancient myths of gods, demigods, and heroes are connected to this primal astronomical religion, and that the in an essay are articles adoration and worship of Greek heroes like Hercules, Theseus, Perseus, and Bellerophon predated the worship of the Olympian gods and their narratives at a later date were merged with the stories of the twelve zodiacal deities. Heracles is ocr a2 a solar archetype identified with Leo; his twelve labors symbolize an amalgam of in an essay are articles underlined, traditions that personify successive cultural or historical stages in relationship to ocr a2 pe coursework, the drama being performed in the zodiacal stage of the heavens (A Key to Ancient Greece). In addition: Many deities have been associated with the sun. The Greeks believed that Apollo, Bacchus, Dionysos, Sabazius, Hercules, Jason, Ulysses, Zeus, Uranus, and Vulcan partook of either the visible or invisible attributes of the sun. The Norwegians regarded Balder the Beautiful as a solar deity, and Odin is often connected with the celestial orb, especially because of his one eye. Among the speculating about causes Egyptians, Osiris, Ra, Anubis, Hermes, and even the mysterious Ammon himself had points of resemblance with the solar disc. Isis was the mother of the sun, and even Typhon, the Destroyer, was supposed to be a form of ocr a2, solar energy. The Egyptian sun myth finally centered around the person of a mysterious deity called Serapis. The two Central American deities, Tezcatlipoca and Quetzalcoatl, while often associated with the winds, were also undoubtedly solar gods. Write! (The Sun, A Universal Deity)

The connection of ocr a2 pe coursework, deity to the sun is in an essay underlined obvious for anyone who has even a minute amount of analytical skill. The observation is nothing new, but it is one that has only begun to filter into the masses in western culture, for Fiske noted over a century ago that, Countless other examples, when similarly analyzed, show that the earliest […] conception of a Divine Power, nourishing man and sustaining the universe, was suggested by the light of the mighty Sun; who, as modern science has shown, is the originator of all life and motion upon the globe, and whom the ancients delighted to believe the source, not only ocr a2, of the golden light, but of everything that is bright, joy-giving, and pure. (Myths and Myth-makers 109) This all, of course, means that: The ancients believed that the sun, the moon, wandering stars (planets), comets, and other celestial bodies were heavenly gods who were in motion about a stationary earth. Since the sun (Sol invictus) seemed to be the most influential of the celestial gods, it was especially worshipped and regarded as annually reborn at its lowest point in the sky during the winter solstice of December 25th. Since the plane of the ecliptic--the path that the sun travels in the sky--traces out the band of the twelve star-patterns that make up the zodiac, the sun was considered a god that gave birth to, or was a father of, the twelve zodiacal gods. [However], [t]he Greek astronomer Hipparchus made the astounding discovery in 128 BCE that the zodiac of constellations slowly drifted backward over time so that they appeared, with respect to the sun's position at winter solstice, in a new location in in an essay are articles, the heavens.

Every 25 thousand years these constellations slowly moved; a phenomenon we know today to pe coursework, be the precession of the equinoxes which is caused by the wobble of the earth on its axis. To the ancients, it was a frightening and astounding event[.] (Still) Hipparchus lived from nordic journal, 190-120 B.C.E. and Still also notes that his discovery of the precession of the equinoxes shattered the geocentric theory of the immovable earth, and that the precession could only mean that the whole cosmic sphere was in motion, and for the ancients this was a revelation that they interpreted as being the result of a powerful new god, so incredible in ocr a2 pe coursework, its force that it was fully possible for moving the entire universe. At that time the spring equinox took place in Aries the Ram, and speculating about essays preceding that Taurus the Bull heralded in the rebirth of the earth in spring, and it was believed that Mithras was the cosmic power whose force was so formidable that the Bull was killed (The Virgin Birth). In the great cosmic war between dark and ocr a2 light, Christ replaced Mithras as this force strong enough to bend the very cosmos to his will, and proposal as the parallels between Mithrass and Christ are well known, there is no point in discussing them here, for I have dealt with this topic at length in another essay, and the present work will focus in specific content on only one of ocr a2, these solar deities: Christ in order to provide support for verlag egg the illuminating archetypal pattern that this example provides in the context of the solar deity and the twelve signs of the zodiac. Christ and the Twelve Zodiac Disciples. Modernity, and now extending into the Postmodern world, has long questioned the Christ story as authentic history. The philosophes of the eighteenth century European Enlightenment and their new world counterparts in the Age of Reason began exploring nature from the standpoint of Natural Philosophy or Natural Law.

This was the genesis of modern science, and from that point forward supernatural explanations of natural phenomena have been stripped away one by ocr a2 one, laid bare by the scrutiny of the scientific method, so that a reign of supernaturalism lasting more than six thousand years has been virtually eliminated as a satisfactory cause of human experience in just over two hundred years. First, a brief summary of the archetype of the essay underlined dying and ocr a2 pe coursework resurrected god is nordic research abbreviation presented, a common motif that existed in pe coursework, the Mediterranean world centuries before the church adopted this primal story and grafted the narrative into its own peculiar hierarchy for the purpose of resume outling, control and power. The ancient Greek and ocr a2 pe coursework Roman cultures from which much of Postmodern Western culture is descended, adopted gods from Asia Minor: Egypt, Mesopotamia, Assyria, Babylon, Phrygia, Persia, etc. These gods were often symbolic of vegetation myths tied to are articles, the seasons and shared the following characteristics, an archetypal pattern similar to Joseph Campbell's hero's journey, for the day god, the Sun god, was the ancient world's great deity, one that has been worshipped all over the planet, personified in every sacred allegory, and mythopoetically associated with mortal suffering, for, everywhere we read of the birth, death, and resurrection of the Sun; he had his cradle and his tomb, whether called Adonis, Osiris, Hercules, Bacchus, Attis, Krishna, Mithra, or Christ (Existence of Christ Disproved). According to Pagan Origins of the Christ Myth these dying and resurrected gods were born of a Virgin Mother on or near the date of modern Christmas in a Cave or Underground Chamber; they held such titles as Light-bringer, Mediator, Healer, Deliverer, Savior and led a life of toil and service for humanity; eventually all were defeated by the Powers of Darkness and descended into Hell or the pe coursework Underworld, then rose from the dead, and became the archetypal connector of humanity to the Heavenly world; they triumphantly went on to have disciples, found Communions of Saints Churches where acolytes were received into the mysteries by Baptism, and their memory was commemorated by Eucharistic meals (Pagan Christs). Edward Carpenter in 1919 likewise stated the same assertion in his Pagan and Christian Creeds: Their Origin and proposal Meaning . The idea of pe coursework, Christ being interpreted as a solar god is not new. Scholars in the nineteenth century first began this new field of research. What is causes essays new is that only ocr a2 pe coursework, recently has this vast body of information been made available to thesis verlag, the general public.

Christ as Zodiac Sun Myth. The ruling deity of day, Helios or the sun as God, was the supreme god of the ancient world universally worshipped in both continents, the old and the new world, and this god was allegorically personified in the mythos of every culture. The daily and annual passage of the sun, in myth, became the poetic interpretation of the destiny of ocr a2 pe coursework, all. The birth, death, and resurrection of the sun is a continually reoccurring archetypal image, cradle to tomb, whether the thesis name of the ocr a2 pe coursework sun god was Hercules, Osiris, Adonis, Bacchus, Mithra, Chrishna, or Christ. Mangasarian points out that,

The fact that Jesus' death was accompanied with the darkening of the nordic research journal Sun, and that the date of his resurrection is also associated with the ocr a2 pe coursework position of the egg Sun at the time of the vernal equinox, is a further intimation that we have in the story of the birth, death, and ocr a2 resurrection of Jesus, an ancient and nearly universal Sun-myth, instead of verifiable historical events. (Truth About Jesus) Of course, why all these stories are so similar is easily surmised. The above mentioned gods, Hercules, Osiris, Adonis, Mithra, etc., were all born on or about December 25th, they had twelve disciples or were otherwise associated in some way with the number twelve, such as the labors of thesis verlag egg, Hercules, they performed miracles, were persecuted, died, and resurrected. This archetypal pattern is common because it is based on the sun's movements through the constellations which according to Acharya S is […] an astrotheological development that can be found throughout the ocr a2 pe coursework planet because the sun and the twelve zodiac signs can be observed around the globe.[…] Christ and all the others upon whom this character is predicated are personifications of the sun, […]the Gospel fable […]a rehash of a mythological formula […] (Origins of Christianity). And these mythological characters share the following characteristics in relationship to the sun: on December twenty-second the sun apparently dies for three days because it appears to stop in its movement south, and and paper journal abbreviation then is resurrected or born again on December twenty-fifth when it begins moving north once again, the light coming forth into the world; at some locations in the ancient world the new year began in the constellation of Virgo where the sun was born of a virgin; when the sun rises in the morning it is the Savior of mankind, and wears a crown of thorns which is the pe coursework corona or halo, and the sun can also walk on water, its reflection passing across the surface; the disciples are the twelve months and twelve signs of the zodiac that the resume outling sun must journey through; at twelve noon the sun is in the house or temple of the pe coursework Most High and Jesus began his work at twelve years of resume outling, age; the sun enters at ocr a2, thirty degrees into each sign of the zodiac, and Jesus began his ministry at age thirty; the sun is crucified when it is hung on the cross of the in an underlined equator and the polar axis at the vernal equinox, or Easter, and at that time the ocr a2 pe coursework sun is resurrected (Origins of Christianity). Another interesting facet in regard to resume outling, the virgin birth is that, The Virgin Mary is the Constellation of Virgo and the story of virgin births is the timeless allegory of Virgo giving birth to ocr a2, the Sun on the darkest night of the year, the 24th of December. If we follow the path of the sun we discover that towards the end of August the radiant Sun enters the celestial Virgo and places the write phd thesis seed of the new Sun in her to germinate the embryo of the new Sun, Horus, Apollo or Christ.

This phenomenon, which takes place every year in August, gave rise to Christmas, a festival which still exists, and in which it is supposed that the Mother of Christ, disregarding her earthly life, is associated with the glory of her son, and is placed by his side in the heavens. We know that the sign of the celestial virgin rose over the horizon at the moment assigned to the birth of our Lord Jesus the Christ. Christians may be reluctant to recognize Virgo as the Blessed Virgin. Yet Virgo's stars descend after harvest below the horizon, and the sun of the winter rises from the same point-the infant Sun in his Mother's arms. It is the birthday of the Christos who represents the Sun that is born in each and every one of us. (The Immaculate Conception) The church was well aware of the astrological significance of the ocr a2 constellation of Virgo for pulp and paper abbreviation as Carpenter has stated: But it is ocr a2 pe coursework well known as a matter of proposal phd thesis, history that the worship of pe coursework, Isis and Horus descended in the early Christian centuries to Alexandria, where it took the in an are articles underlined form of the worship of the ocr a2 pe coursework Virgin Mary and the infant saviour, and so passed into the European ceremonial. We have therefore the Virgin Mary connected by linear succession and descent with that remote Zodiacal cluster in the sky! A curious confirmation of the same astrological connection is afforded by the Roman Catholic Calendar. For if this be consulted, it will be found that the festival of the Assumption of the thesis verlag Virgin is placed on the 15 August, while the festival of the ocr a2 birth of the Virgin is dated the 8 September… At the write research proposal phd thesis present day, the Zodiacal signs- owing to the precession of the ocr a2 Equinoxes-have shifted some distance from the constellations of the same name.

But at the time when the Zodiac was constituted and these names were given, the first date obviously would signalise the thesis egg actual disappearance of the cluster Virgo in the sun's rays, i.e. the Assumption of the Virgin into the glory of the god, while the second date would signalise the reappearance of the constellation-or the birth of the Virgin. (Sun Worship) The constellation of Virgo is not the only interesting connection between religious worship and the stars. Other constellations are also of considerable import, but it is from Virgo to Leo that the archetypal symbolism is ocr a2 pe coursework best read in this ancient, cosmic progression. In order to understand this assertion it is necessary to know that the sun in its yearly progression moves through the constellations (the plane of the ecliptic, an imaginary line drawn from the earth's equator to the sun's equator) to the left, and for forgery these constellations have always been thought to have a great influence on the character of the sun. The other important point to remember is that the earth's axis is tilted twenty-three and one quarter degrees from the plane of the ocr a2 ecliptic, called the precession of the research proposal phd thesis axis, the earth slowly wobbles at the north polar axis like a spinning top, and the sun moves below the equator at the autumnal equinox and rises above the equator at the vernal equinox, thus forming the image of a cross.

Thus, the sun appears to move backwards through the constellations in what is called a Great Year that lasts approximately 25920 years, and this cosmic year is separated into twelve Ages connected to the Zodiac and its constellations. Pe Coursework! Each of these ages endures for about 2160 years. The relationship to pulp journal, the worship of sun gods is apparent, for approximately three thousand years ago when the pe coursework sun crossed the for forgery equator at the vernal equinox the constellation was Aries the lamb. Hence, the sun was known as the Lamb of God, the archetypal symbol of the resurrected savior, of the journey from the dark underworld to the apex of heaven. Christ is still identified in this way, but what of the ocr a2 fish? The sun entered the constellation of Pisces at approximately 6 B.C.E., which coincides with the approximate birth date given to write research, Jesus by most scholars. Pisces is the sign of the fish, and Jesus was the fisher of men.

And according to ocr a2, Dowling in resume outling, her introduction, The Piscean Age is ocr a2 identical with the Christian Dispensation. The word Pisces means fish. The sign is known as a water sign, and check for forgery the Piscean Age has been distinctly the age of the fish and ocr a2 pe coursework its element, water. In the establishment of their great institutions John the Harbinger and Jesus both introduced the rite of about causes, water baptism, which has been used in some form in all the so-called Christian Churches and cults, even to the present time. Water is the true symbol of purification. Jesus himself said to the Harbinger before he was baptised: All the men must be washed, symbolic of the cleansing of the soul.(Aquarian Gospel 64: 7.) Fish was a Christian Symbol. In the earlier centuries of the Christian Dispensation the ocr a2 fish was everywhere used as a symbol. In his remarkable book, Christian Iconography , Didron says: The fish, in the opinion of antiquarians generally, is the symbol of are articles underlined, Jesus Christ. The fish is ocr a2 sculptured upon a number of Christian monuments, and more particularly upon the ancient sarcophagi. (The Aquarian Age) However, the old sign of the Lamb was also kept as an identifying symbol of the messiah.

In regard to these sun gods Alvin Boyd Kuhn has noted that they continually and regularly appeared because they are archetypal symbols of the sun's life through the heavens, and verlag egg as such mirror the earthly life of mortal being. Because, [t]o follow the yearly round of the zodiac was to ocr a2 pe coursework, epitomize graphically the whole history of human experience Moreover, in pulp abbreviation, Psalms the book says that, Our God is a living fire, a consuming fire, the ocr a2 pe coursework Lord God is a sun, and Jesus said I am come to send fire on earth, (Great Myth of write phd thesis, Sun-Gods) a clear connection to deity and the light and fire of the ocr a2 pe coursework sun. I am indebted to David W. Deley for the following chart that simply and evidentially compares the Jesus story with the sun and zodiac. The Story of Jesus is the story of the Sun passing through the resume outling Zodiac during the year. Note the following: The parallels demonstrated in the above chart graphically illustrate the connection and most probable overlay of the significance of the twelve signs of the zodiac by the church in order to enable the pe coursework masses an easier conversion to Christianity. Are Articles! For example, in the above chart the pe coursework reference is made to Jesus being born and buried in a cave.

This corresponds to the ancient geocentric world cosmology where the sun was thought to literally rise from the underworld (a cave) and set/return to the underworld each evening, a story that was allegorized as the sun being in a literal battle with the darkness (evil), and the rising sun portrayed the triumph over death (evil) and nordic and paper abbreviation a resurrection that was greeted each day by humanity. However, the evidence doesn't just conclude here. Pe Coursework! An examination of Christ's ministry as portrayed in the New Testament provides even more compelling evidence of Jesus as a sun allegory. Following are several passages from the New Testament (all quotations are taken from the New International Version) that clearly demonstrate the linkage between Christ and the sun for he is continually portrayed as sun imagery: Ephesians 5:14: for it is light that makes everything visible. Speculating About Causes Essays! This is why it is said: Wake up, O sleeper, rise from the dead, and ocr a2 Christ will shine on you.

John 8:12: When Jesus spoke again to the people, he said, I am the light of the world. Resume Outling! Whoever follows me will never walk in darkness, but will have the light of life. John 9:5: While I am in the world, I am the light of the world. Pe Coursework! Both of the preceding two passages demonstrate that Jesus is really the sun for the light of the world is the sun. Matthew 17:12: There he was transfigured before them. His face shone like the sun, and resume outling his clothes became as white as the light.

John 12:35-36: Then Jesus told them, You are going to have the light just a little while longer. Walk while you have the light, before darkness overtakes you. The man who walks in the dark does not know where he is going. Ocr A2! Put your trust in the light while you have it, so that you may become sons of light. When he had finished speaking, Jesus left and hid himself from them. Clearly, in resume outling, this passage Jesus is personified as the sun and the light is an archetypal symbol of light overcoming darkness. Of course, when Jesus finished speaking the reason that he hid himself from the disciples is because the sun had set. John 3:19-20: This is the ocr a2 pe coursework verdict: Light has come into the world, but men loved darkness instead of light because their deeds were evil.

Everyone who does evil hates the light, and and paper journal will not come into the light for fear that his deeds will be exposed. Can any clearer meaning be expressed concerning the literal idea that criminals most commonly do their unlawful deeds in darkness (night) and not in the light (day)? John 1:3-8: Through him all things were made; without him nothing was made that has been made. In him was life, and that life was the pe coursework light of men. Resume Outling! The light shines in the darkness, but the darkness has not understood it. Of course, and this passage is scientifically accurate in that the sun formed first in stellar evolution and then the earth and pe coursework other planets came together through the attraction of gravitational mass. Further, the write research phd thesis sun is the source of all life for ocr a2 pe coursework everything, plants and animals are dependent upon the energy of the sun for life.

When we eat food or drink, we are literally consuming the energy of the sun; this symbolism is also obvious in the Catholic Eucharist where the bread and the wine are thought to literally change into verlag the body and blood of Jesus, which they do, but not in the Catholic sense for what is really occurring is that people are consuming the transformed energy of the sun. There are numerous other examples in the New Testament that connect Jesus with sun imagery, but the point is made, and the Old Testament has imagery describing god as the sun. Next, we will explore the story of Christ specifically as an allegory of the passage of the sun through the twelve signs of the zodiac. Christ as an allegory of the sun. Let us now examine how the story of the ocr a2 pe coursework life of Jesus corresponds with the progression of the write sun through the twelve signs of the ocr a2 pe coursework zodiac. Check Essay! However, remember that the concept of pe coursework, representing archetypal truths in allegory form is quite ancient, and is not just confined to the Bible. First, the sun travels through Capricorn, the goat during the time frame of check for forgery essay, December 22- January 19. December 22 is the ocr a2 winter solstice; this is the resume outling shortest day of the year and after December 22 the ocr a2 pe coursework sun begins to are articles underlined, move back toward the northern hemisphere, the ocr a2 savior sun is born and the light of the world is at hand, which is apparent by December 25 the official church sanctioned birth date of Jesus, though no one knows when he was supposed to have been born. Verlag! However, it is extremely interesting to note that late on the twenty-fourth of ocr a2 pe coursework, December, Virgo the Virgin is either directly on the horizon on is the ascendant. Exactly at midnight the research journal sun enters into Capricorn which is the goat and the manger. Jesus is born by immaculate conception of Virgo the Virgin in the manger of Capricorn the goat, the latter representative of the common conception of Jesus being born with animals.

He is born in ocr a2, the darkness and now he is the light of the world. This symbolism of light and darkness is ancient, archetypal and cross-cultural. It has many rich resonances of meaning. Darkness is associated with blindness, night, sleep, cold, gloom, despair, lostness, chaos, death, danger and yearning for verlag egg the dawn. It is a striking image of the ocr a2 human condition. Light is seen as the antidote to the above, and is thus an image of salvation.

In the light, one is awake, able to see and find one's way; it is associated with relief and rejoicing that the night is over; in write phd thesis, the light one is safe and warm. In the light there is life….FOR MATTHEW and Luke, and for Christians ever since, Jesus is the light shining in the darkness. The author of John's Gospel makes the same affirmation with compact perfection: The true light, which enlightens everyone, was coming into the world. Jesus is the light who brings enlightenment; indeed, he is the light of the world. This is the truth of pe coursework, this theme of the birth stories. And it is true independently of their historical factuality (Borg 1218).

Now, continuing with Christ personified archetypally as the sun moving yearly through the twelve signs of the zodiac, note that Christ was baptized thirty years after birth, and thesis thirty days after the rebirth of the sun at the winter solstice the sun enters Aquarius the water bearer (January 20-February 18), the pouring out of water a symbolic baptism, and Christ is baptized by John, the Baptist, a pouring out of water: I baptize you with water for repentance. But after me will come one who is more powerful than I, whose sandals I am not fit to carry. He will baptize you with the Holy Spirit and with fire (Matthew 3:11). The fire is the flame of the sun, and ocr a2 what of John? The New Testament merely says that he was put in prison with no explanation offered.

In the allegory, this is the constellation Aquarius moving lower and lower into the sky at sunset until it can no longer be seen, because it has been put in prison as the sun moves into the next sign of the zodiac, where each sign of the zodiac is divided into thirty degrees and there are twelve signs, as Christ had twelve disciples, and twelve times thirty equals three hundred sixty, the total number of degrees in egg, the zodiac. Ocr A2! Of course, the New Testament has Jesus beginning his ministry at age twelve; can a clearer point be made? If not, then this: each of the twelve signs of the zodiac when entering into the beginning of the thirty degrees of the allotted sign, represents some event in the ministry of Christ allegorized as the sun. After the Baptism of Christ he continues on his journey into Galilee which literally means circuit, and this is the closed elliptical path of the thesis verlag sun on its circuit through the constellations. Here Christ selected his first disciples from fishermen, Simon and Andrew: As Jesus was walking beside the Sea of ocr a2, Galilee, he saw two brothers, Simon called Peter and his brother Andrew. They were casting a net into the lake, for they were fishermen (Matthew 4:18).

The sign following Aquarius is Pisces, the Fish (February 19-March 20). The Catholic Lent is observed to this day in the sign of Pisces, and fish is eaten one day of the week in obvious symbolism of this event. In his ministry Christ next transforms into thesis verlag egg the Good Shepard of the flock, watching over the lambs of the field so that they would be encouraged to not stray from the ocr a2 path. This corresponds to thesis verlag, the sun entering the sign of Aries the Ram (March 21-April 19), and a ram of course, is a lamb before growing into a Ram, just as Christ must grow in power before becoming truly recognized as the Lamb of God, and the Jews still celebrate the Paschal Lamb during the same time frame, a sacrifice to God as Jesus was the sacrificial lamb. Christ as lamb means that the sun is young in the sign of Aries, and will grow into ocr a2 the full power of the Ram, just as the sun grows in power as it passes through this sign, which is also the sign of spring, rebirth, resurrection. Christianity celebrates Easter at this time, which is really a pagan festival, and the name Easter means that the sun is nordic pulp and paper research rising due east. Sunrise services are also celebrated at this time when the idea of, He is risen, is thrown about. Of course, the sun has risen. Following this Christ begins his salvation of humanity. How is this accomplished? By the Eucharist, of course.

The Son must provide spiritual nourishment in order for ocr a2 pe coursework his people to be saved. The sun, entering the sign of Taurus the Bull (April 20-May 20), is the time of plowing the fields to grow crops that are nourished by the energy of the sun, and thus though food energy the salvation is at hand. After Taurus the next sign of the zodiac is Gemini the speculating about Twins (May 21-June 20); we are getting close now to the height of summer, when the pe coursework sun's energy is at its most abundant and the crops grow and increase, doubling, like the egg twins, the process of salvation. The son's power, in his ministry, grew stronger and stronger, doubling as the multitudes reported by the New Testament followed him about the land. Following Gemini the sun enters Cancer the Crab (June 21-July 22). A crab is often depicted as traveling backwards, and the sun has reached its furthest point north at the summer solstice; after that the sun begins traveling backwards in its journey toward the equator once again. Christ spoke often of the ocr a2 pe coursework backsliders, and it is at this time of year that the sun is in an essay indeed sliding back, falling, from ocr a2, our apparent perspective, toward the equator and pulp and paper the power of the sun begins to wane, as does vegetation and crops.

Also interesting to note is that John the Baptist was born six months before Christ, and John 3:30 says, He must increase, but I must decrease. One power is ocr a2 pe coursework waning, the other waxing, the story of the sun in its annual pilgrimage through the heavens, the cycle of the seasons. Speculating Causes Essays! According to Deley: Around this point in the Jesus story an interesting thing happens - John the Baptist reappears and is beheaded. According to ocr a2, the Bible, John the Baptist has been raised from the dead, (Mark 6:14), or This is John the Baptist; he has risen from the dead! (Matthew 14:2). Recall at the beginning of the allegory how Aquarius moved below the western horizon at causes essays, sunset as the year went from January to February and the Sun traveled from Aquarius to Pisces.

Each Zodiac constellation in turn goes below the horizon at sunset as each month passes. After six months the constellation of pe coursework, Aquarius begins to rise on the eastern horizon at sunset, and it appears that the head of Aquarius is cut off by the horizon. This is John the Baptist rising from the dead, the dead being those who are below the earth. This is the beheading of causes essays, John the Baptist by King Herod, a personification of darkness, which reigns supreme at night (See Matthew Chapter 2-The Birth of Jesus for ocr a2 pe coursework more on King Herod). (Solar Mythology and the Jesus Story) After Cancer comes Leo the Lion. Christ had to first be the thesis verlag egg Lamb (Aries) before he could become the Lion of Judah (Leo).

The lion is ocr a2 a symbol of majestic royalty, power, awe inspiring majesty, and it is at this time of year (July 22-August 23) that the sun is at its most royal incarnation as it travels through the zodiac. It is in Revelation 5:5 that Christ is called Lion of the Tribe of Judah. This majesty is seen in Jesus' rebuking of the wind and the waves, and it is the power of the sun at in an are articles, the hottest months of the year. Ocr A2 Pe Coursework! The power of the sun as the allegorical Christ is manifested at the grave of Lazarus when he proclaimed, Lazarus, come forth! (John 11:43). This is resurrection power, the calling forth of the dead just as the sun calls forth and essay underlined provides energy to the land. The symbolism is quite obvious, as this is the masculine archetype of power. We come now to Virgo the Virgin (August 23-September 23). This is the time of year when the sun, traveling south, crosses the equator once again at the autumnal equinox. The sun passes over the equator where this celestial body is annually crucified, and he the sun as the cross on pe coursework its back like Christ climbing toward Golgotha, only this Golgotha will be the crucifixion of the vernal equinox.

In addition, according to resume outling, Deley, Harvest time comes about three quarters of the way through the year, and it's the happiest time of the pe coursework year. And about three quarters of the way through the resume outling Jesus story is his triumphant entry into Jerusalem, which is the happiest part of the ocr a2 story (Mark 11:1-11; Matthew 21:1-11; Luke 19:28-44; John 12:12-16). Everyone knows him and thesis egg is happy to see him. Jesus' triumphant entry into Jerusalem is an allegory for the Sun's triumphant entry into Virgo, because that means it is ocr a2 pe coursework harvest time, the about causes essays best time of year. Harvest time is The Kingdom of Heaven time which Jesus refers to in earnest as coming soon throughout the story up to here. (Solar Mythology) Directly after Virgo the sun enters Libra the Scales of Justice (September 23-October 22). This is the ocr a2 pe coursework time of harvest, when all the bounties and fruits that the energy of the sun has provided in thesis verlag, the growing season are reaped.

At this point Deley notes that it is time to sell the harvest. So the harvest is weighed out in the buying and pe coursework selling process, and it is at this time that Jesus, On reaching Jerusalem, Jesus entered the temple area and began driving out check, those who were buying and selling there. Ocr A2 Pe Coursework! He overturned the tables of the money changers and the benches of those selling doves… (Mark 11:15). Jesus, as the sun, is leaving the write proposal phd thesis sign of Libra for the harvest is over, just as the money changers packed up and left. Directly preceding this event from the New Testament, Jesus curses the ocr a2 fig tree: The next day as they were leaving Bethany, Jesus was hungry. Seeing in research proposal, the distance a fig tree in leaf, he went to find out if it had any fruit. When he reached it, he found nothing but leaves, because it was not the season for figs.

Then he said to the tree, May no one ever eat fruit from you again (Mark 11: 12-14). The tree withered up and died because this is the autumn season, the year is declining, just as the son is also declining. Following this event Jesus and the Twelve disciples have the pe coursework last supper, for the year is closing and the twelve are the signs of the zodiac that the sun has nearly passed through. The time is now Scorpio the Scorpion (October 23-November 22), and these two months October and November symbolize the two thieves that Christ is crucified between, because these months are the in an underlined two thieves of the year when there is no harvest, the sun further descends toward its weakest point of winter that will occur at the Winter solstice. Ocr A2! Jesus is betrayed now by Judas, the sign of Scorpio, and he betrays Christ for thirty pieces of pulp abbreviation, silver, this event symbolizing the thirty days of a month.

The sun is betrayed at this point, for it will soon be at its weakest, and Sagittarius the pe coursework Archer (November 22-December 21) is the culmination of the death story of the sun, that will soon be reborn on proposal phd thesis December 21 at the Winter solstice, and thus the cycle of the year is complete, as is the story of Jesus as an archetypal allegory of the sun. Comments and questions may be sent to the author at [emailprotected] Borg, Marcus. Light in the Darkness (the Christmas Myth and Bible as Literature). The Christian Century Dec.

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