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british essay format A major change that has occurred in the Western family is an increased incidence in divorce. Whereas in the past, divorce was a relatively rare occurrence, in recent times it has become quite commonplace. This change is borne out clearly in census figures. For example thirty years ago in Australia, only one marriage in papers for management ten ended in divorce; nowadays the figure is more than one in three (Australian Bureau of Statistics, 1996: p.45). A consequence of this change has been a substantial increase in the number of single parent families and the attendant problems that this brings (Kilmartin, 1997) . An important issue for sociologists, and mri thesis, indeed for all of society, is why these changes in marital patterns have occurred. In this essay I will seek to critically examine a number of sociological explanations for the #039;divorce phenomenon#039; and also consider the social policy implications that each explanation carries with it.
It will be argued that the best explanations are to be found within a broad socio-economic framework. One type of explanation for rising divorce has focused on changes in laws relating to marriage. For example, Bilton, Bonnett and Jones (1987) argue that increased rates of divorce do not necessarily indicate that families are now more unstable. It is possible, they claim, that there has always been a degree of marital instability. They suggest that changes in the law have been significant, because they have provided unhappily married couples with #039;access to a legal solution to pre-existent marital problems#039; (p.301) . Bilton et al. therefore believe that changes in divorce rates can be best explained in terms of changes in research papers the legal system. Papers Level Exam? The problem with this type of research papers for management explanation however, is that it does not consider why these laws have changed in the first place.
It could be argued that reforms to family law, as well as the thinking papers level increased rate of divorce that has accompanied them, are the product of research papers for management more fundamental changes in society. Another type of explanation is one that focuses precisely on these broad societal changes. For example, Nicky Hart (cited in Haralambos, 1995) argues that increases in divorce and marital breakdown are the result of economic changes that have affected the family. Critical Application Exam? One example of papers these changes is the raised material aspirations of families, which Hart suggests has put pressure on both spouses to become wage earners. Women as a result have been forced to become both homemakers and economic providers. According to critical thinking application papers exam, Hart, the research papers contradiction of these two roles has lead to newspaper, conflict and this is the main cause of marital breakdown. It would appear that Hart#039;s explanation cannot account for all cases of divorce - for example, marital breakdown is for management, liable to occur in families where only the husband is working. Nevertheless, her approach, which is to relate changes in family relations to broader social forces, would seem to be more probing than one that looks only at essays, legislative change. The two explanations described above have very different implications for social policy, especially in relation to how the problem of increasing marital instability might be dealt with. Bilton et al. Research For Management? (1995) offer a legal explanation and cover letter, hence would see the research papers for management solutions also being determined in this domain.
If rises in divorce are thought to be the essays consequence of liberal divorce laws, the obvious way to stem this rise is to make them less obtainable. This approach, one imagines, would lead to a reduction in divorce statistics; however, it cannot really be held up as a genuine solution to the problems of for management marital stress and breakdown in society. Indeed it would seem to be a solution directed more at symptoms than addressing fundamental causes. Furthermore, the experience of social workers, working in the area of paper family welfare suggests that restricting a couple#039;s access to divorce would in some cases serve only to exacerbate existing marital problems (Johnson, 1981). Research For Management? In those cases where violence is involved, the consequences could be tragic. Apart from all this, returning to topics, more restrictive divorce laws seems to be a solution little favoured by Australians. (Harrison, 1990). Research For Management? Hart (cited in Haralambos, 1995), writing from a Marxist-feminist position, traces marital conflict to changes in the capitalist economic system and their resultant effect on the roles of men and women. It is difficult to know however, how such an analysis might be translated into cover letter for credit practical social policies. This is because the Hart program would appear to for management, require in the first place a radical restructuring of the thinking application level economic system. Whilst this may be desirable for some, it is not achievable in the present political climate.
Hart is right however, to suggest that much marital conflict can be linked in some way to the economic circumstances of families. This is borne out in many statistical surveys which show consistently that rates of divorce are higher among socially disadvantaged families (McDonald, 1993). This situation suggests then that social policies need to be geared to providing support and security for these types of families. It is little cause for optimism however, that in recent years governments of all persuasions have shown an research papers for management, increasing reluctance to term paper on stereotyping, fund social welfare programs of this kind. It is difficult to offer a comprehensive explanation for the growing trend of marital breakdown; and it is even more difficult to research papers, find solutions that might ameliorate the problems created by it. Clearly though, as I have argued in buy university this essay, the most useful answers are to papers for management, be found not within a narrow legal framework, but within a broader socio-economic one. Finally, it is resume cover letter analyst, worth pointing out that, whilst we may appear to be living in a time of increased family instability, research suggests that historically, instability may have been the norm rather than the papers exception. As Bell and Zajdow (1997) point out, in the past, single parent and step families were more common than is language, assumed - although the disruptive influence then was not divorce, but the premature death of one or both parents. Papers? This situation suggests that in studying the modern family, one needs to employ a historical perspective, including the possibility of looking to the past in searching for ways of paper on stereotyping dealing with problems in the present. Australian Bureau of Statistics (1996). Divorces, Australia . Canberra: Australian Government Printing Service.
Bell, R. and G. Zajdow (1997) Family and household. In R. Jureidini, S. Kenny and M. Poole (eds). Sociology: Australian Connections . St Leonards. NSW: Allen and Unwin. Bilton, T., K. Bonnett and P. Jones (1987). Introductory Sociology , 2nd edition. London: MacMillan. Haralambos, M. Research Papers? (1995).
Sociology: Themes and letter, Perspectives , 3rd edition. London: Bell and Hyman. Harrison, M. (1995). Grounds for divorce. Family Matters . No 42 pp 34-35. Johnson, V. (1981).
The Last Resort: A Women#039;s Refuge . Ringwood: Penguin. Kilmartin, C. (1997). Children divorce and one-parent families. Family Matters . No. 48. ( Available On-line ) McDonald, P. For Management? (1993).
Family Trends and Structure in Australia . Australian Family Briefings No 3. Melbourne: Australian Institute of Family Studies. Problems? Questions? Comments? Please provide us feedback.
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Sensory Integration Essays and Research Papers. ? Is Sensory Integration Therapy Beneficial? Is Sensory Integration . Therapy Beneficial? Imagine driving a car that isn't working well. When you step on the gas, the car sometimes lurches forward and sometimes does not respond. When you blow the horn, it sounds blaring. The brakes sometimes slow the research papers for management, car, but not always. The blinkers work occasionally, the steering is erratic, and the speedometer is critical thinking level exam inaccurate. Papers For Management. You are engaged in a constant struggle to keep the car. Anna Jean Ayres , Nervous system , Occupational therapy 1766 Words | 6 Pages.
Sensory Processing Disorder Awareness Since October is National Sensory Awareness month I chose to write my research paper on . a topic dear to can i buy university my heart. Sensory processing (sometimes called sensory integration or SI) is a term that refers to the way the research, nervous system receives messages from the senses and thinking application papers turns them into appropriate motor and behavioral responses. Whether you are biting into a hamburger, riding a bicycle, or reading a book, your successful completion of the papers for management, activity requires. Anna Jean Ayres , Autism , Occupational therapy 1941 Words | 6 Pages. SENSORY INTEGRATION · it is mri thesis one aspect of sensory processing · neurobiological process that organizes . sensation from one's own body and from the environment and makes it possible to papers for management use the paper on stereotyping, body effectively within environment · organizations of sensations for use · a form of OT: special exercises are used to strengthen the patient's sense of touch (tactile) , sense of balance (vestibular) and sense of where the body its parts are in space (proprioceptive) · a theory by Jean Ayres · sensory. Balance , Proprioception , Sense 1231 Words | 6 Pages. Biting: Bite and research papers Child Care Center. “Biting creates anxiety and stress for all concerned” (Atiles, Stegelin, Long 1997) in a child care setting.
This behavior is part sensory . integration and motor exploration. Thinking Application Level Exam. It is something that occurs in children under three, mostly in infants and toddlers. Some reasons for for management, biting includes: frustration, lack of confidence, lack of motor development, sensory integration problems, imitation, and teething. “Although there are many possible explanations for where can i buy university essays, biting behavior, the for management, fact remains that it is. Behavior , Bite , Child 1631 Words | 5 Pages. sounds, words or phrases are common. Adults and children with autism demand extreme consistency in their environment and daily routine, slight changes can be . very stressful and lead to resume cover for credit outbursts. People affected by autism also suffer from sleep and sensory processing problems; they may experience normal stimuli as painful, unpleasant, or confusing.” C. Research. “There is mri thesis no known single cause for autism” as the Autism society says in their website which I accessed on October 14th, 2013. They say it is “generally. Asperger syndrome , Autism , Autism spectrum 913 Words | 4 Pages.
have benefited from anxiety medicine. Temple could have benefited from for management, Sensory integration therapy. People with autism may have . objections to specific textures, being touched and cover their ears with specific noises Lang et al. (2010, p. 1004). Temple displayed these behaviors therapies for where can i essays from, these sensory issues can include a weighted vest, being squeezed between pads or pillows also tactile, vestibular and research proprioceptive sensory stimulation to teach self-regulation (Lang et al., 2010, p. 1005). The. Anxiety , Autism , Door 1553 Words | 4 Pages. make a profit, but to essays help those with Autism and Sensory Processing Disorders. The goal the first year is to break even. The goal the second . year is to put all the profits into making blankets to be given away. They will be given away to those who can’t afford to purchase a blanket.
The long term goal is to increase the amount of blankets given away each year. Situation Analysis Weighted blankets are used by individuals with Autism, Sensory Processing Disorder, and research papers for management other neurological disorders. Asperger syndrome , Autism , Marketing 1952 Words | 7 Pages. with adapting the environment and how we communicate with the person to german newspaper intermediate meet their needs. I am particularly drawn to the “Autism Checklist” as described by . Donna Williams. She lists areas which impact on the person with an ASC: - • Sensory perceptual issues and sensory hypo/hypersensitivities. Research Papers For Management. How does the term paper on stereotyping, person sense stimulus in their environment? • Language processing and the presentation of language. • Presence of any comorbid conditions • The background of the person. For example, has the. Asperger syndrome , Autism , Autism spectrum 1652 Words | 4 Pages. How the therapist can help autism children.
meaning, and emotion” to connect parents and children together. In the first section, the research defines that “the children with autism nearly . Research Papers. always, if not always, present with sensory problems such as high pain tolerance, auditory hypersensitivity, and tactile defensive, and they may exhibit sensory seeking behaviors such as crashing, squeezing, spinning and flapping” (Solomon Chung, 2012, p.252). Some other children also have sleeping disorders, and food allergies, diarrhea, etc. These. Asperger syndrome , Autism , Autism spectrum 826 Words | 3 Pages. repetitive flapping of their bodies or toys. Students with autism also have challenges with sensory and movement behavior. Children with . these issues can react very differently to their peers and various situations in the classroom. Children facing sensory problems may not respond the same to environmental stimuli. They may not have a reaction to something that is language newspaper intermediate hot in the same way that a child without sensory problems would react.
On the for management, other hand they could over respond to the stimulant, (Autism. A Great Way to Care , Asperger syndrome , Autism 2628 Words | 7 Pages. technology and essays of emerson human intelligence. physical interaction skills of many children. Due to that they don’t know how to interact with others when they meet them in-person or what gesture they . should carry. So what is the impact of papers for management technology on the developing child? Children's developing sensory , motor, and attachment systems have biologically not evolved to accommodate this sedentary, yet frenzied and chaotic nature of today's technology. The impact of rapidly advancing technology on the developing child has seen an increase of physical. Calculator , Child , Critical thinking 809 Words | 3 Pages. it. This is Sensory Integration Disorder; A disorder that my brother goes through each and every day.
Sensory . integration disorder is medically called Sensory Processing Disorder but it was introduced to term paper on stereotyping me as Sensory Integration or SID. For Management. According to the website SPDFoundation.net, sensory integration is a term that refers to the nervous system receives messages from the senses and where can i buy university from turns them into research appropriate motor and behavioral responses. Researchers tell that Sensory Integration Disorder starts. Anna Jean Ayres , Olfaction , Perception 654 Words | 2 Pages. Sensory over-Responsivity and german newspaper intermediate Emotion Regulation in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders. Sensory Over-Responsivity and Emotion Regulation in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders Introduction While there has been considerable . clinical and research effort in delineating the problems of social interaction, communication, and cognition in those with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), the disturbances of sensory processing and research papers for management the performance of emotion regulation remain less explored.
Emotion regulation is the modification of any process in newspaper intermediate, the system that generates emotion or its manifestation. Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder , Autism , Autism spectrum 3168 Words | 9 Pages. enters the world, the five senses are the baby’s only connection to this new existence. As the child is cuddled and research papers for management fed, circuits in the brain known as . Where Essays From. neurons begin to connect, enabling the research for management, infant to make sense of his or her world. A shortage of sensory input causes the brain to grow incorrectly. Over time, this developmental void can expand and term paper on stereotyping the chemical balance change, triggering severe emotional and developmental problems. Babies in foreign orphanages are generally laid in a crib with. Adoption , Attachment disorder , Attachment theory 4520 Words | 15 Pages. many aspects of autism in a new light so that those who are not affected by it personally can better understand.
She relates the for management, information in a way that . the can i from, reader is able to connect to the diagnosis. There are many aspects of autism, like the sensory issues, that I thought I understood, but after Grandin’s insight I feel even better prepared to teach spectrum students. When viewing Temple Grandin’s lecture I was very surprised at research, how well she spoke in front of an audience. Public speaking does. Asperger syndrome , Autism , Autism spectrum 3716 Words | 11 Pages. autism.
Autism is a disorder that can impact many aspects of a child’s learning experience. Resume Letter For Credit. A child’s profile along the continuum of Autism Spectrum . Research Papers. Disorders dictates the term paper on stereotyping, severity of impairment in language engagement, social connectedness, sensory integration , and research cognitive skills. This can often be overwhelming for teachers who are uninformed and untrained in the unique issues of resume cover letter analyst autism. Teacher awareness and understanding of behaviors and perceptions unique to these disorders can facilitate the. Asperger syndrome , Autism , Autism spectrum 2415 Words | 5 Pages. interactions with the environment; interpreting the meaning of these sensations for actions is called sensory processing. When a child uses her . Papers For Management. senses to discover a new object, she creates a neuronal pathway in term on stereotyping, the brain. For Management. The more often she stimulates her senses from her environment, the more likely she is to create new neuronal pathways and strengthen old neuronal pathways in topics, the brain.
Sensory development begins during gestation and continues throughout childhood. The vision and papers for management hearing senses. Five senses , Olfaction , Proprioception 1405 Words | 5 Pages. Jacob presents as a 7 year-old boy, diagnosed with Asperger’s Syndrome (AS) and Sensory Integration Disorder. He has a very high . IQ, enjoys music, art and where can i buy university essays from watching movies and/or TV shows which he would imitate precisely from beginning to end. His mother is concerned because the papers, school psychologist seems to be at wits end trying to provide behavioral intervention strategies to resume cover analyst use with Jacob.
She has sought my help in aiding the school psychologist as well as meeting with Jacob for outpatient therapy. Asperger syndrome , Autism , Behavior 4126 Words | 12 Pages. 547 Marie Jevon1 Understand How The. autism. Traditional therapies include; Early Intervention Programs Applied Behaviour therapy Lovaas Speech Therapy Occupational Therapy Physical Therapy . Research. Social Skills Therapy Relationship Development Intervention Sensory Integration Music Therapy Neuro feedback EEG Auditory Integration therapy Craniosacral Therapy Complementary and alternative therapies include; Chelation therapy Gluten soya and casein free diet Heavy metal detoxification Hyperbaric therapy Son rise program CEASE therapy GFCF. Asperger syndrome , Autism , Autism spectrum 4579 Words | 15 Pages.
Simplify Software as a Service (SaaS) Integration By Simon Peel December 2008 Introduction Fuelled by a fiercely competitive business . environment that requires the pace of business and critical thinking application level exam technology to accelerate, companies need to adapt to change faster, and their IT departments must deliver innovative technology solutions rapidly and at a lower cost. As a result, companies are adopting Software as a Service (SaaS) applications to research papers address these challenges, in resume cover, particular for reducing costs. Application software , Customer relationship management , Front-end and back-end 2676 Words | 9 Pages. fine and gross motor skills, and sometimes intellectual skills as well as unusual responses to sensory input (unusual sensitivity to light, . sound, etc., and/or sensory cravings) (Rudy (2014). For Management. One student exhibits the following behaviors but has not been diagnosed with any particular learning need or disability. Where Buy University From. Limited language , Jumps from activity to activity and research Engages only in of emerson, parallel play . Sensory Processing Disorder she is sensitive to light, sound, smells, and textures such as paint, sand. Asperger syndrome , Autism , Autism spectrum 1877 Words | 14 Pages.
over-use of technology, on the developing child has been seen to be very harmful, even causing disabilities. Cris Rowan claims, “Diagnoses of ADHD, autism, . coordination disorder, developmental delays, unintelligible speech, learning difficulties, sensory processing disorder, anxiety, depression, and sleep disorders are associated with technology overuse, and are increasing at research, an alarming rate” (Rowan). Technology throws a lot of information out at once and a child’s brain is easily “overloaded” with. Abuse , Bullying , Causality 576 Words | 2 Pages. Sensory Perceptions By: Rachelle C. Ocampo Professor Scott Savaiano PHI 210 January 19, 2013 Sensory Perceptions If . fortunate enough, most people are able to sense the world around them through all five senses; sight, sound, smell, taste, and touch. The information from german newspaper intermediate, these senses is paired with thoughts and memories from each experience, which the papers, brain uses to tell individuals how to perceive input from the outside world. Mri Thesis Topics. The following information will cover reasons for believing in. Cognition , Illusion , Mind 921 Words | 3 Pages. Essential Guide to Understanding Sensory Processing Disorder.
Understanding Sensory Processing Disorder BONUS SECTION! Tips for Travelling with a Sensory Kiddo! Written By: Angie Voss, . OTR Your Essential Guide to Understanding Sensory Processing Disorder Copyright © 2011 by Angie Voss, OTR 2nd Edition 2013 All Rights Reserved ISBN-13: 978-1466432642 2 Angie Voss, OTR Dear Reader: This handbook is papers also intended to be used with Understanding Your Child’s Sensory Signals as well as ASensoryLife.com. German Language Newspaper Intermediate. Enjoy the research, BONUS section of “Travelling with a Sensory Kiddo”. Autism , Central nervous system , Nervous system 23191 Words | 62 Pages. Sensory Perceptions Critical Thinking PHI 210 Patricia Merlino Robert Bass April 15, 2012 | | Provide at least three (3) reasons . for believing in resume, the accuracy or inaccuracy of sensory information. (Kirby and papers for management Goodpaster 2007) Said it all “There is paper on stereotyping nothing in the mind unless it first senses.” When we are first born our five senses are just starting to develop from the first taste of milk to hearing people speak, or even feeling the touch of our mothers hand. At the time a baby is.
Cognition , Mind , Nature versus nurture 1635 Words | 4 Pages. Assignment 1- Sensory Perceptions Assignment 1: Sensory Perceptions 1. Provide at least three reasons for believing . in research for management, the accuracy or inaccuracy of sensory information. Our senses are who we are, without them we are left to isolation and essays of emerson our ability to research for management think and learn due to term lack of experience. Senses are our connection from the physical world into the realm of our mind. Research Papers For Management. “There is nothing in the mind unless it is first in the senses” (Kirby Goodpaster, 2007, pg. 54) Many. Cognition , Mind , Perception 837 Words | 3 Pages.
Assignment 1: Sensory Perceptions” James Buckley Professor Mario del Carril PHI 210 Critical Thinking October 21, 2012 | The . human senses are what make us who we are, without them our ability to think and learn would be impossible. Cover Analyst. The human senses are the research for management, gateway from the physical world into the domain of can i from our mind. “There is nothing in the mind unless it is first in research papers, the senses” (Kirby and Goodpaster, 2007, pg. German. 54)”. Our senses work to form a complex of for management picture of mri thesis our lives and papers surroundings. Hearing , Mind , Nervous system 722 Words | 3 Pages. Provide at thinking papers level, least three (3) reasons for believing in papers, the accuracy or inaccuracy of sensory information. The inaccuracy of . sensory information is based our experiences in life or what we experiencing at mri thesis, any given moment. Our sense organ is working when something arouses our nerve cells called receptor in a sense organ (Thinkquest.org.
2011, p.1). Our sight, smell, hearing, taste, and feel are part of our physical awareness. Each sense collects information about how we view the research, world, self and. Human nature , Nature versus nurture , Olfaction 794 Words | 3 Pages. receptor is stimulated from touch, smell or sight, it is converted into can i essays energy and travels through nerves to the brain. The sensory nerves all . use neural impulses to communicate, but the nervous system encodes the messages, so we are able to experience different sensations. Researchers have been studding sensory substitution that would train a blind person to papers use other sensory impulses to interpret them in the brain as an image and german intermediate allow them to make out objects. Researchers have also studied how sensitive. Classical conditioning , Nervous system , Perception 1313 Words | 4 Pages. Sensory Adaptation Abstract This paper describes three home type experiments and their conclusions as related to sensory . perceptions.
This paper will also describe the for management, meaning and concept of sensory adaptation, and how it is german language newspaper evident within the discussed experiments. A description of the research for management, sensory systems that are involved with the experiments, as well as what happens from the nerve receptors to letter the brain. Sensory Adaptation Sensory adaptation refers to how a person’s body adjusts. Flavor , Gustatory system , Olfaction 792 Words | 3 Pages. Sensory Perceptions I believe that you can trust your personal interpretation of sensory data to give you an accurate . view of the research for management, world. Where Can I Buy University From. Other people may have a different opinion and believe that you cannot trust your personal interpretation of sensory data to give you an accurate view of the for management, world. Our senses act as or lenses, amplifiers, particle detectors, and pressure and level heat gauges. These sensors are acutely sensitive.
Our hearing reacts to a sound vibrating in frequency as high. Brain , Hippocampus , Nature versus nurture 1125 Words | 4 Pages. The interpretation of sensory data to give us an papers accurate view of the world? When our senses are ignited by sensory data we can . accurately view persons, places, or things to a certain extent. As humans we all gather information by using sensory perceptions. Sensory perceptions are the language, conscious recognition and interpretation of sensory stimuli that serve as a basis for research, understanding, learning, and knowing or for motivating a particular action or reaction. We human have five senses by which we use. Human , Illusion , Mind 1011 Words | 3 Pages. 5 types of can i from sensory receptors are: chemoreceptor A sense organ, or one of its cells (such as those for research for management, the sense of term on stereotyping taste or smell), that . Research Papers For Management. can respond to a chemical stimulus; a chemosensor. mechanoreceptor Any information about mechanical changes in its environment, such as movement, tension and pressure. photoreceptor A specialized neuron able to term paper detect, and react to light nociceptor A sensory receptor that sends signals that cause the perception of pain in response to. Eye , Mechanoreceptor , Nervous system 781 Words | 4 Pages. ?The paper will discuss sensory perception that asks the research papers for management, question can you really trust your senses and the interpretation of . Critical Thinking Application Papers Exam. sensory data to give you an accurate view of the world.
What are the accuracy and the weaknesses of the human senses as they pertain to thinking in research papers, general and to mri thesis your own thinking in particular? First what is the definition of research sensory perception? It is the topics, state of perceiving one's surroundings based on data collected from research papers, one's senses, which includes physical, emotional. Cognition , Mind , Nervous system 773 Words | 3 Pages. Assignment 1: Sensory Perceptions Nicole Brock PHI 210 Renee Pistone 10/21/2012 “The brain, a complex structure, allows a human being to . perceive and react to their environment, contemplate the big questions, and resume for credit analyst experience a myriad of emotions. Research For Management. The brain controls the topics, body and research papers for management maintains the delicate internal balance needed to sustain life” (Smith, 2010). If fortunate enough, we humans all have five senses: vision, hearing, taste, touch, and smell. All of term paper on stereotyping these senses that we have, work.
Brain , Cognition , Mind 1019 Words | 3 Pages. identical thoughts or perceptions; hence, the innumerous possibilities of sensory output. Although the papers for management, senses are the foundation of thinking our . beings, there are instances when we must question the accuracy/inaccuracy of sensory information. Below I will attempt to explain the instances when sensory information can be deceptive and/or receptive. There are three reasons in which we can believe in research, the inaccuracy of german language sensory information.
First, we are all unique individuals; and no two people perceive. Cognition , Illusion , Mind 930 Words | 3 Pages. However, the perception of what is a good or bad smell can be interpreted differently between people as it is attached to research for management previous knowledge gained. . Knowledge, justification and critical thinking are three factors that contribute to the accuracy of sensory data (Mohanan, 2000). Critical thinking is the mental process of resume letter analyst reflecting upon something to assess its credibility, truth, significance, usefulness, value or goodness on research papers the basis of information available to us and a mode of can i buy university essays from justification that. Brain , Hearing , Olfaction 902 Words | 3 Pages. Outline the papers for management, main causes of sensory loss There are many factors that can be attributable to causing sensory loss. Varying degrees . of vision and hearing loss may occur: During pregnancy: a woman may come into resume cover letter for credit contact with a virus or disease that affects the growing foetus an inherited condition or syndrome may be passed on to the child a chromosomal disorder may occur during the research, foetus’ early development injury affecting the foetus whilst in utero Complications at term, birth (multiple. Audiology , Blindness , British Sign Language 884 Words | 3 Pages. services and products. It can also be related to customer satisfaction which is the expectation of the customer towards the products. In general . Research Papers For Management. psychological terms, perception is our ability to make some kind of sense of essays reality from the external sensory stimuli to which we are exposed.
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ASEAN , Customs union , Economic integration 861 Words | 4 Pages. The Cask of Amontillado and Approximately 150-200 Words. the space provided to critical papers level exam plan the dialogue and sensory details you will include as you write the body of papers your essay. This portion should be . approximately 600-800 words in where can i buy university from, length. Be sure to follow the research for management, tips and guidelines provided in the lessons. Body Graphic Organizer Part Four Directions: Choose one passage (200-250 words) of your narrative essay to rewrite, adding descriptive language and sensory details wherever possible. Highlight your. Begging , Sensory , The Cask of Amontillado 585 Words | 4 Pages. Three reasons for believing in the accuracy or inaccuracy of critical papers exam sensory information is perception, interpretation, and knowledge. Perception is . Research Papers. our sensory experience of the world around us and cover involves both the recognition of environmental stimuli and actions in response to these stimuli (Bagley, 2004).
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Use the space provided to plan the dialogue and sensory details you will include as you write the body of your essay. This . portion should be approximately 600-800 words in length. Be sure to follow the tips and resume cover for credit analyst guidelines provided in the lessons. Dialogue Details Part Four Directions: Choose one passage (200-250 words) of your narrative essay to rewrite, adding descriptive language and research sensory details wherever possible. Highlight your revisions.
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Intoductory Awareness of Sensory Loss. Introductory awareness of sensory loss (SS MU2.1) Outcome 1 When people have any sensory loss, then their mobility and . communication are greatly affected. This can lead to increased loneliness and papers even isolation in some cases. People with any kind of paper on stereotyping sensory loss can have difficulties in finding employment. Papers For Management. Even though the Equality Act and essays of emerson the Disability Discrimination Act mean that employers cannot discriminate, it is hard to convince an employer that a sensory loss does not necessarily mean. Blindness , Cataract , Disability 1103 Words | 3 Pages.
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Audiogram , Communication , Deaf culture 1106 Words | 3 Pages. Vestibular Function In Children With Autism With Sensory Integration Problems Submitted in Partial Fulfillment of the . Requirements for research methodology Submitted to: Sir Romel Cabazor Go, Krishia Kaye Tobes, Stephanie Velez College CHAPTER I THE PROBLEM AND ITS SETTING THE EFFECTIVENESS OF A BALANCE BOARD ON VESTIBULAR FUNCTION IN KIDS WITH SENSORY INTEGRATION PROBLEMS Introduction Three sources of cover letter sensory information are used by the nervous system. Central nervous system , Labyrinthitis , Nervous system 2741 Words | 11 Pages. memory and research processes that are called sensory processes. These types of memory have each their own processes or particular modes of operation. . These memory processes have three necessary steps to forming a lasting memory. Introduction There are three necessary steps in the formation of memory.
These steps we will discuss in the following paragraphs in order to achieve a greater understanding of the letter analyst, processes involved. The most common memory model is the sensory to short term to long term memory. Hippocampus , Long-term memory , Memory processes 956 Words | 3 Pages. ?Unit 536 Understand Sensory Loss (SS MU 3.1) There are a number of factors that can impact on individuals with . sensory loss. Communication is an area in which people with sensory loss have many issues.
Normal day to research papers for management day activities can cause a great deal of stress and anxiety. For example if someone does not have sensory loss they may enjoy watching television. Just to imagine not be able to hear what was being said properly, the frustration that must be felt can lead. Ageing , Gustatory system , Olfaction 1905 Words | 6 Pages. Student: Critical Thinking and Sensory Data. Assignment 1: Sensory Perceptions Can you really trust your senses and the interpretation of sensory data to give you an . Thinking Application Papers Exam. accurate view of the research papers for management, world? Describe and discuss the accuracy and the weaknesses of the human senses as they pertain to where essays from thinking in general and to papers for management your own thinking in particular. Write a two to three (2–3) page (approximately 500–750 word) paper that addresses the following: 1. Provide at least three (3) reasons for analyst, believing in the accuracy or inaccuracy of sensory information.
APA style , Citation , Critical thinking 837 Words | 4 Pages. Emotional and Factual Recall: The Effects of Damaging the research papers for management, Hippocampus and the Amygdala In recent studies, psychological physiologists have been able to . identify the effects of certain brain damage on both one’s emotional memory and sensory memory. Two areas of the brain that have been studied are the amygdala and hippocampus. Studies on animals have shown that damage onto the amygdala effects emotional conditioning, while damage to the hippocampus eliminates the ability to establish certain knowledge.
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Exit Strategy: In 1963, JFK ordered a complete withdrawal from Vietnam. In 1963, JFK ordered a complete withdrawal from papers for management Vietnam. 41 Min read time. In 1963, JFK ordered a complete withdrawal from Vietnam. President and Mrs. Kennedy arrive at Love Field, Dallas, Texas on November 22, 1963. Photograph by Cecil Stoughton, White House, in the John F. Kennedy Presidential Library and Museum, Boston. Forty years have passed since November 22, 1963, yet painful mysteries remain. What, at the moment of his death, was John F. Mri Thesis Topics! Kennedy’s policy toward Vietnam?
It’s one of the big questions, alternately evaded and disputed over research papers for management, four decades of historical writing. It bears on Kennedy’s reputation, of where buy university essays course, though not in research, an unambiguous way. And today, larger issues are at stake as the United States faces another indefinite military commitment that might have been avoided and paper on stereotyping, that, perhaps, also cannot be won. The story of Vietnam in 1963 illustrates for us the struggle with policy failure. More deeply, appreciating those distant events tests our capacity as a country to look the reality of our own history in research, the eye. One may usefully introduce the for credit, issue by recalling the furor over Robert McNamara’s 1995 memoir In Retrospect. Reaction then focused mainly on McNamara’s assumption of personal responsibility for papers for management the war, notably his declaration that his own actions as the Secretary of Defense responsible for it were “terribly, terribly wrong.” Reviewers paid little attention to the book’s contribution to history.
In an thinking level, editorial on April 12, 1995, the research for management, New York Times delivered a harsh judgment: “Perhaps the resume letter for credit, only value of “In Retrospect” is to remind us never to forget that these were men who in the full hubristic glow of their power would not listen to logical warning or ethical appeal.” And in the New York Times Book Review four days later, Max Frankel wrote that. David Halberstam, who applied that ironic phrase [The Best and papers for management, the Brightest] to his rendering of the tale 23 years ago, told it better in many ways than Mr. McNamara does now. So too, did the Pentagon Papers, that huge trove of documents assembled at Mr. McNamara’s behest when he first recognized a debt to cover letter analyst history. In view of these criticisms, readers who actually pick up McNamara’s book may experience a shock when they scan the table of papers contents and sees this summary of newspaper intermediate Chapter 3, titled “The Fateful Fall of 1963: August 24November 22, 1963”: A pivotal period of U.S. involvement in Vietnam, punctuated by research papers three important events: the overthrow and assassination of South Vietnam’s president Ngo Dinh Diem; President Kennedy’s decision on thinking application, October 2 to for management begin the withdrawal of U.S. forces ; and term paper, his assassination fifty days later. Research Papers! (Emphasis added.) Kennedy’s decision on October 2, 1963, to begin the withdrawal of U.S. forces from South Vietnam? Contrary to Frankel, this is not something you will find in Halberstam. You will not find it in Leslie Gelb’s editorial summary in the Gravel edition of The Pentagon Papers, even though several documents that are important to establishing the case for a Kennedy decision to withdraw were published in essays of emerson, that edition. Nor, with just three exceptions prior to last spring’s publication of papers for management Howard Jones’s Death of a Generationa milestone in the search for difficult, ferociously hidden truthwill you find it elsewhere in 30 years of historical writing on Vietnam.
Did John F. Kennedy give the order to withdraw from can i buy university from Vietnam? Certainly, most Vietnam historians have said “no”or would have if they considered the question worth posing. They have asserted continuity between Kennedy’s policy and Lyndon Johnson’s, while usually claiming that neither president liked the war and research, also that Kennedy especially had expressed to friends his desire to get out sometime after the 1964 election. The view that Kennedy would have done what Johnson didstay in newspaper intermediate, Vietnam and gradually escalate the papers, war in 1964 and resume cover letter for credit, 1965is held by left, center, and research papers for management, right, from Noam Chomsky to Kai Bird to resume cover analyst William Gibbons. It was promoted forcefully over the years by the late Walt Rostow, beginning in 1967 with a thick compilation for Johnson himself of Kennedy’s public statements on Vietnam policy and continuing into the 1990s.
Gibbons’s three-volume study states it this way: “On November 26 , Johnson approved NSAM [National Security Action Memorandum] 273, reaffirming the papers for management, U.S. Resume Cover Letter! commitment to Vietnam and papers for management, the continuation of Vietnam programs and topics, policies of the papers for management, Kennedy administration.” Equally, Stanley Karnow writes in german language newspaper, his Vietnam: A History (1983) that Johnson’s pledge “essentially signaled a continuation of Kennedy’s policy.” Patrick Lloyd Hatcher, while writing extensively on the Saigon coup, makes no mention at all of the Washington discussions following Johnson’s accession three weeks later. Gary Hess offers summary judgment on the policy that Johnson inherited: “To Kennedy and his fellow New Frontiersmen, it was a doctrine of faith that the problems of Vietnam lent themselves to an American solution.” Kai Bird’s 1998 biography of research papers McGeorge and William Bundy briefly reviews the discussions of withdrawal reported to have occurred in late 1963 but accepts the general verdict that Kennedy did not intend to quit. So does Fredrik Logevall, whose substantial 1999 book steadfastly insists that the choices Kennedy faced were either escalation or negotiation and did not include withdrawal without negotiation. All this (and more) is in spite of evidence to the contrary, advanced over the years by a tiny handful of critical application level exam authors. In 1972 Peter Dale Scott first made the case that Johnson’s NSAM 273the document that Gibbons relied on in making the case for continuitywas in research papers for management, fact a departure from thinking application papers level exam Kennedy’s policy; his essay appeared in Gravel’s edition of The Pentagon Papers. Research For Management! Arthur M. Schlesinger’s Robert Kennedy and His Times tells in of emerson, a few tantalizing pages of the “first application” in October 1963 “of Kennedy’s phased withdrawal plan.” A more thorough treatment appeared in 1992, with the publication of John M. Newman’s JFK and Vietnam.1 Until his retirement in 1994 Newman was a major in the U.S. Army, an intelligence officer last stationed at Fort Meade, headquarters of the National Security Agency. As an historian, his specialty is deciphering declassified recordsa talent he later applied to the CIA’s long-hidden archives on Lee Harvey Oswald.
Newman’s argument was not a case of “counterfactual historical reasoning,” as Larry Berman described it in an early response.2 It was not about what might have happened had Kennedy lived. Newman’s argument was stronger: Kennedy, he claims, had decided to begin a phased withdrawal from Vietnam, that he had ordered this withdrawal to begin. Here is the chronology, according to Newman: (1) On October 2, 1963, Kennedy received the report of a mission to Saigon by McNamara and Maxwell Taylor, chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff (JCS). The main recommendations, which appear in Section I(B) of the McNamara-Taylor report, were that a phased withdrawal be completed by the end of 1965 and that the “Defense Department should announce in the very near future presently prepared plans to withdraw 1,000 out of 17,000 U.S. Research! military personnel stationed in Vietnam by the end of critical thinking application level exam 1963.” At Kennedy’s instruction, Press Secretary Pierre Salinger made a public announcement that evening of McNamara’s recommended timetable for withdrawal. (2) On October 5, Kennedy made his formal decision.
Newman quotes the minutes of the meeting that day: The President also said that our decision to remove 1,000 U.S. advisors by December of this year should not be raised formally with Diem. Instead the action should be carried out routinely as part of our general posture of withdrawing people when they are no longer needed. Papers For Management! (Emphasis added.) The passage illustrates two points: (a) that a decision was in on stereotyping, fact made on that day, and (b) that despite the research papers for management, earlier announcement of McNamara’s recommendation, the October 5 decision was not a ruse or pressure tactic to win reforms from Diem (as Richard Reeves, among others, has contended3) but a decision to begin withdrawal irrespective of Diem or his reactions. (3) On October 11, the White House issued NSAM 263, which states: The President approved the mri thesis, military recommendations contained in section I B (1-3) of the research, report, but directed that no formal announcement be made of the implementation of plans to withdraw 1,000 U.S. military personnel by critical thinking application exam the end of papers for management 1963.
In other words, the withdrawal recommended by McNamara on October 2 was embraced in secret by german Kennedy on research for management, October 5 and essays, implemented by his order on research, October 11, also in secret. Newman argues that the on stereotyping, secrecy after October 2 can be explained by a diplomatic reason. Kennedy did not want Diem or anyone else to interpret the withdrawal as part of any pressure tactic (other steps that were pressure tactics had also been approved). There was also a political reason: JFK had not decided whether he could get away with claiming that the withdrawal was a result of progress toward the goal of research for management a self-sufficient South Vietnam. The alternative would have been to can i essays withdraw the troops while acknowledging failure. Research Papers For Management! And this, Newman argues, Kennedy was prepared to mri thesis topics do if it became necessary. He saw no reason, however, to take this step before it became necessary. If the troops could be pulled while the South Vietnamese were still standing, so much the better.4 But from October 11 onward the CIA’s reporting changed drastically. Official optimism was replaced by a searching and comparatively realistic pessimism. Research! Newman believes this pessimism, which involved rewriting assessments as far back as the previous July, was a response to NSAM 263. It represented an effort by essays the CIA to undermine the ostensible rationale of withdrawal with success, and therefore to obstruct implementation of the plan for withdrawal.
Kennedy, needless to say, did not share his full reasoning with the CIA. (4) On November 1 there came the coup in Saigon and the assassination of Diem and Nhu. At a press conference on November 12, Kennedy publicly restated his Vietnam goals. Research Papers! They were “to intensify the struggle” and “to bring Americans out of language intermediate there.” Victory, which had figured prominently in a similar statement on September 12, was no longer on for management, the list. (5) The Honolulu Conference of senior cabinet and military officials on November 2021 was called to review plans in the wake of the Saigon coup. The military and the CIA, however, planned to use that meeting to pull the can i buy university from, rug from research papers for management under the buy university essays from, false optimism which some had used to research for management rationalize NSAM 263. However, Kennedy did not himself believe that we were withdrawing with victory. It follows that the changing image of the military situation would not have changed JFK’s decision. (6) In Honolulu, McGeorge Bundy prepared a draft of what would eventually be NSAM 273.
The plan was to present it to Kennedy after the meeting ended. Dated November 21, this draft reflected the change in military reporting. Essays! It speaks, for example, of a need to research papers “turn the tide not only essays of emerson of battle but of belief.” Plans to for management intensify the struggle, however, do not go beyond what Kennedy would have approved: A paragraph calling for actions against the North underscores the role of Vietnamese forces: 7. With respect to action against North Vietnam, there should be a detailed plan for term paper the development of papers for management additional Government of intermediate Vietnam resources , especially for sea-going activity, and such planning should indicate the time and investment necessary to achieve a wholly new level of effectiveness in research, this field of action. Term Paper! (Emphasis added.) (7) At Honolulu, a preliminary plan, known as CINCPAC OPLAN 34-63 and later implemented as OPLAN 34A, was prepared for presentation. This plan called for intensified sabotage raids against papers, the North, employing Vietnamese commandos under U.S. controla significant escalation.5 While JCS chief Taylor had approved preparation of this plan, it had not been shown to McNamara. Tab E of the meeting’s briefing book, also approved by Taylor and also not sent in where can i buy university essays from, advance to McNamara, showed that the research, withdrawal ordered by essays of emerson Kennedy in October was already being gutted, by the device of research for management substituting for the withdrawal of full units that of individual soldiers who were being rotated out of Vietnam in any event.
(8) The final version of NSAM 273, signed by Johnson on November 26, differs from the draft in several respects. Critical Thinking Exam! Most are minor changes of wording. The main change is that the draft paragraph 7 has been struck in its entirety (there are two pencil slashes on the November 21 draft), and replaced with the following: Planning should include different levels of possible increased activity, and in each instance there be estimates such factors as: A. Resulting damage to North Vietnam; B. The plausibility denial; C. Vietnamese retaliation; D. Other international reaction. Plans submitted promptly for approval by authority. The new language is incomplete. It does not begin by declaring outright that the subject is attacks on the North.
But the thrust is unmistakable, and the restrictive reference to “Government of papers for management Vietnam resources” is now missing. Newman concludes that this change effectively provided new authority for U.S.directed combat actions against North Vietnam. Planning for these actions began therewith, and term on stereotyping, we now know that an OPLAN 34A raid in August 1964 provoked the North Vietnamese retaliation against the destroyer Maddox, which became the research for management, first Gulf of Tonkin incident. And this in turn led to the confused incident a few nights later aboard the buy university essays from, Turner Joy, to reports that it too had been attacked, and to Johnson’s overnight decision to seek congressional support for “retaliation” against North Vietnam. From this, of course, the research papers for management, larger war then flowed. A reply to Newman’s book appeared very quickly. It came from Noam Chomsky, hardly an apologist for critical papers exam Lyndon Johnson or the war. Chomsky despises the Kennedy apologists: equally the research papers for management, old insiders and the antiwar nostalgicsArthur Schlesinger and Oliver Stoneand the historical memory of “the fallen leader who had escalated the attack against Vietnam from terror to aggression.” He reviles efforts to portray Kennedy’s foreign policy views as different from Johnson’s. Resume Cover For Credit Analyst! On this point he may well be fundamentally correct, though for reasons quite different from those that he offers. Chomsky’s Rethinking Camelot challenges Newman’s main points. First, did Kennedy plan to withdraw without victory?
Or, were the plans of NSAM 263 contingent on a continued perception of success in battle? Second, did the change in papers for management, NSAM 273 between the draft (which was prepared for Kennedy but never seen by him) and the final version (signed by Johnson) represent a change in essays of emerson, policy? Chomsky is categorical on both issues: “Two weeks before Kennedy’s assassination, there is not a phrase in the voluminous internal record that even hints at withdrawal without victory.” Elsewhere he notes that “[t]he withdrawal-without-victory thesis rests on for management, the assumption that Kennedy realized that the optimistic military reports were incorrect. . . . Not a trace of supporting evidence appears in of emerson, the internal record, or is papers for management suggested [by Newman].” And, as for newspaper the changes to NSAM 273: “There is no relevant difference between the research papers, two documents [draft and final], except that the critical application level exam, LBJ version is weaker and more evasive.” Chomsky denies Newman’s claim that the new version of paragraph 7 in the final draft of NSAM 273 signed by Johnson on November 26 opened the way for OPLAN 34A and the use of U.S.directed forces in covert operations against North Vietnam. Rather, he reads the papers for management, Johnson version as applying only to Government of Vietnam forces, even though the critical exam, language restricting action to those forces is research papers no longer there.
Peter Dale Scott, the former diplomat, professor of English at the University of essays California, Berkeley, and author of research for management part of the resume cover, Pentagon Papers, replied to Chomsky on both points almost immediately. On the first point, withdrawal without victory, Scott writes: Following [Leslie] Gelb, Chomsky alleges that Kennedy’s withdrawal planning was in response to an “optimistic mid-1962 assessment.” . . . But in fact the planning was first ordered by papers McNamara in May 1962. This was one month after ambassador Kenneth Galbraith, disenchanted after a presidentially ordered visit to Vietnam, had proposed a “political solution” based in can i from, part on a proposal to the Soviets entertaining “phased American withdrawal.” Scott goes on to point out that it cannot be proven that Galbraith’s recommendation was responsible for McNamara’s order. But there is good reason to believe they were linked, that both reflected Kennedy’s long-term strategy on research, Vietnam.6 As for the proposition that no evidence hinting at withdrawal without victory exists, Scott argues that Chomsky’s “internal planning record”for the most part the Pentagon Papers“is in fact an edited version of the primary documents.” Moreover, “the documentary record is conspicuously defective” for November 1963. “[I]n all three editions of the Pentagon Papers there are no complete documents between the mri thesis topics, five [coup] cables of October 30 and McNamara’s memorandum of December 21; the 600 pages of documents from the Kennedy Administration end on October 30.” On the second point, concerning NSAM 273, Scott writes that Chomsky reads “Johnson’s NSAM as if it were as contextless as a Dead Sea Scroll,” dismissing its importance and ignoring “early accounts of it as a ‘major decision,’ a ‘pledge’ that determined ‘all that would follow,’ from journalists as diverse as Tom Wicker, Marvin Kalb, and I. F. Stone.” Scott writes that Chomsky also ignores Taylor’s memo to President Johnson of January 22, 1964, which cites NSAM 273 as authority to “prepare to escalate operations against North Vietnam.”
In the course of this controversy, the ground had narrowed sharply. After Newman’s book, no one seriously disputed that Kennedy was contemplating withdrawal from Vietnam. Instead, the disagreements focused on research papers for management, four questions: Did the withdrawal plans depend on language, the perception of victory? Did Kennedy act on his plans? Were actions he may have taken noisy but cosmetic, a pressure tactic aimed at Diem or a ploy for papers the American public, or were they for real? And were the can i, OPLAN 34A operations that got under way following Kennedy’s death a sharp departure from previous U.S. policy or merely a “Government of Vietnam” activity consonant with intensifying the papers, war in the South? The publication of McNamara’s In Retrospect sharpened the terms of thinking exam debate.
Some key source materials, including the texts of the McNamara-Taylor report and those of NSAM 263 and 273, have been in the public domain for years. McNamara’s 1995 account of his September 1963 mission to Vietnam makes substantial use of the McNamara-Taylor report and the quotations presented are a study in research, ambiguity. He quotes General Maxwell Taylor’s apparent conviction that the war could be won by the end of 1965, but then he acknowledges that there were “conflicting reports about military progress and political stability” and describes the letter for credit, impressive doubts of those he spoke with that the research papers for management, South Vietnamese government was capable of the effective actions that military victory required: The military campaign has made great progress and continues to progress. . . . There are serious political tensions in Saigon. . . . Further repressive actions by Diem and Nhu could change the present favorable military trends. . . . It is not clear that pressures exerted by mri thesis the U.S. Papers For Management! will move Diem and Nhu toward moderation. . . . The prospects that a replacement regime would be an improvement appear to be about 50-50. The drift seems clear enough: the Diem government is failing and there is no reason to think a replacement would be better. But the references to “great progress” leave room for doubt. Mri Thesis Topics! Withdrawal with victory or without it? McNamara then reproduces the precise wording of the military recommendations from Section I(B) of the report: We recommend that:  General Harkins review with Diem the military changes necessary to complete the papers, military campaign in letter for credit, the Northern and Central areas by the end of 1964, and in for management, the Delta by of emerson the end of 1965.  A program be established to train Vietnamese so that essential functions now performed by U.S. military personnel can be carried out by Vietnamese by research papers for management the end of 1965.
It should be possible to withdraw the bulk of U.S. personnel by that time.  In accordance with the program to train progressively Vietnamese to take over military functions, the Defense Department should announce in the very near future presently prepared plans to withdraw 1000 U.S. Of Emerson! military personnel by the end of 1963. The report then went on for management, to make a number of topics recommendations to for management “impress upon Diem our disapproval of his political program.” These matters dealt with the repression of the Buddhists and related issues; the recommendation to announce plans to withdraw 1,000 soldiers is not listed under this heading. The reason for the ambiguity over the military situation, as well as the vague “it should be possible” wording of the application papers exam, second recommendation, becomes clearer when McNamara describes the National Security Council meeting of October 2, 1963, which revealed a “total lack of consensus” over the battlefield situation: One faction believed military progress had been good and papers, training had progressed to the point where we could begin to withdraw. Critical Thinking Exam! A second faction did not see the war as progressing well and did not see the South Vietnamese showing evidence of successful training.
But they, too, agreed that we should begin to withdraw. . Research Papers! . . The third faction, representing the majority, considered the South Vietnamese trainable but believed our training had not been in place long enough to achieve results and, therefore, should continue at current levels. As McNamara’s 1986 oral history, on deposit at mri thesis topics, the Lyndon Baines Johnson Library, makes clear (but his book does not), he was himself in the second group, who favored withdrawal without victorynot necessarily admitting or even predicting defeat, but accepting uncertainty as to what would follow. Research Papers! The denouement came shortly thereafter: After much debate, the president endorsed our recommendation to withdraw 1,000 men by December 31, 1963. He did so, I recall, without indicating his reasoning. Mri Thesis Topics! In any event, because objections had been so intense and because I suspected others might try to get him to reverse the decision, I urged him to announce it publicly. Papers For Management! That would set it in concrete. . . . The president finally agreed, and the announcement was released by Pierre Salinger after the meeting. Before a large audience at the LBJ Library on May 1, 1995, McNamara restated his account of this meeting and stressed its importance. Intermediate! He confirmed that President Kennedy’s action had three elements: (1) complete withdrawal “by December 31, 1965,” (2) the first 1,000 out by the end of 1963, and (3) a public announcement, to set these decisions “in concrete,” which was made. McNamara also added the critical information that there exists a tape of this meeting, in the John F. Kennedy Library in Boston, to which he had access and on which his account is based. The existence of a taping system in JFK’s oval office had become known over research, the years, particularly through the release of partial transcripts of the resume letter for credit analyst, historic meeting of the “ExComm” during the papers for management, Cuban Missile Crisis of October 1962.
But the full extent of Kennedy’s taping was not known. And, according to McNamara, access to particular tapes was tightly controlled by representatives of the Kennedy family. When McNamara spoke in term, Austin, only he and his coauthor, Brian VanDeMark, had been granted the privilege of listening to research the actual tape recordings of Kennedy’s White House meetings on thinking application papers level, Vietnam. In 1997, however, this situation changed. The Assassination Records Review Board (ARRB), an independent civilian body established under the 1992 JFK Records Act that has already been responsible for the release of millions of pages of official records deemed relevant to Kennedy’s assassination, ruled that his tapes relating to Vietnam decision-making should be released.
In July the JFK Library began releasing key tapes, including those of the withdrawal meetings on October 2 and papers for management, 5, 1963.7. A careful review of the October 2 meeting makes clear that McNamara’s account is essentially accurate and letter analyst, even to some degree understated. One can hear McNamarathe voice is unmistakablearguing for a firm timetable to withdraw all U.S. forces from Vietnam, whether the war can be won in 1964, which he doubts, or not. McNamara is research emphatic: “We need a way to get out of Vietnam, and this is language a way of doing it.” In Retrospect’s discussion of Kennedy’s decision to withdraw ends at this point.
McNamara makes no mention of research NSAM 263. However, on thinking level, the tape of the meeting of papers October 5, 1963, one can clearly hear a voiceit may be Robert McNamara or McGeorge Bundyasking President John F. Kennedy for “formal approval” of “items one, two, and three” on a paper evidently in can i buy university from, front of for management them. It is clear that one of these items is the cover letter analyst, recommendation to papers withdraw 1,000 men by the end of 1963, the rationale being that they are no longer needed. This short exchange is thus unmistakably a request for a formal presidential decision concerning the McNamara-Taylor recommendations. After a short discussion of the possible political effect in Vietnam of announcing this decision, the voice of JFK can be clearly heard: “Let’s go on topics, ahead and papers for management, do it,” followed by a few words deciphered by historian George Eliades as “without making a public statement about thinking exam, it.” Unfortunately, the last White House tape from the Kennedy administration is research papers dated November 7, 1963.
The archivists at the JFK Library have no information on term on stereotyping, why the tapings either ended or are unavailable for later dates. McNamara states that he has “no specific memory” of the Honolulu Conference that he was sent to chair on November 20, 1963. The President of the United States does not make decisions in a vacuum. Agencies have to be notified, plans have to be made, actions have to be taken. Part of the research, enduring doubt over language newspaper, Kennedy’s decision to withdraw U.S. forces from Vietnam surely stems from the papers for management, failure of this decision to cast a shadow in the primary record, and particularly in the Pentagon Papers, on german newspaper, which so many historians have relied for so many years. Furthermore, a persistent skeptic can still point to the “it should be possible” language of the McNamara-Taylor Report with respect to the final date of 1965 as leaving an “out” for the case where the military situation might turn sour. In two years and two months, much can happen, as events would prove. But as Scott already pointed out to Chomsky in 1993, the primary record available to for management date has been heavily edited. Documents from November 1, 1963, through early December are conspicuously missing.
So, we now learn, are many others. In January 1998, again under the supervision of the buy university, ARRB, about 900 pages of new materials were declassified and released from the JCS archives. These include important records from May 1963, from October, and from the period immediately following Kennedy’s death; many had been reviewed for declassification in 1989 but were not declassified at that time. They clarify considerably the nature of the papers, “presently prepared plans” referred to in the McNamara-Taylor third recommendation, and intermediate, they give the military leadership’s interpretation of the research papers, direction they were getting from JFK. Since it is well known that the Pentagon did not favor withdrawal, it is fair to mri thesis assume that if wiggle room existed in the President’s instructions it would surface in these documents. Many of the new documents relate to the Eighth Secretary of Defense Conference, held in Honolulu on May 6, 1963. Here one gets a taste of McNamara’s skepticism and research for management, the replies of the brass. For instance, at one point the secretary extracts a concession that “50-60 percent of VC weapons were of U.S. origin.” A bit later, we read: “GEN HARKINS stated that for effective control the border should be defined, marked and cleared similar to the Greek boundary with Albania and Bulgaria. However, this cannot be done in the foreseeable future.”
Turning to the development of a “comprehensive plan,” the documents immediately reflect discussions of a phase-down in the U.S. Thinking Level Exam! presence. For instance: “SEC MCNAMARA stated that our efforts should be directed toward turning over equipment now in U.S. units supporting the Vietnamese as rapidly as possible. Papers For Management! He added that we must avoid creating a situation that now obtains in Korea where we are presently spending almost half a billion dollars per letter analyst, year in foreign aid.” A little later, we find a decision noted: “1. Draw up training plans for research for management the RVNAF that will permit us to start an earlier withdrawal of german U.S. personnel than proposed under the papers, plans presented.” And: “d. Plan to withdraw 1000 U.S. military personnel from RVN by December 1963.” Further discussion of the 1,000 man withdrawal is recorded shortly: GEN HARKINS emphasized that he did not want to resume cover letter gather up 1,000 U.S. personnel and have them depart with bands playing, flags flying etc. This would have a bad effect on the Vietnamese, to be pulling out just when it appears they are winning.
SEC MCNAMARA stated that this would have to be handled carefully due to the psychological impact. However, there should be an intensive training program of RVNAF to papers allow removal of U.S. units rather than individuals. There follows considerable discussion of proposals to launch raids on thinking application exam, North Vietnam. For Geneva convention reasons, it is agreed that these must be covert. Use of Laos is not feasible; there are no land entries through the demilitarized zone. As for sea entry, available boats are susceptible to research weather and too slow.
Sea is the only means of exfiltration. However, for any major operation the RVN naval craft are not qualified to tangle with DRV craft. Application Papers Level Exam! . . . Build-up in CIA resources by end CY 1963 includes 40 teams in addition to 9 in country. New high speed armed boats will be available for infiltration and exfiltration in September, providing a year-round, all-weather capability. Thus emerges an answer to one of the critical questions separating Newman and Scott from Chomsky. OPLAN 34A, when it emerged in November, would be a CIA operation. It could not be otherwise, for research for management the Government of Vietnam did not possess the boats.8. Eventually, discussion turns to paper projected force structures, and a table titled “CPSVNFORECAST OF PHASE-OUT OF US FORCES” gives precise estimates, by major unit, of the research papers, projected American commitment through 1968. Where Can I Buy University Essays! McNamara’s reaction to this timetable is recorded clearly: In connection with this presentation, made by COMUSMACV (attached hereto), the research papers for management, Secretary of Defense stated that the mri thesis, phase-out appears too slow. He directed that training plans be developed for the GVN by CINCPAC which will permit a more rapid phase-out of U.S. forces, stating specifically that we should review our plans for pilot training with the papers, view to accelerating it materially. He made particular point of the desirability of speeding up training of helicopter pilots, so that we may give the Vietnamese our copters and thus be able to move our own forces out.
ACTION: Joint Staff (J-3); message directive to CINCPAC, info COMUSMACV. On Stereotyping! (Emphasis added.) The May conference thus fills in the primary record: plans were under development for the complete withdrawal of U.S. Research Papers For Management! forces from Vietnam. Thinking Application! On October 2, 1963, as we have previously seen, President Kennedy made clear his determination to implement those plansto withdraw 1,000 troops by the end of 1963, and to get almost all the rest out by the end of 1965. There followed, on October 4, a memorandum titled “South Vietnam Actions” from General Maxwell Taylor to his fellow Joint Chiefs of Staff, Generals May, Wheeler, Shoup, and Admiral McDonald, that reads: b. The program currently in progress to train Vietnamese forces will be reviewed and accelerated as necessary to insure that all essential functions visualized to be required for the projected operational environment, to include those now performed by U.S. military units and personnel, can be assumed properly by the Vietnamese by the end of calendar year 1965. All planning will be directed towards preparing RVN forces for the withdrawal of all U.S. special assistance units and personnel by the end of calendar year 1965. (Emphasis added.) “All planning” is an unconditional phrase. There is no contingency here, or elsewhere in papers for management, this memorandum. The next paragraph reads: c. Application Level! Execute the plan to withdraw 1,000 U.S. military personnel by the end of 1963 per research, your DTG 212201Z July, and as approved for planning by JCS DTG 062042Z September. Application Level Exam! Previous guidance on the public affairs annex is altered to the extent that the action will now be treated in low key, as the initial increment of U.S. forces whose presence is no longer required because (a) Vietnamese forces have been trained to assume the function involved; or (b) the function for papers which they came to mri thesis Vietnam has been completed. (Emphasis added.) This resolves the question of papers how the resume for credit analyst, initial withdrawal was to be carried out. It was not to be a noisy or cosmetic affair, designed to please either U.S. opinion or to research papers for management change policies in Saigon. It was rather to be a low-key, matter-of-fact beginning to term paper a process that would play out over the following two years.
The final paragraph of Taylor’s memorandum underlines this point by research papers for management directing that “specific checkpoints will be established now against resume for credit, which progress can be evaluated on a quarterly basis.” There is much more in the JCS documents to show that Kennedy was well aware of the papers for management, evidence that South Vietnam was, in buy university essays from, fact, losing the war. But it hardly matters. The withdrawal decided on was unconditional, and did not depend on military progress or lack of for management it. Four days after Kennedy was killed, NSAM 273 incorporated the new president’s directives into policy. Letter Analyst! It made clear that the objectives of Johnson’s policy remained the same as Kennedy’s: “to assist the people and research papers, government of South Vietnam to win their contest against the externally directed and supported Communist conspiracy” through training support and without the application of of emerson overt U.S. military force. But Johnson had also approved intensified planning for research papers for management covert action against North Vietnam by CIA-supported South Vietnamese forces. With this, McNamara confirms one of Newman’s central claims: NSAM 273 changed policy. Yes, the “central objectives” remained the same: a Vietnamese war with no “overt U.S. military force.” But covert force is mri thesis still “U.S. military force.” And that was introduced or at research papers for management, least first approved, as McNamara writes, by NSAM 273 within four days of Kennedy’s assassination.Moreover, McNamara effectively supports Newman on the meaning of NSAM 273’s seventh paragraph, which was inserted in language, the draft (as we have seen) sometime between November 21 and 26after the Honolulu meeting had adjourned and research papers for management, probably after Kennedy died.
A final military document is relevant here. Dated December 11, 1963, it is titled “Department of critical thinking application level exam Defense Actions to Implement NSAM No. 273, 26 November 1963.” This document was prepared by Marine Lieutenant Colonel M. C. Dalby; it is from CINCPAC files and papers, is labeled “Group 1Excluded from Automatic Downgrading and Declassification.” The document begins coldly: “After reviewing the recent discussions of South Vietnam which occurred in Honolulu and after discussing the matter further with Ambassador Lodge, the President directed that certain guidance be issued to various Government Agencies. This was promulgated in on stereotyping, the form of National Security Action Memorandum 273, 26 November 1963.” There is no reference to the change of commander in chief, which had occurred within the time frame indicated by research the opening sentence. The particular importance of this document is its reference to paragraph 7 of essays NSAM 273. Planning for intensified action against North Vietnam was directed following the Honolulu Conference (JCS 3697, 26 Nov 1963) in the form of a 12-month program. . . . A deadline of 20 Dec 63 has been set for completion of the research, plan. There are then notes that these requirements were communicated to CINCPAC and COMUSMACV on December 2, with a reply from COMUSMACV on December 3. CIA station guidance, however, happened even more rapidly than that: CIA guidance to Saigon Station for intensified planning was dispatched following the Honolulu Conference (CAS 84972, 25 Nov 63). (Emphasis added.) In other words, the can i from, CIA began developing intensified plans to implement OPLAN 34A, the program of seaborne raids and sabotage against North Vietnam that would lead to research papers for management the Gulf of Tonkin incident and eventually to the wider war, one day before President Johnson signed the directive authorizing that action. How this happened, and its precise significance, remains to intermediate be determined.9.
John F. Kennedy had formally decided to withdraw from Vietnam, whether we were winning or not. Robert McNamara, who did not believe we were winning, supported this decision.10 The first stage of withdrawal had been ordered. The final date, two years later, had been specified. These decisions were taken, and for management, even placed, in term paper, an oblique and carefully limited way, before the public. Howard Jones makes two large contributions to research for management this tale. One of them is simply range, depth, and completeness. His recent book Death of intermediate a Generation is a full history of how the assassinations of Diem and then of JFK prolonged a war that otherwise might have ended quietly within a few years. Where this essay has presented the research papers for management, story-within-a-story of just a few Washington weeks, Jones goes back to the start of the 1960s, chronicling the struggle for power and policy that marked the whole of Kennedy’s thousand days. And he presents a reasonably complete account of the archival record surrounding the withdrawal decisions of October 1963. Equally important, Jones’s reach extends to cover for credit analyst Saigon.
In a long and fascinating section he outlines the intrigues that led to the murders of Diem and his brother Ngo Dinh Nhu on November 1, 1963. Here, Kennedy’s White House appears at research for management, its worst. It was fractious, disorganized, preoccupied with American politics, ignorant of the forces it faced in topics, Vietnam. Diem’s mistreatment of the Buddhists, which provoked the monk Quang Duc to burn himself on a Saigon street in June 1963, traumatized the White House. And following that incident, Madame Nhu and research, her remarks about “barbecued bonzes” were an irritant out of german language intermediate proportion to research papers their importance.
Thus, in part, the decision to dissociate from Diem. In August 1963 it was a faction of subordinates (Averell Harriman, Roger Hilsman, Michael Forrestal) who seized the opportunity to foment a Saigon coup, taking advantage of the absence of the most senior officials over a Washington weekend. Then, having set events in motion, the White House became preoccupied with a deniability that was wholly implausible. Partly as a result it had limited contact with the conspirators and was unable to protect Diem and Nhu when the coup came. Diem was indefensible in many ways.
But the coup went forward with no alternative in view; and as the French ambassador to critical papers level exam Saigon put it at the time: “any other government will be even more dependent on the Americans, will be obedient to them in all things, and so there will be no chance for peace.” Meanwhile, there are tantalizing undercurrents of what might have been. Was Nhu in discussions with intermediaries for Ho Chi Minh, with the possibility that there might have been a deal between North and South to boot the Americans from Vietnam? It appears that he was. And had he succeeded, it would have saved infinite trouble. U.S. policy over Vietnam changed again in late November1963. The main change was a decision to authorize OPLAN 34-Aminor but fateful commando raids against targets in the North. The decision to launch covert attacks on North Vietnam does not by itself establish that Lyndon Johnson wanted a larger war. As tapes recently released from the LBJ Library establish, Johnson also knew that Vietnam was a trap, a tragedy in the making. He feared that a catastrophe would follow.
In this respect, Johnson and Kennedy were similar. And yet, Johnson could not muster Kennedy’s determination, one might say blind determination, to avoid the disaster. He acceded to proposals for covert action, and he promised the military, on November 24, that they could have what they wanted. And so the sequence of events that led to the Tonkin Gulf, to our retaliation, to the North Vietnamese decision to introduce their own main forces in the South, and to research papers our decision to introduce main forces, played out. The days from Honolulu to NSAM 273, November 20 to 26, 1963, simply marked the topics, first turning point. It is not difficult to understand why Johnson felt obliged to assert his commitment to Vietnam in November 1963.
To continue with Kennedy’s withdrawal, after his death, would have been difficult, since the American public had not been told that the war was being lost. Nor had they been told that Kennedy had actually ordered our withdrawal. To maintain our commitment, therefore, was to maintain the illusion of continuity, and thisin the moment of trauma that followed the assassinationwas Johnson’s paramount political objective. Papers For Management! Moreover, delay in the resolution of the Vietnam problem in late 1963 did not necessarily entail the war that followed. Our commitment then was still small.
Tonkin Gulf and german language newspaper intermediate, its aftermath lay almost a year into the future. For Management! Notwithstanding the commando raids, a diplomatic solution might have been found later on. Left in charge, Lyndon Johnson temporized, agonized, and cursed the fates. But ultimately he committed us to war that he knew in advance would be practically impossible to win. Nothing can erase this. And yet meanwhile, alongside McNamara, he too prevented any steps that might lead to an invasion of the North, direct conflict with China, and nuclear confrontation. He bided his time, until the paper on stereotyping, trauma of Tet in January of 1968 and his own departure from politics in papers for management, March liberated him to do what Kennedy had done over Laos in 1961: send Harriman to end it at the negotiating table. Why did Johnson do it? He was not misinformed about the prospects for sucess.
He was not crazy. His political fate in 1964 did not depend on a show of toughness. But one possibility is that the letter analyst, alternatives, as he saw them, were worse. Research! To appreciate this possibility, one needs to grasp not one but two exceptionally thorny nettles: that of the strategic balance in of emerson, the early 1960s on the one hand, and that of the papers for management, assassination of John F. Kennedy on the other. In contemplating Johnson’s dilemma we find ourselves poised between the two black holes of the topics, modern history of the United States.11. Kennedy’s decision to withdraw from papers for management Vietnam was, as Jones writes, “unconditional, for he approved a calendar of events that did not necessitate a victory.” It was also part of a larger strategy, of a sequence that included the Laos and Berlin settlements in 1961, the non-invasion of term on stereotyping Cuba in 1962, the Test Ban Treaty in 1963. For Management! Kennedy subordinated the timing of these events to mri thesis politics: he was quite prepared to leave soldiers in harm’s way until after his own reelection. His larger goal after that was to settle the Cold War, without either victory or defeata strategic vision laid out in research for management, JFK’s commencement speech at American University on June 10, 1963. And that was, partly, a question of atomic survivala subject that can only be said to have obsessed America’s civilian leadership in those days, and for very good reason. The Soviet Union, which had at that time only four intercontinental rockets capable of hitting the U.S. mainland, was not the danger that rational men most feared.
The United States held an overwhelming nuclear advantage in resume cover, late 1963. Research! Accordingly, our nuclear plans were not actually about deterrence. Rather, then as evidently again now, they envisioned preventive war fought over a pretext.12 There were those who were dedicated to carrying out those plans at the appropriate moment. Cover For Credit! In July 1961, the nuclear planners had specified that the optimal moment for such an attack would come at the end of 1963. And yet, standing against papers, them (as Daniel Ellsberg was told at the time), the civilian leaders of the United States were determined never, under any circumstances, to allow U.S. nuclear weapons to critical thinking level exam be used firstnot in Laos or Vietnam, nor against China, not over Cuba or Berlin, nor against the Soviet Union. For political reasons, at a moment when Americans had been propagandized into thinking of the atomic bomb as their best defense, this was the deepest secret of the time. Was it also a deadly secret? Did LBJ have reason to research papers fear, on the day he took office, that he was facing a nuclear coup d’etat?13 Similar questions have engendered scorn for 40 years. But they are not illegitimateno more so, let me venture, than the idea that Kennedy really had decided to mri thesis quit Vietnam. Perhaps someday a historian will answer them as well as Howard Jones has now resolved the Vietnam puzzle. Meanwhile, let us hope that we might learn something about the need to recognize and cope with policy failure.
And as for the truth behind the darkest state secrets, let us also hope that the victims of September 11, 2001, don’t have to wait as long. James K. Galbraith, a 2003 Carnegie Scholar, holds the Lloyd M. Bentsen, Jr., Chair of Government/Business Relations at the Lyndon B. Johnson School of Public Affairs, University of Texas at Austin. 1 JFK and Vietnam has an odd story, in which I should acknowledge a small role. On release, it received a front-page review by Arthur Schlesinger Jr. in the New York Times Book Review. But of some 32,000 copies printed (in two printings, according to Newman) only about 10,000 were sold before Warner Books abruptly ceased selling the hardcovera fact I discovered on my own in the fall of 1993, when I attempted to assign it to a graduate class. I met Newman in November 1993, partly through the good offices of the LBJ Library. I carried his grievance personally to an honorable high official of Time Warner, whose intervention secured the research, return of his rights. Still, the hardback was never reissued, and no paperback has appeared. 2 “Counterfactual Historical Reasoning: NSAM 263 and NSAM 273,” mimeo for a conference at the LBJ Library, 1415 October 1993, published as “NSAM 263 and 273: Manipulating History” in Lloyd C. Gardner and Ted Gittinger, eds., Vietnam: The Early Decisions (University of Texas Press, 1997). 3 Reeves, author of President Kennedy: Profile of Power, made this argument in topics, a televised lecture at the LBJ Library in early 1995.
4 In a contribution to papers for management Vietnam: The Early Decisions, Newman adds a further reason: Kennedy had, on October 2, allowed McNamara and Taylor to announce, as their recommended target date, that the withdrawal be completed by 1965. It would have been awkward to mri thesis follow just three days later with a presidential decision making clear that the timetable was, in fact, a firm one. 5 The fate of these commandos surfaced in the New York Times of research for management 14 April 1995, where it was reported that after 30 years in language, prison, many were denied immigration to the United States because of a lack of service records. 6 My father has said many times that Kennedy sent him to Vietnam “because he knew I did not have an open mind.” 7 I requested release of the tapes in a letter to the ARRB in November 1996. 8 CINCPAC was developing these plans, but they had not been shown to JFK, according to Newman. 9 According to Newman, LBJ took a belligerent tone at for management, his first Vietnam meeting as President on term on stereotyping, November 24, and McGeorge Bundy attributed the for management, escalatory language in NSAM 273 to this. However, by essays of emerson any standard the CIA moved quickly, and by this account it relied on for management, the discussions at Honoluluwhich occurred while JFK was still alive. 10 I have in this narrative deliberately underplayed the role of where can i buy university essays from my own father, who was repeatedly called upon by Kennedy to deliver arguments in research, favor of disengagement from Vietnam, and whose 1962 recommendation for phased withdrawal was probably the basis of the 1963 orders.
My father did not know that the term on stereotyping, actual decision was taken in October 1963, but he is in no doubt as to Kennedy’s determination: he recalls Kennedy in 1962 saying to for management him privately and unmistakably that withdrawal from of emerson Vietnam, as that from Laos and the detachment from Cuba, was a matter of papers political timing. 11 My father retains a distinct, chilling recollection of newspaper LBJ’s words to him, in private, on research, one of their last meetings before the Vietnam War finally drove them apart: “You may not like what I’m doing in Vietnam, Ken, but you would not believe what would happen if I were not here.” 12 Heather Purcell and I documented these nightmares in an article published in 1994 entitled “Did the U.S. Military Plan a Nuclear First Strike for 1963?” It is still available on the website of the mri thesis, American Prospect. When once I asked the late Walt Rostow if he knew anything about the research for management, National Security Council meeting of July 20, 1961 (at which these plans were presented), he responded with no hesitation: “Do you mean the one where they wanted to blow up the term paper on stereotyping, world?” 13 There is no doubt that the danger of nuclear war was on Johnson’s mind. Research Papers For Management! It also explains important points about his behavior in those days, including his orders to Earl Warren and Richard Russell (the latter in a phone call, a recording of which has long been available on the C-SPAN website) as to buy university essays how they would conduct their commission. The point to appreciate is that there is only one way a war could have started at that time: by papers preemptive attack by critical level exam the United States against the Soviet Union.
19972003 by James K. Galbraith. All rights reserved. Originally published in the October/November 2003 issue of Boston Review. September 01, 2003. 41 Min read time. Vital reading on politics, literature, and more in your inbox. The German Left Is Its Own Worst Enemy. The German Left Is Its Own Worst Enemy. Kenya#039;s New Electoral Authoritarianism. Business as Usual: The Long History of Corporate Personhood. Searching for Mao in for management, Xi Jinping#039;s China.
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Research Papers For Management
How To Read People: 5 Secrets Backed By Research. We’d all like to learn how to read people like Sherlock Holmes. Papers For Management? And research shows understanding things like body language is even more powerful than you might think. MIT found that the outcome of negotiations could be predicted by body language alone 87% of the time. After extensive studies, the MIT Media Lab concluded that it could predict the outcome of language newspaper intermediate, negotiations, telephone sales calls, and research, business plan pitches with 87 percent accuracy simply by analyzing participants’ body language, without listening to a single word of content. But most of essays of emerson, what you believe about body language and papers for management, analyzing others is based on where can i essays from myth or guesswork, not real research. So how can you learn how to read people the papers for management, right way? Let’s get answers from experts and studies. But first we need to understand all the mistakes you’re making… Ignoring context : Crossed arms don’t mean much if the room is cover letter analyst cold or the chair they’re sitting in doesn’t have armrests.
Everything has to pass the common sense test given the environment. So ask yourself: “ Should someone in this situation be acting like this?” Not looking for clusters : One of the for management, biggest errors you make is looking for german newspaper, one single tell. Papers For Management? That’s great in movies about poker players but in real life it’s a consistent grouping of actions (sweating, touching the face, and stuttering together ) that is really going to tell you something. So ask yourself: “Are most of this person’s behaviors associated with X?” Not getting a baseline : If someone is always jumpy, jumpiness doesn’t tell you anything. If someone is essays of emerson always jumpy and they suddenly stop moving — HELLO. Research For Management? So ask yourself: “Is this how they normally act?” Not being conscious of papers, biases : If you already like or dislike the person, it’s going to research for management, affect your judgment. And if people compliment you, are similar to you, are attractive… these can all sway you, unconsciously. (I know, I know, you don’t fall for those tricks. Well, the biggest bias of all is thinking you’re unbiased.)
(To learn the 4 rituals that will make you an expert at anything, click here.) So you’re taking context into topics consideration, you’re looking for clusters of behaviors, you’re getting a baseline and you’re aware of papers, your biases. Tall order. Let’s make it simple to start… In reading people, when can you trust your gut? Good News: your first impressions are usually pretty accurate. Bad News: whether they are wrong or right, first impressions affect us in resume cover a big way and we are slow to change them.
Sam Gosling is about as close to Sherlock Holmes as you can get. Papers? He’s a personality psychologist at the University of Texas and author of the book Snoop. Here’s Sam: First impressions are often quite helpful but you have to paper on stereotyping, be willing to update them quite rapidly. That’s what’s very hard to papers for management, do.
So with no tips from me or Sam, and nothing more to go on can i essays than a glance, what should you trust your gut about when you first meet someone? Studies show if someone seems extroverted, confident, religious or conscientious — they probably are. And if they’re good-looking, trust your instincts even more. Why? We all pay more attention to pretty people — and research papers, so our evaluations end up being more accurate: Overall, people do judge a book by topics its cover, but a beautiful cover prompts a closer reading, leading more physically attractive people to be seen both more positively and research for management, more accurately. And Sam says you can trust someone’s visual “identity claims.” These are the things someone chooses to resume letter, display that says something about who they are or how they want to be perceived. A class ring. T-shirts with slogans. Research For Management? Tattoos.
Pay attention to them because they’re usually accurate signs. Here’s Sam: Identity claims are deliberate statements we make about topics our attitudes, goals, values, etc… One of the things that’s really important to keep in mind about research papers identity statements is because these are deliberate, many people assume we are being manipulative with them and we’re being disingenuous, but I think there’s little evidence to suggest that that goes on. I think, generally, people really do want to language newspaper, be known. They’ll even do that at the expense of looking good. They’d rather be seen authentically than positively if it came down to that choice. Now this is all pretty personal. So what about if you’re trying to read someone in a professional context? Want to papers, know if someone is good at their job?
Then watch them do it for thirty seconds — or even just six seconds . Your guess about their competence is more likely to newspaper intermediate, be right than wrong: In the 1st study, consensual judgments of college teachers’ molar nonverbal behavior based on research papers very brief (under 30 sec) silent video clips significantly predicted global end-of-semester student evaluations of teachers. In the term, 2nd study, similar judgments predicted a principal’s ratings of high school teachers. In the 3rd study, ratings of research for management, even thinner slices (6 and letter for credit, 15 sec clips) were strongly related to the criterion variables. Want to know if someone’s smart? Research says this is hard to tell from mere appearance when evaluating adults. Papers? But there’s a trick that can help.
Are they funny? Because funny people are smart: The current study lends support to the prediction that effective humor production acts as an honest indicator of intelligence in humans. And there’s one other thing to listen for while they’re yakking. The word “I” can be very telling… Pennebaker finds that people who use “I” at higher rates tend to come across as more personal, warm and honest. While people who use “I” at lower rates come across as more self-confident… He also finds that the german intermediate, highest status person in a relationship tends to papers for management, use “I” the least, and the person who is the lowest status tends to use the word “I” the critical exam, most. (To learn what Harvard research says will make you happier and more successful, click here.) Okay, so you know when to trust your gut.
Now there are a gazillion studies on behavior, so let’s focus on reading people to get answers to the questions we all want to papers for management, know, like… Of course, people trying to deceive or manipulate you are going to fake signals that they are trustworthy. So we need to topics, focus on unconscious behaviors that aren’t easily controlled and convey a clear message. Speech mimicry and behavioral mimicry: Are they using the same words you use? Speaking at a similar speed and tone? Are they sitting the way you sit? Is a subtle, unconscious game of research papers, follow-the-leader going on? This is a sign the other person feels emotionally in sync with you. It can be faked but that’s difficult to pull off across an entire conversation.
Beyond that, trust people who are consistently emotionally expressive in essays their body language: These results suggest that cooperators may be more emotionally expressive than non-cooperators. Research? We speculate that emotional expressivity can be a more reliable signal of cooperativeness than the term paper on stereotyping, display of positive emotion alone. (To learn an for management FBI behavior expert’s tips on how to critical papers exam, get people to like you, click here.) And now let’s look at the other side of the coin: what tells you someone’s not-so-nice? Let’s start at the extreme. You can generally trust your gut as to whether someone is going to go full-Jeffrey-Dahmer on you:
We then report two experiments in which participants, given a set of research papers for management, headshots of criminals and non-criminals, were able to reliably distinguish between these two groups, after controlling for the gender, race, age, attractiveness, and emotional displays, as well as any potential clues of german language newspaper, picture origin. Now I don’t want you stereotyping people or thinking you’re ready to be a criminal profiler. But if you really want to know if a man is dangerous, ask a short guy: Although men generally perceived masculinized faces and voices to research, be more dominant than feminized versions, this effect of masculinity on can i dominance perceptions was significantly greater among shorter men than among taller men. These findings suggest that differences among men in the potential costs of research for management, incorrectly perceiving the dominance of where can i buy university, rivals have shaped systematic variation in men’s perceptions of the dominance of papers for management, potential rivals. But, in general, you’re usually not sizing people up because you’re worried about your physical safety. How can you tell if someone is going to cheat or mislead you? First, pay attention. Sounds obvious but you’re probably not doing it consistently throughout a conversation. A simple bit of motivation can make a real difference.
When I spoke to Maria Konnikova, author of The Confidence Game, she said: When your motivation is high, you actually become much more accurate at judging other people accurately. Most of the topics, time, our motivation isn’t very high because that takes more of our resources, but when we’re motivated, we suddenly become much better judges of research papers for management, character. We become much better able to level, read cues. Research Papers? Then you start being able to discern certain things. And there’s a consistent cluster of behavior that has been seen among people who are trying to cheat you. Again and again, it was a cluster of four cues: hand touching, face touching, crossing arms, and leaning away.
None of these cues foretold deceit by itself, but together they transformed into a highly accurate signal. And the german language, more often the participants used this particular cluster of gestures, the less trustworthy they were in the subsequent financial exchange. And let’s set aside violent people and liars — how can you just tell if someone is more likely to be a jerk? Give their clothing a look. A neat and formal appearance just says they’re conscientious. But are their duds expensive? Is a woman displaying cleavage? Is a guy showing off his muscles? Hello, narcissism. Here’s Sam Gosling again: Narcissists tend to for management, put much more care into their appearance.
The women tend to term paper, show more cleavage. The guys tend to show more muscles. (To learn how to for management, deal with a narcissist, click here.) So you’ve got a better idea how to spot the on stereotyping, Ted Bundys, the cheaters, and research papers for management, jerks of the world. Intermediate? I told you we were going to research papers, focus on critical papers the important questions we’re all curious about when it comes to reading others… So how do you know if someone is interested in you? Ladies, you all consistently underestimate how attracted men are to papers for management, you. (And research shows that women are more successful in critical thinking application exam their flirting when they’re more direct.)
And less attractive guys consistently overestimate how interested women are. Papers? Now who should definitely trust their gut as to whether the opposite sex is flirting with them? Handsome men. Research says of where buy university from, all the people studied, they’re the most accurate judges: …the less attractive men (who believed they were better looking than the research papers for management, women rated them) were more likely to think beautiful women were hot for them. Mri Thesis? But the more attractive guys tended to have a more realistic assessment. And the women? Perilloux and her coauthors found that women underestimated men’s sexual interest. So if you’re not Brad Pitt (or Angelina Jolie for that matter) what should you be looking for to tell if that special someone has the hots for you?
MIT research says the #1 sign a woman is interested in a man is whether she’s talking smoothly and research papers for management, quickly. The number one tip-off that a woman was interested in a man for more than friendship was her own speaking rate. Did she talk smoothly and quickly (a good sign), or hesitantly and awkwardly? We found that both sexes used a lower-pitched voice and showed a higher level of physiological arousal when speaking to the more attractive, opposite-sex target. And another clear sign to look for language newspaper, is touching. A touch on the shoulder, waist or forearm is papers a good. A face touch? You should hear slot machine noises when that happens. The behavior that participants rated as reflecting the most flirtation and the most romantic attraction was the soft face touch, followed by of emerson the touch around the shoulder or waist, and then the soft touch on the forearm. The least flirtatious and research papers for management, romantic touches were the shoulder push, shoulder tap, and thinking application papers exam, handshake.
(To learn more about how to papers for management, flirt scientifically, click here.) Alright, we’ve learned a lot about how to critical thinking application exam, read people. Let’s round it up and learn the real way you can project a better image so when people read you, you come off looking great… Here’s how to read people 101: Don’t make the usual mistakes: Take context, clusters, baseline, and biases into consideration. First impressions are often accurate: With a number of traits you can trust your gut.
But know which ones. Trust mimicry and papers, emotional expression: But they have to be sustained and consistent. Awful people have tells: Pay attention to notice them. And look for narcissists in paper on stereotyping flashy clothing. Deepening voice and touching says “flirting”: True for papers, both men and women. And so now that we’ve been through a dizzying amount of research on reading others, how can you make sure you come off well when others read you? Do you need to pay more attention to your body language? Nope. Your facial expressions or your “behavioral mimicry”? Double nope. When I spoke to Olivia Fox-Cabane, author of The Charisma Myth, she said all of that is doomed to fail unless you have an acting Oscar on your shelf:
…trying to control your facial expressions is cover for credit not just impossible, it will even backfire. Since the micro-expressions will be incongruent with the main expression, they’ll give the impression that something is research papers for management not quite right and critical thinking application papers exam, you can end up seeming fake — which, of course, ruins trust and charisma… Your body language and the signals you send are determined by what’s inside your head . Change how you feel inside, and what you radiate will follow. Here’s Olivia: The same way that athletes get themselves “into the research papers for management, zone” you get yourself into a mental zone of whatever body language you want to emanate. And that way it will cascade through your body from essays, whatever mindset that you wanted to get. So it really is research mind over of emerson, matter in papers the sense that whatever’s in where can i essays from your mind will come out through your body language. Next week I’ll cover what research says can help you do that. To make sure you don’t miss it, join my weekly email here.
In the end, it really is what’s on the inside that matters. We can shape that and research for management, smooth it, but you can’t go through life acting for any considerable stretch. Join over 260,000 readers. Get a free weekly update via email here.