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Information technology in tourism industry thesis

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De Little Women de Louisa May Alcott aux Quatre filles du docteur March Les traductions francaises d’un roman de formation au feminin. Universite Concordia, Montreal, Canada. Un article de la revue Meta. Tous droits reserves © Les Presses de l'Universite de Montreal, 2003. Salons. Information In Tourism? Un eclairage sur la societe par les revues savantes. L’article examine sept traductions et adaptations francaises de Little Women de Louisa May Alcott (1868), actuellement accessibles aux jeunes lectrices en librairie ou en bibliotheque.

Afin d’observer les representations de la feminite qui y sont donnees a lire au lectorat francophone, l’analyse se centre sur le personnage de Jo, l’heroine anti-conformiste qui n’hesite pas a exprimer ouvertement son refus des limitations imposees a la condition feminine. Design Topics? Il apparait que la description physique et psychologique, les prises de parole et les actes du personnage ont subi, dans la plupart des versions francaises, des distorsions qui font de la Jo March francaise un personnage bien edulcore. This article examines seven French translations and information technology in tourism thesis, adaptations of research papers, Little Women by information technology thesis, Louisa May Alcott (1868), nowadays available to before, young female readers in technology, bookstores or in topics, libraries. Technology Industry? In order to essays, study the technology industry thesis, representations of topics, womanhood for industry, the French-speaking readership, the on cohabitation before marriage, analysis focuses on information in tourism industry thesis the character of custom, Jo, the technology, anti-conformist heroine who openly rejects the purchase, constraints imposed on information technology industry thesis women. Custom Resume Writing? It seems that most of the information technology in tourism thesis, French versions depict a Jo March who has been significantly expurgated; her physical and abstract quantitative, psychological descriptions are distorted, as are her speech and in tourism industry, actions.

Peu de romans destines a un jeune public feminin, tous pays et langues d’origine confondus, ont connu en France et dans les pays francophones un succes aussi unanime et aussi durable que Little Women (1868) de Louisa May Alcott. Essay? Depuis les premieres traductions, qui suivirent de peu la publication (1872, 1880), le livre n’a cesse d’etre diffuse sous divers titres et en diverses traductions et adaptations. Information In Tourism Thesis? Comme ce roman de formation suit l’evolution de quatre soeurs dont les ages s’echelonnent de seize a onze ans au debut du recit, il nous a semble pertinent de centrer cette etude sur les representations de la feminite, particulierement a travers le personnage de Jo, alter ego de l’auteure et heroine implicite, qui entretient des relations conflictuelles avec les modeles de conduite autorises. Etant donne l’abondance des traductions francaises, il a fallu definir des criteres de selection. Custom Resume Writing? Il eut ete interessant d’adopter une approche diachronique et d’observer l’evolution des representations de la feminite dans des demarches traductives s’echelonnant sur plus d’un siecle. Industry? Dans le cadre restreint de cet article, nous avons opte pour l’approche synchronique et le point de vue de la reception. Quantitative Paper? Il nous a en effet paru justifie d’examiner la gamme de traductions francaises actuellement accessibles aux jeunes lectrices, soit en librairie, soit en bibliotheque. Technology In Tourism? Apres une enquete effectuee a partir de catalogues electroniques [1], sept traductions ont ete retenues pour une analyse contrastive : cinq actuellement disponibles dans les inventaires des libraires et deux autres plus anciennes, mais encore en circulation dans le reseau des bibliotheques. Apres avoir situe Little Women dans l’histoire de la litterature pour la jeunesse et de la litterature americaine, nous dresserons un panorama des traductions et adaptations successives du roman.

Quant a l’analyse contrastive proprement dite des traductions retenues, nous l’avons ordonnee autour de ce que Philippe Hamon appelle les « systemes normatifs-evaluatifs », mis en place par le regard, la parole, les actes et gestes, les sensations et le sens esthetique, le savoir-vivre enfin des personnages (Hamon 1984 : 103-217). Design Topics? Comme l’anticonformisme est le trait principal du personnage de Jo dans le texte source, une grille d’analyse prenant en charge la question des valeurs et des hierarchies dans le texte litteraire s’imposait. Information Technology In Tourism Industry? L’hypothese etait que le personnage de garcon manque, du tomboy , the marriage, man of the in tourism industry thesis, family, avec ses refus et ses ambitions, susciterait des resistances chez les traducteurs pour la jeunesse. Purchase? L’analyse a bel et bien corrobore que c’etait Jo qui inspirait les plus grands ecarts dans les traductions, qu’il s’agisse du portrait physique et psychologique, ou des actions et des prises de parole les plus importantes. Nee en 1832 en Pennsylvanie, Louisa est elevee dans une famille et un milieu peu ordinaires. Information In Tourism Industry? Son pere Bronson Alcott, philosophe largement autodidacte et pedagogue admirateur de Pestalozzi, cotoie Henry David Thoreau et Ralph Waldo Emerson. Research? Durant l’enfance de l’auteure, il se lance dans diverses experiences communautaires.

Utopie fourieriste, philosophie transcendentaliste, ecole experimentale, l’enfant grandit dans ce climat intellectuel que l’on a pu appeler American Renaissance (Reynolds 1988). In Tourism? Ce cercle cosmopolite est en contact avec les grands mouvements socio-politiques europeens. Design? La mere, Abigail May, issue de l’ establishment bostonien et d’une famille influente de l’Eglise unitarienne, admire la militante feministe Margaret Fuller ( Woman in information in tourism, the Nineteenth Century , 1845). Sanger Research? Selon la formule de Madeleine Stern, feminism was in information in tourism industry, Louisa May Alcott’s genes (Stern 1996 : vii). Margaret Sanger Papers? En outre, les Alcott sont des abolitionnistes convaincus. Technology Industry? Avec l’aide de ses filles, Abigail May Alcott organise des ateliers d’alphabetisation pour les femmes noires (Barton 1996 : 152). Quantitative Paper? Pour Louisa May Alcott, que sa famille a placee au centre des grands debats de l’epoque, le feminisme est la reforme des reformes. Technology Industry? La critique feministe americaine l’a bien compris, qui considere Little Women comme l’un des premiers Female Bildungsromane americains (Langland 1983). Des sa parution en 1868, Little Women, or Meg, Jo, Beth, and essay, Amy a ete un best-seller. Information Technology In Tourism? Ecrit en deux mois, il est d’inspiration nettement autobiographique.

L’entree du journal de Louisa pour mai 1868 nous apprend que le roman est entrepris a la demande de son editeur, qui lui demande une girls’ story . Purchase Apa Writing? Ainsi Louisa May Alcott, qui avoue ne pas beaucoup connaitre et aimer les filles, a part ses soeurs, fait-elle partie du club select des ecrivains pour la jeunesse mandates par leurs editeurs [2] ! Little Women , qui assure instantanement la notoriete a la romanciere, n’est pas sa premiere oeuvre publiee. Information Technology? En 1854 etait paru un recueil de contes, Flower Fables , ecrit a l’origine pour la fille d’Emerson. Quantitative Research? Mais il faut surtout mentionner les recits abolitionnistes et feministes qui precedent Little Women de quelques annees, parmi lesquels Moods (1864) et Hospital Sketches (1863) qui transpose son experience d’infirmiere a Washington pendant la Guerre de Secession. Information In Tourism Industry Thesis? Devant le succes de Little Women , l’editeur lui demande une suite : Good Wives parait en 1869. Aeronautical Papers? Ce n’est que dans les annees 1880 que les deux volumes seront reunis. Thesis? Au fil des annees, Louisa May Alcott poursuit l’histoire de la famille March : Little Men (1871), Jo’s Boys (1886). Essays On Cohabitation Before? Pour la jeunesse, elle signe aussi Eight cousins (1875), Rose in technology thesis, Bloom (1876) [3] et Under the papers, Lilacs (1877), et elle assume, entre ses deux voyages en Europe, la direction du journal Merry’s Museum (1868-1869).

Bien que l’oeuvre de Louisa May Alcott comporte plusieurs tendances : romans gothiques, fictions engagees sur le racisme et le feminisme, c’est comme auteure de Little Women qu’elle s’est acquis une renommee internationale : The Children’s Friend donne lieu de nombreuses conferences et elle n’hesite pas a rencontrer son lectorat [4]. Technology In Tourism Thesis? De son vivant, un million d’exemplaires du roman sont vendus. Margaret Sanger Papers? Little Women et sa suite Good Wives figurent dans toutes les collections de chefs-d’oeuvre internationaux pour la jeunesse. In Tourism? Les auteurs de la recente Louisa May Alcott Encyclopedia soulignent le caractere resolument novateur du roman, particulierement en ce qui a trait aux representations feminines (Eiselein et Phillips 2001 : 181) et, globalement, sa valeur litteraire [5]. Essays On Cohabitation Marriage? En terminant, il peut etre interessant de rappeler que dans l’edition de 1948 des Children’s Illustrated Classics , une note de l’editeur fait pourtant allusion aux resistances que l’engagement nordiste de cette fiction pourrait susciter chez certains lecteurs. In Tourism Thesis? Laissant entendre que le livre n’est plus lu par les jeunes generations, ce paratexte encourage les lecteurs eventuels a aller au-dela de la lecon morale explicite [6]. Design Topics? A en juger par le nombre d’editions et de traductions recentes des Quatre filles du docteur March , il est clair que ce dernier aspect – le traumatisme de la guerre civile etant peu probable – n’a pas diminue l’interet des lectrices francophones ! Traductions et adaptations francaises. Ce qui frappe des qu’on aborde la reception de Little Women en milieu francophone, c’est le nombre et la constance des reeditions. In Tourism Industry? Une consultation du catalogue de la Bibliotheque nationale de France donne une idee precise des traductions et adaptations « nouvelles », des « adaptations abregees », des « abreges » proposes par les divers editeurs. Purchase? Pour les annees 1990, pas moins de neuf de ces versions plus ou moins nouvelles ont ete deposees [7].

Puisque l’objectif n’est pas ici de faire l’histoire de la traduction francaise de Little Women , un survol des traductions successives suffira a eclairer notre propos. La premiere traduction remonte a 1872, soit quatre ans apres la publication de l’original ; publiee a Lausanne, elle est l’oeuvre de Madame Remy, connue egalement pour un manuel de francais [8]. Technology? La traductrice dit avoir « traduit librement de l’anglais avec l’autorisation de l’auteur ». Purchase Apa Writing Assignments? Puis, en 1880, Pierre-Jules Hetzel, celebre editeur francais pour la jeunesse, publie sous le pseudonyme de P.-J. Technology Industry? Stahl, Les Quatre filles du docteur Marsch [sic] d’apres L.M. Margaret Sanger Research? Alcott , pour son « Magasin d’education et de recreation », fonde en 1864. Information Technology In Tourism Industry? P.-J. Resume Writing? Stahl a joue un role decisif dans la transmission de Little Women en domaine francophone. In Tourism Industry? Cette adaptation, plus ou moins retouchee par les editeurs et des adaptateurs anonymes, continue d’avoir cours et nous l’avons incluse dans le choix de traductions. Custom Resume Writing Quiz? Elle a impose au recit des distorsions qui n’ont pas ete rectifiees depuis. Ainsi c’est Stahl qui impose cette fiction du « docteur » March, en faisant jouer au pere dans l’armee nordiste, non pas le role d’un aumonier, mais celui d’un medecin [9]. Information Technology In Tourism Industry? Version plus acceptable dans une France republicaine ou s’affrontent les tenants du catholicisme ultramontain et de la laicite, peu receptive dans son ensemble au mariage des guides spirituels.

L’editeur estimait en effet que le livre « tel qu’il etait, n’aurait pu […] reussir en France [10] ». Design? Si les traductions recentes ont corrige l’erreur dans le texte, le titre demeure inchange, et les lectrices francophones continuent de croire que le pere des soeurs March est docteur en medecine. Information Technology In Tourism Industry Thesis? Son absence dans le premier tome permet d’ailleurs de ne pas se poser trop de questions. Apa Writing? La seconde modification substantielle apportee au texte est le gommage systematique de l’intertexte bunyanien. Technology Industry? Chez Stahl, la Morale familiere remplace le Pilgrim’s Progress . Essays On Cohabitation? Or, ce texte cle de la spiritualite protestante (1678), evoque des le premier chapitre, imprime son mouvement au texte d’Alcott ; plusieurs titres de chapitres, completement modifies dans la traduction, y renvoient explicitement : « Playing Pilgrims » (ch. Information Technology? 1), « Burdens » (ch. On Cohabitation? 4), « Jo meets Apollyon » (ch. Thesis? 8), etc. Sanger Research Papers? Enfin l’adaptateur, qui de son propre aveu ne connaissait pas le second tome, a imagine un denouement, dont s’inspirent quelques adaptations actuelles.

La maison Hachette, qui racheta le fonds Hetzel, a publie l’adaptation de Stahl, sensiblement remaniee, dans les collections « Ideal-Bibliotheque » et « Bibliotheque Verte » [11]. In Tourism Industry? L’editeur belge Casterman propose une reecriture anonyme basee sur cette adaptation, qui est dans l’ensemble plus fidele au texte de 1880 que ladite traduction de Stahl publiee par Hachette, comme nous le verrons plus loin. Research? On voit donc que les textes issus de l’adaptation de la fin du xix e siecle connaissent encore une importante diffusion. Dans les annees 1930 et 1940, Little Women a ete traduit et edite pour un public adulte [12]. Technology? Au cours des annees 1980, apparaissent, dans des collections destinees a la jeunesse, des textes plus conformes a l’ethique moderne de la traduction, qui ne se permettent pas de coupures ou d’ajouts. Aeronautical? Nous en incluons deux dans le corpus, celle de Paulette Vielhomme-Callais pour Gallimard (Folio-Junior et Gallimard Jeunesse) et celle de Maud Godoc pour Castor-Poche/Flammarion. Quelques mots suffiront a presenter les six adaptations et traductions selectionnees pour l’analyse comparative, que nous classons par ordre chronologique : l’adaptation de P.-J. Industry Thesis? Stahl reeditee, avec diverses modifications, par Hachette dans « Ideal-Bibliotheque » ; la traduction anonyme [13] des editions G.P., collection « Rouge et Or » – ces deux ouvrages sont epuises mais connaissent encore une grande diffusion dans les bibliotheques scolaires et municipales qui n’ont pas toujours fait l’acquisition de nouvelles editions – ; l’adaptation anonyme de Casterman, basee sur celle de P.-J.

Stahl ; la traduction de Paulette Vielhomme-Callais pour Gallimard ; la traduction de Maud Godoc pour Castor-Poche ; enfin il nous a paru interessant d’inclure une adaptation recente, celle de Remi Simon pour Nathan. Writing? Nous avons egalement examine celle de Chantal Baligand pour les editions Hemma, mais nous n’avons pu l’utiliser dans une comparaison systematique, etant donne l’importance des coupures apportees au texte (14 chapitres sur 23). Information Technology Industry Thesis? Dans les passages traduits, on abstract research paper peut observer une dependance a l’egard du texte de P.-J. Information In Tourism Industry? Stahl. Margaret Sanger Research Papers? Nous nous y referons ponctuellement. Avant d’examiner les traductions sous l’angle particulier que nous avons choisi, quelques commentaires plus generaux s’imposent. Industry Thesis? La traduction parue chez G.P. Essay Topics? s’avere dans l’ensemble la plus litterale ; elle n’a pas craint de restituer les references a Bunyan en les explicitant [14]. Technology In Tourism Thesis? Le texte de Casterman, base sur P.-J. Design Topics? Stahl, comme le prouvent de nombreuses formulations identiques, notamment dans les titres de chapitres, comporte des omissions, mais conserve aussi de son modele certains ajouts de l’adaptateur qui ont ete supprimes chez Hachette.

Ainsi, au chapitre 3, quand Meg et Jo se rendent au bal, il precise que Madame March n’a pu les accompagner, car elle etait souffrante et qu’elle a demande a une amie de veiller sur ses filles [15]. Industry Thesis? Quand Jo rend visite a Laurie dans sa chambre, elle glose que le jeune voisin a ete malade et qu’il n’est qu’un « petit garcon » [16]. Before Marriage? A la fin du chapitre 12, se trouve une longue addition sur les vertus de l’Amerique et l’independance des jeunes filles americaines [17]. Information In Tourism Thesis? Par ailleurs, cette traduction a une nette tendance a la miniaturisation, designant regulierement les protagonistes comme des « petites » filles et des « petits » garcons [18]. Purchase? Dans l’ensemble, elle ennoblit le caractere de Jo, comme nous le verrons plus loin. Industry Thesis? L’adaptation de Remy Simon pour Nathan se permet des ajouts sur le ton et les gestes dans les phrases introductives du discours rapporte, modifiant imperceptiblement le caractere des personnages. Purchase? Ainsi, dans le chapitre 1, Meg regarde « d’un oeil critique » sa vieille robe « encore tres mettable », Jo siffle « d’un air meprisant ». Information In Tourism Thesis? Amy est qualifiee d’« insupportable ». Research? Quant a la servante, elle est regulierement appelee la « vieille » Hannah. Information Technology Industry Thesis? Enfin les traductions de Paulette Vielhomme-Callais pour Gallimard et de Maud Godoc pour Castor-Poche se sont attachees a rendre integralement et fidelement l’oeuvre d’Alcott. Purchase? Nous examinerons leurs choix de traduction sur la question de la feminite. Une jeune feministe americaine en francais.

Comme il a ete dit plus haut, la « poetique du normatif » proposee par Philippe Hamon a servi de cadre theorique a notre analyse des textes source et cible. Information Technology Industry? Nous avons concentre l’analyse des traductions sur les passages ou le personnage de Jo se definissait ou etait vue par les autres, sur ceux ou elle se distinguait par les actions ou l’expression des gouts et de la volonte : les « nexus normatifs » (Hamon 1984 : 220). Design Essay Topics? Les travaux en linguistique de l’enonciation sur les marques de subjectivite nous ont aussi guides. Technology In Tourism Thesis? Nous avons particulierement examine la traduction – et souvent la non-traduction – des phrases introductives du discours rapporte, porteuses d’indication sur les sentiments, la gestuelle, la voix des personnages. Paper? Dans les portraits et les descriptions, une attention particuliere a ete accordee aux termes evaluatifs, particulierement les adjectifs (Kerbrat-Orecchioni 1980 : 83-100), dont la traduction donne lieu a des choix tres revelateurs. Technology In Tourism? Pour la brievete, nous refererons desormais aux traductions et traductions par les abreviations : H (Hachette), GP (G.P.), C (Casterman), N (Nathan), FJ (Folio Junior) et CP (Castor Poche), initiales de leurs editeurs respectifs, et a l’original par l’abreviation LW, toutes suivies du numero de page.

L’abreviation S est occasionnellement utilisee pour envoyer a l’adaptation de Stahl de 1880. Abstract Research? Des tableaux presentes en annexe permettent de rendre l’analyse contrastive plus concise. a) Portrait physique et psychologique. Le premier chapitre comporte un portrait des quatre soeurs ; il est frappant de constater que c’est le portrait de Jo qui a ete le plus diversement traduit. Technology Thesis? Les divergences apparaissent notamment dans la traduction des nombreux adjectifs qui permettent aux lectrices de se representer l’heroine (tableau 1). Aeronautical? Les traducteurs francais tentent souvent d’attenuer ce qui dans l’apparence physique de l’heroine peut leur sembler outre ou disgracieux, en se conformant a leurs propres canons de la beaute feminine. Information In Tourism Industry Thesis? Ainsi le comical nose devient « retrousse » ou « petit », la bouche ( decided ) est « bien dessinee ». Essays On Cohabitation Marriage? Ces retouches, particulierement evidentes dans les versions derivees de l’adaptation de 1880, se retrouvent encore dans les plus recentes. In Tourism? Ainsi, dans CP (1995), Jo est « tres elancee ». Apa Writing Assignments? L’hesitation entre « mince » et « maigre » est egalement revelatrice.

Les ajouts de l’adaptation de N (1988) soulignent la difference de Jo en la comparant a son ainee Meg, explicitant ainsi ce qui n’est qu’esquisse dans le texte source [19] : la seconde est « nerveuse » et ses mains sont « quelque peu masculines ». Technology Industry Thesis? Il est a noter que les portraits sont omis dans l’adaptation de C. A propos de l’adjectif tall , le premier evaluatif applique a Jo, il convient de remarquer que le meme adjectif est utilise par Alcott pour decrire Madame March lors de sa premiere apparition ( a tall, motherly lady , LW : 9). Apa Writing? Dans la suite du texte (chapitre 8), on technology thesis apprendra que cette ressemblance physique se double d’une ressemblance morale, car Jo a herite du temperament impetueux de sa mere. Writing Quiz? Or, cet indice important a ete gomme dans quatre des six traductions analysees. Generalement decrits dans les phrases introductives du discours rapporte, le ton de voix, les expressions et la gestuelle de Jo ont ete dans une proportion importante effaces des traductions. Information? Alcott fait un grand usage de ces segments textuels, que Gerald Prince appelle de facon eclairante le « discours attributif » (Prince 1978), caracterisant la voix, l’etat d’esprit du personnage, sa relation aux autres. Margaret Sanger? La repetition de certains adverbes ou syntagmes prepositionnels en association avec la prise de parole de tel ou tel personnage a pour effet de fixer ses traits de caractere.

Ainsi, dans le cas de Meg : kindly, soothingly, graciously, with her sweet voice, mais aussi : with a complaining tone , petulantly , bitterly . Industry Thesis? Les traductions effacent souvent ces termes au profit d’incises neutres, ou les modifient. Writing Quiz? Ces amputations et distorsions s’appliquent a l’ensemble des protagonistes, et on information in tourism thesis ne peut dire que le personnage de Jo ait subi un traitement particulier a cet egard. Resume Writing? Il n’en demeure pas moins que les modalisateurs de la parole de Jo – briskly , impetuously, sharply, impatiently, fiercely – n’apparaissent que sporadiquement dans les textes francais. Au chapitre 2, dans la scene du matin de Noel ou les quatre soeurs decouvrent un exemplaire du Pilgrim’s Progress , l’instance narratoriale decrit Jo lisant, with the technology in tourism industry thesis, quiet expression so seldom seen on purchase apa writing assignments her restless face (LW : 16). In Tourism Industry? Seule la traduction de FJ (27) a traduit restless (visage mobile). Resume Quiz? La gestuelle du « garcon de la famille » ou du « fils Jo » est egalement l’un des points nevralgiques de la traduction francaise. In Tourism Thesis? Exemple caracteristique, dans le chapitre premier ou Amy reproche a sa soeur d’utiliser des termes argotiques, la phrase introductive du discours rapporte se lit : observed Amy, with a reproving look at essays, the long figure stretched on in tourism the rug (LW : 3).

Dans les quatre traductions qui ont conserve le dernier segment, on purchase hesite entre l’elegant : une « longue silhouette etendue sur le tapis » (C : 9), la pointe de reproche : « longue silhouette etendue de tout son long… » (CP : 7), « grand corps etendu… » (GP : 11) et la nette reprobation, endossant ainsi le point de vue d’Amy : « a son ainee, toujours vautree sur le tapis » (FJ : 12) Un peu plus haut, l’une des paroles de Jo est suivie de l’indication : cried Jo, examining the information, heels of apa writing assignments, her shoes in technology thesis, a gentlemanly manner (LW : 2). Design Essay Topics? Seules les deux traductions recentes l’ont prise en compte et rendue par « male assurance » (FJ :10) et « aplomb tout masculin » (CP : 6). Thesis? Les exemples pourraient etre multiplies. Aeronautical Research? En voici un dernier des plus probants : au chapitre 3, l’heroine rajuste sa toilette avant de faire son entree a son premier bal. Information Industry? La phrase introductive d’Alcott se lit : returned Jo, giving her collar a twitch, and essay topics, her head a hasty brush (LW : 34). Thesis? Les traductions attenuent generalement la brusquerie des gestes de Jo, que l’on doit imaginer, « mettant sa collerette droite et donnant un dernier regard a sa coiffure » (H : 23-24 et C : 26), « donnant un coup de pouce a son col et un coup de brosse a ses cheveux » (GP : 36).

Seules les deux traductions recentes restituent cet aspect de la presence physique de l’heroine : « tirant sur son col d’un coup sec et rectifiant sa coiffure a la va-vite » (CP : 39), « qui passa vaguement la main sur son chignon et rajusta son col d’une pichenette » (FJ : 48). Le chapitre 20 comporte des notations decrivant precisement la gestuelle de Jo, qui ont ete soit gommees soit attenuees dans la traduction, comme le montrent les deux exemples qui suivent. Design? L’adolescente a une conversation orageuse avec sa mere a propos des amours naissantes de son ainee. Information Technology In Tourism Industry Thesis? Dans le feu de la conversation, elle joue avec ses cheveux, objet semiotique particulierement important dans le texte ; en effet, le chapitre 1 les decrit comme sa seule beaute ( her one beauty , LW : 5) et elle vient de les sacrifier pour apporter une aide financiere a son pere malade (chapitre 15). On Cohabitation Marriage? L’indignation de Jo s’exprime dans la facon dont elle tire sur ses cheveux : And Jo pulled her hair again with a wrathful tweak (LW : 261).

La colere, trait constitutif du caractere de Jo, comme nous le verrons plus loin, a ete attenuee dans certaines traductions (tableau 2). Information Technology Industry Thesis? Une seulement (GP) traduit : « avec fureur », deux preferent le desespoir (H et C), deux l’adverbe « rageusement », dont le contenu semantique est nettement affaibli dans les emplois modernes et souvent associe aux manifestations enfantines. Resume Writing? Le geste meme de tirer est corrige dans certaines traductions : « se passer la main dans les cheveux » (H et C), « fourrager » (GP) et le diminutif « tortiller » (CP). Information Thesis? Chez H et C, la gestuelle est transposee a l’expression du visage. Design Topics? Plus loin, le mouvement de Jo se levant est compare a celui d’un pantin ( said Jo, unfolding herself, like an information technology, animated puzzle , LW : 264) ; l’image percue comme peu feminine est gommee dans les versions francaises a l’exception des deux traductions recentes. Le registre linguistique de Jo est stigmatise des le premier chapitre.

Au fil du texte, sa mere et ses soeurs citent ses ecarts de langage, entre guillemets. Quantitative? Bien que la liberte verbale soit, avec le temperament impetueux, l’un des traits constitutifs de l’etiquette du personnage [20], les traductions ont souvent renonce a traduire son juron prefere, Christopher Colombus [21] ! (chapitres 12 et 17). Information Technology In Tourism Industry Thesis? C le tempere d’un « Priez pour nous ! » (75). Aeronautical Papers? Curieusement, les traductions recentes proposent des equivalents : « Nom d’un petit bonhomme » (FJ : 203), « Sacre nom d’un pipe » (CP : 172), « Bon sang de bonsoir » (N : 94), traductions d’un ciblisme tres hexagonal sur la justesse desquelles on industry pourrait s’interroger. Pour le portrait psychologique de Jo, nous nous attarderons sur les traductions du chapitre 8 : Jo meets Apollyon, ou l’adolescente fait l’experience des consequences desastreuses de sa colere. Custom Resume Writing? Il faut rappeler que Little Women consacre un chapitre particulier a chacune des soeurs March et que celui qui est consacre a Jo est particulierement dramatique. Information In Tourism Industry? Or, ce chapitre donne lieu a des ecarts notables dans les traductions.

Rappelons brievement les evenements. Abstract Research? Amy, furieuse que ses ainees ne l’aient pas emmenee au theatre et particulierement ulceree par les rebuffades de Jo, brule le cahier ou celle-ci avait soigneusement recopie des contes de fee qu’elle esperait voir publies un jour. Information Technology Industry? Le lendemain, Jo, toujours en colere, omet de mettre Amy en garde contre les dangers de la glace trop mince et sa jeune soeur manque de se noyer. Design Essay Topics? Le chapitre est d’autant plus central que la perte du cahier touche aux ambitions les plus profondes de l’heroine. In Tourism? Il peut se diviser en trois sequences : la colere de Jo en decouvrant la calamite ; l’accident d’Amy ; la conversation au cours de laquelle Madame March avoue a sa seconde fille ses propres faiblesses.

Le titre du chapitre, reference au Pilgrim’s Progress , a ete sensiblement modifie dans trois des traductions : « Double choc » (H et C), « Ou Jo se met en colere » (N) ou explicite « Jo rencontre le demon Apollyon » (GP et FJ). Aeronautical Research? Le traducteur de G.P. Information Technology Industry? fait oeuvre didactique en glosant her bosom enemy (LW : 96) : « son ennemi interieur, son Apollyon, comme le vieux Bunyan l’appelle dans le voyage du Pelerin » (GP : 75). Le caractere, les reactions, les motivations de Jo apparaissent sensiblement differentes selon les traductions. Research Papers? La troisieme partie varie beaucoup en importance. In Tourism Industry? Completement effacee chez C et N, elle est condensee tres allusivement dans la formule : « tout le monde a ses faiblesses » chez GP. Purchase Assignments? H resume, mais conserve l’essentiel des confidences de la mere en deux paragraphes. Information In Tourism Industry? Seuls F et C donnent le texte au complet, y compris l’aveu de madame March au sujet des sacrifices qu’elle a du consentir pour sa patrie.

L’existence d’un modele maternel fort, voire heroique – personnage dont la charge positive se communique a l’heroine qui lui ressemble – est donc gommee dans la plupart des textes francais actuellement offerts aux jeunes lectrices. Dans la premiere partie, la violente reaction de Jo a l’egard d’Amy est diversement traduite, et souvent temperee, comme le montrent les extraits compares (tableau 3). Apa Writing Assignments? Il faut cependant noter qu’il y a moins de suppressions, dans ce chapitre dont les traducteurs ont reconnu l’importance, que dans le reste du roman. Information In Tourism Industry? Le tableau permet par ailleurs d’observer la parente de H et de C derives de Stahl. Margaret Research? La traduction de H est la plus edulcoree : Amy, secouee, perd la respiration et Jo s’en va « cacher » son chagrin. Technology In Tourism Industry? Le geste final, le parting box , semble poser probleme a certains traducteurs. Sanger Research? Supprime chez Hachette, il reapparait sous forme de « tape » dans le texte de Casterman. Information In Tourism? Remi Simon (N) a arrete le bras de Jo. Design Essay Topics? Ailleurs, on information technology industry parle de gifle, maitresse meme (GP) ou de taloche. Research? Curieusement, aucun des traducteurs et traductrices n’a juge utile de faire mention de l’oreille d’Amy.

On notera aussi qu’une seule traduction (FJ) mentionne la nature violente ( hot temper ) de l’heroine. Des traductions minimisent egalement la profondeur du desespoir de Jo, quand elle voit son oeuvre litteraire detruite. Information Technology In Tourism? Les ambitions personnelles du personnage sont nettement restreintes chez Hachette ou il s’agit de venir en aide a sa mere : « reve innocent ». Custom Resume Writing? Casterman rencherit avec la mention d’un journal pour bebes ! Plus loin dans le chapitre, quelques ajouts des traductions tendent a ennoblir le personnage de Jo. Information Technology In Tourism Industry? Dans l’adaptation de Stahl, Meg dit a Amy que Jo « est peut-etre la meilleure de nous toutes » (H : 62 ; C : 57). Purchase Apa Writing? Remi Simon ajoute qu’elle n’est pas rancuniere (N : 79).

La scene centrale de l’accident sur la riviere gelee et le role de Jo donnent egalement lieu a des distorsions (tableau 4). Information Thesis? Seules les deux traductions recentes osent plonger dans les mauvais sentiments de l’heroine. Abstract Quantitative? Les paroles du petit demon sont diversement interpretees. Technology In Tourism Industry? La traduction de Casterman deculpabilise l’heroine. Purchase Apa Writing Assignments? Remi Simon (N) evacue l’idee du demon, et traduit dans un registre familier sa voix qu’il prete a l’heroine. Information In Tourism? Dans l’ensemble, les traductions en disent plus sur les bons sentiments de Jo que l’original. Research? Strange feeling est traduit par « inquietude » par G.P. Technology In Tourism Thesis? et Nathan. Research Papers? Casterman precise : « inquiete sans vouloir le paraitre » et ajoute « son bon coeur l’emportant », « se retourna vivement pour avertir Amy ». Information Thesis? Ces extraits suffiront a montrer que la traduction resiste dans l’ensemble a exprimer la violence des sentiments de Jo.

Viennent completer le portrait de l’adolescente anti-conformiste les appreciations de son entourage : ses parents, ses soeurs, l’acariatre tante March, les voisins amis – M. Margaret Papers? Laurence et son petit-fils Laurie ; ces jugements sont vehicules par la voix narratoriale ou par les personnages eux-memes. Information Industry? Au chapitre 2, les soeurs qui vont porter leur dejeuner de Noel a une famille dans la misere sont comparees a des anges par l’heureuse beneficiaire. Aeronautical Research Papers? La voix narratoriale commente que le compliment fait particulierement plaisir a Jo qui s’est fait traiter de diable depuis sa naissance. Information Thesis? Voila un point ou les traductions different. Design Topics? Deux des traductions (GP, N) ont supprime cette remarque, deux autres (H : 18, C : 19) l’adoucissent : « mais surtout Jo qui avait merite maintes fois (souvent recu C) dans son enfance le sobriquet de “petit diable” ». Information In Tourism? Jo a su s’attirer l’affection de tante March qui l’a engagee comme dame de compagnie : Something in sanger papers, her comical face and information industry thesis, blunt manners struck the design essay, old lady’s fancy (LW : 47). Information Industry? L’adjectif se revele encore une fois l’un des points nevralgiques de la traduction du personnage de Jo : le syntagme comical face derange autant que le comical nose du chapitre 1. Custom Quiz? Meme dans les traductions recentes, il est adouci par les hypocoristiques « frimousse » (FJ) ou « minois » (CP). Information Industry? P.-J. Custom Resume Writing? Stahl (H) avait resume les deux caracteristiques par « originalite ». Technology Thesis? Remi Simon (N) a rendu comical face par « visage franc ». On Cohabitation Before? Le chapitre est supprime chez Casterman. In Tourism Industry? La traduction de G.P. Resume? est comme dans bien des cas la plus litterale (tableau 5).

Les manieres originales de Jo plaisent aussi a leur voisin Laurie des la premiere rencontre, manieres que les traductions ont hesite a qualifier : Jo’s gentlemanly demeanour (LW : 37) est omis par H et N, C (29) traduit « son air gentleman », les autres optent pour les manieres garconnieres (GP : 38, FJ : 53) ou l’attitude garconne (CP : 43). Industry? Enfin l’un des jugements les plus significatifs portes sur Jo est celui d’une jeune Anglaise visitant l’Amerique (chapitre 12). Essays Before Marriage? Le passage vaut d’etre examine en detail (tableau 6). Information Technology Industry Thesis? Il est curieux qu’aucune des traductions n’hesite a qualifier Jo de bizarre ou d’etrange par le truchement de la Britannique Miss Kate, mais que certaines hesitent a lui accorder de l’intelligence, la preferant « sympathique » (G.P.) ou instruite (C). Research Papers? Les exemples pourraient etre multiplies, mais nous esperons avoir montre que la caractere audacieux et extreme du personnage a ete estompe, et que l’energie extraordinaire de la queer girl ne passe pas toujours en traduction. L’expression de la volonte de Jo est un aspect que les traductions se revelent recalcitrantes a transmettre. Information In Tourism Thesis? Jo entend dire ce qu’elle pense ( good, strong words, LW : 45), deteste attendre, veut agir sur les choses et se soucie peu du qu’en-dira-t-on. Papers? Elle exprime son desir de liberte en toute occasion.

Bien que cela ait ete respecte, globalement, dans les traductions francaises, certains reves de Jo ont semble choquer. Information In Tourism Industry? Au chapitre 14, apres une bonne course avec son ami Laurie, qui lui vaut la reprobation de Meg, l’adolescente s’exclame : « I wish I was a horse ; then I could run for purchase, miles in in tourism industry, this splendid air, and papers, not lose my breath. Technology Thesis? It was capital, but see what a guy it’s made me… » (LW :198). Design? La tenue vestimentaire de Jo a en effet souffert de l’exercice, et elle a perdu toutes ses epingles a cheveux. Information Industry Thesis? L’allusion au cheval a ete gommee par GP et N. Aeronautical Papers? Chez H (105) et C (88), a la suite de Stahl, on in tourism thesis choisit un animal plus associe a la feminite : « Je voudrais etre une gazelle, ou un cheval… », « Ou meme un cheval », concede C, plus fidele au modele (S : XXXII, 61). Les ambitions litteraires de Jo, composante essentielle du systeme de valeurs mis en place par le roman, sont souvent minimisees dans les traductions.

Cette censure, dont nous avons deja touche un mot au sujet du chapitre 8, s’observe encore au chapitre 14. Apa Writing Assignments? Quand Jo avoue a Laurie qu’elle a soumis deux textes a un journal, le texte de H (102) et de C (85) suivant Stahl, se lit : « j’ai donne deux histoires de ma facon au directeur du Journal des Enfants ». Technology In Tourism Thesis? La fin du chapitre a subi d’importantes distorsions. Abstract? Quatre des traductions resument considerablement la fin de l’episode. Information Thesis? La reaction de fierte de Madame March devant le succes de sa fille est escamotee chez H et N qui arretent le chapitre aux exclamations de joie des soeurs. Quantitative? Le passage est supprime chez GP egalement. Information Technology Thesis? Chez C (91), Madame March « ne se montra pas mecontente », car « l’histoire etait gentille et convenable ; elle faisait honneur aux sentiments moraux de l’auteur » (S : XXXII, 61). Purchase Apa Writing Assignments? Les dernieres lignes du chapitre : « For to technology industry, be independent, and custom writing quiz, earn the technology in tourism, praise of custom resume writing quiz, those she loved, were the information, dearest wishes of essays before, her heart […] » (LW : 203), si importantes pour la comprehension globale du texte, n’apparaissent pas chez H, N, C. Information? Chez GP, la fierte devient de l’approbation.

Encore une fois, seules les deux traductions recentes traduisent « faire honneur » (FJ : 254) et « faire la fierte » (CP : 215). Custom Writing? Il est curieux aussi que la fin de la phrase precedente ou Jo explique qu’elle aimerait aider ses soeurs ( support myself and technology thesis, help the design, girls , LW : 203) est traduite par une generalisation – « aider les autres » (GP :131), « aider les miens » (CP : 215) – dans deux des traductions qui l’ont conservee. Technology Thesis? On peut faire un rapprochement avec les propos d’Amy au chapitre 15 : la plus jeune soeur, qui reve d’une carriere artistique, assure que dans dix ans Jo et elle auront fait la fortune de la famille. Custom Resume Writing Quiz? Cette phrase a ete supprimee dans quatre des traductions (H, GP, C, N). Technology Thesis? Il semble que, tout autant que la personnalite affirmee de Jo, ses ambitions professionnelles heurtent en traduction ! Le reve de liberte et d’independance s’exprime aussi quand Laurie, fache contre son grand-pere, propose a Jo de partir avec lui pour Washington (chapitre 21).

Dans le texte d’Alcott, l’heroine est fortement tentee par l’aventure et se bouche meme les oreilles pour ne pas entendre la suite des projets seduisants. Papers? GP occulte completement ce moment de reverie de Jo, qui propose tout de suite a Laurie de l’aider a se reconcilier avec son grand-pere. Information Technology Thesis? H (162) donne l’essentiel du passage et explicite meme she was tired of abstract quantitative research paper, care and information technology industry thesis, confinement (LW : 273) par « elle etait fatiguee de sa reclusion aupres de Beth ». Sanger Papers? Reprenant exactement son modele (S : XXXII, 283), C (163) rend compte de la tentation de Jo, mais moralise par des ajouts : « l’etourdie », « ses yeux tomberent heureusement [sur sa maison] », « ce fou de Laurie », etc. Thesis? N (167) resume en quatre lignes, concluant avec autorite : « son bon sens naturel reprit le dessus ». Topics? Encore une fois, les deux traductions recentes sont plus fideles. Les lamentations de Jo sur les restrictions imposees a la condition feminine (chapitres 1, 3, 5, 10, 16, 20, 21) ont ete traduites dans l’ensemble du texte sans trop d’amplification ni d’attenuation. Technology Thesis? Toutefois, dans cette scene du chapitre 21, les differences dans les traductions francaises signalent un point nevralgique. Quantitative Research? L’emphase de H et surtout de C contraste avec le detachement de N, alors que GP, comme on technology industry l’a vu, n’a pas juge bon de s’appesantir sur la tentation de Jo (tableau 7). Que devient l’heroine contestataire a la fin du roman ? Plusieurs reponses sont donnees selon les points de vue narratifs. Purchase Apa Writing Assignments? Jo elle-meme s’avoue tres mecontente et ne fait que se resigner aux fiancailles de Meg qui rejouissent toute la famille. Information In Tourism Industry Thesis? Elle sent qu’elle n’a aucune prise sur les cadres sociaux. Quiz? Le parcours de l’adolescente au cours de l’annee delimitee par les deux fetes de Noel est decrit par monsieur March a son retour.

Il dit ne plus reconnaitre le « fils Jo » qu’il a laisse l’annee precedente. In Tourism Industry? Les transformations qu’il note concernent la tenue vestimentaire, le langage, les gestes, la voix, le developpement du sentiment maternel. Design Topics? La traduction de la fin de son discours presente quelques ecarts (tableau 8). Our black sheep , la metaphore paternelle est on information in tourism thesis ne peut plus claire. Abstract Quantitative Research? L’image a ete supprimee dans trois traductions (H, C, N). Information Technology Industry Thesis? « Tete ronde » de H et C renvoie allusivement au sacrifice des cheveux au chapitre 15.

S’il enonce quelque regret, Monsieur March se felicite de voir sa fille entrer dans le rang. Paper? Les traductions francaises n’ont ni force la note, ni attenue la portee du discours. Technology Industry Thesis? L’adaptation de Remi Simon (N : 177) ajoute cependant, au nombre des progres de Jo : « et dont les recits sont publies dans les journaux ! ». Essay? Observons aussi la facon dont les traductions ont rendu les trois adjectifs strong, helpful, tender-hearted ( woman ) qu’il oppose a wild (girl) . In Tourism? Stahl (repris par C) avait opte pour quatre adjectifs « tendre, devouee, forte encore, mais civilisee ». Essays Before? H omet l’idee de force, tandis que l’adaptation de Simon la conserve. Information Industry? Dans les deux traductions recentes, proches l’une de l’autre, on abstract research paper a prefere le courage. Information Technology Industry? Il faut noter par ailleurs que la traduction « brebis galeuse » de FJ et CP est nettement plus pejorative que « mouton noir ». L’adaptation de P.-J.

Stahl, encore tres diffusee par l’intermediaire d’Hachette (Ideal-Bibliotheque et Bibliotheque verte) et de Casterman, prend beaucoup de libertes avec la fin de l’histoire [22]. Essays Marriage? H ajoute un chapitre « Perspectives d’avenir » qui a fonction d’epilogue. Information In Tourism Industry Thesis? La lectrice y apprend que Jo « renoncant a ecrire toutes les histoires qui lui passaient par la tete, s’adonna avec ardeur a la confection du trousseau de sa soeur » (H : 184) ! C (185-187) ajoute au dernier chapitre des details touchants, comme ce geste de Beth montant sur les genoux du fiance de Meg, Monsieur Brooke, pour lui demander a l’oreille s’il rendra sa soeur heureuse. Research? Monsieur March annonce que Meg se mariera dans deux ans, ce qui lui permettra de perfectionner son education : « Cela vous donnera aussi, Jo, l’occasion de completer la votre ». Information In Tourism Thesis? En quel sens ? peut-on se demander. Papers? Et l’adaptateur conclut : « Monsieur March avait appris a Jo tout ce qu’il y avait a apprendre ». Information Industry Thesis? Enfin, la resistance de Jo au mariage de sa soeur a completement disparu grace a ses « sages reflexions », comme elle l’explique a Laurie. Apa Writing? Mais P.-J. Thesis? Stahl allait plus loin encore en mariant Jo a Laurie. Design Essay? Fort curieusement, l’adaptation toute recente de Chantal Baligand reintroduit cette fin improbable et en totale contradiction avec le second tome. Technology Thesis? Elle reprend en effet, en l’abregeant, l’epilogue « Quatre ans apres » de 1880, ou le jeune dandy Laurie devenait fermier pour l’amour de Jo, avec la benediction de son grand-pere (Baligand 2002 : 153-156).

Ainsi, le denouement matrimonial – par une union que Louisa May Alcott s’etait toujours refuse a faire, en depit des prieres de ses lectrices [23] – est-il reactive a l’aube du xxi e siecle ! La seconde fille du « docteur » March, pale reflet de l’heroine d’Alcott ? Il serait a peine exagere de dire que des textes bien differents circulent actuellement sous le titre des Quatre filles du docteur March . Research? Sur les six adaptations et traductions que nous avons analysees en detail, quatre presentent des distorsions marquees par rapport a l’original. Information Technology Industry Thesis? L’amputation de chapitres (de trois a cinq), la suppression de passages complets ou d’elements significatifs des phrases y a pour pendant des gloses interpretatives, particulierement dans l’adaptation anonyme de Casterman, la plus fidele a Stahl. Custom Resume Writing? Nous avons observe en particulier de quelle facon le « discours attributif » des paroles des personnages etait souvent prive des notations sur le ton, l’expression ou le geste. Technology In Tourism Industry? En outre, nous avons eu la surprise de decouvrir que, parmi les versions les plus recemment editees, se trouvaient aussi bien des traductions soucieuses de transmettre le sens global de l’oeuvre que des adaptations qui la denaturaient. Cette etude des representations de la feminite en traduction francaise, que nous avons centree sur le personnage de Jo, l’adolescente eprise d’action et d’independance, fait apparaitre – meme dans les traductions recentes, sous certains aspects – une edulcoration de l’heroine. Custom Writing? Les traits physiques, la parole, les actions et les ambitions ont subi d’importantes retouches dans les versions francaises, qu’il s’agisse des adaptations, mais aussi des traductions. Technology Industry Thesis? Les soeurs March continuent de fasciner les lectrices francophones, car il reste toujours quelque chose des grandes oeuvres, meme dans les adaptations les plus desinvoltes ! Mais on abstract quantitative peut deplorer que le premier contact avec ces heroines americaines du xix e siecle soit bien souvent fausse et appauvri, selon l’edition qui leur sera accessible en bibliotheque ou en librairie.

[1] L’enquete, effectuee a partir des ressources disponibles a Montreal, nous parait toutefois representative de la diffusion actuelle des traductions francaises de Little Women . Industry? Il est a noter qu’aucune traduction n’a ete publiee a ce jour en Amerique francophone ; une telle entreprise presenterait de l’interet en raison des liens etroits entre la culture source et la culture cible. Abstract Paper? [2] « Mr. Technology In Tourism? N. Margaret Sanger Research? [Niles] wants a girls’story , and technology industry, I begin “Little Women”. Purchase Apa Writing? Marmee, Anna, and thesis, May all approve my plan. Papers? So I plod away, though I don’t enjoy this sort of in tourism industry thesis, thing. Design Essay? Never liked girls or knew many, except my sisters, but our queer plays and information, experiences may prove interesting, though I doubt it. Research? » (Myerson Shealy 1989 : 165-166) Sur les « vocations » d’ecrivains pour la jeunesse suscitees par les editeurs, voir par exemple Shavit 1986 : 33-57 ; Grenier 1993. Industry? [3] Pour juillet-aout 1876, elle note dans son journal : « Get an before marriage, idea and technology industry, start “Rose in apa writing assignments, Bloom”, though I hate sequels. Information? » (Myerson Shealy 1989 : 201) [4] L’entree de son journal pour les mois de juin a aout 1875 fait etat de 92 visiteurs : « Fame is an abstract quantitative research, expensive luxury. Industry? » (Myerson Shealy 1989 : 196) [5] « Particularly when studied within its critical and research papers, cultural contexts, Little Women emerges as a substantial, multidimensional literary text. Information Technology Industry? » (Eiselein et Phillips 2001 : 182) [6] « Indeed, one can guess that with the essay, passage of industry thesis, time, when a new domestic culture is research papers sufficiently established not to technology thesis, be embarrassed by custom writing quiz, reminders of the technology in tourism industry thesis, past, youngsters no less than adults will return to design essay, it with fresh enthusiasm as a charming and information technology thesis, authentic record of design topics, New England life in industry thesis, the Civil War period.. Essays Marriage? […] For the technology in tourism, contemporay reader, what is design essay topics perhaps most striking about information technology thesis Little Women , even more archaic that its social scene, is aeronautical its overt moral emphasis. In Tourism Industry? » (Alcott 1948 : couverture arriere) [7] Pour la derniere decennie, outre les traductions selectionnees pour cette etude, il faut mentionner : une « traduction nouvelle » d’Anne Joba avec dossier de Nicole Bon aux editions France loisirs, Paris, 1992 ; une « adaptation abregee » anonyme aux Editions du Tournesol, Limay, 1994 ; une traduction anonyme avec dossier de Francoise Gomez chez Pocket Junior, Paris, 1995 ; un abrege de Marie Page aux editions Lito, Champigny-sur-Marne, 1995 ; une traduction d’Anne Joba et France-Marie Watkins aux editions Hachette, 1995 ; une traduction anonyme aux Editions de la Fontaine au roy, « Arpege Junior », 1996 ; une adaptation d’Evelyne Hiest-Lallemand aux editions Lito, Champigny-sur-Marne, 1997 ; une adaptation de Chantal Baligand pour les editions Hemma, Chevron, 2002. Aeronautical Research? [8] Madame Remy (1872) : Petites femmes , Lausanne, H. Technology In Tourism Industry Thesis? Mignot, « traduit librement de l’anglais avec l’autorisation de l’auteur » ; Madame Remy (1878) : Dictees sur l’orthographe usuelle, les participes et les principales difficultes de la grammaire , Paris, A. Aeronautical Papers? Pigoreau (3 e edition). In Tourism Industry? [9] « I think it was so splendid in sanger, father to in tourism, go as a chaplain when he was too old to apa writing assignments, be drafted, and information technology in tourism thesis, not strong enough to purchase apa writing assignments, be a soldier, said Meg warmly. Information Technology In Tourism? » (Alcott 1948 : 10) Traduction de P.-J. On Cohabitation Before Marriage? Stahl : « Comme c’est beau a papa d’etre parti a l’armee comme medecin, puisqu’il a passe l’age et qu’il n’aurait plus la force d’etre soldat ! dit Meg avec enthousiasme. Information Technology Thesis? » (Stahl 1880 : XXXI, 30) [10] P.-J. Quantitative Research? Stahl ajoute au titre une note ou il s’explique sur son travail d’adaptation : « Cet ouvrage se compose de deux gros volumes dans le texte americain. Industry? Je n’ai connu que le premier, par une traduction litterale de M. Assignments? Lermont.

Le second, me dit-on, n’eut pas ete possible pour nous. Technology? Mais la donnee generale de l’oeuvre m’a paru si interessante que j’ai cru bon de faire pour elle le travail d’adaptation que j’avais fait precedemment pour les Patins d’argent . Research Papers? N’ayant eu a ma disposition que la premiere moitie de l’ouvrage, j’ai du, en bien des points, le modifier, l’arranger, pour le conduire a un denouement qui ne pouvait etre celui de l’auteur, puisque je l’ignorais. Information Thesis? Le livre, tel qu’il etait, n’aurait pu, je le crains, reussir en France ; mais la physionomie des caracteres des quatre soeurs meritait d’etre conservee dans ses lignes principales. Abstract Research? J’ai cru pouvoir en faire une lecture agreable et profitable pour nos jeunes lecteurs, et je ne regretterai pas mes efforts si j’y suis parvenu. Information Technology In Tourism Industry Thesis? » (Stahl 1880 : XXXI, 24) [11] Reeditions successives : 1923, 1934, 1952 pour la « Bibliotheque Verte » et 1950 pour « Ideal-Bibliotheque ». Marriage? [12] Petites Americaines , Mme Tissier de Mallerais, Hachette, 1935, Meilleurs romans etrangers ; Little Women . In Tourism Thesis? Les Quatre soeurs Marsch (sic) , Henriette Rouillard, Paris, Delagrave, 1936 ; Les Filles du Dr. On Cohabitation Before? March . Information Technology In Tourism Industry? Traduction nouvelle de Madame H. Research Papers? Giraud.

Paris, Pre-aux-Clercs, 1945. Technology In Tourism Industry? Les Quatre soeurs March , Germaine Lalande, Paris, Hazan, 1946. Custom? [13] La premiere edition, parue sous le titre Petites bonnes femmes, les quatre filles du docteur March , portait la mention « Adaptation de R. Technology Industry Thesis? et A. Resume Quiz? Prophetie » (Paris, G.P., « Bibliotheque Rouge et or », 34). Information In Tourism Industry Thesis? [14] Exemple, au chapitre 8, « mais son ennemi interieur, son Apollyon, comme le vieux Bunyan l’appelle dans le voyage du Pelerin, etait toujours pret a la faire s’irriter, et a vaincre sa resolution » (75) traduisant « but her bosom enemy was always ready to assignments, flame up and technology thesis, defeat her » (Alcott 1948 : 96). Purchase Assignments? [15] « Madame March, mal portante, ne pouvait les accompagner, mais elle les avait dans la journee recommandees aux soins d’une de ses amies, qu’elles devaient retrouver au bal. Technology Industry Thesis? » (Alcott 1993 : 25 ; Stahl 1880 : XXXI, 89) [16] Jo plaide aupres de sa mere : « – Il est malade, avait-elle dit, et tres change, chez les Gardiner, il m’avait presque fait l’effet d’un petit jeune monsieur, mais je vois bien que ce n’est encore qu’un petit garcon. Abstract Quantitative Research Paper? » (Alcott 1993 : 37 ; Stahl 1880 : XXXI, 153) [17] On y lit par exemple qu’« un Americain rougirait de penser a la dot de sa fiancee et [que], s’il lui arrivait de s’en inquieter et de s’en enquerir publiquement, il ne trouverait plus une fille honorable qui consentit a porter son nom ». Technology? Et la visiteuse britannique, admirative de tant de vertu, s’exclamerait : « Dieu veuille qu’en vieillissant l’Amerique ne perde pas ces sages principes. Abstract Quantitative Research? » (Alcott 1993 : 78-79 ; Stahl 1880 : XXXI, 377) [18] Monsieur Laurence appelle Laurie, age de seize ans, un « marmot » (Alcott 1993 : 168). Technology Industry? [19] Ajout de l’adaptateur : « Il y avait evidemment un air de ressemblance entre elle et Margaret, mais Jo etait tres differente d’aspect. Design Essay Topics? » (Alcott 1988b : 9) [20] Voir, au chapitre 4, sa reponse au reproche de Meg, « Don’t use such dreadful expressions » : « I like good, strong words that mean something. Industry? » (Alcott 1948 : 45) [21] Il faut en outre noter que le choix de cette exclamation n’est peut-etre pas fortuit, Louisa May Alcott etant nee un Colombus Day, le 29 novembre 1932 ! [22] Dans un paragraphe tenant lieu de postface, P.J. Paper? Stahl assure que « pas plus qu’un etre humain un livre ne voyage impunement » et qu’il faut se resigner a « sacrifier quelque chose aux gouts et aux moeurs » du pays qui adopte le livre (Stahl 1880 : XXXII, 344). Information In Tourism Industry? [23] Cf. Before Marriage? l’entree de son journal pour le 1 er novembre 1968 : « Girls write to technology thesis, ask who the custom quiz, little women marry, as if that was the information in tourism industry thesis, only end and essays on cohabitation, aim of industry thesis, a woman’s life. Essays On Cohabitation Marriage? I won’t marry Jo to in tourism industry, Laurie to abstract quantitative research paper, please any one. Technology In Tourism Industry? » (Myerson Shealy 1989 : 167) PhD, is quantitative paper professor in information technology in tourism industry, the Department of aeronautical research, French Studies, Concordia University, Montreal. Information Technology In Tourism Industry? Her main research interests include medieval studies and essay topics, children’s literature.

She has published numerous articles on in tourism industry thesis the novel and research papers, theater for information industry, the young, and apa writing assignments, is currently doing research on information technology industry the translation of assignments, children’s literature from information technology in tourism thesis English into quantitative paper, French. In Tourism Industry Thesis? She also has research projects, such as “Socio-aesthetics of the research, novel for information in tourism industry, young people in design, Quebec,” funded by industry, the Social Sciences and margaret research papers, Humanities Research Council of in tourism industry, Canada, and abstract quantitative research paper, “Children’s literature: a hermeneutic approach,” a team-project funded by information technology in tourism, the Fond de recherche sur la societe et la culture (Quebec). a) Textes ayant servi de base a l’analyse comparative. Narratology meets Translation Studies, or, The Voice of the aeronautical research papers, Translator in in tourism, Children’s Literature. Par Emer O’Sullivan. When Children’s Literature Transcends its Genre : Translating Alice in purchase apa writing assignments, Wonderland. Par Douglas Kibbee. When Modern Little Red Riding Hoods Cross Borders… or Don’t… Par Sandra Beckett.

The Translation of information in tourism, Culture-Bound Elements into abstract quantitative, Finnish in information industry, the Post-War Period.

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A Case study on the effect of information technology

Literary Analysis Essay: 1984 by George Orwell. “No one is free, even the technology in tourism thesis, birds are chained to the sky.” Bob Dylan said this probably not knowing its profound connection with George Orwell’s novel “1984”, but the purchase, as well could be in “1984”. Orwell depicts a totalitarian dystopian world where there is no freedom and citizens are being brainwashed constantly. Without any sense of individual fairness, people work for the party just like the in tourism industry thesis, gear wheels in a machine. In order to apa writing assignments, achieve this, the politicians in “1984” suppress people’s thinking and information technology eliminate their freedom by creating fear through propaganda, strict laws and incessant surveillances. In “1984”, lies, myths and purchase apa writing assignments false information controls the thinking of the citizens. The Party uses propaganda as the deadliest weapon of control. Propaganda increases the citizens’ morale and makes them think that what the party tells them to do is always right. There are mainly two types of propaganda, one changes truth, so-called doublethink, and technology industry thesis another creates fear. “Doublespeak” can be seen frequently in the world of sanger, 1984. The party’s big slogan “WAR IS PEACE.

FREEDOM IS SLAVERY. IGNORANCE IS STRENGTH.” (George Orwell, 4) is an good example. The idea of the slogan is to convince the citizens that what they want, is what they already have. Only war can make peace and harmony, so peace is no longer peace, it becomes war; anyone who is thesis slaved and topics wants freedom, he already has freedom; you can only strengthen yourself by not knowing things and being ignorant. The slogan changes truth and make the citizens believe that anything they want other than what their government wants can only make them unhappy, therefore, no one will consider rebellion because they believe the Party’s way of governing is the best and only way. “BIG BROTHER IS WATCHING YOU” (George Orwell, 3) is another core slogan. Information? It is nearly everywhere in the country and usually presented beneath the picture of essays on cohabitation marriage, Big Brother on a poster. Information Technology In Tourism Industry? It creates fear of obliterated privacy among citizens by alerting them that they are watched all the essays before, time. At the in tourism thesis, same time, the slogan also emphasizes Big Brother’s power to tells the citizens that they are indeed safe and protected.

The party uses this to make them believe that within the party nothing can go wrong, and on cohabitation marriage without Big Brother they will not have such lives. Everyone thinks he is safe in Oceania because of the Big Brother, but they are in fact in danger, all the time. The laws is another powerful tool for politicians in “1984” to information industry, limit citizens freedom. Custom Resume Writing Quiz? No parties, no dates, no love, no citizens walk on street after curfew, laws are everywhere in Oceania. Although these are strictly implemented, they cannot be called laws theoretically because they are not written in a system.

There is no written laws in 1984, there is technology industry no such thing as constitution or court, but that is exactly how fear is created, as citizens are always living in uncertainty. For example, “And yet it was a fact that if Syme grasped, even for three seconds, the purchase apa writing, nature of his, Winston#8217;s, secret opinions, he would betray him instantly to the Thought Police” (George Orwell, 30). There is no law that defines thoughtcrime However, Winston could be arrested any time for information thesis committing thoughtcrime by abstract quantitative, even a tiny facial twitch suggesting struggle, and technology in tourism industry his nervous system literally becomes his biggest enemy. Aeronautical Research Papers? Since there is no written law, the Party can change and adjust the strictness of laws freely as it wants, citizens never know if they have committed any crime, therefore no one is brave enough to defy the information in tourism industry, Party by any level, so fear is created. In addition, “Newspeak” is abstract quantitative research paper another law that is enforced to solidify the Party’s control. Humans use language to express their ideas, by eliminating words and replacing emotional words such as “excellent”, “wonderful” and “fantastic” by a single word “good” and information technology thesis its comparative degrees “plusgood” and “plusplusgood”. Lots of thoughts are actually limited because they cannot be formed linguistically in people’s mind. Citizens then cannot have their own critical thinking, and abstract research only do what they are told to do, they work just as computers, which surprisingly only have two words.* Surveillance is almost everywhere in Oceania, the mostly used way is television. There is a two-way screen, so-called television in every apartment and on technology street but they only papers, serve the technology in tourism, purpose of monitoring and propaganda, the Party gets simultaneous image of what its people are doing.

Even facial expression can be detected. Only senior members of the Inner Party have the power to turn them off for a short period. Children are also used to keep track of their parents, “The children, on the other hand, were systematically turned against their parents and taught to spy on them and report their deviations” (76). In fact, this was used by the communist party of China during Cultural revolution. With extremely mighty surveillance, citizens cannot express their ideas towards the negative side of the Party at resume quiz, all, and even thoughts are controlled because the Party can “reeducate” people for an incorrect facial expression.

By using language as a tool of control as well as the evidence for sentence, Orwell creates a world where language, a word or a sentence, can determine ones life. Through language plays the key role in the Party’s propaganda, strict laws and surveillance, total physical control as well as phycological manipulation is achieved. In Oceania, thoughts are suppressed until them vanish after generations. In this world, nothing is information technology thesis free, even a bird. *0 and 1, Binary numeral system. Essays On Cohabitation? Bibliography: Orwell, George.

1984 . San Diego: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1984. Print.

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How to Write an Evaluation Paper with Sample Essays. VirginiaLynne has been a University English instructor for over 20 years. She specializes in helping people write essays faster and information industry, easier. Evaluation essays are just like reviews. They judge whether something is good or bad, better or worse than something comparable. We are familiar with this sort of sanger research papers, writing if we've read book, movie, restaurant, or product reviews.

Evaluation papers can be serious or funny, earnest or sarcastic. In Tourism Industry Thesis. We all love to read the review of design essay topics, a really bad movie or restaurant experience. If you like to write satire, this can be a great opportunity to display your humor. In Tourism Thesis. Chances are you will have a great time, and so will your reader. Your topic can be something you've experienced once or many times. Keep in papers mind that you will write a better paper if you: Have a strong opinion—positive or negative—about this topic. Choose something you've experienced recently or that you can review again before you write your paper.

Know a lot about this type of experience. Use the industry thesis following list of categories to brainstorm ideas for margaret, what you might want to evaluate. Finding Criteria for Evaluation Essays. To turn your opinion into an evaluation, you will need to use criteria to judge your subject. What are criteria? Criteria are the parts of your topic that you will judge as good or bad, better or worse than something else.

How can you find criteria? Criteria are the parts of the technology industry thing you are evaluating. Here are some examples of papers, criteria: movie criteria : plot, actors, scenery, score, directing, chemistry between actors, humor. restaurant criteria: service, atmosphere, food quality, taste, value, price. website criteria: ease of navigation, design, visuals, writing, content. Finding the technology in tourism industry best criteria for your evaluation: In order to research papers do this kind of writing well, you need to information industry thesis determine what sort of a topic you are evaluating. If it is a movie, then what genre is it: horror, romance, drama, etc.? Then you need to decide what would make an excellent movie in that genre in your opinion. For example, you may decide that a good romantic comedy has to have three things: humor, surprising plot twists, and actors you enjoy getting to know. Next, you will evaluate the design topics movie you have chosen to see how well it matches those criteria, giving specific examples of how it does or does not fulfill your expectations of an excellent romantic comedy.

In order to technology thesis evaluate something, you need to abstract quantitative compare it with the technology in tourism thesis best example of writing quiz, that particular thing. So, to help you develop your topic into information, an essay, there are two important questions to on cohabitation ask when you are choosing your topic to evaluate: First question: What category of a thing is it? Second question: What is the ideal example of something in that category? What category is it? For the best evaluation essay, you want to compare your topic with things that are very similar, so try to narrow the information industry category as much as possible. To get there, you want to keep on asking the margaret sanger question, What kind is information industry thesis, it?

What category does McDonald's fit into? Answer to first question : Restaurant. (What kind of restaurant?) Fast food restaurant. (Better, but what kind of fast food?) Hamburger-serving fast food restaurant. Design Essay. (This is what you want!) So if you were evaluating McDonald's, you would want to compare it to other fast food restaurants that mostly serve hamburgers. Now the second question: What is the ideal example of something in that category? What makes that example better than others? Thinking about what you consider to be the in tourism industry thesis very best example of research papers, something in the category of what you are reviewing can help you decide what criteria you will use, and also what judgement you can make.

For example, here is a list of information in tourism, criteria my students have come up with for an ideal burger fast food restaurant: looks clean serves food fast makes it easy to order has great fries has options on the menu offers large drinks with free refills serves juicy burgers with lots of grease doesn't cost a lot of money. No two people will come up with exactly the purchase same list, but most restaurant reviews look at the following criteria: Answer to second question: A great fast food burger joint offers great service, atmosphere, and food at a fair cost. Now you know what your paper is going to be about how close McDonald's comes to this ideal. Is This an Effective Advertisement? Using the list of criteria above, we can make a very fast outline for an essay about an imaginary fast food hamburger restaurant called Bob's Burgers: Thesis Statement : While you may have to information industry wait a while to get your meal at Bob's Burgers, that is because everyone finds the margaret sanger research papers meal is worth the wait; Bob's Burgers offers not only great service, but a fun atmosphere for in tourism industry, eating with friends or family, terrific food, and a good value for the price. Topic sentence for paragraph 1: Service : Bobs Burgers offers great service that makes you feel at home. Food served quickly Easy to order Friendly Not pushy They get the order correct. Topic sentence for paragraph 2: Atmosphere : Walking into research paper, Bob's, you know you will enjoy eating there.

Looks clean Attractive colors Interesting pictures or other decorations Comfortable tables and chairs. Topic sentence for paragraph 3: Food: Most importantly, Bob's burgers are the best in town. Juicy burgers with lots of grease Many choices for toppings, including grilled onions, mushrooms, and peppers Small or large burgers Have great fries One downside: No options for those who don't like burgers. Topic sentence for information technology industry, paragraph 4: Value : While Bob's doesn't have the cheapest meals, they do offer a good value for the price. Quality ingredients Burgers and fries fill you up Toppings on burgers are free Large drinks with free refills. Using this quick outline, most of you could probably write your own essay on Bob's or another fast food hamburger joint pretty easily. Comparison/Contrast: Evaluate your subject by comparing it to design essay topics one of the best of that genre (use something everyone would know to save time).

You will not do an extended comparison, but just use the technology industry thesis comparison as a lead-off into abstract quantitative, your own judgment. Expectations Unfulfilled: This is especially easy to do for information technology in tourism thesis, this essay type. Use the intro to describe what you were anticipating before seeing the subject, then describe how the research papers subject was either better or worse than you expected. Frame : Use a description of the subject to frame the essay. That way you get right into the action.

Then break off half-way through to keep your reader in suspense. Give your evaluation and information industry thesis, then conclude with the end of your frame. Define Genre and Compare: In this essay, you would start out by describing the typical expectations of whatever subject you have (ex: rock album, romantic movie, baseball game, jazz club). Research. After describing the “typical,” you will then tell how your subject either exemplifies the genre or deviates from the norm. Probably this type of organization is information technology thesis, best used for a satire or for a subject that deliberately tries to break out abstract quantitative of the normal expectations of that genre. Analysis by Criteria: In this type of information in tourism thesis, paper, you introduce the abstract research paper subject, tell why you are evaluating it, what the competition is, and how you gathered your data. Information Technology Industry Thesis. Then you order your criteria chronologically, spatially, or in order of sanger, importance.

Chronological Order : You might use this for all or part of technology in tourism, your paper. It means telling what happened in aeronautical research papers the order it happened. Technology In Tourism. This is particularly useful for a performance or restaurant review. Causal Analysis: This measures the effect on the audience. How does this subject cause a certain effect? Analysis Focused on the Visual: This organization plan works well for analyzing works of art and research, pictures. The analysis focuses on composition, arrangement, focus, foreground and background, symbols, cultural references, and key features of information technology thesis, that visual genre. It also notices the tools of the artist: color, shape, texture, pattern, and media. This paper analyzes these details in order to explain how they are related to the cultural and historical context of the work of art and then tells how they relate to before marriage the overall meaning of the piece. Be sure to information thesis evaluate if and why this piece is effective or ineffective. Design Essay. Analysis Focused on the Social Context or the Story : This type of evaluation takes an information technology industry thesis, image and research papers, analyzes how it is effective for a particular point.

Usually, the image is information technology in tourism industry thesis, about a controversial or emotionally charged cultural or historical event. Your analysis can describe how this image either demonstrates or contributes to the emotion or debate surrounding the event. It may be that the image is ironic or misleading. The only essays, problem with our example above is that it is so easy to write, and so it might seem rather trite and unoriginal. How can you make your essay stand out? Describe vividly, using interesting verbs, adjectives, and adverbs. Make the reader feel that they have been to the restaurant with you. Use the introduction and conclusion to entice the reader.

Introduction and Conclusion Ideas. Use a conversation about the food. Start with your expectations and end with your actual experience (telling whether it met expectations or overturned them). Talk about popularity or history of the restaurant. Use statistics of people eating fast food more. Discuss the controversy about fast food and obesity and health. See the information technology in tourism industry thesis chart below for more ideas. How to aeronautical papers Connect Introduction and Conclusion. 1. Present the Subject in in tourism an Interesting Way. Give the right amount of aeronautical papers, detail : Be sure to explain clearly what it is and information in tourism industry thesis, provide enough information for the reader to agree with your judgment. Resume Quiz. Sometimes movie reviews leave the information industry thesis reader in suspense as to the outcome of the assignments story.

You will have to decide what you want to tell. Help readers agree with your evaluation : One reason people like reviews is because they help them decide whether they would like that subject themselves, so make sure to give your reader enough details to decide if they agree. Write a review rather than a summary: Make sure that the information industry summary of the subject is research, no more than a third of your paper. Technology In Tourism Thesis. The main part of apa writing, your paper is supposed to be the evaluation, not the summary. It is possible to do the technology summary separately and then do the custom resume quiz evaluation, or you can summarize as part of your evaluation.

Make sure what you are evaluating is clear: It is often effective to use an introduction which describes the information subject or gets the reader involved in the action quickly. 2. Make a Clear, Authoritative Judgment (2/3 of paper) Thesis sentence should tell exactly what you think. You might want to foreshadow your body by including the main reasons for your evaluation in that thesis sentence. (Ex: The movie XXX is perfect for a college student's study break because of the hilarious comedy, intense action, and design essay topics, fantastic visual effects.) Define the audience you are addressing and the genre of the subject (in the information technology in tourism above example, the marriage audience is college students and the genre is information technology industry thesis, action comedy). Create a three-column-log to help you make notes for your paper. Separate your notes into three columns for criteria, evidence, and custom resume, judgment. Pick at least three criteria to information in tourism industry thesis talk about in your essay. For example, for a mystery play, it could be three of the following: plot, setting, costumes, acting of main characters, acting of minor characters, the aeronautical papers pace of the action, or the information in tourism industry unveiling of the mystery.

Be opinionated! Passionate reviews are always more interesting to read. Essays Before. Use vivid nouns and engaging verbs. Have a strong judgment about how this subject is either better or worse than similar subjects. Your judgment can be mixed. For example, you might say the concert on the mall was a good mix of bands and that the new songs from the main act were energetically played, but that the sound equipment was poorly set up and tended to make it hard to hear the singers. Order the body paragraphs from least to most important. Back up your opinions with concrete examples and information industry thesis, convincing evidence. 3. Custom Quiz. Argue for Your Judgment. As you state each of your judgments, you need to technology in tourism industry thesis give reasons to back them up that are specific, interesting, and convincing.

For evidence, describe the subject, quote, use personal anecdotes, or compare and contrast with a similar subject. Design. In some cases it is effective to information industry counter-argue, if you disagree with what most people think. For example, if your subject is very popular and you think it is terrible, you may want to state what most people think and tell why you disagree. This exercise is aeronautical research, intended to help you prepare to write your paper. As you answer these questions, you will generate ideas that you can use for your paper. What is the topic (subject) you are going to evaluate? Do a short description of it in a list or paragraph. Technology In Tourism Thesis. What category is your topic?

Be as specific and narrow as possible. Who might be interested in quantitative research this? This is your audience for the paper. What does this audience already know? What do they want or expect from information in tourism industry, this thing? (This can help you develop criteria) What criteria can you use for evaluating your topic? (Think of what is most important, or what can be either good or bad, or what parts there are of your topic) What did you expect before you experienced your topic? How did your experience either fulfill or reverse your expectations?

In your evaluation of abstract quantitative, your topic, what is good? In your evaluation of your topic, what is not as good? What is the best example of something in your topic? (Or what other things can you use to compare your topic with?). How does your topic compare to technology industry thesis the best of this sort of thing? If I had to design put my evaluation in a single sentence, I would say: Look at “How to information technology in tourism thesis Write and Evaluation Essay” Organization Strategies. Which of these will you use? Explain how you will use it.

Introduction/Conclusion ideas: Which of quantitative research, these will work best for you? frame story, scenario, expectations unfulfilled, conversation, vivid scene, statistics and evidence, describe social context or historical period, describe popular trend for the subject, define the information in tourism industry genre, personal story, quote from someone (often someone who disagrees with you), analogy, compare and contrast. How will you use this introduction and conclusion idea in your essay? Now write a brief outline of your paper (see hamburger example above). Most of us can tackle a writing project more easily after talking about our ideas.

Instructors may have you work in groups to talk out your ideas. I've even had some students turn on their webcam and essays on cohabitation marriage, answer these questions while videotaping themselves! If your instructor doesn't have you work in information technology in tourism industry thesis a group, you can get together with some friends to purchase apa writing answer the following questions and take notes to information technology industry thesis help you get ideas for purchase, your paper. Take turns in your group. The main goal is to help one another prepare to write.

Pay special attention to helping each other describe their subject vividly and make their evaluation clear and precise. Also, look for good ways to organize papers. Tell your subject to your group. In Tourism Industry Thesis. Let the group respond and tell you what they know about it or what they would expect. You write down their answers. Explain your subject. Have your group ask questions (someone else can record for you if you want).

Explain your criteria for judging it (#5 in design essay pre-writing). Have the group respond. Do these seem like the best criteria? Any other suggestions? Tell your group your one-sentence evaluation (this is information technology in tourism industry, your thesis).

Get suggestions for how to make is more effective. Look at the different “Organization Suggestions” on the “Basic Features of an design essay topics, Evaluation Paper.” What type of organization would work best for this paper? Try to write a simple outline. 100 Expository Essay Topic Ideas, Writing Tips, and in tourism thesis, Sample Essays. by Virginia Kearney 22.

100 Easy Argumentative Essay Topic Ideas with Research Links and Sample Essays. by Virginia Kearney 32. How to sanger research papers Write Cause and Effect Essays. by Virginia Kearney 5. 50 Critical Analysis Paper Topics. by Virginia Kearney 4. 100 Cause and Effect Essay Topics. by Virginia Kearney 37.

Easy Words to Use as Sentence Starters to in tourism thesis Write Better Essays. by Virginia Kearney 127. Thank you for paper, this its really helped with my college English class. thank you gave a better explanation that my professor. Thanks!

This is helpful. Virginia Kearney 8 months ago from United States. That is an interesting idea Lili. I've just created a video game character, then I made 3 seperate animations that shows her personality using only visuals, and now I have it evaluate it. I've never written an evaluation before but this helped get me started, wish me luck! Virginia Kearney 13 months ago from information, United States. Hi Janelle! I have lots of information on topic ideas and how to write different types of Freshman English essays. I wrote these over my 24 years of teaching and publish them here to help other instructors, especially those who are just starting out.

Many students find my essays on their own but I welcome instructors using links to my material, but please do not post the information to your own website or print out my information. Thank you for this. I am teaching a Freshman Comp class in college, and I'll use some of this material to teach an evaluation essay of some kind. I will be writing my essay on the gender inequality. I am trying to evaluate a hotel.

Evaluating a TED talks presentation/speech. Lily Galindo 2 years ago. Reviewing a technological device - the Kindle Keyboard 3G. :) askformore lm 2 years ago. Thank you for a very interesting and useful hub. Custom Writing Quiz. Thumbs up! Arif 4 years ago from Bangladesh. wow!! amazing really. I should develop my hub just like you :) FilipinoHeart 4 years ago.

Thank you for this very accessible and useful information. Cheers! :) Virginia Kearney 5 years ago from United States. Thanks DVKR--I think this is one of the easier essays to information in tourism industry write because we are all familiar with the review. Copyright 2017 HubPages Inc. and respective owners. Other product and company names shown may be trademarks of their respective owners.

HubPages ® is topics, a registered Service Mark of HubPages, Inc. HubPages and Hubbers (authors) may earn revenue on this page based on information technology thesis affiliate relationships and advertisements with partners including Amazon, Google, and others. Copyright 2017 HubPages Inc. and respective owners.