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Descriptive essay thesis statement generator

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bet theme essay It was a dark autumn night. The old banker was walking up and down his study and descriptive statement remembering how, fifteen years before, he had given a party one autumn evening. There had been many clever men there, and there had been interesting conversations. Among other things they had talked of capital punishment. Thesis! The majority of the guests, among whom were many journalists and intellectual men, disapproved of the death penalty. They considered that form of punishment out of date, immoral, and unsuitable for Christian States. In the opinion of some of them the descriptive thesis death penalty ought to be replaced everywhere by imprisonment for life.

I don't agree with you, said their host the banker. I have not tried either the death penalty or imprisonment for life, but if one may judge a priori , the essaye de ne death penalty is more moral and more humane than imprisonment for thesis generator, life. Capital punishment kills a man at once, but lifelong imprisonment kills him slowly. Which executioner is the more humane, he who kills you in a few minutes or he who drags the life out of you in the course of many years? Both are equally immoral, observed one of the essay guests, for essay thesis, they both have the same object - to take away life. The State is not God. It has not the right to take away what it cannot restore when it wants to. Among the guests was a young lawyer, a young man of five-and-twenty.

When he was asked his opinion, he said: The death sentence and the life sentence are equally immoral, but if I had to choose between the professional resume services death penalty and imprisonment for life, I would certainly choose the thesis generator second. To live anyhow is better than not at all. A lively discussion arose. The banker, who was younger and more nervous in those days, was suddenly carried away by excitement; he struck the table with his fist and shouted at the young man: It's not true! I'll bet you two million you wouldn't stay in solitary confinement for five years. If you mean that in earnest, said the father young man, I'll take the descriptive essay generator bet, but I would stay not five but fifteen years. Fifteen? Done! cried the banker. Gentlemen, I stake two million! Agreed!

You stake your millions and soapstone essay I stake my freedom! said the young man. Descriptive Essay Statement Generator! And this wild, senseless bet was carried out! The banker, spoilt and frivolous, with millions beyond his reckoning, was delighted at leadership jr have the bet. At supper he made fun of the young man, and said: Think better of it, young man, while there is still time. To me two million is a trifle, but you are losing three or four of the best years of essay thesis statement generator your life. I say three or four, because you won't stay longer.

Don't forget either, you unhappy man, that voluntary confinement is a great deal harder to bear than compulsory. The thought that you have the traits did martin jr have right to step out in liberty at descriptive essay generator any moment will poison your whole existence in soapstone essay, prison. I am sorry for you. And now the banker, walking to descriptive thesis and fro, remembered all this, and soapstone essay asked himself: What was the object of that bet? What is the good of that man's losing fifteen years of his life and my throwing away two million? Can it prove that the death penalty is descriptive statement better or worse than imprisonment for life? No, no. It was all nonsensical and meaningless. On my part it was the caprice of a pampered man, and on his part simple greed for money . Online Professional Resume Writing Kolkata! Then he remembered what followed that evening.

It was decided that the young man should spend the years of his captivity under the strictest supervision in one of the lodges in descriptive essay thesis generator, the banker's garden. It was agreed that for fifteen years he should not be free to cross the absent father threshold of the lodge, to see human beings, to hear the human voice, or to receive letters and newspapers. He was allowed to have a musical instrument and books, and was allowed to descriptive generator write letters, to drink wine, and to smoke. By the terms of the soapstone essay agreement, the only relations he could have with the essay thesis generator outer world were by a little window made purposely for that object. He might have anything he wanted - books, music, wine, and what traits king jr have so on descriptive essay statement, - in any quantity he desired by writing an order, but could only receive them through the absent thesis window. Descriptive Thesis Generator! The agreement provided for every detail and every trifle that would make his imprisonment strictly solitary, and bound the young man to stay there exactly fifteen years, beginning from absent father, twelve o'clock of November 14, 1870, and ending at twelve o'clock of November 14, 1885. The slightest attempt on his part to break the conditions, if only two minutes before the descriptive essay end, released the banker from the obligation to pay him the two million.

For the first year of leadership traits luther his confinement, as far as one could judge from his brief notes, the prisoner suffered severely from loneliness and depression. The sounds of the piano could be heard continually day and night from his lodge. He refused wine and tobacco. Wine, he wrote, excites the desires, and desires are the worst foes of the prisoner; and besides, nothing could be more dreary than drinking good wine and seeing no one. And tobacco spoilt the air of his room.

In the descriptive thesis statement generator first year the books he sent for were principally of a light character; novels with a complicated love plot, sensational and fantastic stories, and so on. In the second year the piano was silent in the lodge, and the prisoner asked only for the classics. In the fifth year music was audible again, and the prisoner asked for wine. Those who watched him through the window said that all that year he spent doing nothing but eating and drinking and lying on his bed, frequently yawning and angrily talking to kolkata himself. He did not read books.

Sometimes at night he would sit down to write; he would spend hours writing, and in the morning tear up all that he had written. More than once he could be heard crying. In the second half of the sixth year the thesis statement generator prisoner began zealously studying languages, philosophy, and resume services kolkata history. He threw himself eagerly into these studies - so much so that the descriptive thesis statement generator banker had enough to do to soapstone essay get him the books he ordered. In the course of four years some six hundred volumes were procured at his request. It was during this period that the descriptive essay thesis generator banker received the soapstone essay following letter from his prisoner: My dear Jailer, I write you these lines in statement, six languages. Show them to people who know the languages. Let them read them. If they find not one mistake I implore you to fire a shot in the garden. That shot will show me that my efforts have not been thrown away. The geniuses of all ages and of all lands speak different languages, but the same flame burns in them all.

Oh, if you only knew what unearthly happiness my soul feels now from being able to understand them! The prisoner's desire was fulfilled. The banker ordered two shots to be fired in the garden. Then after the tenth year, the prisoner sat immovably at the table and read nothing but the Gospel. It seemed strange to the banker that a man who in four years had mastered six hundred learned volumes should waste nearly a year over one thin book easy of comprehension. Theology and histories of religion followed the Gospels. Absent Father! In the last two years of his confinement the prisoner read an immense quantity of descriptive essay statement books quite indiscriminately. At one time he was busy with the natural sciences, then he would ask for Byron or Shakespeare. There were notes in which he demanded at the same time books on essay about stress at work, chemistry, and a manual of medicine, and a novel, and some treatise on philosophy or theology. His reading suggested a man swimming in the sea among the wreckage of his ship, and trying to save his life by greedily clutching first at one spar and then at another. The old banker remembered all this, and thought: To-morrow at twelve o'clock he will regain his freedom.

By our agreement I ought to pay him two million. Thesis Statement Generator! If I do pay him, it is all over what leadership luther jr have with me: I shall be utterly ruined. Fifteen years before, his millions had been beyond his reckoning; now he was afraid to generator ask himself which were greater, his debts or his assets. Professional Writing! Desperate gambling on the Stock Exchange, wild speculation and the excitability whic h he could not get over even in advancing years, had by degrees led to the decline of his fortune and the proud, fearless, self-confident millionaire had become a banker of descriptive middling rank, trembling at every rise and fall in his investments. Cursed bet! muttered the old man, clutching his head in despair Why didn't the man die? He is only forty now.

He will take my last penny from me, he will marry, will enjoy life, will gamble on soapstone essay, the Exchange; while I shall look at him with envy like a beggar, and hear from him every day the same sentence: 'I am indebted to you for the happiness of my life, let me help you!' No, it is too much! The one means of being saved from bankruptcy and descriptive essay thesis statement disgrace is the death of that man! It struck three o'clock, the banker listened; everyone was asleep in the house and nothing could be heard outside but the rustling of the chilled trees. Trying to make no noise, he took from a fireproof safe the key of the door which had not been opened for fifteen years, put on his overcoat, and went out of the house. Essay! It was dark and cold in descriptive generator, the garden.

Rain was falling. A damp cutting wind was racing about the garden, howling and essay about at work giving the trees no rest. The banker strained his eyes, but could see neither the earth nor the white statues, nor the lodge, nor the statement trees. Essaye De Ne Pas Rire! Going to the spot where the lodge stood, he twice called the descriptive essay statement watchman. No answer followed. Evidently the watchman had sought shelter from the writing weather, and descriptive thesis generator was now asleep somewhere either in the kitchen or in the greenhouse. What Did Martin Luther King! If I had the pluck to carry out my intention, thought the old man, Suspicion would fall first upon the watchman.

He felt in the darkness for the steps and the door, and went into the entry of the lodge. Then he groped his way into a little passage and lighted a match. There was not a soul there. There was a bedstead with no bedding on it, and in the corner there was a dark cast-iron stove. Descriptive Thesis Generator! The seals on the door leading to the prisoner's rooms were intact. When the de ne pas rire match went out the descriptive essay thesis generator old man, trembling with emotion, peeped through the soapstone essay little window. A candle was burning dimly in the prisoner's room. He was sitting at the table. Nothing could be seen but his back, the essay statement generator hair on his head, and his hands.

Open books were lying on the table, on the two easy-chairs, and on the carpet near the table. Five minutes passed and the prisoner did not once stir. Fifteen years' imprisonment had taught him to sit still. The banker tapped at the window with his finger, and the prisoner made no movement whatever in response. Then the banker cautiously broke the seals off the stress at work door and put the key in the keyhole. The rusty lock gave a grating sound and the door creaked. The banker expected to hear at once footsteps and a cry of astonishment, but three minutes passed and it was as quiet as ever in the room. He made up his mind to go in. Essay Generator! At the table a man unlike ordinary people was sitting motionless. He was a skeleton with the what leadership luther jr have skin drawn tight over his bones, with long curls like a woman's and a shaggy beard.

His face was yellow with an essay thesis statement generator earthy tint in it, his cheeks were hollow, his back long and narrow, and the hand on which his shaggy head was propped was so thin and delicate that it was dreadful to look at it. His hair was already streaked with silver, and seeing his emaciated, aged-looking face, no one would have believed that he was only forty. He was asleep . Essay! In front of his bowed head there lay on the table a sheet of paper on which there was something written in essay statement generator, fine handwriting. Poor creature! thought the banker, he is asleep and most likely dreaming of the millions. And I have only to take this half-dead man, throw him on the bed, stifle him a little with the pillow, and the most conscientious expert would find no sign of father a violent death. But let us first read what he has written here . The banker took the page from the table and read as follows: To-morrow at twelve o'clock I regain my freedom and the right to thesis statement generator associate with other men, but before I leave this room and see the sunshine, I think it necessary to say a few words to you. Othello Notes! With a clear conscience I tell you, as before God, who beholds me, that I despise freedom and descriptive thesis statement life and health, and all that in your books is called the pas rire good things of the world. For fifteen years I have been intently studying earthly life. It is true I have not seen the descriptive statement earth nor men, but in your books I have drunk fragrant wine, I have sung songs, I have hunted stags and wild boars in the forests, have loved women . Beauties as ethereal as clouds, created by the magic of your poets and geniuses, have visited me at night, and have whispered in othello notes, my ears wonderful tales that have set my brain in a whirl. In your books I have climbed to the peaks of Elburz and Mont Blanc, and from there I have seen the essay statement sun rise and have watched it at evening flood the sky, the ocean, and essay notes the mountain-tops with gold and descriptive thesis statement generator crimson. I have watched from there the lightning flashing over my head and cleaving the storm-clouds.

I have seen green forests, fields, rivers, lakes, towns. I have heard the singing of the sirens, and the strains of the shepherds' pipes; I have touched the wings of comely devils who flew down to converse with me of God . In your books I have flung myself into the bottomless pit, performed miracles, slain, burned towns, preached new religions, conquered whole kingdoms . Essay Stress At Work! Your books have given me wisdom. All that the unresting thought of man has created in descriptive essay thesis generator, the ages is compressed into essay about, a small compass in descriptive essay statement generator, my brain. I know that I am wiser than all of you. And I despise your books, I despise wisdom and the blessings of essay notes this world. It is all worthless, fleeting, illusory, and deceptive, like a mirage. You may be proud, wise, and fine, but death will wipe you off the face of the earth as though you were no more than mice burrowing under the floor, and your posterity, your history, your immortal geniuses will burn or freeze together with the thesis generator earthly globe. Leadership Luther King Jr Have! You have lost your reason and taken the wrong path. You have taken lies for descriptive essay statement generator, truth, and hideousness for beauty. You would marvel if, owing to strange events of essay some sorts, frogs and lizards suddenly grew on apple and orange trees instead of fruit, or if roses began to smell like a sweating horse; so I marvel at you who exchange heaven for descriptive essay thesis statement, earth. I don't want to understand you.

To prove to you in action how I despise all that you live by, I renounce the two million of which I once dreamed as of paradise and which now I despise. To deprive myself of the right to the money I shall go out from here five hours before the time fixed, and so break the compact . Essaye! When the banker had read this he laid the descriptive essay thesis page on the table, kissed the strange man on the head, and went out of the lodge, weeping. At no other time, even when he had lost heavily on the Stock Exchange, had he felt so great a contempt for himself. When he got home he lay on essay stress at work, his bed, but his tears and emotion kept him for hours from sleeping. Descriptive Essay Statement! Next morning the watchmen ran in with pale faces, and told him they had seen the man who lived in the lodge climb out of the window into the garden, go to the gate, and disappear.

The banker went at once with the servants to the lodge and soapstone essay made sure of the flight of his prisoner. To avoid arousing unnecessary talk, he took from the table the writing in descriptive essay statement, which the millions were renounced, and when he got home locked it up in the fireproof safe.

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La Celestina de Fernando de Rojas : un monde plein de vide. En examinant la poetique du vide cultivee par La Celestina (1499), cette etude se propose d’analyser l’emergence, au sein de l’univers deploye dans la tragicomedie, d’une apprehension nouvelle du monde. Generator. Une apprehension nouvelle faite de scepticisme et de desillusion que l’?uvre fait entendre jusque dans sa celebration des plaisirs et au c?ur meme du rire qui la parcourt. Absent. Ce travail souhaite mettre en lumiere la richesse de ce regard nouveau pose sur le monde en tentant de montrer, a travers l’analyse de motifs recurrents en lien avec la notion de vacuite, combien La Celestina est pleine de son vide, feconde du neant dans lequel elle fait sombrer, avec l'elegance d'un desespoir joyeux, le monde ne au fil de ses pages. 1 Fernando de Rojas, La Celestina, Comedia o tragicomedia de Calisto j Melibea, Edicion, introduccion (. Descriptive Essay Thesis Generator. ) 2 Pour une etude reliant precisement La Celestina a son contexte, on notes, pourra consulter Vincent Parello (. Essay Thesis Generator. ) 3 Pour une synthese des controverses liees au probleme d'autorite pose par La Celestina, on stress at work, pourra se (. Essay Thesis Statement Generator. ) 1 La Celestina 1 de Fernando de Rojas voit le jour en 1499, en Espagne, au c?ur de cette periode cruciale pour l'histoire des arts, des peuples, des hommes et des idees, qui vit basculer ce que nous appelons le Moyen Age dans cette epoque que nous disons moderne. Stress. ?uvre dont l'ecriture cherche a saisir ce mouvement qui l'emporte vers la modernite, ?uvre se donnant a voir en equilibre sur le fil reliant deux mondes, un fil en train de se rompre, La Celestina est aussi nee au c?ur d'une societe, celle de l'Espagne des Rois Catholiques, elle-meme en pleine mutation et a un tournant decisif de son histoire2, notamment dans son rapport aux minorites religieuses. Descriptive Thesis. La Celestina, ?uvre ecrite, dans sa totalite ou en partie3, par Fernando de Rojas, juriste de formation, lettre evoluant dans la sphere universitaire de Salamanque, et convers de la quatrieme generation, prend vie au sein de ce double contexte, dont elle se nourrit. Thesis. Riche de l'imaginaire a la fois collectif et singulier qui la sous-tend, l'?uvre donne en effet a voir l'emergence d'une apprehension nouvelle du monde.

Une apprehension nouvelle faite de scepticisme et de deses­perance, et ce jusqu'au plus profond du rire que l'?uvre fait si volontiers entendre, ou des plaisirs qu'avec tant d'allegresse elle celebre. Thesis Statement. J'aimerais tenter d'en rendre compte ici en proposant un examen de l'une des poetiques cultivees par l'?uvre, celle du vide, d'un monde plein de vide. Le monde plein de vide de La Celestina, c'est tout d'abord celui que met en place l'ecriture de la vacuite de sens du monde. 2 Cette vacuite de sens du monde apparait dans l'?uvre sous diverses formes, et notamment a travers une image tres traditionnelle, celle du monde mis sens dessus dessous, celle du monde a l'envers. Essay. Tres nombreux sont les elements de l'?uvre qui renvoient au monde a l'envers et j'attirerai votre attention sur deux exemples, qui me semblent a meme de mettre en lumiere deux visages du monde a l'envers dans l'?uvre. Descriptive Generator. Le monde a l'envers, c'est tout d'abord celui que decrit le valet Parmeno au debut de la tragicomedia, avant de basculer lui-meme de l'autre cote du monde, avant d'incarner lui-meme l'image de l'inversion des valeurs. Leadership Traits Luther King. Parmeno vient d'etre violemment rabroue par son maitre Calisto, par celui-la meme qu'il tentait pourtant de prevenir contre la malignite de Celestina, diabolique entremetteuse dont le maitre veut acheter les services afin de conquerir Melibea, la noble jeune fille dont il est fou d'amour.

Transforme par l'ingratitude de son maitre en victime de sa propre vertu, Parmeno deplore : O desdichado de mi ! Por ser leal, padezco mal. Essay Statement. Otros se ganan por malos, yo me pierdo por bueno. Absent Thesis. El mundo es tal.4. 5 C. Descriptive Essay Statement Generator. Heusch, « Las desviaciones de Parmeno o la caida de un angel », Celestinesca, 26, 1-2, 2002, p. Online Resume Writing Services. (. Descriptive Essay Thesis Statement Generator. ) 6 F. De Ne Pas Rire. de Rojas, ed. Essay Thesis. cit ., p. Professional Kolkata. 269 : « no sabes nada del mundo ni de sus deleytes ». 3 Le monde ici decrit est donc un monde qui tourne a l'envers, et au sein duquel bien et mal ont echange leur place sur l'echelle des valeurs judeo-chretiennes. Essay Thesis. Constater que le monde est mis sens dessus dessous est d'ailleurs ce qui motive la metamorphose de Parmeno : les phrases citees sont en effet tres exactement celles qui introduisent sa decision de se mettre a tourner lui aussi dans le sens du monde, c'est-a-dire a dire a contresens du bon sens, ou du sens bon, en devenant le servus fallax qui n'hesitera pas a travailler a la perte de son maitre. Absent. Ainsi la figure du monde a l'envers est-elle tout d'abord donnee a voir dans l'?uvre comme cause, et non seulement comme image, de la corruption du monde et des etres.

Une corruption contre laquelle les personnages qui tentent de le faire se battent vainement, vainement et presque par peche d'orgueil, par pretention, cette pretention de la jeunesse qui n'a pas encore pris la mesure de l'ampleur de la tache. Thesis Statement Generator. Parmeno, celui que Carlos Heusch5 a tres justement presente sous les traits de l'ange revolte qui, une fois dechu, devient diable, ne commence en effet par etre bon que parce qu'il est jeune, une jeunesse sur laquelle le texte insiste a diverses reprises. Soapstone Essay. On notera par exemple la serie des diminutifs utilises par Celestina pour s'adresser a Parmeno et lui signifier qu'il demeure encore, pour quelques instants qui ne sauraient durer, dans le monde de l'enfance, un monde qui justement, comme elle le lui fait remarquer en ce meme endroit de l'?uvre6, ne sait encore rien du monde : Que diras a esto Parmeno ? Neciuelo, loquito, angelico, perlica, simplezico! Lobitos en tal gestico ? Llegate aca, putico.7. 8 Ed. Descriptive Essay Thesis. cit ., p. De Ne Pas Rire. 502.

9 Ed. Descriptive Essay Statement. cit ., p. De Ne Pas Rire. 509 ou 585 par exemple. Essay Thesis Statement. 10 Ed. Pas Rire. cit ., p. Descriptive Essay Thesis Generator. 433. Soapstone Essay. 11 F. Descriptive Essay Thesis Statement Generator. Delpech, « Systeme erotique et mythologie folklorique dans les conjuros amatorios », dans Amours (. Professional Writing Kolkata. ) 12 Jose Maria Diez Borque, « Conjuros, oraciones, ensalmos : formas marginales de la poesia oral en lo (. Statement Generator. ) 13 Ed. Soapstone Essay. cit ., p. Descriptive Essay Thesis Statement. 332 et 360. Soapstone Essay. 14 Ed. Thesis Statement Generator. cit ., p. Absent Father Thesis. 416. Statement Generator. 15 Ed. Essaye. cit ., p. Thesis Generator. 382. 4 Il est d'ailleurs un autre personnage de l'?uvre sur la jeunesse duquel le texte insiste aussi et peut-etre plus encore. Online Professional Resume Writing Kolkata. Il s'agit bien sur du personnage de Tristan : des sa premiere apparition8, Tristan est appele Tristanico, petit Tristan. Essay Generator. Ce diminutif, qui se verra decline de facons multiples par l'?uvre9, place d'emblee le personnage sous le signe de l'enfance, une enfance que l'?uvre situe a l'origine de la non-corruption de Tristan, donnant ainsi a entendre cette non-corruption comme vouee a disparaitre, a l'instar de la jeunesse qui la motive. What Traits Did Martin. Le monde a l'envers mis en place par l'?uvre, c'est aussi celui que dessine l'entremetteuse et hechicera Celestina. Essay Generator. Bien qu'elle soit hechicera (ensorceleuse) et non bruja (sorciere), Celestina, comme ces dernieres, fait en effet subir une inversion au monde dans son ensemble et, en particulier, au monde religieux. Essaye. Tout d'abord parce qu'elle en denonce les desordres, puisque les eveques eux-memes font partie de sa clientele de maquerelle10, mais aussi parce que sa pratique magique integre cette inversion du rite religieux inherente a la pratique de la sorcellerie.

Francois Delpech, qui a etudie le rapport entre systeme erotique et mythologie folklorique au sein de ces prieres destinees a faire naitre l'amour que l'on appelait conjuros amatorios 11 , ou bien encore Jose Maria Diez Borque12, lequel s'est penche sur l'organisation poetique de ces conjuros, ont en effet montre que la pratique de la sorcellerie integrait un renversement de la liturgie chretienne. Descriptive Essay Thesis Statement. Dans ces pratiques, on professional writing kolkata, conjurait le diable, certes, mais aussi, dans une optique a contresens de l'optique chretienne, on descriptive generator, y conjurait les saints de la liturgie chretienne, jusqu'a faire de cette derniere une liturgie a l'envers. Soapstone Essay. Quelques exemples de ce processus d'inversion opere par le personnage de la presque sorciere Celestina : l'on remarquera tout d'abord que Celestina, a des fins on statement, ne peut plus malignes et selon un procede destine a capturer, comme le fait entendre le terme philocaptio, le c?ur et la volonte de la belle Melibea, utilisera la force de ce meme cordon de Melibea qui a touche, et Celestina ne manque pas d'en faire la remarque a deux reprises13, les reliques de Rome et de Jerusalem. Leadership Traits Jr Have. Ce faisant, Celestina ne detourne pas seulement l'objet de sa vocation initiale, mais va jusqu'a renverser le pouvoir spirituel de l'objet, jusqu'a lui faire subir une parfaite inversion. Descriptive Statement Generator. De la meme maniere, l'on notera que c'est au sein meme de l'espace de l'eglise que l'entremetteuse un peu sorciere et tout a fait maquerelle qu'est Celestina, fait ses meilleures affaires. Online Resume Writing Kolkata. Ou bien encore, l'on se souviendra que ce sont les grains de son chapelet, « las cuentas del rosario »14, qui permettent a celle qui est aussi ravaudeuse des virginites mises a mal, de tenir a jour le decompte des virgos, des hymens, qu'elle a deja restaures ou qui lui restent encore a reparer.

Enfin, l'on pourra aussi et peut-etre surtout se rappeler la parodie des paroles du Christ a laquelle se livre Celestina15. 5 Si le motif du monde sens dessus dessous permet bien la mise en place d'un systeme metaphorique propre a figurer l'inversion de l'Ordre ou a denoncer le desordre du monde, ce motif repose toutefois sur un systeme de pensee qui propose une grille de lecture du monde. Thesis Generator. La figure du monde a l'envers dit en effet deux choses simultanement : elle dit que le monde ne tourne pas dans le bon sens, mais elle dit aussi en meme temps qu'il existe un bon sens, qu'il existe un endroit a l'envers. Othello Essay. Cette figure, et ses multiples formes possibles, s'articulent donc sur la base d'un systeme stable. Thesis Statement. Bien qu'il renvoie au non-sens du monde, le motif du monde a l'envers etablit en effet encore une frontiere nette, et c'est d'ailleurs pourquoi il etait constitutif de cette parenthese qu'etait le carnaval medieval, entre endroit et envers, il propose encore une discrimination entre norme et non-norme, entre bien et mal. Father. On ne pourrait en dire autant des procedes qui, dans La Celestina, aboutissent a la peinture d'un monde non plus seulement tournant en sens inverse, mais d'un monde vide, vide de sens. 16 Ed. Descriptive Thesis. cit ., p. Online Kolkata. 290.

17 Ed. Essay Thesis Statement Generator. cit ., p. Soapstone Essay. 477 : « ? En quien fallare yo fe ? ? Adonde ay verdad ? ? Quien carece de engano ? ? A (. Descriptive Essay Generator. ) 6 Ces procedes sont nombreux. What. Que l'on songe tout d'abord a ces interrogations laissees sans reponse dont La Celestina est parsemee, et qui tout au long de l'?uvre, questionnent avec entetement le serieux d'une quelconque tentative de discrimination entre bien et mal, vidant ainsi les notions et valeurs de tout contenu stable. Thesis Statement. Qu'est-ce que la raison ? Qu'est-ce que la passion ? Qu'est-ce que l'honneur, qu'est-ce que l'amour ? interroge Calisto16. What Traits Did Martin Jr Have. Ou bien encore, alors qu'il est en proie au desespoir17, que sont confiance, verite, tromperie, faussete ? Qui est l'ennemi et qui l'ami ? Ailleurs, l'?uvre va jusqu'a montrer une Celestina en train de sommer un fou de bien vouloir lui definir ce qu'est la raison : Que es razon, loco ?18. 19 Ed. Descriptive Essay. cit ., p. Online Professional Resume. 290-291.

20 Ed. Essay Thesis. cit ., p. What Traits Luther King. 297. Descriptive Essay Thesis Statement Generator. 21 Ed. Soapstone Essay. cit., p. Essay Thesis Statement Generator. 520. Father Thesis. 22 O. Essay Generator. Biaggini, « Sentencia a mi ver digna de perpetua y recordable memoria : mise en scene et subve (. Soapstone Essay. ) 7 « Qu'est-ce que la raison, fou ? », demande-t-elle en effet a Parmeno. Descriptive Essay Generator. Ces questions, parce qu'elles restent sans reponse, mais aussi parce que l'?uvre fait entendre qu'il ne peut en aller autrement19, donnent a voir le vide que l'on risquerait de trouver au fond des notions ou valeurs que l'on chercherait a creuser un peu serieusement. Father Thesis. Et ce non seulement parce que, comme le dit Sempronio : « el bien y el mal (. Descriptive Essay Statement Generator. ) todo pierde con el tiempo la fuerca »20, mais aussi et surtout parce qu'elles ne sont qu'insondable beance, au fond de laquelle git le reve du sens, du sens du monde. Professional Resume Kolkata. Ces questions sur le caractere insoluble desquelles l'?uvre attire l'attention, apres avoir pourtant affiche, dans le paratexte, un objectif didactique indissociable d'une vision claire de la frontiere entre bien et mal, vident donc les valeurs et notions de leur substance signifiante. Essay Thesis Statement Generator. Une scene, la septieme de l'acte XIV, illustre bien ce fonctionnement de l'?uvre. Essay. Dans un tres long monologue21, au cours d'un proces imaginaire cense trancher entre culpabilite ou innocence du juge qui a ordonne la decollation de ses deux valets, Calisto prend tour a tour le role de la defense et celui de l'accusation.

Dans cette scene qui argumente aussi equitablement dans un sens que dans l'autre, on descriptive essay generator, peut voir transparaitre le juriste Fernando de Rojas qui a questionne la notion de verite, ici donnee a voir comme changeant de visage selon le point de vue adopte. De Ne. Il est d'ailleurs interessant de remarquer que Calisto ne tranche rien a l'issue de ce proces imaginaire. Descriptive. Piege par sa propre capacite a construire these et antithese, il finit par abandonner la partie et par conclure a l'innocence du juge, non parce qu'il aurait reussi a s'en convaincre intellectuellement, mais parce qu'il sent monter en lui le desir de Melibea, et que la satisfaction de ce desir pourrait etre contrariee par la fastidieuse mise en place d'une vengeance contre le juge. What Traits Did Martin Luther. De la reflexion intellectuelle sur les notions de verite, d'innocence ou de culpabilite, il ne ressort rien, rien qu'une intuition de la vanite de toute tentative d'exploration de leur contenu objectif. Essay Thesis. La facon dont l'?uvre joue avec la notion d 'auctoritas, cette reference a l'autorite alors utilisee comme outil de legitimation de la pensee exprimee ou de la verite proclamee, va d'ailleurs dans le meme sens. Absent Father Thesis. Olivier Biaggini22 l'a bien montre : mise dans la bouche de person­nages qui la devoient, la pervertissent, l'exploitent a contresens et en revelent ainsi les failles, l 'auctoritas, la parole de Seneque, d'Aristote ou de Petrarque, n'est plus qu'une parole videe de sa capacite a guider, elle n'est plus qu'amoncellement de references reduites au vide, donnees a voir par l'?uvre dans leur inanite.

Le rire, qui au sein de l'?uvre peut pourtant, notamment lorsqu'il ridiculise le discours courtois dissident, servir le propos moral affirme au sein du paratexte, est aussi, paradoxale­ment, mis au service de cet aneantissement des valeurs et notions. Descriptive Thesis Statement. Sans trop insister ici sur le rire, qu'une autre intervention va prendre pour objet central, je dirai simplement qu'il est aussi dans La Celestina un rire dont la fonction demystificatrice desenchante le monde et reduit a neant les plus beaux reves. Essay. L'amour ? Une gesticulation ridicule dont le fou d'amour Calisto parvient lui-meme a se gausser. Essay Thesis Generator. Alors qu'il se meurt d'amour, une plaisanterie grivoise de Sempronio suffit a le faire passer des larmes au rire, un rire qui l'oblige a mettre son amour a distance, comme il le deplore d'ailleurs lui-meme : Maldito seas, que fecho me has reyr 23. 24 J.-P.

Lecertua, « Le jardin de Melibee : metaphores sexuelles et connotations symboliques dans quel (. What Leadership Traits Luther Jr Have. ) 8 « Maudit sois-tu, car tu m'as fait rire », s'indigne en effet Calisto, qui vient de se prendre lui-meme en flagrant delit de rire, et donc de desacralisation, de ce meme amour qu'un instant plus tot il elevait jusqu'a Dieu, qu'un instant plus tot il mettait a la place de Dieu. Descriptive Thesis Statement. La vertu ? C'est celle de Melibea dans son jardin, plumee comme une volaille, selon la comparaison de l'amoureux Calisto soudain transforme en grossier plaisantin, vertu dont Jean-Paul Lecertua24, a travers sa lecture du jardin de Melibea, a si bien analyse la degradation comique. What Leadership Luther Jr Have. C'est la le rire corrosif qui aneantit, le rire amer de la desillusion, d'un desengano avant la lettre, un rire critique, endeuille d'avoir trop sonde la vanite des choses. C'est cependant surtout a travers la proliferation des images de la folie qu'apparait le reflet de la vacuite de sens du monde. 25 Ed. Descriptive Essay Statement. cit ., p. Father Thesis. 221. Descriptive Essay Thesis Statement Generator. 26 Voir Martine Bigeard, La folie et les fous litteraires en Espagne (1500-1650), Paris, Centre de Rec (. Othello Notes. ) 27 Ed. Descriptive Thesis Generator. cit ., p. Essay. 235. 9 Des l 'incipit, au c?ur de la declaration d'intention didactique, la folie est la, folie d'amour qui detourne de Dieu et dont l'?uvre, « en reprehension de los locos enamorados »25, pretend vouloir denoncer les dangers. Essay Thesis Statement. Folie d'amour dont est atteint le protagoniste Calisto.

Atteint, car l'amour passionnel, le fol amour, etait bien, pour les esprits populaires et scientifiques du temps, un mal repertorie dans la liste des troubles mentaux, une forme de demence dont Miguel Sabuco, medecin espagnol du XVI e siecle, ecrit dans sa Nueva Filosofia de la naturaleza del hombre (1587) qu'elle pouvait etre provoquee par le desir exacerbe puis frustre26. Online Professional Resume Writing Services Kolkata. Folie d'amour de Calisto l'amant grotesquement courtois qui dans son fameux « Melibeo soy »27 renonce a etre chretien pour se faire Melibeen, mais aussi folie de tous les autres personnages. Essay Statement Generator. Car c'est a chaque page, presque a chaque ligne, en tous sens, a tout moment, a tout propos, de toutes les facons, que l'on se traite de fou, que chacun traite soi-meme et tous les autres de fou, de folle, de petit fou, loquito, loquillo, de sin seso, de fou decervele, de desvariado, de derange. Essay About. Dans La Celestina, meme celui qui n'a pas encore ete identifie, puisqu'on ne lui a pas encore ouvert la porte a laquelle il est en train de frapper, est d'emblee traite de fou. Descriptive Essay Thesis Generator. Areusa, entendant frapper fortement a sa porte, dit ainsi a Elicia : Quiero yr abrir, que es loco o privado quien llama.28. 10 Le deferlement de la folie a travers le texte est tel, que le motif en arrive a transformer l'?uvre en une sorte de maison de fous au sein de laquelle chaque fou passerait son temps a pointer du doigt la folie de l'autre, de ses paroles, de ses actes et de ses croyances. Professional Resume. Maison de fous qui bien sur renvoie aussi l'image d'un monde pris de folie, d'un monde insense, denue de sens. Essay Thesis Statement Generator. Ravi de compter un fou d'amour de plus en la personne de Parmeno, Sempronio fait ainsi le lien entre la folie des personnages et celle du monde : Ya todos amamos ? El mundo se va a perder ! Calisto a Melibea, yo a Elicia ; tu, de envidia, has buscado con quien perder esse poco de seso que tienes.29. 11 Et Parmeno de lui repondre que si la folie etait souffrance, le monde ne serait plus que hurlement de douleur : Luego, locura es amar y yo soy loco y sin seso ? Pues si la locura fuesse dolores, en cada casa avria bozes.30. 31 M. Absent. Foucault, Histoire de la folie a l'age classique , Paris, Gallimard, 1972, p. Thesis Generator. 45-46. About At Work. 32 lbid., p. Statement Generator. 317.

12 Dans son Histoire de la folie a l'age classique 31 , Michel Foucault montre bien comment, a cette epoque charniere qu'est la Renaissance, tout ce qui a pu etre eprouve de ou formule sur la folie a ete anime par un affrontement que l'on retrouve au sein de La Celestina, affrontement entre deux images opposees de la folie, qui toutes deux renvoient au vide. Othello. D'un cote on descriptive essay generator, trouve une folie tragique, sombre, reliee au theme de la mort et de la chute, et l'on remarquera a ce propos que dans l'?uvre, trois morts, celles de Calisto, Sempronio et Parmeno, sont reliees avec insistance a l'image des sesos, de la cervelle repandue a terre, de la cervelle qui s'est ecoulee de la tete des sin seso, des fous decerveles. Professional Resume Services. Coincidence textuelle qui tisse un lien entre mort, une forme de neant, et folie. Statement. De l'autre cote on essaye pas rire, trouve une folie rieuse, gorgee de conscience critique, interrogeant le monde, et cette fois on essay statement, se souviendra que le fou Calisto, dans sa comique folie, est aussi celui qui interroge le contenu des notions et donne a voir leur vide, comme le font a un degre ou un autre tous les fous, c'est-a-dire presque tous les personnages, de l'?uvre. Traits Did Martin. La folie, en outre, ne renvoie pas seulement a l'idee d'un monde vide de sens. Essay Thesis Statement Generator. Elle est aussi une incarnation du concept de vide, elle est le vide lui-meme. Absent. Dans l'ouvrage cite plus haut, M. Descriptive Generator. Foucault souligne ainsi le lien etabli entre folie et vide, des la progressive disparition, a partir du XV e siecle, de la croyance au role du Diable dans la genese des troubles mentaux. About At Work. Il ecrit que la folie etait alors devenue : « la manifestation (.) du non-etre, (.), une folie eprouvee comme deraison, c'est-a-dire comme negativite vide de la raison »32. Descriptive Essay Thesis. Cette folie entendue comme negativite pure, entendue comme vide de la raison, est d'ailleurs bien celle que l'on retrouve dans la definition qu'en fournit le dictionnaire de Covarrubias, le Tesoro de la lengua castellana, ecrit en 1611, ou Sebastian de Covarrubias donne une etymologie aussi fausse qu'interessante pour l'entree loco (fou). Soapstone Essay. Il associe en effet a la fois etroitement et de facons multiples la folie au vide dans sa definition du terme : 33 Sebastian de Covarrubias, Tesoro de la lengua castellana o espanola, Edicion de Martin de Riquer, B (. Generator. ) La etimologia deste vocablo tornara loco a cualquier hombre cuerdo, porque no se halla cosa que hincha su vacio.

Y sea su primera interpretacion de la palabra locus, loci, por el lugar, atento que al loco solemos llamar vacio y sin seso ; y assi aquel lugar parece que queda sin llenarse.33. 34 On pourra lire a ce propos l'introduction de Keith Whinnom a La carcel de amor : Diego de San Pedro (. Essay About. ) 13 Ainsi, pour les esprits du temps et ceux de la periode posterieure, c'est aussi l'image du vide que demultiplie l'?uvre lorsqu'elle fait deferler les fous, fous qui sont en outre souvent associes, a la fois par le savoir medical de l'epoque et par les fictions, a l'element aerien, representation materielle au plus pres de cet immateriel qu'est le vide. Descriptive Essay Thesis Generator. Pour les medecins34, ce sont ainsi les vapeurs empoisonnees du desir insatisfait qui montent au cerveau de l'amant et le plongent dans la demence, ou bien encore, dans le domaine litteraire, on essaye de ne, verra le Criticon de Gracian associer la folie d'orgueil a l'element air. Descriptive Essay Statement. En ce sens, il n'est pas ininteressant de remarquer que lorsque la prostituee Areusa met en place sa manipulation de Sosia, elle dit a sa compagne Elicia qu'elle projette, pour rendre Sosia fou d'amour, de le gonfler du vent de la flatterie, afin de lui insuffler l'orgueilleuse illusion d'etre le seul homme dans son c?ur. Leadership Luther Jr Have. Elle dit en effet : lo paro lleno de viento de lisonjas.35.

14 Le monde plein de vide de La Celestina, c'est aussi celui du vide de la parole et de la parole dans le vide. 15 Cette parole vide, je la vois apparaitre notamment a travers l'ostentation, l'exhibition, de la mecanique rhetorique. Essay Statement. Cette ostentation releve bien sur en premier lieu du projet esthetique d'un auteur desireux de faire montre de sa capacite a manier les figures de la rhetorique. Resume Writing Services. Le morceau de bravoure artistique n'en est pas moins porteur d'un sens justement en rapport avec le vide de la parole. Descriptive Thesis. Quelques courts exemples. Soapstone Essay. Pour convaincre Melibea de se rendre, Celestina lui fait valoir la souffrance d'amour de Calisto, strategie qui recueille dans un premier temps la colere de Melibea. Essay Statement Generator. Pour se defendre, Celestina recourt alors au syllogisme : mis palabras (. Essay About. ) en si no eran malas ; que cada dia ay hombres penados por mugeres y mugeres por hombres, y esto obra la natura y la natura ordenola Dios, y Dios no hizo cosa mala 36 . 16 L'auteur fait ici ostentation du maniement pervers d'une rhetorique sophistique, destinee a tromper grace au masque de la logique. Descriptive Essay Thesis Statement. Or cette ostentation est doublement interessante. Essaye Pas Rire. Parce qu'elle exhibe l'ossature du discours, sa mecanique, elle peut tout d'abord etre lue comme un contre-discours implicite oppose par l'intentionnalite edifiante aux sophismes de Celestina. Thesis Statement Generator. La parole de Celestina epouse en effet le moule de la rhetorique sophistique au point de se denoncer elle-meme comme sophisme, au point d'attirer l'attention sur sa nature fallacieuse. What Luther. Lorsqu'elle recourt au meme type de figure pour convaincre Parmeno de suivre ses conseils, l'arme rhetorique maniee par Celestina est a ce point apparente que Parmeno ne se laisse pas meme prendre par ce qu'il appelle des « [palabras] envueltas en dulce veneno »37, c'est-a-dire des mots baignes dans le doux poison.

Jusqu'a un certain point, Celestina partage cependant sa maitrise des rhetoriques ou des codes formels avec la quasi-totalite des personnages, et chacun y va de son petit discours rhetorique, toujours oriente dans le sens qui l'arrange. Descriptive Thesis Generator. Or, a travers cette exhibition de la mecanique rhetorique, on absent, peut lire aussi une volonte de l'auteur de donner a voir, en negatif, le creux qui se trouve a l'interieur du moule. Descriptive Essay Generator. Ce que la parole a de pre-fixe, de pre-etabli, de formel, est exhibe jusqu'a faire naitre l'impression que la parole est toute entiere dans sa seule forme, qu'elle est une forme desincarnee, videe. What Leadership Did Martin Luther Jr Have. La parole, comme le rappelle Areusa lorsqu'elle projette de souffler la parole flatteuse dans l'esprit de Sosia pour le rendre fou d'amour, c'est du vent. Essay Thesis Statement. On remarquera en outre la proliferation, tout au long de l'?uvre, des termes vano/vana, de vanus (vide), ou bien hueco (creux), associes a l'idee de parole. Soapstone Essay. Parmi de multiples exemples possibles38, on descriptive essay, pourrait citer vanos y huecos prometimientos (vaines et creuses promesses), vanas palabras (mots vains), vanos consejos (vains conseils). Soapstone Essay. Quant a l'inscription du discours dans le registre du code litteraire, elle produit le meme effet : la parole y apparait creuse, desincarnee. Descriptive Thesis. Que l'on pense par exemple a la premiere rencontre de Calisto et Melibea dans le jardin. Online Writing Kolkata. Le code courtois sous-jacent au discours amoureux de Calisto est a ce point perceptible que la parole d'amour est videe jusqu'a n'etre plus qu'un moule revelateur de son propre creux. Descriptive. Areusa le fait d'ailleurs remarquer a Sosia, lorsqu'elle se plaint a lui que tous les hommes aient toujours sous la main, pour seduire les femmes, de ces mots coules au moule : todos los hombres traygays proveydas essas razones (.) tan comunes para todas, hechas de molde.39. 17 Quant aux paroles de Melibea dans cette premiere scene de rencontre, elles sont elles aussi truquees, minees de l'interieur par l'ostentation de leur caractere conventionnel, par l'exhibition de l'intertextualite qu'elles integrent.

Derriere la colere de Melibea, de la jeune fille noble a la vertu offensee, on soapstone essay, entend en effet resonner toutes les coleres litteraires de ses cons?urs fictionnelles, mais aussi et surtout, on statement generator, entend resonner la tradition misogyne medievale, le fameux : 40 Juan Ruiz, Arcipreste de Hita, Libro de Buen Amor, Edicion de G. Stress At Work. B. Descriptive Essay Thesis. Gybbon Monypenny, Madrid, Casta (. Stress. ) Todas las fenbras han en si estas maneras ; al comienco del fecho syenpre son refferteras40. 41 Ed. Essay Thesis Statement Generator. cit., p. Professional Writing Kolkata. 331, 353, 358, etc. Thesis Statement. 42 Ed. Pas Rire. cit ., p. Descriptive Statement. 460. 18 du Libro de buen amor (1341), qui a l'instar de tant d'autres textes du Moyen Age, predit par ces vers l'immanquable transformation du « non » initial de la belle en un « oui » d'autant plus ardent que le non qui l'a precede aura ete violent. Absent Father. Celestina est bien la d'ailleurs pour relayer explicitement le message implicite de l'intertextualite, et rappeler que le refus initial de la belle n'est que le premier pas d'une danse bien connue, et ce a diverses reprises41. Descriptive Essay. Grace a l'intertextualite, grace a la super­position des objets fictionnels que cette derniere implique, la colere initiale de Melibea se voit donc ravalee au rang de toutes ces coleres litteraires, semblables a la sienne ou pires encore qu'elle, et qui pourtant ont fini par ceder le terrain, et ce avec ardeur et allegresse. Online Professional Writing. Cette colere initiale de Melibea devient ainsi le signe de son immanquable reddition future, et c'est la force meme de cette colere qui revele sa faiblesse. Descriptive Essay Generator. Ainsi, en denoncant le vide de la parole, l'exhibition du moule formel parvient aussi a vider les personnages de leur substance.

Calisto, par exemple, dans un premier moment de l'?uvre, s'identifie si pleinement, d'un point de vue formel, au code courtois, qu'il en devient une sorte de pantin, une mecanique susceptible de s'enrayer au moindre grain dans le rouage, a la moindre atteinte du code. Othello Notes. Alors que Celestina lui fait valoir a quel point Melibea est deja toute a lui, il implore l'entremetteuse de bien vouloir parler « cortes »42, c'est-a-dire a la fois, pour la forme espagnole, courtoise­ment et en respectant les codes de l'amour courtois. Descriptive Essay Statement. Le texte donne ainsi a voir le personnage de Calisto comme incapable de fonctionner autrement qu'a travers ce code courtois, code courtois qui veut que lui, le siervo de amor, le serf ou esclave d'amour, soit tout a elle, et non qu'elle, la toute-puissante Dama et alta mugier, soit toute a lui, comme osait le pretendre Celestina. 19 Dans La Celestina, la parole vide est en outre tres souvent proferee dans le vide. 20 Le fonctionnement de la parole adressee au vide apparait par exemple de facon particulierement interessante dans la scene du cordon. Essaye De Ne Pas Rire. Victorieuse, car elle attribue a ce don de Melibea une fonction proleptique qui annonce le don futur du corps de la jeune fille, l'entremetteuse remet a Calisto le cordon que Melibea a fini par accorder. Essay Thesis. Dans un premier temps, Calisto recourt de facon traditionnelle a la figure rhetorique appelee prosopopee, qui permet de s'adresser a un objet inanime comme s'il etait humain. Stress. De facon traditionnelle, c'est-a-dire en maniant des formes interrogatives et exclamatives dont le caractere formel reste present a l'esprit du personnage. Descriptive Essay Statement. Cependant, tres vite, l'auteur va outrer le procede43, jusqu'a mettre en scene un Calisto attendant veritablement une reponse du cordon, l'implorant ou le sommant tour a tour de repondre, un Calisto amoureux d'un cordon dont il a litteralement oublie le statut d'objet inanime. Online Services Kolkata. Le Calisto ici mis en scene, c'est bien sur tout d'abord un Calisto fou, fou fetichiste qui reve aux secrets du corps merveilleux que le cordon a du voir : oh que secretos habras visto.44. 21 Le Calisto de cette scene est cependant aussi un Calisto amoureux de l'objet en tant que tel, amoureux d'un vide et adressant ses paroles d'amour au vide, a un objet qui finit par eclipser Melibea elle-meme.

22 Celestina releve bien cette disparition de la personne de Melibea sous l'objet cordon. Essay. Elle parle de delire et rappelle Calisto a l'ordre en lui demandant de veiller a traiter le cordon en cordon, sans confondre la personne avec l'objet : deves, senor, (. Leadership Traits Luther King Jr Have. ) tratar al cordon como cordon. Descriptive Essay Thesis Statement Generator. (. De Ne. ) no haga tu lengua yguales la persona y el vestido.45. 23 De meme, Sempronio souligne egalement cet aneantissement progressif de Melibea auquel aboutit le discours d'amour que son maitre Calisto est en train d'adresser au cordon. Descriptive Essay Generator. C'est sur le mode comique qu'il le fait, en insinuant que son maitre est en train de vivre un instant erotique avec le cordon au lieu de le vivre avec Melibea, grace a un jeu sur l'equivoque des termes holgar, qui dans la langue de l'epoque a pour sens prendre du plaisir, sexuel ou non, et gozar, qui encore aujourd'hui signifie jouir, sexuellement ou non : Senor, por holgar con el cordon no querras gozar de Melibea.46. 47 Ed. Soapstone Essay. cit ., p. Descriptive Generator. 421 et 538. About Stress At Work. 48 Ed. Generator. cit ., p. Professional Services Kolkata. 533. 24 Ainsi, en s'adressant au vide de l'objet, Calisto en arrive-t-il a reduire a neant l'existence de Melibea. Generator. Ce n'est pas seulement de sa substance de Dama dont Melibea est ici videe. Soapstone Essay. Les contre-portraits de Melibea, par exemple ceux que brosse la jalouse Elicia en associant Melibea a des evocations repugnantes47, ou bien plus largement, la degradation comique dont le personnage de Melibea fait l'objet tout au long de l'?uvre, parviennent a vider le personnage de sa substance litteraire de Dama de la tradition courtoise.

Mais il s'agit dans la scene du cordon de plus que cela, car ce n'est pas seulement de sa substance de Dama, mais aussi de son existence aux yeux de celui-la meme qui pretend l'aimer, dont Melibea se voit ici videe. Descriptive Essay Thesis Generator. Elle n'est plus qu'idee desincarnee. De Ne Pas Rire. De nombreux liens tissent une parente entre Melibea et la Dulcinea du Quichotte (1605 et 1615) de Cervantes. Descriptive Thesis Generator. Cette scene de La Celestina, en particulier, permet de voir en Melibea les germes de Dulcinea, pure invention de Don Quichotte, lequel decrete qu'il lui faut aimer, puisque les chevaliers aiment tous, et qui dans ce but s'invente une chimere d'amour a adorer dans les regles de l'art, avec la constance et la conviction d'une foi inebranlable. Essaye De Ne. Il est d'ailleurs dans La Celestina un autre exemple interessant de cet aneantissement de l'autre au moyen de la parole adressee au vide. Thesis. En colere contre Centurio, Areusa commence par s'irriter contre le personnage en s'adressant a lui a la deuxieme personne du singulier.

Puis soudain, Areusa48, alors que Centurio est toujours bien present, recourt a la troisieme personne en parlant devant lui de ce poltron, de ses mensonges, de la folie de l'avoir laisse entrer chez elle, en se demandant ce qu 'il peut bien avoir pour plaire. Online Professional Resume Services Kolkata. Et s'ensuit un portrait de Centurio qui metamorphose ce dernier en un objet grotesquement hideux, portrait qui ne prendra fin qu'avec l'ordre de disparaitre. Descriptive Generator. L'exemple est d'autant plus interessant qu'ici l'interlocuteur est present, mais qu'il est delocute, exclu du champ de l'interlocution. Resume Services Kolkata. Ainsi la parole vide de La Celestina peut-elle etre aussi une parole adressee au vide et qui, ce faisant, vide l'autre, le reduit a neant. 49 C. Descriptive Generator. Heusch, L'invention de Rojas : La Celestine, Paris, Presses Universitaires de France, 2008, p. Soapstone Essay. 1 (. Descriptive Essay Thesis Generator. ) 25 Comme l'a bien remarque Carlos Heusch49 en etudiant l'evolution du dialogue vers le monologue a travers l'?uvre, le creux des personnages se voit progressivement comble, etoffe d'une dimension qui a la fois complexifie, humanise et individualise le personnage. De Ne Pas Rire. Ce comblement progressif du vide des personnages ne marque cependant pas la fin du protagonisme du vide dans l'?uvre. 50 Ed. Descriptive Generator. cit ., p. Pas Rire. 532 et 536.

51 Ed. Essay. cit., p. Thesis. 581-582. 26 Au contraire, a mesure que les personnages s'emplissent, c'est le monde autour d'eux qui se vide, un vide dont ils acquierent une conscience de plus en plus aigue et qui les laisse seuls face au vide tragique du monde. Thesis Statement. C'est par exemple Elicia qui se desespere de ne trouver personne avec qui partager sa peine a la mort de son amoureux Sempronio50, c'est Melibea reprochant a Calisto de la laisser lancer ses paroles insensees dans le vide51, c'est Calisto qui, a l'oppose de celui qu'il a ete durant la scene du cordon, devient celui qui s'effraie de parler tout seul, de s'adresser au vide : Que digo ? Con quien hablo ?52. 27 Enfin, c'est surtout Pleberio, Pleberio et le vide immense que son planctus donne a voir. Leadership Luther Jr Have. Ce planctus, comme tous les llantos, se construit en grande partie sur les figures prefixees de la rhetorique, et s'adresser a l'absent fait justement partie integrante de la convention du planctus. Descriptive Essay Thesis Generator. Il n'empeche. Essaye De Ne Pas Rire. La facon dont Fernando de Rojas joue avec la contrainte, la facon dont il renove la convention, confere a ce planctus une force et une charge emotionnelle extraordinaires, qui font toucher du doigt le vide laisse par l'absence, qui rendent tangible le vide laisse par la mort de l'etre aime. Descriptive Statement. La force expressive du vide qui plane sur ce planctus de Pleberio gagne, car elle en ressort comme mise en relief et revelee, a etre mise en perspective avec le traitement poetique du vide dans le llanto de la mere du Leriano de la Carcel de amor.

Dans la Carcel de amor (1492), ?uvre de Diego de San Pedro parfaitement contemporaine de La Celestina et dont cette derniere est en partie la parodie, la mere du protagoniste Leriano, apostrophe aussi, bien sur, le fils mort qu'elle est en train de pleurer. Soapstone Essay. Pourtant le vide laisse par son absence n'a pas la meme resonance. Descriptive Essay. Tout d'abord parce que la mere de Leriano conclut sur de futures retrouvailles avec son fils dans l'au-dela, sa foi en une vie autre fermant le planctus sur une note d'espoir. Essay About At Work. Ensuite, parce que son planctus n'a pas le dernier mot de l'?uvre, qui ensuite donne a entendre, a travers le recit de l 'auctor, un Leriano s'enfoncant doucement dans une mort paisible qui met fin a sa souffrance. 53 D. Descriptive Essay Statement. de San Pedro, Carcel de amor. Thesis. p. Descriptive Generator. 176. Acabados son mis males53. 28 ou c'en est fini de ma douleur, dit en effet Leriano avant de s'eteindre, et comme remerciant la mort de le delivrer. Y assi quedo su muerte en testimonio de su fe54.

29 ajoute ensuite l 'auctor, ici le messager, donnant ainsi un sens a la mort de Leriano. Essaye Pas Rire. Si la poetique du vide mise en ?uvre dans le planctus de Pleberio s'avere dramatiquement plus efficace, c'est aussi cependant parce que Fernando de Rojas, dans le planctus de Pleberio, a su allier a la convention rhetorique, a l'expression emphatique de la douleur, la peinture de la quotidiennete du malheur, le prosaisme de la souffrance et de la solitude laissees par le vide. Thesis Statement Generator. Le pere s'adresse a sa fille morte, au vide, et a cette fille absente, a ce vide, il parle justement du vide qu'elle laisse. Essaye De Ne. Du vide qu'elle laisse dans sa vie vue comme abstraction, mais surtout, et c'est la ce que j'appelle le prosaisme de la souffrance laissee par le vide, il parle du vide concret, presque materiel, qu'elle laisse dans va vie quotidienne, sa petite vie de tous les jours. Descriptive Thesis Statement Generator. « Que ferai-je quand je rentrerai dans ta chambre et que je la trouverai vide ? Que ferai-je quand je t'appellerai et que tu ne me repondras pas ? », interroge-t-il, en effet55. Did Martin King. C'est precise­ment dans l'evocation du vide concret laissee par la fille morte que me semble resider une sorte de condensation poetique du vide cree par l'absence, ou du vide irremediable laisse par la mort. 30 Une mort qui progressivement envahit l'?uvre, et dont l'envahissement se voit poetise par la metamorphose, dans la bouche d'Areusa, du locus amoenus du jardin de Melibea en jardin noir plonge dans les tenebres du malheur et de la mort. Descriptive Statement. Souhaitant voir mourir les amants trop heureux qui ont involontairement cause la mort de son amoureux, Areusa peint ainsi de noir et de desolation le jardin de leurs doux ebats : Las yerbas deleytosas donde tomays los hurtados solazes se conviertan en culebras, los cantares se os tornen lloro, los sombrosos arboles del huerto se sequen con vuestra vista, sus flores olorosas se tornen de negra color.56. 31 Une mort qui vide l'?uvre de presque tous ses personnages, fauchant tout d'abord Celestina, Sempronio, Parmeno, puis Calisto, Melibea, et peut-etre meme, car une ambiguite subsiste a ce propos, Alisa, la mere de Melibea. Othello Essay. Pourquoi, si tu es bien morte, me laisses-tu porter seul la souffrance ? demande en effet Pleberio a sa femme, qu'il voit couchee sur le cadavre de leur fille57.

Vide de la mort et vide de la solitude de celui qui doit porter seul l'incommunicable souffrance viennent ici se confondre, en cet ultime instant de l'?uvre. Descriptive Essay Thesis. Ultime instant de l'?uvre qui donne a voir un personnage seul en scene, s'adressant au vide pour lui parler du vide, du vide laisse en son c?ur par la mort de la fille aimee mais aussi du vide abyssal d'un monde sans immanence et qui n'est plus que beance. Othello Notes. Personnage seul en scene qui lance les tout derniers mots de l'?uvre dans une interrogation dont le desespoir semble aussi vain que l'espoir : Por que me dexaste triste y solo in descriptive essay hac lachrimarum valle ?58. 32 Vide de la mort qui est aussi d'ailleurs dans La Celestina mort dans le vide. Absent Thesis. C'est en effet d'une fenetre que Parmeno et Sempronio tombent dans le vide avant d'etre acheves. Descriptive Essay Thesis. C'est d'une echelle que Calisto tombe dans le vide, ce vide sur lequel Fernando de Rojas fait insister Melibea, lorsqu'elle raconte a son pere la mort de son amant Calisto : « Puso el pie en vazio »59, il a mis le pied dans le vide, precise-t­elle en effet de facon significative. Did Martin. Enfin, c'est aussi dans le vide que se jette Melibea depuis le haut de la tour, un vide dont les dernieres paroles de Melibea donnent d'ailleurs a entendre la profondeur. Descriptive Generator. Les derniers mots de Melibea sont en effet ceux-ci, adresses a son pere qu'elle previent de sa chute imminente dans le vide : este cuerpo que alla baxa.60. 33 Dans ces ultimes paroles de Melibea, l'on remarquera en espagnol la forme en a du deictique alla, particulierement propre a dire le deplace­ment vers, la trajectoire vers, une forme en a qui de cette facon, devient en quelque sorte instrument de mesure du vide qui va engloutir Melibea. Essay About Stress At Work. En ce sens, j'aime bien laisser au mot pozo de la premiere phrase du planctus de Pleberio son sens de puits, meme s'il peut aussi vouloir dire sepulcre dans la langue de l'epoque. Essay Thesis. « Nuestro gozo en el pozo »61 (notre bonheur au fond du puits), dit en effet Pleberio.

Cette image du puits au fond duquel sombre le bonheur me semble en effet en parfaite adequation avec le vide qui hante l'?uvre. 34 Le vide du Planctus de Pleberio et de l'?uvre dans son entier, c'est enfin cette vacance du ciel, ce vide d'un monde que Dieu aurait abandonne ou deserte, ce vide d'un monde prive du sens que lui donnait une providence en laquelle on what leadership did martin king, ne croit plus, en laquelle Pleberio ne parvient plus a croire62, ce vide d'un monde denue de spiritualite et qui autorise Carlos Fuentes a parler d'une expulsion de Dieu : Entre l'allegresse orale de la jeunesse et la tristesse muette de la vieillesse, Fernando de Rojas se contente d'exister a jamais dans un livre. Descriptive Thesis Statement Generator. Sa vengeance secrete consiste a expulser Dieu, en silence, de la cite et du livre : il n'y a pas une seule reference a Dieu dans La Celestina. Essay Notes. 63 , 64 J. Statement. Ruiz, Libro. Essaye De Ne Pas Rire. p. Essay Thesis. 308, strophe 958. 35 Je ne fournirai qu'un seul exemple, significatif, de ce vide spirituel, grace a un dernier examen du maniement de l'intertextualite par l'auteur. Kolkata. Il existe dans le Libro de buen amor (1341) de Juan Ruiz un episode appele episode des serranas. Descriptive Essay Thesis. Je n'entrerai pas ici dans la tres grande complexite des serranas mais dirai simplement que ces entites feminines que sont les serranas integrent une dimension d'initiatrice et de guide du protagoniste, egare dans la froidure des montagnes.

Elles le conduisent, au terme d'epreuves initiatiques, vers le bon chemin, vers la voie menant a la verite de Dieu. Essay About. Au sein de l'episode, ce role de guide spirituel des serranas est poetiquement figure par l'aide physique qu'elles apportent au personnage, en le prenant sur leur dos pour l'aider a traverser les rivieres et gravir les montagnes64. Statement Generator. On trouve une reminiscence de cet episode clef dans La Celestina, lorsque la vieille entremetteuse rassure Calisto sur le succes de son entremise. Essay About At Work. Elle reconforte en effet Calisto en lui assurant qu'elle sera capable d'aplanir les rochers sous ses pas, de lui faire franchir des rivieres en crue : que te haria llanas las penas para andar, que te faria las mas crescidas aguas corrientes pasar sin mojarte.65. 36 Cette reminiscence du Libro de buen amor se voit cependant brutalement videe de sa dimension spirituelle par la petite phrase que Fernando de Rojas place dans la bouche de Celestina. Essay Thesis. Cette derniere, qui dans les vers cites vient de renvoyer a l'image des serranas du Libro de buen amor, ajoute en effet que Calisto connait bien mal l'efficacite de celle a qui il donne son argent66. Soapstone Essay. En quelques mots ajoutes a la trame primitive du livre de Juan Ruiz, Fernando de Rojas transforme l'initiatrice-guide en entre­metteuse cupide que seul l'argent motive, et l'initie en client de la marchande de luxure. Descriptive Statement Generator. En quelques mots, Fernando de Rojas fait basculer la spiritualite du Libro de buen amor dans le vide de La Celestina. 67 Voir sur ce point Joseph Perez, « La Celestina , livre converso ou livre de converso ? », dans Fern (. Professional Resume Services. ) 37 La poetique du vide cultivee par l'ecriture de La Celestina peut etre lue a travers le prisme du lien qui la relie a la transformation de cette societe espagnole qui voit l'argent, celui du Nouveau Monde que Christophe Colomb vient de decouvrir (1492) sous l'egide de la couronne de Castille, affluer et venir se substituer aux valeurs chevaleresques. Descriptive Thesis Statement Generator. Tout aussi pertinemment, cette poetique du vide peut etre mise en correlation avec le scepticisme du milieu de convers intellectuels et laics, globalement peu ou non croyants ou pratiquants, parmi lesquels Fernando de Rojas a pu vivre67. Soapstone Essay. Ou bien encore et peut-etre surtout, elle peut etre reliee a la desesperance du convers voyant sa terre d'Espagne, celle qui l'a vu naitre comme elle a vu naitre ses ancetres, devenir le theatre d'une chasse a l'Autre que les nouveaux statuts de purete de sang (1449) viennent marquer au fer rouge de l'exclusion et que la recente entree en fonction de l'Inquisition (1480) transforme en cible privilegiee de repression et de suspicion.

Cette poetique du vide me semble cependant aussi devoir etre lue comme signe precoce d'un humanisme naissant qui, pour mener a bien sa vaste entreprise de revision des concepts, doit avant tout vider ces derniers de leur contenu prealable. Descriptive Thesis. C'est la une poetique du vide pleine de son vide. Othello Notes. Car le monde de La Celestina est bien plein, riche, de son vide, un vide qui porte en germe les questionnements d'un Cervantes aussi bien que le desengano d'un Quevedo, le monde pris de folie d'un Gracian comme le vide baroque d'un Calderon, et au-dela peut-etre encore, la tabula rasa du rationalisme cartesien, le nihilisme nietzscheen, et tout le vide immense des philosophies de l'absurde. 1 Fernando de Rojas, La Celestina, Comedia o tragicomedia de Calisto j Melibea, Edicion, introduccion y notas de Peter E. Essay Statement. Russell, Madrid, Clasicos Castalia, 2008. Soapstone Essay. Toutes les references a l'?uvre renverront a cette edition. 2 Pour une etude reliant precisement La Celestina a son contexte, on descriptive thesis generator, pourra consulter Vincent Parello, « Aquel mudar de trajes, aquel derribar j renovar edificios : la modernite historico-sociale de La Celestina », dans Fernando de Rojas : La Celestina, comedia o tragicomedia de Calisto j Melibea, George Martin (dir.), Paris, Ellipses, 2008, p. Essay About. 7-20. 3 Pour une synthese des controverses liees au probleme d'autorite pose par La Celestina, on descriptive essay thesis statement, pourra se reporter a l'introduction de Peter E. Online Resume Writing. Russell dans l'edition utilisee. 5 C. Thesis Generator. Heusch, « Las desviaciones de Parmeno o la caida de un angel », Celestinesca, 26, 1-2, 2002, p. Othello Essay. 29-44. 6 F. Descriptive Essay Statement. de Rojas, ed. Resume Writing. cit ., p. Thesis Generator. 269 : « no sabes nada del mundo ni de sus deleytes ». 9 Ed. Soapstone Essay. cit ., p. Descriptive Thesis Statement. 509 ou 585 par exemple.

11 F. Essaye. Delpech, « Systeme erotique et mythologie folklorique dans les conjuros amatorios », dans Amours legitimes, amours illegitimes en Espagne (XVl e -XVll e siecles), Augustin Redondo (dir.), Paris, Publications de la Sorbonne, 1985, p. Thesis Statement. 213-230, voir p. Traits Luther Jr Have. 220. 12 Jose Maria Diez Borque, « Conjuros, oraciones, ensalmos : formas marginales de la poesia oral en los siglos de oro », Bulletin hispanique, n°1-2, janvier-juin 1985, p. Generator. 47-87. 17 Ed. Soapstone Essay. cit ., p. Descriptive Thesis Statement Generator. 477 : « ? En quien fallare yo fe ? ? Adonde ay verdad ? ? Quien carece de engano ? ? Adonde no moran falsarios ? ? Quien es claro enemigo ? ? Quien es verdadero amigo ? ? Donde ne se fabrican traiciones ? » 22 O. Othello Essay Notes. Biaggini, « Sentencia a mi ver digna de perpetua y recordable memoria : mise en scene et subversion de Yauctoritas dans La Celestine », dans Lectures de La Celestine, Virginie Dumanoir et Ricardo Saez (dir.), Rennes, Presses Universitaires de Rennes, 2008, p. Essay Statement. 125­156. 24 J.-P. Professional Services. Lecertua, « Le jardin de Melibee : metaphores sexuelles et connotations symboliques dans quelques episodes de La Celestine », Trames : Etudes Iberiques 2 (1978), p. Generator. 105-138. 26 Voir Martine Bigeard, La folie et les fous litteraires en Espagne (1500-1650), Paris, Centre de Recherches d'Etudes Hispaniques, 1972, p. Online Kolkata. 18.

31 M. Essay. Foucault, Histoire de la folie a l'age classique , Paris, Gallimard, 1972, p. Othello Notes. 45-46. 33 Sebastian de Covarrubias, Tesoro de la lengua castellana o espanola, Edicion de Martin de Riquer, Barcelona, Alta Fulla, 1993, p. Descriptive Essay Thesis Statement. 770b. 34 On pourra lire a ce propos l'introduction de Keith Whinnom a La carcel de amor : Diego de San Pedro, La carcel de amor, Edicion de K. Online Resume Services Kolkata. Whinnom, Madrid, Clasicos Castalia, 1971, p. Descriptive Generator. 26. 40 Juan Ruiz, Arcipreste de Hita, Libro de Buen Amor, Edicion de G. Professional Writing Kolkata. B. Descriptive Essay Thesis. Gybbon Monypenny, Madrid, Castalia, 1988, p. Services. 237, strophe 632, v. Descriptive Essay Thesis. 1-2. 49 C. Leadership King Jr Have. Heusch, L'invention de Rojas : La Celestine, Paris, Presses Universitaires de France, 2008, p. Generator. 137-146. 53 D. De Ne. de San Pedro, Carcel de amor. Statement. p. Essay Stress. 176. 62 Ed. Descriptive Statement Generator. cit ., p. Essay Stress. 617 619 notamment.

64 J. Thesis. Ruiz, Libro. Essay Stress At Work. p. Thesis Statement Generator. 308, strophe 958. 67 Voir sur ce point Joseph Perez, « La Celestina , livre converso ou livre de converso ? », dans Fernando de Rojas : La Celestina… , p. Essaye De Ne. 21-29, p. Generator. 23-28 en particulier. Odile Lasserre Dempure , « La Celestina de Fernando de Rojas : un monde plein de vide », Babel , 22 | 2010, 11-30. Odile Lasserre Dempure , « La Celestina de Fernando de Rojas : un monde plein de vide », Babel [En ligne], 22 | 2010, mis en ligne le 18 juillet 2013, consulte le 02 octobre 2017. Thesis. URL : http://babel.revues.org/206 ; DOI : 10.4000/babel.206. Babel (EA 2649) — Universite du Sud Toulon-Var. Agregee d'Espagnol, Maitre de Conferences a l'Universite du Sud Toulon-Var, specialiste du domaine Espagne du Siecle d'Or (XVI e et XVII e siecles), membre et membre associe des laboratoires Babel (EA 2649 — Universite du Sud Toulon-Var) et CRES-LECEMO (EA 3979 — Universite de Paris III Sorbonne-Nouvelle), Odile Lasserre-Dempure a soutenu a l'Universite de Paris III Sorbonne-Nouvelle une these de doctorat intitulee : Maison et femme dans le theatre profane de Luis Velez de Guevara (1578-1644). Thesis Statement Generator. Recherches sur la dramatisation de l'espace reel et symbolique de la feminite. Othello Essay. Ses activites de recherche ont fait l'objet de plusieurs publications et privilegient actuelle­ment l'etude des concepts de theatralite (scenographie), d'alterite (representation litteraire de la diversite religieuse, sexuelle ou identitaire), ainsi que celle de la strategie narrative et de ses implications esthetiques, philosophiques et ideologiques (poetiques de la mobilite, du vide, de la confusion). Agregee d'Espagnol, Maitre de Conferences a l'Universite du Sud Toulon-Var, specialiste du domaine Espagne du Siecle d'Or (XVI e et XVII e siecles), membre et membre associe des laboratoires Babel (EA 2649 — Universite du Sud Toulon-Var) et CRES-LECEMO (EA 3979 — Universite de Paris III Sorbonne-Nouvelle), Odile Lasserre-Dempure a soutenu a l'Universite de Paris III Sorbonne-Nouvelle une these de doctorat intitulee : Maison et femme dans le theatre profane de Luis Velez de Guevara (1578-1644). Descriptive Statement. Recherches sur la dramatisation de l'espace reel et symbolique de la feminite.

Ses activites de recherche ont fait l'objet de plusieurs publications et privilegient actuelle­ment l'etude des concepts de theatralite (scenographie), d'alterite (representation litteraire de la diversite religieuse, sexuelle ou identitaire), ainsi que celle de la strategie narrative et de ses implications esthetiques, philosophiques et ideologiques (poetiques de la mobilite, du vide, de la confusion). Polichinelle, patrimoine immateriel de notre temps. L’ethos en poesie 33 | 2016. Litteratures et arts contemporains : l’hybridite a l’?uvre 32 | 2015. Histoire culturelle des points cardinaux 31 | 2015. The Masculine South 30 | 2014. Paysages mediterraneens – Correspondances poetiques 29 | 2014. Horizons des mondes mediterraneen et atlantique : imaginaires compares 28 | 2013. Le prisme americain 27 | 2013. Actualite(s) de Montherlant 26 | 2012. Renverser la norme : figures de la rupture dans le monde hispanique 25 | 2012.

Images de la folie au tournant du Moyen Age et de la Renaissance 24 | 2011. Litterature et cinema 22 | 2010. La Celestina : etudes croisees 20 | 2009. Ecrire la montagne 19 | 2009. Univers fictionnels dans le monde hispanique 18 | 2008. Du bilinguisme en matiere de poesie 16 | 2007.

La mise en recueil des textes medievaux 15 | 2007. Le Moyen Age mis en scene : perspectives contemporaines 13 | 2006. Figures de la disparition dans le monde hispanique et latino-americain 12 | 2005. Regards culturels sur les phenomenes migratoires 8 | 2003. Le voyage initiatique, decouvertes, rencontres, experiences en montagne (XVII e -XX e siecles) 7 | 2003. Rhetoriques mediterraneennes 6 | 2002. La bibliotheque 1 4 | 2000. Litterature et propheties 3 | 1999. Ecritures heterogenes 2 | 1997. Mere Mediterranee 1 | 1996. ISSN electronique 2263-4746.

Informations Titre : Babel Litteratures plurielles En bref : Revue de litterature comparative et multingue.

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essays of epilepsy THE intention of the Author, under this genus Epilepsia, is to describe that disease which has been most com?monly in this island, called the Falling Sick?ness: The reason why we chuse to give it the title of Epilepsy is, it being the general Term now in descriptive thesis statement generator, use amongst the most accurate and re?cent Systematics: But before I attempt to enumerate the phaenomena and different symp?toms accompanying it, I think it necessary, in order to avoid the danger of its being con?founded with any other Genera, of the class of Neuroses of absent thesis, Dr. Descriptive Essay Thesis. Cullen, or of the Spasmi of Sauvage, to which it pertains; to give it a Definition, which I shall endeavour to be as concise in as the essaye de ne, matter will admit. THE Epilepsy is a disease of the essay, convulsive kind, returning periodically, affecting the ex?tremities with various and soapstone essay, irregular motions; every sense, as well as the faculties of the mind, for a certain time are altogether obli?terated. HAVING thus defined the disease, I shall next endeavour to illustrate its appearance more accurately in descriptive statement, a detail of the luther, particular symp?toms attending it; but as I have before re?marked that it is a periodical one, and as many circumstances shew the approach of these pe?riods, it seems most proper to take our first observations from them. Before any one is seized with an Epileptic Fit, as it is called, he or she generally perceives the head to be in some degree affected by stupor, or a kind of swimming, which we express by the name Vertigo; the countenance is sometimes red and bloated, at essay thesis, other times in a collapsed state, the eyes sparkle and appear highly excited, a small inflammation or red spot is frequently perceived upon the white of what leadership traits luther king, them, increasing gradually till the time of accession; the cir?cumambient parts are considerably distended; Page 7 vision is essay generator, diminished and vitiated in absent father thesis, some de?gree, sometimes indeed altogether absent.

The Iris has very different appearances, sometimes purple, at others black; the ears tingle, and descriptive statement generator, sounds are difficultly heard; dis?agreeable smells and tastes are also perceived. The patient's discourse deviates much from what it is in health, being either quicker or slower, and at soapstone essay, this time saliva is emitted from the mouth very copiously; the jugular veins are enlarged, and at last a loss of sense takes place. Neither are the parts below these altogether free from complaint, but are affected with symptoms common to other spasmodic dis?eases, particularly those of hysteria and hypo?chondriari; but it frequently varies here, act?ing differently in different temperaments; sometimes a pain is felt between the shoulders, the descriptive thesis generator, abdomen is drawn upwards, the tendons are convulsed, the heart and extremities trem?ble, yawning and difficult respiration succeed, the extremities grow cold, the penis is prae?ternaturally distended a sense of air or warm vapour is often perceived from the hypochon?dria, extremities or lowest parts, ascending to the higher and to the senorium. The eructions also are very irregular, for besides the profusion of saliva, which has been spoken of above, the digestions of the in?testines are foetid and very offensive, the urine Page 8 is also discharged in absent, greater quantity than is customary, and not sufficiently elaborated. Nocturnal emissions of semen frequently happen from salacious dreaming, a sense of inflation is also perceived at the praecordia, the abdomen begins to swell and murmur, the appetite vitiated, requiring food either in essay thesis generator, too great or small quantity, some are excited by anger, others are depressed by sorrow or fear; others again are distracted by stress anxious cares, some transported by thesis generator joy, by foolish and intemperate laughing; others within a short space of time run through all their different affections, sleep is either too profound or dis?turbed with terrifying dreams; the leadership traits king jr have, incubus or night-mare frequently is an addition to these calamities. By the increase of these symptoms, at last the occasion appears, by which the patient is thesis, prostrated on the ground by a groan, all the senses and the faculty of the mind being abandoned. Violent convulsions seize the whole body, the soapstone essay, muscies of the face being differently dis?torted, seem to express different senses of the mind as those of grief, joy, anger, love, c. there is statement, also a violent grinding or grating of the teeth takes place, to such a degree as some?times to did martin luther jr have, destroy part of their extremities; it is not unusual for the tongue to protrude a little out of the mouth, and the closing of the jaws frequently cause the teeth to cut it ex?ceedingly; Page 9 a livid appearance of the lips and under parts of the essay thesis, eyes takes place, which, in a short time, runs over the whole face; the palpebrae of the eyes are irregularly moved, but never are so far constricted as to cover all the othello essay notes, white; the mouth is dry, sparm prevail?ing in the beginning, afterwards it pours forth its saliva, the sparm not being solved; respi?ration is performed with the essay, greatest difficul?ty and labor, as if a person was actually under efforts of strength, and the hands are clinched with great force, neither are the online professional kolkata, heart and ar?teries free from distress, the pulsations of which are at first quick and small, in a short time they become full and slow, not having their proper force, and can scarcely be numbered, wanting their regular order; after this the venis of the face, also the praecordia and abdomen begin to swell; the excretions are also considerably disturbed, for instead of sa?liva, which was before very profusely secreted, a soam arises in the mouth, also stools, urine, sweat and semen, are spontaneously evacuated, in an excited system, endued with great sen?sibility; vomiting also happens sometimes. All these symptoms by degrees begin to vanish, and the Convalescent Epileptic has not the descriptive essay statement generator, appearance of death, or a moribund state, but a more natural sleep at last returns again; but yet not so sufficiently natural but that it Page 10 represents Apoplexy. The breathing at about, last becomes less laborious; and a short space of statement, time intervening, the patient, not conscious of any thing that has happened, is restored to his natural state: it rarely occurs that a per?son recovers immediately all his faculties, upon the paroxysm subsiding; for generally there remains an inactivity to motion, in all the othello essay notes, extremities, dullness of conception, pains of the head, and dimness of sight; all which continue some time. — The times of in?terval between these accessions are very diffe?rent; some are attacked every day, or some?times twice in the day; others once in the month; and others again, at a much greater distance of time; but the accessions do not observe regular periods, even in generator, the same per?son; and the continuance of the accession also differs greatly, some only soapstone essay being distressed for generator, a few minutes, others whole days: and here we conclude our account of the symptoms attend?ing Epilepsy.

THE different remote causes, and the ef?fects of those visible upon what traits did martin king the brain of dis?sected Epileptics, sufficiently demonstrate, that Epilepsy most frequently depends on a turgid state of the brain; these causes, whether they Page 11 act directly upon essay thesis generator the brain, or primarily on another part of the body, are at last transfer?red to it, and there act * . Those that act within the brain may, as sar as at father thesis, present we have learnt from dissections, be properly reserred to six heads: 1. Mecha?nical Stimuli—As a fractured cranium, and statement generator, all cases of depression. Absent Thesis. 2. Descriptive Thesis Generator. Chemical Sti?muli—Collections of acrid fluids. 3. Mat?ters preventing the leadership traits did martin king, free circulation of the blood, or proper action of the nerves, under which are comprehended tumor, ossifications, and compressions. Descriptive Generator. 4. Where the vessels of the brain are preternaturally filled with blood. 5. Effusions of blood. Essaye Pas Rire. 6. Effusions of Se?rum. It is obvious, beyond a doubt, that all these causes consist in a full and turgid state of the thesis statement generator, brain, which is the fourth cause; and an in?crease of this, the what leadership traits luther king jr have, fifth and the sixth follows either of these, when no hydropic habit is present; which may be easily detected by its symptoms, and descriptive statement generator, distinguished from that state of thesis, turgiscency which we are endeavouring to in?vestigate; an impeded circulation in the sinu?ses of the descriptive essay thesis, brain, or jugular veins, will cause the arterious blood to soapstone essay, act with greater impe?tus, upon their exhalents, which will cause an effusion of essay thesis statement generator, serum; and a small effusion in the Page 12 brain is more liable to do harm than in any other part; because here we have no absorb?ents, and the veins only perform this office; so that a small quantity of serum effused, must accumulate by stagnation for want of this ab?sorbent system. The sixth cause is therefore an effect of the two foregoing; nor does the first act imme?diately, unless by giving that full habit we have been discussing, or in some degree assist?ed by that, we are certain it does not give a more certain Epilepsy, and the cure of every Epilepsy coming from this origin, consists in a diminution of the full habit.—What per?tains to what leadership traits did martin luther king, the second, I agree that acrid chemi?cal Stimuli are both obnoxious to, and capable of giving Epilepsy; but as such I deny its ca?pability of giving one where the descriptive, paroxysm is pas rire, continued longer, and when the stimulus is descriptive statement generator, present, and the fit has been more durable, and serous colluvies found extravasated; I contend that it is the effect of the what leadership traits did martin luther jr have, disease, and of the impetus of the blood, which before has been elucidated. The third cause is the descriptive, only one remaining to be reconciled to our general opinion, under which are classed, hard tumors and consertions in the brain, impeding the free circulation through it: this is pretty well explained by the first and second cause; such is a compres?sion of the softer parts into a praeternatural Page 13 hardness: this cause therefore seems to me to online professional writing, act as a stimulus, quickening the circulation of the blood through its vessels; therefore this, as well as the first cause, if not directly, yet in effect produces the descriptive essay thesis statement, plenitude necessary for our proposition; and the same may be added with respect to the other four causes, which have been before enumerated, and properly reconciled, as terminating similarly. These conclusions are or the greatest advan?tage in soapstone essay, practice, and clearly shew us how we ought to diminish the Plethoric habit of Epi?leptics, and recommend abstinence: this is an excellent example of the use of descriptive statement generator, dissections in investigating proximate causes of diseases, though much neglected at present by phy?sicians.

Not that I mean to affirm, or give it as my opinion, that there is no Epilepsy but what depends on Plethora; many depend on what luther king jr have inani?tion, others on neither cause: more are how?ever to be referred to it than at first view we imagine. I remember a case of Epilepsy, remarked by my most ingenious master and illustrious pro?fessor, Dr. Cullen, at Edinburgh, which was brought on by fear; and yet before every re?turn of the paroxysm an inflammation of one of the eyes was clearly perceived. As we have gone pretty fully through these causes, which act within the Cranium, let us Page 14 endeavour, in order more certainly to estab?lish the nature of the disease, as depending on this plethoric state of the Brain, to shew how causes originally acting elsewhere, or at a distance, produce the thesis statement generator, same effects. Impressions of de ne, different kinds, acting upon the senses in general, give Epilepsy, according to their degree of impulse; they do not act as being of distinct or different kinds, but by force of descriptive thesis, impression, or reflect sensations, ex?cited (as they are called) and this may be re?conciled to all the senses, except that of smell, upon which odours seem to act parti?cularly; neither have these the power of soapstone essay, act?ing, unless sufficiently strong. So a consider?able degree of pain, of any part—joy, and essay thesis statement, what is still more, fear, which is carried to absent thesis, a degree of terror, have produced Epilepsy.—Terror acts more powerfully as a stimulus than joy; because we are modified by nature to descriptive essay statement generator, attend more peculiarly to those motions of the mind, which free us from danger, than those which elevate us to sudden prosperity.—And why not? when we consider, that sud?den destruction is escaped in soapstone essay, one case, and only transitory pleasure acquired in the other.—Chemical Stimuli act also in like manner; some upon the whole system, others only on a particular part, as by stimulating the sto?mach; and these do not act specifically, but according to their strength do they produce Page 15 Epilepsy.—Odours, indeed, as we have be?fore said, seem to have a peculiar mode of action, and descriptive essay statement generator, some other causes produce the dis?ease from encreased irritability of the patient; as among children, dentition, calculi, and worms. And these causes act in what leadership traits luther jr have, the same manner as those within the brain, viz. by stimulating the brain to more violent motions, and quickening the descriptive thesis statement, circulation of the blood through it; which, from our former ob?servations, seems to be the soapstone essay, most frequent cause of Epilepsy.

But having before said, that Epilepsy might arise from statement a contrary state, we shall run over these causes, as not being of so much consequence and impor?tance, with less precision. Perturbations of the mind, by diminishing the action of the brain, produce a tempora?ry Epilepsy, quickly terminating in either death or health, as is observed in the effects of great and sudden joy, or terror; but it would have been sufficient only to have men?tioned these once, as they very commonly bring on death in a similar manner; as by absent Palsy, Apoplexy, Syncope, and Convulsions.—Some of the affections of the mind give a more con?tinued Epilepsy, and one more pertinent to our proposition, as Fear; which, by diminish?ing in a certain manner the mobility of the nervous power, seems, by an inherent law in our system, to essay statement, give in a certain ratio, a re?action Page 16 of the efforts of the brain, which is what did martin luther jr have, even greater than natural; or the descriptive thesis, remem?brance of this same cause of fear is notes, often very surficient to bring back the disease.—There is a fact of a pregnant woman being fatigued with trying a new gown, which by diminish?ing the thesis statement, excitement of the about, Sensorium, gave that reaction necessary for descriptive essay thesis statement generator, the production of an Epileptic fit; the sight of which gown, for sometime after, was sufficient to renew the paroxysm. Atonia of the traits luther, stomach some?times is sufficient to give Epilepsy; such as is made by distention after eating, as is ob?served by Galen.—Fumes of Ipecacuana taken into the stomach, are capable of producing the same effects; also Mercury, and many other matters; the Variolous contagion, induced by inoculation; and the Aura Epileptica, and thesis statement generator, finally, compression of the brain, which pro?duces Epilepsy, such as generally precedes Apoplexy or Palsy. There causes, from the effects, and method of cure, are very clearly seen to act, by giv?ing a state of the brain, contrary to excite?ment, which we chuse to call by the name Collapse; but then these act very rarely when compared with the former; neither do they essentially deviate from essay about at work our proposition. From innumerable dissections of Lieutaud, Morgagni, and others, of Epileptic patients; also in descriptive essay thesis statement, the opinion of the greatest characters in Page 17 Physic, Albertinius and Hossman, and many others, truly honoured and esteemed for online professional writing kolkata, their practice, it appears, that they, for thesis, the most part, frequently treated Epilepsy as a disease strictly connected with Plethora; and this also particularly agrees with the opinions and doctrines of othello essay notes, my late most worthy Master and Instructor, Doctor Cullen, of thesis statement generator, Edinburgh, Pro?fessor of the Institutes and Practice of Physic; whole name I am at a loss for words to adorn with that reverence, gratitude, and affection, that it demands of me; but will always en?deavour to keep it in soapstone essay, view in my practice.—I am also of opinion, that this turgescent state, which we have been endeavouring to establish, will, argued fairly, most easily in?vestigate the nature and cure of the Epilepsy. For the more clear and accurate elucida?tion of the proximate cause of this disease, let us consider those habits that are most pre?disposed to it.—Those Systems inclined to Epilepsy, are generally endowed with encreas?ed mobility: by this I mean persons subject to sudden, irregular and violent motions of the mind; and is it not highly probable, that the state of the brain in thesis, these habits, which is moved by leadership traits did martin king jr have every impulse of thesis statement, stimuli, and soapstone essay, every change of descriptive statement, tension, is similar?

This mobility is encreased by what traits repetition, and, after sometime, become habitual, and al?most natural, according to the law of irrita?bility, Page 18 (by which I mean the power of con?traction of muscles) it is encreased and fa?cilitated by motion.—This explains the rea?son why, after one paroxysm others can be produced by less active and weaker stimuli, and descriptive thesis statement generator, seems as if they were produced even spon?taneously; for which reason it has been called a voluntary and feigned disease. This mobi?lity assists us much in the investigation of the proximate cause of every Epilepsy.—There are two causes of stress at work, mobility: 1. Debility of muscular fibres. 2. Excess of descriptive statement generator, tension. The first cause is clearly elucidated in in?fants, who are particularly obnoxious to Epi?leptic fits, a debile state of muscular fibres, or of the original stamina, can give such a cer?tain condition of the nervous power, which makes it more adapted to irregular motions, which we call encreased mobility: but per?haps this reasoning may appear too subtile; so I shall pass to the other cause of mobi?lity, viz. Excess of tension.—This giving mobility, remains by some means now more clearly to be explained.

Stretching fibres beyond their tone, gives encrease of mobility: so fibres immoderately distended by the Potentiae No?centes; Page 19 such as exercise, heat, drunkenness, c. Soapstone Essay. especially in generator, a Plethoric system; when the what leadership king jr have, force of these is removed, they immediate?ly relax themselves, in a certain ratio, as they have been before distended; and in like man?ner are their oscillations encreased; which re?mission, or relaxation, must frequently neces?sarily take place in the brain.—This tension, which depends on the quantity and impetus of the humours, frequently remits; an ex?planation of which, by an example of an elas?tic cord, may perhaps render it more easy to conceive: if such a cord is extended, by force or by any weight, to a certain length, it will require a greater force, or weight, to stretch it as much more, than was at first applied: and in a ratio, according to descriptive essay thesis statement, the degree of disten?sion, so will be the absent thesis, resilition, the distending power being removed: or, I may explain the same thing by a pendulum; as far as you re?move it by the hand from the center of gra?vity in descriptive, one direction, giving it liberty, it will, in a certain ratio, go so much farther from it on the reverse side.—A full, turgid state of the brain is analogous to this; the oscillations of which are produced either spontaneously, or by faults occuring elsewhere; as Plethora al?ways encreases itself. But besides this cause of Epilepsy, consist?ing in the excitement of the brain, or in its greater oscillations, that is excess of tension Page 20 connected with debility; a defect of tension, debility being present, will produce the same effects.—This is a peculiar law of our system; as excitement produces Collapse, so, in return, does sedative powers produce Excitements.—For the motions of what leadership luther king, our minds run into con?trary extremes.—Terror produces this disease by exciting the brain; but in a short time it produces a contrary state, the impetus being a little moderated. Exquisite titillation brings about the same phaenomenon, as is descriptive statement, observed by Aristotle: And other sedative causes act in like manner. We shall however leave these discussions, and pass to the cure of Epilepsy, depending on a turgescent state of the vessels of the brain.

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Case study: BP’s policies and descriptive essay generator measures for preventing and managing accidents and oil spills. January 24, 2017 case studies 559 Views. The BP oil disaster of 2010 began on April 20 of that year in the Gulf of Mexico: following the explosion and sinking of the Deepwater Horizon oil rig, a sea-floor oil gusher flowed for 87 days until it was capped on July 15, 2010. Eleven people went missing and were never found and othello essay it is considered the largest accidental marine oil spill in the history of the petroleum industry. The cover of BP’s 2010 GRI- based CSR report has a picture of the oil spill in the Mexican Gulf. In the report, BP emphasizes how it is striving to descriptive generator earn back the trust that was lost by making substantial changes to the way it works.

This case study is based on the 2012 Sustainability Review by BP published on the Global Reporting Initiative Sustainability Disclosure Database that can be found at this link . Through all case studies we aim to demonstrate that CSR/ sustainability reporting done responsibly is stress at work, achieved by identifying a company’s most important impacts on the environment and stakeholders and by measuring, managing and changing. Research by well-recognized institutions is clearly proving that responsible companies can look to the future with optimism. Sustainability reporting using the Global Reporting Initiative’s Standards is essentially a four-step process: Identify – Measure – Manage – Change . By becoming aware of your company’s most important impacts towards the environment and all your key stakeholders – investors, clients, employees, suppliers and the wider society – you will be able to descriptive statement generator measure, set targets, take action to minimize your negative impacts and increase your positive impacts. Using the father thesis GRI Standards in order to maintain and descriptive statement increase the absent father value of your company. With each article in this series the FBRH team will highlight one key impact identified by essay statement, a company reporting in accordance with the GRI Standards and notes show how it has taken a structured, systematic approach to improving performance. With such positive action companies build trust, by dealing responsibly and conscientiously with their impact on the environment and on their stakeholders: clients, suppliers, shareholders, local communities, NGOs or local government. To subscribe to the FBRH team’s newsletter, please use the SustainCase subscription form. In the aftermath of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill, BP implements a comprehensive programme to strengthen safety, risk management and thesis generator compliance across the company, working to at work prevent, mitigate and descriptive ensure its preparedness to respond to accidents and spills across its operations. Following the what leadership traits did martin luther accident, a range of measures were taken by BP to reduce the risk of accidents and oil spills, including, among others, implementing the Bly Report (the company’s internal investigation into the Deepwater Horizon incident), indicators to help BP track its progress in process safety management, monitoring the loss of primary containment and measures for achieving safer drilling and safety in thesis statement, the Downstream business.

What are the material issues the company has identified? BP has identified – as seen in the company’s Sustainability Reviews – a number of essaye pas rire material issues over the last years, such as alternative energy, climate change, BP’s code of conduct, corporate governance and risk, environmental performance, host societies and local communities, human rights. Essay Statement! However, since 2010 a recurring material issue for the company, following the Deepwater Horizon oil spill, has been preventing and managing accidents and oil spills. Stakeholder engagement in accordance with the GRI Standards. The Global Reporting Initiative (GRI) defines the absent Principle of descriptive essay thesis statement Stakeholder Inclusiveness when identifying material issues (or a company’s most important impacts) as follows:

Stakeholders must be consulted in the process of identifying a company’s most important impacts and absent father thesis their reasonable expectations and interests must be taken into account. This is an thesis, important cornerstone for CSR / sustainability reporting done responsibly. Key stakeholder groups BP engages with: How stakeholder engagement was made to identify material issues. Input from its stakeholders is a key part of BP’s reporting process, because it helps the company to identify and report on sustainability topics that really matter. Indeed, CSR reporting done responsibly comes by what leadership luther king jr have, measuring, setting targets and taking action on what matters where it matters. BP made decisions about which topics to cover in the company’s Sustainability Review 2012 (the most recent Sustainability Review of the thesis statement generator three on which the thesis present case study was based) and on thesis statement, the sustainability section of its website by talking with external stakeholders and by reviewing the notes year’s developments with its own internal subject matter experts. In preparing to publish its 2012 report BP surveyed more than 300 sustainability stakeholders for their views on its sustainability reporting, met with socially responsible investors and engaged with stakeholders from descriptive essay thesis statement more than 40 non-governmental organizations, academic institutions and other types of organizations, including BSR, Center for Corporate Citizenship at online resume, Boston College, Environmental Law Institute, European Bank for Reconstruction and Development, Forum for the Future, HSBC, International Chamber of thesis Commerce UK, Jaguar Land Rover, Khazar University, Oxford Policy Management, Pact, ShareAction (formerly FairPensions), Transparency International UK, USAID. Essaye! Many of essay these conversations took place in leadership traits did martin, one-to-one meetings held in London, Washington DC and New York.

BP also held a one-day sustainability roundtable discussion in Baku, Azerbaijan, focusing on thesis statement generator, diverse viewpoints from a strategically significant market for the company. What actions were taken to prevent and manage accidents and online professional writing oils spills? In BP’s Sustainability Review 2012 the following targets were set regarding the prevention and management of accidents and oil spills, based on the company’s approach to materiality – on thesis generator, taking action on what matters, where it matters: Tracking process safety performance BP tracks progress in process safety management through leading indicators, to prevent incidents. Tweet This!

These include inspections and online kolkata tests of equipment critical to process safety. BP also measures lagging indicators that record events that have already happened – such as oil spills and other losses of primary containment. BP tracks the thesis number of process safety events occurring across its downstream process plants and upstream facilities, including unplanned or uncontrolled releases of materials causing harm to a member of the workforce or costly damage to equipment or exceeding threshold quantities. Tier 1 process safety events are those with the greatest consequence. There were 43 tier 1 process safety events reported in absent, BP in 2012, compared with 74 in thesis generator, 2011. Pas Rire! BP reported tier 2 process safety events, which are losses of primary containment of descriptive essay thesis lesser consequence, externally for the first time in 2012 – 154 tier 2 events were reported.

BP monitors the integrity of its operations, tanks, vessels and pipelines used to produce, process and pas rire transport oil, hydrocarbons and other energy, with the aim of preventing the loss of material from its primary containment. Essay Statement! Accordingly, BP tracks loss of what did martin king jr have primary containment which includes unplanned or uncontrolled releases from a tank, vessel, pipe, railcar or equipment used for containment or transfer within its operational boundary, excluding non-hazardous releases such as water. BP’s global wells organization (GWO) now employs more than 2,000 people, bringing functional wells expertise into a single organization with common global practices. BP has committed to descriptive thesis statement establishing a global wells institute and othello has invested in state-of-the art simulator facilities to support practical learning and testing, which will be made available to all deepwater rig teams, including its contractors. Competence testing is a vital part of essay statement safe operating, so BP has developed a competency assurance programme to enhance drilling competency for key operational and essaye pas rire leadership positions. BP continues to work on implementing the 26 recommendations made by the Bly Report – the company’s internal investigation into the Deepwater Horizon incident.

The investigation was led by BP’s head of safety and operational risk, Mark Bly, and essay statement drew upon the expertise of more than 50 technical and other specialists from within BP and the industry. Published in September 2010, the stress at work resulting Bly Report concluded that no single cause was responsible for the accident. It made 26 recommendations aimed at further reducing risk across BP’s global drilling activities. BP accepted the recommendations of the Bly Report and is implementing them across its worldwide drilling operations. At the end of 2012, 14 of the 26 recommendations had been completed. In June 2012, the board appointed Mr Carl Sandlin to provide the statement safety, ethics and environment assurance committee (SEEAC) of the board with an objective and independent assessment of BP’s global progress in implementing the Bly Report recommendations and on process safety observations in absent thesis, the Upstream. He had direct access to thesis the chair of SEEAC. Soapstone Essay! Mr Sandlin’s role was to essay generator review evidence of the actions being taken and to essaye de ne pas rire provide assurance to the board, via SEEAC, that the deliverables and corresponding recommendations had been closed.

He had access to all levels of the company’s GWO, including well site leaders and senior management. Capping and containment, including the ability to both cap the well and collect oil that has escaped, plays a pivotal role in being prepared to respond to any potential incident. BP continues to advance its capability to respond to potential incidents and works with industry to further enhance access to equipment and technologies around the essay thesis world. In its facilities across the Downstream business BP focuses on the safe storage, handling and processing of hydrocarbons through the absent systematic management of associated operating risks. In seeking to manage these risks, BP takes measures to: a) prevent loss of hydrocarbon containment through well-designed, maintained and operated equipment, b) reduce the likelihood of any hydrocarbon releases and the possibility of ignition that may occur by controlling ignition sources and descriptive essay thesis statement c) provide safe locations, emergency procedures and other mitigation measures in the event of absent father thesis a release, fire or explosion. Some examples of specific risk reduction work across its refining and petrochemicals portfolio in 2012 include: a) Installation of additional safety instrumentation and equipment to reduce the likelihood of risks occurring. b) Continuing work to improve the safety of site occupied buildings, with a major programme to install safety shelters for essay, personnel, to move people further away from hydrocarbon-containing equipment and to reduce the number of vehicles on site. For example, during 2012 a building hardening programme was completed at the company’s Toledo refinery in writing services, the US and at its Bulwer refinery in Australia it constructed new offices to move employees away from higher risk processing areas. Descriptive Thesis! The business also continues to train and drill personnel to respond to emergencies. c) Work to essay reduce explosion and toxic risks through inventory reduction by, for example, reducing ethylene and propylene refrigerants in thesis generator, the company’s petrochemical plants. Appointing a new process safety expert for BP’s Downstream business. Mr Duane Wilson’s five-year board appointment as independent expert to provide an leadership traits did martin luther king, objective assessment of BP’s progress in implementing the essay statement generator recommendations of the BP US Refineries Independent Safety Review Panel came to father an end in descriptive essay thesis statement generator, May 2012. Recognizing the extensive experience he had acquired during his years as independent expert and following the end of his term, SEEAC appointed him as a process safety expert and assigned him to soapstone essay work, in essay thesis generator, a global capacity, with the Downstream business, having frequent and direct access not only to the board, but also to BP employees from the most senior executives down to father the shop floor.

Following the statement generator settlement with the US government of all federal criminal claims related to the Gulf of Mexico, BP has agreed in 2012 to soapstone essay appoint a process safety monitor in the US for a term of four years to review, evaluate and descriptive statement provide recommendations for the improvement of BP’s process safety and risk management procedures concerning deepwater drilling in the Gulf of Mexico. Which GRI indicators/Standards have been addressed? 1) This case study was compiled using published information by BP which is luther king, located at the links below. For the sake of descriptive generator readability, we did not use brackets or ellipses but made sure that the extra or missing words did not change the report’s meaning. Othello Essay! If you would like to quote these written sources from the original please revert to the following links: Note to BP: With each case study we send out an email to your listed address in request for a comment on this case study. If you have not received such an email please contact us. LONDON LSE • Thu 5 – Fri 6 Oct 2017 – Certified CSR/ Sustainability Course. Learn how Today’s Best-Run Companies are achieving Economic, Social and Environmental Success – and How You Can Too… Case study: How Campbell is ensuring food safety and quality. September 22, 2017.

Case study: How Nestle strives to operate with a fundamental respect for the rights of the people it employs, does business with or otherwise interacts with. September 20, 2017. Case study: How Ericsson shows zero tolerance for bribery and corruption. September 19, 2017. Get acquainted with GRI Standards, the first global standards for sustainability reporting. LONDON LSE • Thu 5 – Fri 6 Oct 2017 – Certified CSR/ Sustainability Course. CSR: The Strategic Importance of Sustainability Reporting Done Responsibly. January 30, 2017. 2-Day FBRH GRI Certified Course.

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