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This free script provided by. Do you know what a writer's resume looks like? I have a regular full-time job but also work as a freelance writer from home. Instructions. Recently I saw two ads for writing jobs, requiring a resume along with clips and scientific essay a query leter. Should I include only instructions my writing credits and university layout education? Or should I include my whole employment history even though many of those jobs had nothing to do with writing? Here's a dilemma freelance writers often face: How do you go about instructions, getting a day job in university the writing or publishing business? If you're a freelancer, chances are that (a) you work from home, and (b) your job history (current or former) may have little relationship to your writing skills. You know that you have the skills to handle a regular writing or editorial position, but how do you convince an instructions employer? Don't despair: There is an alternative. Instead of using a traditional work history resume, consider developing a skills resume instead.
This type of resume is a perfectly acceptable alternative to the chronological resume, and enables you to focus on the skills and experience that are directly relevant to the job for nyu creative writing program, which you're applying. A skills resume differs from a job-history resume in that it lists your skills and qualifications in a separate section, rather than as a subset of your work history. The basic framework for such a resume might look something like this: Section 1: Name, address, telephone, fax, e-mail, URL. If you're using a print resume, center these in a larger, attractive (but not too fancy) font, as follows: Ima Great Writer. 123 Quill Pen Rd. #183 Hometown, CA 94000. (555) 123-4567 #183 (555) 123-4568 (fax) #183 e-mail. Great Writings Page #183 http://www.greatwritings.com. Instructions. Optional.
If you choose to list your objectives, use no more than two lines here. Section 3: Qualifications. This is the critical part of your resume. You may want to give this section a more definitive title, such as Writing and Editing Experience . Here, you'll want to list each type of skill that is program relevant to the job you're applying for. For example, if the job listing asks for demonstrated writing and editing skills, plus familiarity with Internet publishing and HTML, your qualifications section might look something like this: Writing: Professional writer for instructions, XX years, with experience in magazine, newspaper, and business writing. Author of XXX articles in essay XX national publications; co-author of two books; author of three book chapters. Winner of the 1998 best article award from the Good Authors' Association. (See attached publications list for details.) Even if your work history has nothing to instructions, do with your writing skills, you should include it. A history of a class reflection paper employment indicates to a potential employer that you are, in fact, employable. If your history indicates several periods of steady employment with a single company, this indicates that you are considered a reliable worker (i.e., one who was retained) rather than someone who either flits from instructions, job to job or gets fired frequently. If you've been promoted within your company (past or present), list this as well, as this is another good indication of scientific on animals your ability to function well as an employee.
Unlike the job-history listings in a regular chronological resume, however, you'll want to keep these sections short. Instructions. List your job title, dates, the life three without name of the company and its location, and a contact name and number if you wish. Use no more than two or three lines to instructions, summarize your duties and major achievements. Be selective: List promotions, and highlights such as number of people supervised, whether you were responsible for a budget, whether you handled major projects, etc. If you have been self-employed as a freelance writer for essay, a period of time, list this as your most recent job. This will help explain any otherwise awkward gaps in instructions your employment history. For example: Freelance Writer - June 1997 to present City, state Brief description of your primary writing activities, including the our house essay names of any major clients or publications for instructions, which you have provided material or services. Don't bother to recap the our house essay skills you've already listed above. Instructions. Needless to say, if you can find any duties in nyu creative your work history that relate to writing or the job you're trying to instructions, obtain, list them -- even if it's something as obscure as contributed to the company newsletter. Life Principle Three Without. Do not, however, list your reasons for leaving previous jobs (whether voluntary or otherwise), and never include negative information about your previous employers.
Every resume should include your educational history, starting with the instructions most recent degrees and soup essay working backwards. Instructions. If you have a college education, omit information about high school. This section should also include any other relevant education you may have, such as vocational training, on-the-job training, or even online courses that are relevant to the job you're seeking. (Keep in mind, however, that adult education courses, which generally don't involve grades or certification, generally won't impress an employer.) Many writing and editorial jobs ask for a degree in writing (e.g., journalism, English, etc.). Don't panic if you have no such degree; most companies are more than happy to accept experience in lieu of formal education. Section 6: Awards and scientific Memberships. Instructions. This is the section to list any awards you've received, especially relating to writing and editing. (Don't include awards your website has received, unless they are truly meaningful.) If you are a member of a class paper any writing or editorial societies or organizations, list those as well (if you have room). Section 7: Personal Information.
It was once fashionable to list personal interests and hobbies on a resume. Now, however, that is considered inappropriate. If you have specific hobby skills that somehow relate to the job in question, try to find a way to list those under skills instead. Instructions. (For example, if you're applying for a job at an archaeology magazine and you've participated in several digs during your summer vacations, list those under skills and experience.). Here's what your resume might look like when you're finished: 123 Quill Pen Rd. In Order Essay. #183 Hometown, CA 94000. (555) 123-4567 #183 (555) 123-4568 (fax) #183 e-mail. Instructions. Great Writings Page #183 http://www.greatwritings.com. Objectives: An editorial position that will enable me to contribute to the creative development of writing a publication and expansion of its circulation. Writing and Editorial Background. Instructions. Writing: Professional writer for essay layout, XX years, with experience in instructions magazine, newspaper, and business writing. Author of XXX articles in XX national publications; co-author of nyu creative writing program two books; author of three book chapters.
Winner of the 1998 best article award from the instructions Good Authors' Association. (See attached publications list for details.) Freelance Writer - June 1997 to present. City, state Brief description of essay layout your primary writing activities, including the names of instructions any major clients or publications for which you have provided material or services. Don't bother to essay without, recap the skills you've already listed above. Instructions. City, state; contact name and phone number if desired. Brief summary of your duties and responsibilities; list major achievements and promotions. Company Name Brief summary of your duties and responsibilities; list major achievements and promotions. M.A., University of Somewhere, 1989 - Journalism. B.A., University of chicken for the soul Somewhere Else, 1985 - English. Certification in Editorial Excellence, 1992; Certification in instructions HTML, Online School of HTML, 1997. Chicken For The Soul Essay. Awards and Memberships.
Cat Writers' Association, Best Article, 1998. Instructions. Speakers' Bureau Certificate of Excellence, 1997. Member, Authors' Guild. Member, Mystery Writers' Association of our house essay America. Member, Mytown Writers' Consortium; Vice-President 1997-1998. Instructions. In addition to your resume (which you should try to keep to one page, unless you've had truly extensive relevant experience), you'll also want to provide a publications list.
This should also be kept to a single page. Chicken Soul. Give it the same header (name, address, etc) as your resume, and use it to list your most significant publications or those that are most relevant to the position. Double-space the list, which should include the instructions title of each article or story, the publication in university essay layout which it appeared, and the date of publication. If it appeared online (and is still available), you may wish to include the instructions URL as well. You may also be asked for clips. Choose your best; if your publications include quality photos, consider springing for color copies. It should go without saying that these should be published clips -- but I have been amazed at the range of samples offered by job applicants.
One individual who was applying to a job I was about to vacate offered the first three pages of two unfinished short stories as samples of her writing ability (need I say that she wasn't hired?). If you haven't assembled a portfolio of your best work, this is for the essay a good time to do so. Find a nice leather binder at an office supply store, and insert your best clips into plastic sheet-protectors (the kind that are large enough to hold an 8.5x11 page without the need to actually hole-punch your clips themselves). Don't use those ancient, awful plastic protectors with the black paper insert; besides being as obsolete as dinosaurs, those can actually damage your clips. If you write in several different fields, consider dividing your portfolio into sections. Instructions. Include color copies of any awards you've received, along with a copy of your publications list. This resume advice may seem all very well if you actually have something to put in your skills and experience section -- but what if you don't? The short answer is that you're not likely to get the job of your dreams. The long answer is: If you know you'd like to be able to apply for testing essay, a job in the writing, editing, or publishing business in the future, start preparing now . Instructions. If you have dreams of becoming an editor, and you're now a freelance writer, look around for editing possibilities. Today, you can find a host of part-time, telecommuting editorial jobs online; check our Jobs for Writers section for a list of links to job boards. To Set In Order. For many of these jobs, all you need is instructions skill and a modem.
Build a relationship with a company that can give you a good recommendation. While it's often easy to find volunteer jobs, be aware that a magazine publisher may not be impressed by university, the fact that you edited your church newsletter or Neighborhood Watch bulletin. A history of paid positions, even part-time contract jobs, will serve far better (and put food on your table at instructions the same time). Such jobs can also bring you a regular paycheck during those gaps when freelancing checks are slow to on animals essay, arrive. A good skills resume may be all you need to get your foot in the door. After that, it's up to you. If that sounds intimidating, why not think of yourself in instructions the same terms as one of a class divided your queries or manuscripts? With the proper presentation -- the right envelope, a professional approach, and appropriate credentials -- you'll be well on your way to the job of instructions your dreams.
Copyright 2001 Moira Allen. Moira Allen is the editor of Writing-World.com, and testing has written nearly 400 articles, serving as a columnist and regular contributor for such publications as The Writer, Entrepreneur, Writer's Digest , and Byline . An award-winning writer, Allen is the author of eight books, including Starting Your Career as a Freelance Writer, The Writer's Guide to instructions, Queries, Pitches and Proposals, and Writing to Win: The Colossal Guide to Writing Contests. In addition to Writing-World.com, Allen hosts VictorianVoices.net, a growing archive of articles from Victorian periodicals, and The Pet Loss Support Page, a resource for grieving pet owners. University Essay Layout. She lives in instructions Maryland with her husband and the obligatory writer's cat. She can be contacted at editors at writing-world.com. Copyright 2017 by Moira Allen.
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Bibliometrics, Citation And Citation Analysis. Chapter 3: Bibliometrics, Citation and instructions, Citation Analysis. Dr. Essay Layout. Ranganathan S. Instructions. R. (1969) coined the scientific testing on animals term 'Librametry' and presented his concept in instructions ASLIB conference held at Leamington Spa. He used the term to include statistical approaches to study library and scientific testing, its services.
However, the practice of using quantitative method to measure information sources were made even before Dr. Ranganathan but under different terms or without any particular term but 'Statistical Analysis' was in common use before the term Librametry. Cole and Eales (1917) graphically mapped the literature and called this method of analysis as 'Statistical analysis'. Hulme (1923) studied the instructions literature and called it 'statistical bibliography', but the terms were found to university layout be clumsy as it could easily be mistaken. Later the term was coined as bibliometrics by Pritchard (1969). 3.2 Different Terminologies in Use:-
Many attempts have been made to define the term bibliometrics and instructions, its analogous terms since the use of the term 'statistical bibliography' by chicken for the Hulme (1923), and according to him 'the purpose of statistical bibliography is to throw light on the process of written communication and the nature and course of development of a discipline (in so far as this is displayed through written communication) by means of instructions counting and analyzing its various facets of written communication'. Raising (1962), in his article clearly defined the term statistical bibliography as 'the assembling and interpretation of statistics relating to books and periodicals to demonstrate historical movements and to determine national and universal research, use of books and nyu creative program, journal, and to ascertain in many local situations the general use of books and journals'. This definition is also treated as one of the classical definitions of bibliometrics. The term Bibliometrics was first coined by Pritchard (1969) in preference to existing terminology 'statistical bibliography' as he felt there is fair likelihood to misinterpret it as bibliometrical methods to books and other media of instructions communication'. According to Fairthorne (1969), statistical bibliography was 'Quantitative treatment of properties of recorded discourse and behaviour appertaining to nyu creative it'.
British Standard Glossary (1976) of documentation explained the term bibliometrics as 'the study of use of documents and patterns of publication in which mathematical and statistical methods have been applied' which is basically similar to instructions Pritchard's original definition of bibliometrics. Hawkins (1977), in soup essay his on-line bibliometrics study interpreted bibliometrics term as 'The quantitative analysis of the instructions bibliographic features of a body of literature'. Nicholas and Ritchie (1978), in writing their books entitled 'Literature on Bibliometrics' opined that bibliometrics provided information about the instructions structure of knowledge and a class divided reflection, how it is communicated? They further added that bibliometrics studies fall mainly into two broad groups, describing characteristics or features of instructions a literature (descriptive studies) and nyu creative program, those examining the relationship formed between the components of literature (behavioural studies). More recently Plotter (1981) had defined bibliometrics as 'the study and measurement of the publication patterns of all forms of written communication and their authorship'. Schrader (1981), has also tried to define the term in a more simplified manner and stated that bibliometrics is 'the scientific study of recorded discourse.' Broadus (1987b) presented a historical overview of various definitions of bibliometrics and proposed an alternative definition for bibliometrics. According to instructions him, bibliometrics is the quantitative study of physically published units or of bibliographic units or of surrogates of either. More explicitly Sengupta (1990), defines the term as 'organization, classification and quantitative evaluations along with their authorship by for the soul essay mathematical and statistical calculus'. A more elaborate concept of bibliometrics has been recently explained by Egghe (2000), as 'development and application of mathematical models and techniques to all aspects of communications.' From these definitions it is concluded that statistical bibliography is replaced by bibliometrics and instructions, it means study of measurement of the publication patterns of all forms of written communication and university, their authorship by means of using citation studies.
3.3 What is Bibliometrics? The term 'bibliometrics' was first used by Pritchard (1969) in his article 'Statistical Bibliography or Bibliometrics' published in instructions the 'Journal of Documentation'. 'Biblio' means book and 'Metric' means a scale or measure. Principle Three Without. Bibliometric means application of statistical studies in library and information science. According to Pritchard (1969), bibliometrics is defined as 'the application of mathematics and statistical methods to books and other media of communication.' Potter (1981) defines bibliometrics as 'the study and measurement of the publication pattern of all forms of written communication and their author'. In Bibliometrics and Librametry as an area in which studies 'information process and information handling in libraries and information canters by quantitatively analyzing the characteristics and instructions, behaviour of documents, library staff, and library users.' The study of bibliometrics and Librametry include bibliometric distribution, citation analysis, library use studies, etc. It is also a quantitative study of literatures as reflected in bibliographies. Bibliometrics is the use of quantitative analysis and statistics to describe patterns of publication within a given field or body of literature. Bibliometrics is a set of methods to quantitatively analyze scientific and technological literature (Bellis 2009). The commonly used bibliometric methods are citation analysis and content analysis.
Content analysis or textual analysis is a methodology used in the social sciences for studying the content of essay without communication. Earl Babbie (2010) defines it as the study of recorded human communications, such as books, websites, paintings and laws. According to Farooq Joubish (2011), content analysis is instructions considered a scholarly methodology in the humanities by which texts are studied as to authorship, authenticity, or meaning. Later subject includes were philology, hermeneutics, and semiotics. Lasswell (1951, p.525 ) formulated the core questions of content analysis and stated that 'Who says what, to whom, why, to what extent and with what effect? Ole Holsti (1969) offers a broad definition of essay content analysis as any technique for instructions making inferences by objectively and systematically identifying specified characteristics of messages. Kimberly (2002) offers a six-part definition of content analysis:Content analysis is a summarizing, quantitative analysis of messages that relies on the scientific method (including attention to objectivity, inter subjectivity, a priori design, reliability, validity, generalisability, replicability, and hypothesis testing) and is not limited as to the types of variables that may be measured or the context in nyu creative which the messages are created or presented. Garfield (1983) and Richard (2010) defined citation analysis as 'the examination of the instructions frequency, patterns, and graphs of citations in articles and three, books'. Content analysis uses citations in scholarly works to instructions establish links to other works or other researchers.
Citation analysis is one of the most widely used methods of bibliometrics. Life Principle Three Without. Martyn (1976), defined citation analysis as, 'Analysis of the citations or references or both which forms of part of the instructions scholarly publication.' According to Baughman (1974), 'Citation study is a systematic enquiry into the structural properties of the literature of the subject' he explains that the structure of literature is of a good quality. Bibliometric method is most often used in soup essay the field of library and information science; as well it has an equal applicability in other areas also. In fact, in many research fields use of bibliometric methods is carried out to explore the impact of their field, the impact of a set of researchers, or the impact of a particular paper etc. Bibliometrics are now used in quantitative research assessment exercises of academic output (Henderson et al 2009). The UK government is instructions considering using bibliometrics as a possible auxiliary tool in its Research Excellence Framework, a process which may assess the layout quality of the research output of UK universities and on the basis of the assessment results, allocate research funding (http://www.ref.ac.uk/) Bibliometric methods have been used to trace relationships amongst academic journal citations. Citation analysis, which involves examining an item's referring documents, is used in searching for materials and analyzing their merit. Citation indices, such as Institute for Scientific Information's Web of Science, allow users to search forward in time from a known article to more recent publications which cite the known item. Today citation analysis tools are easily available to compute various impact measures for scholars based on data from citation indices.
These have various applications, from the identification of expert referees to review papers and grant proposals, to providing transparent data in support of academic merit review, tenure, and promotion decisions. Nicholas (1978) in his article 'Literature and Bibliometrics' explained the importance of citation analysis and its applications in instructions LIS. He pointed out that information scientists and librarians use citation analysis to quantitatively assess the essay life three without core journal titles and instructions, watershed publications(less used or border lined publications) in particular disciplines; interrelationships between authors from different institutions and schools of thought; and related data about the academia. Some more pragmatic applications of this information includes the planning of retrospective bibliographies, finding the age of material used in a discipline (Half life) , and comparison between use of recent publications versus older ones, comparing the coverage of secondary services which can help publishers gauge their achievements and competition, and can aid librarians in evaluating the effectiveness of their stock. There are also some limitations to the value of citation data. They are often incomplete or biased; data has been largely collected manually (which is expensive), though citation indexes can also be used; incorrect citing of university essay layout sources occurs continually; thus, further investigation is required to truly understand the rationale behind citing to allow it to instructions be confidently applied. Thus it is revealed that bibliometric method is very useful to analyze the impact of literature in any subject areas and in LIS it is useful to decide the policies for different activities like acquisition, organization, stacking, introduction of new service, ranking of periodicals, half life of literature in any subject discipline formatting and collection development policies and related policies etc. 3.4 Laws of Bibliometrics:- The three most commonly used laws in bibliometrics are.
1) Bradford's Law of divided Scatter: - which describes how the literature of a subject area is distributed in instructions its journals and which forms the basis for calculating how many journals contain a certain percentage of published articles? 2) Lotka's Law of Scientific Productivity: - A formula for essay life principle without measuring / predicting the productivity of scientific researchers. 3) Zipf's Law of Word Occurrence: - which describes the frequency of the appearance of certain words or more specifically, suggests that people are more likely to select and use familiar rather than unfamiliar words. Among all these three laws, Bradford's Law is more useful to LIS professionals and related to citation analysis. 3.4.1 Bradford's Law of Scatter:- Bradford (1934), pointed out instructions, that if scientific journals are arranged in essay order of decreasing productivity of articles on a given subject, they may be divided into a nucleus of periodicals more particularly devoted to the subject and several groups and zones containing the same number of articles as the nucleus when the number of periodicals in the nucleus and succeeding zones will be 1: n: n2. Bradford's Law states that journals in a single field can be divided into three parts, each containing the same number of articles: * A core of journals on the subject, relatively few in number, that produces approximately one-third of all the articles; * A second zone, containing the same number of articles as the instructions first, but a greater number of journals, and. * A third zone, containing the same number of articles as the second, but a still greater number of journals. The mathematical relationship of the number of journals core to nyu creative program the first zone is a constant n and to the second zone the relationship is n. Bradford expressed this relationship as 1 : n : n. Bradford formulated his law after studying a bibliography of geophysics, covering 326 journals in the field. He discovered that 9 journals contained 429 articles, 59 contained 499 articles, and 258 contained 404 articles.
So it took 9 journals to contribute one-third of the articles, 5 times of 9, or 45, to produce the next third, and 5 times 5 times 9, or 225, to produce the last third. Bradford's Law serves as a general guideline to librarians in determining the number of core journals in any given field. Bradford's Law is not statistically accurate, but it is still commonly used as a general rule of instructions thumb. 3.4.2 What is Citation:- Citation is a reference to a published or unpublished source (not always the original source). More precisely, a citation is an abbreviated alphanumeric expression (e.g. Newell84) embedded in the body of an intellectual work that denotes an layout entry in the bibliographic references section of the work for the purpose of acknowledging the relevance of the works of others to the topic of discussion at the spot where the instructions citation appears.
Generally the combination of both the in-body citation and the bibliographic entry constitutes what is commonly thought of as a citation (whereas bibliographic entries by themselves are not). A prime purpose of a citation is divided intellectual honesty to attribute prior or unoriginal work and ideas to the correct sources and to allow the reader to determine independently whether the referenced material supports the author's argument in the claimed way. 3.4.3 What is Reference:- Reference is derived from Middle English referren, from Middle French rfrer, from Latin referre, to instructions carry back, formed from the prefix re- and program, ferre, to bear. Instructions. A large number of words derived from this root, including referee, reference, referendum, all retaining the basic meaning of the original Latin as a point, place or source of origin. A referee is the provider of this source of origin, and a referent is the possessor of the source of origin, whether it is knowledge, matter or energy.
Because of its meaning, the word reference is university essay layout used in every sphere of human knowledge, adopting shades of meaning particular to the contexts in which it is instructions used. References can take on many forms, including: a thought, a sensory perception that is audible (onomatopoeia), visual (text), olfactory, or tactile, emotional state, relationship with other, space-time coordinate, symbolic or alpha-numeric, a physical object or an energy projection; but, other concrete and abstract contexts exist as methods of defining references within the scope of the various fields that require an soup soul essay origin, point of departure, or an original form. This includes methods that intentionally hide the reference from some observers, as in cryptography. Instructions. Citations are measured to to set find the different use patterns like author, chronology, geography, subject, forms etc in LIS. An essential part of research papers, particularly in science is the instructions list of references indicating towards prior publications. Ziman (1968) has rightly indicated 'a scientific paper does not stand alone; it is embedded in the literature of the subject'. Similarly Nann (1976) defines 'A reference is the acknowledgement that one document gives to another; a citation is the acknowledgement that one document receives from our house in order another'. Malin (1968) says 'A citation implies a relationship between a part or the whole of the cited document and instructions, a part or the whole of the citing document.' From these statements of stalwarts it is very clear that citation has an importance while publishing scientific or research communications.
It is university essay layout must to cite the author from which data is used. The research activity built on citing papers and using previous knowledge. The use of citation and instructions, its study reveals many concepts useful for a class divided developing libraries properly. Citation analysis is the instructions area of bibliometrics which deals with the study of their relationships which might be useful for bridging research. Weinstock (1974) identified reasons for citing and quoting references in research study as under. 1. Giving homage to pioneers.
2. Giving credit for related works (Homage to Press.) 3. Identifying methodology, equipment etc. 4. Providing background reading. 5. Correcting one's own work. 6. Layout. Correcting the work of others. 7. Criticizing previous work and adding quality and innovation. 8. Substantiating claims.
9. Alerting to forthcoming work. 10. Instructions. Providing leads to poorly disseminated or poorly indexed or uncited work. 11. Authenticating data and classes of fact-physical constants etc. 12. Identifying original publications in which an idea or concept was discussed. 13. Identifying original publication or other work describing a concept or term (e.g.HODGKIN'S Disease Pareto's Law, Friedel-Crafts reaction etc.) 14.
Disclaiming work or ideas of others. (Negative Claims) 15. Disputing priority claims of others. Chicken Soup. (Negative Homage) Apart from instructions these points references appended in divided the research study is instructions valid indicator of its significance. The facts stated in the research needs to be supported by earlier citations (studies) and on animals, there is always a relation between citing theses or book or an article indicating similarity of the instructions research. 3.4.4 Importance of Citations:- Ziman (1968), Price (1968), Narin (1976), Marin (1968) had opened that citations plays an important role in research. Father they added that scientific paper or scientific research does not go alone, but it is embedded in the subject of essay literature, as a reference (citation) which is acknowledgement for the use of instructions information by the another author who cites in his writing. Scientific Testing On Animals Essay. The relation of cited and citing document stating 'a citation implies relationship between a part or the whole of the cited document and a part or the whole of the citing document.' Citation analysis is the instructions area dealing with the bibliometrics and deals with study of relationship of cited and citing document and such studies are essential to divided reflection track the scholarly development in any subject field. 3.5 Citation Analysis:-
When one author cites another author, a relationship is established. Instructions. Citation analysis uses citations in scholarly works to establish links. Many different links can be ascertained, such as links between authors, between scholarly works, between journals, between fields, or even between countries. Citations both from and to a certain document may be studied. One very common use of citation analysis is to determine the impact of a single author on a given field by counting the testing on animals number of times the author has been cited by others.
One possible drawback of this approach is that authors may be citing the single author in a negative context (saying that the author doesn't know what s/he's talking about (Osareh 1996). 3.5.1 Co-citation Coupling:- Co-citation coupling is instructions a method used to establish a subject similarity between two documents. If papers A and B are both cited by paper C, they may be said to be related to one another, even though they don't directly cite each other. If papers A and to set in order, B are both cited by many other papers, they have a stronger relationship. The more papers they are cited by, the instructions stronger their relationship is.
3.5.2 Bibliographic Coupling:- Bibliographic coupling operates on a similar principle, but in a way it is the mirror image of co-citation coupling. Bibliographic coupling links two papers that cite the same articles, so that if papers A and B both cite paper C, they may be said to be related, even though they don't directly cite each other. The more papers they both cite, the stronger their relationship is. 3.6 Reasons to conduct Bibliometric Studies:-
Historically bibliometric methods have been used to divided reflection paper trace relationships amongst academic journal citations. The bibliometric research uses various methods of citation analysis in order to instructions establish relationships between authors or their work. The Bibliometric studies are conducted to identify the peers, social change and the core journal, etc. indexing and scientific testing, Thesaurus, research, formulating search strategies in instructions case of automated system, comparative assessment of the secondary services, Bibliographic control, preparation of retrospective bibliographic and library Management. Collection development includes planning, implementation and evaluation of collections (Baughman, 1977): Planning is to map information needs, to develop aims and make decisions about priorities. Knowledge about the structure of a subject field and about the information resources used in the field is needed for planning the collection. Bibliometric methods such as citation analysis, bibliographic coupling, co-word analysis and co-citation analysis can be used to map the knowledge structure and the use of literature. Chicken Soup For The Essay. Implementation of the collection includes library routines, communication and instructions, information provision. A working indexing language, which reflects the nyu creative modern terminology, is instructions needed to organise the collection. Knowledge about the important themes in a field gives a base for developing the terminology. These themes are based on the knowledge structure received by bibliometric methods. Collection Evaluation is analysis and assessment of the collection according to its aim and essay, functions.
Different bibliometric methods such as citation analysis, analysis of the scattering of articles to journals and analysis of the obsolescence of literature are used for instructions this purpose. Application of bibliometric research identified by to set our house Wallace (1989), indicated that the use is for developing libraries. - Improving the bibliographic control of literature. - Identifying a core literature especially journals. - Classifying a literature. - Tracing the spread of instructions ideas and growth of a literature. - Improving the efficiency of information handling services. - Predicting publishing trends and needs.
- Describing patterns of book use by patrons. - Developing and evaluating library collections. 3.7 Strengths of Bibliometrics as a Research Approach:- Bibliometric studies are useful and scientific on animals essay, have a quantitative base. The method helps analysis status and strength is in: ' Methods are objective and repeatable. ' Results have a wide range of potential practical value.
' Does not require human subject interaction. ' High reliability in data that are collected unobtrusively, from the published record, and can be easily replicated by others. 3.7.1 Limitations of bibliometrics as a research approach:- Following few limitations of the study are observed by. Results are only valid to extent that citations are assumed to represent significant link between citing and cited documents. ' Technical issues related to data obtained from citation indexes and bibliographies. ' Variations and misspelling of author names, authors with same name, incomplete coverage of non-English publications.
3.8 Application of Bradford's Law in instructions Library and essay principle without, Information Science Research:- Bradford's law is used to solve problems in journal collection management as well as resource development in any libraries. The basic concept is to conduct Bradford analyses of journals i.e. to sort the instructions journals in Bradford zones and thus identify which belong to the core and which does not. Any Bradford analysis involves three steps. 1. Principle Three Without. Identify many or all items (usually articles) published in this field; 2. Instructions. List the sources (usually journals) that publish the articles (or items) in rank order beginning with the source that produces the most items; 3. While retaining the order of the sources, divide this list into groups (or zones) so that the life principle without number of instructions items produced by each group of sources is about the same. The 'most obvious potentials' of Bradford analyses are: ' Defining the life core. ' The law of diminishing returns. ' Calculation of cost based on various coverage. ' Setting priorities among journals.
Bradford's law is used to solve practical problems related to information seeking and retrieval. An automatic option for sorting the output from online searches of journal literature, which he argued would help online users. Instructions. 'Computerized sorting of hits by the journals in which they appear, and then of paper journals, high to low, by the number of instructions hits appearing in each'. Special libraries and information officers make good use of data generated using bibliometric techniques in selecting and maintaining collections of the most needed serials. Bradford's law, Lotka's law, Zipf's law, and citation analysis have contributed to the effective operation of scientific on animals special libraries' From the various studies it is analysed major thrust areas of instructions research in Library and Information Science are using application of bibliometrics and the reasons are: 1. Identify the quantum and structure literature on a specific subject during a particular period. 2. Examine the growth literature output in a subject during a period of time. 3. Identify the source and country-wise distribution of research literature in a particular subject.
4. Scientific Testing On Animals Essay. Compare and measure the growth rate of instructions literature on a particular subject in various countries. 5. Analyze the authorship pattern of literature on a particular subject published from various countries. 6. Analyze the degree of single versus multiple author publication and writing, study the trend in authorship pattern. 7. Apply Lotka's authorship productivity concepts on the frequency distribution of authorship productivity. 8. Track the development of research literature on a particular subject and its language of instructions publication during the period of coverage and analyze the trend in the language of publication. 9. Study the language of the publication in the context of quantum of in order essay pages. 10. Study the frequency distribution of applications in the context of country-wise breakdown. 11. Analyze quantitatively the instructions annual literature output on a specific subject. 12.
Identify the variety of research publication on a particular subject. 13. Soup For The Soul. Analyze the trend among the various types of publication. The recent developments and instructions, methods used and developed the techniques: 3.8.1 The impact factor:- The impact factor, often abbreviated as IF, is a measure reflecting the average number of citations to articles published in science and social science journals.
It is frequently used as a proxy for the relative importance of a journal within its field. In case of journals with higher impact factors deemed to be more important than those of essay principle without lower ones. The impact factor was devised by Eugene Garfield, the founder of the Institute for Scientific Information (ISI), now part of Thomson Reuters. Impact factors are calculated yearly for those journals that are indexed in Thomson Reuters Journal Citation Reports and listed in . In a given year, the impact factor of a journal is the instructions average number of to set citations received per paper published in that journal during the two preceding years.[ For example, if a journal has an impact factor of instructions 3 in 2008, then its papers published in 2006 and 2007 received 3 citations each on average in 2008. Essay Layout. The 2008 impact factor of a journal would be calculated as follows, 2008 impact factors are actually published in 2009; they cannot be calculated until all of the instructions 2008 publications have been processed by the indexing agency. A = the number of times articles published in 2006 and 2007 were cited by life without indexed journals during 2008. B = the total number of citable items published by that journal in 2006 and 2007. (Citable items are usually articles, reviews, proceedings, or notes; not editorials or Letters-to-the-Editor.) 2008 impact factor = A/B. If is used by many libraries as a tool for selecting Journals for subscription, similarly researcher try to contribute in using it journals for credits. New journals, which are indexed from instructions their first published issue, will receive an impact factor after two years of indexing; in soup soul this case, the citations to the year prior to Volume 1, and the number of articles published in the year prior to Volume 1 are known zero values. Journals that are indexed starting with a volume other than the first volume will not get an impact factor until they have been indexed for three years.
Annuals and other irregular publications sometimes publish no items in instructions a particular year, affecting the count. The impact factor relates to a specific time period; it is possible to calculate it for any desired period, and the Journal Citation Reports (JCR) also includes a 5-year impact factor. The JCR shows rankings of journals by impact factor, by discipline such as organic chemistry or psychiatry. The terminology used later and becomes popular is Infometrics which covers: The h-index is an index that attempts to measure both the productivity and impact of the published work of a scientist or scholar. Soup For The Essay. The index is based on the set of the scientist's most cited papers and the number of citations that they have received in other publications. The index can also be applied to instructions the productivity and impact of a group of nyu creative program scientists, such as a department or university or country. The index was suggested by Jorge E. Hirsch, a physicist, as a tool for instructions determining theoretical physicists' relative quality and is sometimes called the our house in order essay Hirsch index or Hirsch number. The h-index can be manually determined using citation databases or using automatic tools. Instructions. Subscription-based databases such as Scopus and the Web of Knowledge provide automated calculators. Harzing's (2011) Publish or Perish program calculates the h-index based on Google Scholar entries.
In July 2011 Google trialed a tool which allows a limited number of scholars to keep track of their own citations and scientific testing on animals, also produces a h-index and an i10-index (Google Scholar Blog, 2011), the I10 index indicates the number of academic papers an author has written that have at least ten citations from others. It was introduced in July 2011 by Google as part of instructions their work on Google scholar. A search engine dedicated to academic and related papers. Each database is likely to produce a study different h for the same scholar, because of different coverage: Google Scholar has more citations than Scopus and Web of essay Science but the smaller citation collections tend to be more accurate. Instructions. In addition, specific databases, such as the Stanford Physics Information Retrieval System (SPIRES) can automatically calculate h-index for researchers working in High Energy Physics. Infometrics is the study of quantitative aspects of information. This includes the essay production, dissemination and use of all forms of instructions information, regardless of its form or origin. As such, infometrics encompasses the fields of. ' Scientometrics, which studies quantitative aspects of science; ' Webometrics, which studies quantitative aspects of the World Wide Web; ' Cybermetrics, which is similar to webometrics, but broadens its definition to include electronic resources; ' Bibliometrics, which studies quantitative aspects of without recorded information.
Scientometrics and webometrics are the instructions latest methods. Scientometrics covers quantitative fashion of the development of science and of the mechanism of scientific research. ' Emphasizes investigations in which the development of science and of the mechanism of writing scientific research is studied by means of (statistical) mathematical methods. ' Publishes original studies, short communications, preliminary reports, review papers, letters to the editor and book reviews on scientometrics. ' Includes the Journal of Research Communication Studies. Scientometrics is concerned with the quantitative features and instructions, characteristics of science and scientific research. Emphasis is placed on investigations in which the development and mechanism of science are studied by statistical mathematical methods.
The journal publishes original studies, short communications, and preliminary reports, and review papers, letters to the editor and program, book reviews on scientometrics. Due to its fully interdisciplinary character, the journal is indispensable to instructions research workers and research administrators. To Set. It provides valuable assistance to librarians and documentalists in instructions central scientific agencies, ministries, research institutes and laboratories. Scientometrics includes the scientific Journal of Research Communication Studies. Instructions. Consequently its aims and nyu creative writing, scope cover that of the latter, namely, to bring the results of instructions such investigations together in one place.
Bibliometrics and scientometrics are two closely related approaches to measuring scientific publications and science in general, respectively. In practice, much of the work that falls under this header involves various types of citation analysis, which looks at how scholars cite one another in nyu creative program publications. This data can show quite a bit about networks of scholars and scholarly communication, links between scholars, and the development of areas of knowledge over time. Bibliometrics are also one of the key ways of measuring the impact of scholarly publications. If an article is published in a journal with a high impact factor, which is determined in part by the number of citations to articles within a particular journal, this raises the publishing profile of the author. The number of citations to that article over time is also a key measure of the productivity and the impact of that scholar. These techniques are very well developed for traditional citations among journal articles, but are much less clear for new types of outputs, including data sets, websites, and digitized collections. For items such as these, when researchers have used the materials to support their publications, they often don't have clear methods available to them to cite the material. Many of the style guides do not have clear guidance for how to cite a database, for instance, or whether to cite a digitized resource in a way to instructions identify its digital location, or that cites the original item, whether or not the researcher actually consulted it. 3.9.2 Webometrics (Cyber metrics):-
The concept of webometrics is based on bibliometrics, because like the bibliometrics study, one can measure the different quantitative aspect of the web in webometrics study. Our House In Order Essay. Secondly it is based on Infometrics. Instructions. The Infometrics study is such type of study, which measures the quantitative aspect of any type of information and through webometrics study one can get the information about web (web site). That's why the above phrase is used. The science of webometrics (also Cyber metrics) tries to measure the World Wide Web to soup get knowledge about the number and instructions, types of scientific on animals hyperlinks, structure of the World Wide Web and usage patterns. According to Bjrneborn and Ingwersen (2004), the definition of webometrics is the study of the quantitative aspects of the construction and instructions, use of information resources, structures and university, technologies on the Web drawing on bibliometric and instructions, Infometrics approaches. Layout. The term webometrics was first coined by Almind and Ingwersen (1997). A second definition of instructions webometrics has also been introduced as the study of web-based content with primarily quantitative methods for social science research goals using techniques that are not specific to one field of study (Thelwall, 2009), which emphasizes the development of applied methods for use in the wider social sciences.
The purpose of essay layout this alternative definition was to help and publicize appropriate methods outside the information science discipline rather than to replace the instructions original definition within information science. Similar scientific fields are bibliometrics, infometrics, scientometrics, virtual ethnography, and web mining. One relatively straightforward measure is the Web Impact Factor (WIF) introduced by Ingwersen (1998). The WIF measure may be defined as the number of web pages in university essay a web site receiving links from instructions other web sites, divided by the number of web pages published in the site that are accessible to three without the crawler. Instructions. However the use of WIF has been disregarded due to the mathematical artifacts derived from power law distributions of these variables.
Other similar indicators using size of the institution instead of number of web pages have been proved more useful. To Set Our House In Order Essay. There is one electronic journal, Cyber metrics published since 1997 by the Spanish National Research Council that is devoted entirely to this discipline. Instructions. Cyber metrics is a branch of knowledge which employs mathematical and statistical techniques of quantity web sites or their components and concepts, measure their growth, stability, propagation, and use examines the nyu creative writing program authenticity of content, establish laws governing these factors, studies the instructions efficiency of cyber information services and systems, services and products and assesses the impact of cyber age on society. Citations in scholarly works are used to establish links to other works. It is one of the most widely used methods of bibliometrics and divided reflection paper, studies reference to and from documents Gooden (2001). The benefit of bibliometrics and citation analysis is expressed by Van Raan (2003), which is reinforced by the studies (Lal and Panda, 1996, Aksnes 2006) that have used this method of research enquiry to evaluate a library collection. Citation analysis reveals interesting information about knowledge producers in terms their information seeking behaviour and usage of instructions various information sources. It can highlight the familiarity, awareness and usage of knowledge producers regarding the essay online and print information sources. Citation analysis examines the frequency, patterns and graphs of citations in articles and books (Garfield, 1983). This chapter satisfy the objective set for the study i.e. 'To study the significance of citations as well as citation study and bibliometrics'.
This chapter elaborates the detailed study of citations, reference, need of citation study and laws etc. ' Aksnes, D.W. Instructions. (2006), Citation rates and perceptions of scientific contribution. Journal of the program American Society for Information Science and Technology, 57(2), p.169-185. ' Bellis, De Nicola (2009). Bibliometrics and citation analysis: from the Science citation index to instructions Cybermetrics. Scarecrow Press, p.417. ISBN 0-8108-6713-3.
Located at http://books.google.com/books/about/Bibliometrics_and_citation_analysis.html?id=ma4YjaKyM9cC accessed on 23.08.2011. ' Bhughman J C (1974), A structural analysis of the literature of nyu creative writing program sociology, Library Quarterly, Vol. Instructions. 44 (Oct), p.293-308. ' Birger Hjrland and Jeppe Nicolaisen 'Bradford's Law of Scattering: Ambiguities in the Concept of Subject Royal School of Library and chicken for the, Information Science, Birketinget 6, DK-2300 Copenhagen S., Denmark @db.dk. ' Bradford, S.C. Sources of information on specific subjects. Engineering, 1934, 137 (3550), p.85-86.
' British Standards Institution. British standards of documentation terms. BSI; London; 1976, p.7. ' Broadus R N (1987a), early approaches to bibliometrics, journal of the American society for information science, 38, p.127-129. ' Cole, F J and Eales Nellie B (1917), the history of comparative anatomy: a statistical analysis of the literature, Science Progress (11), p.578-596. ' Earl Babbie (2010), the practice of social research, 10th edition, Wadsworth, Thomson Learning Inc., ISBN 0-534-62029-9. ' Egghe L (2000), Lectures Potter, W G (1981) Introduction to Bibliometrics. Library Trends Vol 30, p.5. ' Egghe L (2000).
A heuristic study of the first-citation distribution. Instructions. Scientometrics 48(3), p.345-359. ' Fairthorne, R. A. (1969), Empirical hyperbolic distributions (Bradford-Zipf-Mandelbrot) for bibliometric description and prediction, Journal of Documentation, 25, p.319'343. ' Fairthrone R A (1969), Empirical hyperbolic distributions for bibliometric description and prediction, Journal of Documentation, 25, p.319. ' Farooq Joubish and Ashraf Khurram (2011), outlook on some concepts in the curriculum of social studies, World Applied Science Journal 12(9), p.1374-1377. ISSN 1818-4952.
' Garfield, E (1974), Citation Indexing: Its theory and application in chicken soup soul essay science, Technology and Humanities, New York, Wiley, ' Garfield, E. (1983). Citation Indexing - Its Theory and Application in Science, Technology and Humanities. Instructions. Philadelphia: ISI Press. Retrieved November 4, 2011 from for the essay Located at http://garfield.library.upenn.edu/ci/contents.pdf. accessed on 12.04.2011. ' Garfield, E.(1983) Citation Indexing - Its Theory and Application in Science, Technology and Humanities Philadelphia's Press. ' Gooden, A.M. (2001). Instructions. Citation analysis of chemistry doctoral dissertations: An Ohio State University case study. Retrieved October 13, 2008 Located at http://www.istl.org/01-fall/refereed.html accessed on 27.12.2011. ' Google scholar blog (2011), Google scholar citations open to all, Google. Located at reflection paper http//en.wikipedia.ogr/wiki/I10-index accessed on 03.09.2011. ' Hawkins D T (1977), Unconventional uses of on-line information retrieval system on line British metric studies.
Journal of instructions American society for information science, 28(1), p.13-18. ' Henderson, M., Shurville, S. and Fernstrom, K. (2009). The quantitative crunch: the impact of bibliometric research quality assessment exercises on university essay academic development at instructions small conferences, Campus-Wide Information Systems, Vol 26, No. 3, p.149'167. ' Henderson, M., Shurville, S. and Fernstrom, K. (2009). The quantitative crunch: the impact of bibliometric research quality assessment exercises on academic development at small conferences, Campus-Wide Information Systems, Vol 26, No. 3, p.149'167. ' Higher Education Funding Council for England, Located at http://www.hefce.ac.uk/Research/ref/. and http://www.ref.ac.uk/ accessed on 12th May 2012. ' Hjreppe, P (1982), Supplement to soup soul bibliography bibliometrics and citation indexing, 4, p.241-273.
' Hjreppe, R (1980), a bibliography of bibliometrics an dictation indexing and instructions, analysis, Royal institute of Technology library, Stockholm, Sweden. Located at http://www.gslis.utexas.edu/ palmquis/courses/biblio.html#Laws and http://www.netugc.com/librametric-bibliometric-scientometrics-informetrics accessed on 25.08.2012. ' Hulme, E.W. Chicken Soup For The. (1923), Statistical Bibliography in Relation to the Growth of Modern Civilization, Grafton, London. p9. ' Kannappanavar, B U (1991), Citation analysis of the doctoral dissertation in library and instructions, information science accepted by the universities in Karnataka, Karnataka University, Dharwad, p. 88. (Ph. D Thesis) ' Lal, A., Panda, S (1996). Research in divided plant pathology: A bibliometric analysis. Library Science with a Slant to Documentation and Information Studies, 33(3), p.135-147. ' Lasswell Harold (1951), the analysis of political behavior: An empirical approach, Rautledge, London, p.525. ' Lotka A J (1926), the frequency distribution of instructions scientific productivity, Journal of the Washington Academy of Sciences, Vol. 16 (12), p.317-323.
' Malin M V (1968), the science citation index: A new concept in chicken essay Indexing, Library trends, Vol. Instructions. 16, p. 376. ' Martin, M U (1968), Science citation index: A new concept in indexing, Library Trends, Vol. 16, p.376. ' Martyn L A (1976), Use studies in library planning, Library Trends 24(30).
' Nann F et al (1976), Evaluative bibliometrics: The use of publications and citation analysis in soup the evaluation of instructions scientific activity, cherry Hill, N J, Computer Horizon Inc, p.334-337. ' Narin, Francis and et. Al. Nyu Creative. (1976), evaluative bibliometrics: the use of publication and citation analysis in the evaluation of scientific activity, Cherry Hill, New Jercy, Computer Horizon Inc. p.334-337. ' Neuendorf, Kimberly A. (2002), the Content Analysis Guidebook Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications. ' Nicholas, David and Maureen Ritchie (1978), Literature and Bibliometrics London: Clive Bingley, p.28-29. ' Nicholas, David and instructions, Maureen Ritchie (1978). Literature and Bibliometrics London: Clive Bingley, p.12-28.
' Ole R. Holsti (1969(, Content Analysis for the Social Sciences and Humanities. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley. ' Potter W G (1981), Introduction to bibliometrics, Library Trends, Vol. 30, p.5. ' Pritchard A (1969), Statistical bibliography an divided interim bibliography, New Western Polytechnic school of instructions Librarianship, London. ' Pritchard A (1969), statistical bibliography; an interim bibliography, North-western polytechnic, school of Librarianship, p.60. ' Pritchard, A and Witting, G R (1960), Bibliometrics: A bibliography and index (1874-1959), Aaih Books, Westford, ' Raising L (1962), Statistical bibliography in the health sciences, Bulletin the medical library Association, 50, p.450-461. ' Ranganathan S. R. (1969) Librametry and to set essay, its scope. DRTC Seminar (7) paper DA Bangalore: DRTC, ISI and Sarada Ranganathan Endowment of Library Science. Instructions. Reprinted in : JISSI : The International Journal of Scientometrics and writing program, Infometrics; Vol.1, No.1 (1995), p.15-21. (ISSN-0971-6696) ' Rubin, Richard (2010). Foundations of library and information science (3rd ed.).
New York: Neal-Schuman Publishers. ISBN 978-1-55570-690-6. Accessed at http://books.google.com/books?id=Pk1TSAAACAAJ accessed on 09.02.2012. ' Von Sara Ungern-Sternberg Applications in teaching bibliometrics, PhD, Senior lecturer, Abo Akademi University, Department of Library and Information Science, FINLAND. ' Schrader, Alvin M. (1981) Teaching Bibliometrics, Library Trends 30, p.151-172. ' Sengupta I N (1990), Bibliometrics and its application in information science and libraries, Atlantic, New Delhi, p.256. ' Swapna Kumar Patra and Prakash Chand (2006), 'Library and Information science Research in India: a Bibliometric Study' Annals of Library and Information Studies, Vol 53, December, p.219-223. ' Van Raan, A.F.J. (2003).
The use of bibliometric analysis in research performance assessment and instructions, monitoring of interdisciplinary scientific developments. Technikfolgenabschatzung, Theories und Praxis/ Technology Assessment- Theory and Practice, 12(1), p.20-29. ' Weinstock M (1974), Citation Index, Encyclopedia of for the soul library and information science, Vol.5, New York, Dekker, p.19. ' Ziman John M (1968), Public knowledge: An essay concerning the social dimension of science, Cambridge, Cambridge university press, p.58. ' Zipf, G. Instructions. K. (1949) 'Human Behavior and the Principle of Least Effort' Reading, MA: Addison- Wesley Publishing co, p.34.
Chapter 4: Progress of Education and essay without, Research in instructions LIS. Chapter/ Section Description Pages. 4.1 Introduction 104. 4.2 LIS Education : Global Overview 104. 4.3 Library and Information Science Education in India 105. 4.4 Historical Development 107. 4.5 Present Scenario of LIS Education in India 108. 4.6 Objectives of Library and Information Science Education 109. 4.7 Levels of Education 110. 4.8 First Course of Library Science in India (Certificate, Diploma and Training Courses) 112.
4.9 Post Graduate Diploma Courses 113. 4.10 Degree Courses 114. 4.11 Documentation Research and Training Centre (DRTC) 114. 4.12 Five Year Integrated Course in reflection LIS 115. 4.13 Present Status of LIS Education in India 115.
4.14 Specialization 116. 4.15 Syllabus 116. 4.16 ICT as an Integral Part 116. 4,17 Practical Exposure 117. 4.18 Problems with Present LIS Education and Research 117. 4.19 LIS Research in India 117. 4.20 LIS Research: Global Overview 119. 4.21 Research Trend in Indian Universities 128. Chapter 4: Progress of instructions Education and Research in LIS. Higher education in each country has its own unique form of system and varies from streams or branches of knowledge.
Higher education is to set our house essay imparted by instructions universities and in colleges having equal facilities. Academics in higher education plays an writing important role in making the society strong as stated different policies are adopted in different countries similarly LIS is a specific subject discipline which support in all educational branches through library systems. Schools of instructions library science provide useful professional education universally and develop library and information professionals to manage the libraries efficiently. The LIS schools have more emphasis towards developing technical and managerial skills through the scientific testing on animals LIS education. Following paragraphs briefly narrated the status of LIS education. 4.2 LIS Education: Global Overview: Tsuji et al (2006), pointed out it in his study that the instructions main theme in LIS education Japan was developed qualified librarians (Shisho) and assistant librarians (Shisho-ho) for public libraries and as well as qualified teacher librarian (shisho-kyouyu) for school libraries. There is writing no formal education system for academic and special libraries. In education field life line learning, library management, information reference service, information retrieval, library organization, copy right, information literacy etc. were more focused.
Wilson (2012), in his article 'Fifty years of LIS education' in USA and instructions, conducted a survey of research productivity and LIS educators during the period 1959-2008. Author narrated the progress of LIS education in USA and stated that prior to 1960s practicing librarians were teaching LIS education according to syllabus and examination conducted by library associations and similar status was also in Australia and Library Association Australia (now Australia library and information association (ALIA) was taking care of the education system.. Latter LIS education moved to higher education institute since 1980. Chu (2006) in his paper 'Curricula of reflection paper LIS programs in instructions the USA: A content analysis' in which the principle syllabi was reviewed by author from instructions 45 ALA accredited LIS master programs in USA. This study brought to the notice that more elective courses offered in LIS education in a class divided reflection paper USA, while number of core requirement is reduced to few. Author has also pointed that 10% of the instructions LIS courses in USA are designed in such a way to chicken soup essay deal will emerging subject and latest development in the field of LIS. Thus subjects covered in the syllabus deals with knowledge organization, reference and information sources services, management, research in LIS, ICT, collection development, information use etc. As indicated by author in USA education system is instructions giving more emphasis on elective subject like ICT, librarianship, resources and services, technical services etc. to manage latest situation. Scientific On Animals. Now LIS courses clusters were introduced, which covers: - Information seeking behaviour. - Digital publishing etc. 4.3 Library and Information Science Education in India:-
LIS education in instructions India is completing a century of its existence during the period progress have been achieved in developing LIS education to tune with current practices. Soup For The Soul. Radhakrishanan Commission, Kothari Commission, National Knowledge Commission, UGC, NAAC put more efforts in education sector including LIS by establishing advisory commission for libraries, national policy for library etc. Curriculum Development Commission (CDC) continues grading and upgraded of LIS education in India. The progress from certificate courses to research level through regular and distance mode took leading developing education in India (Joshi, 2010). There has been enormous growth in education and higher education around the globe. Instructions. Every country worth its name and has developed a system of education and infrastructure to educate its people, and India is no exception. There has been a fast growth in institution of higher education since the dawn of twentieth century and more particularly, after India attained independence in 1947. The new India started its development program to achieve the new educational, cultural and economic objectives at the national level. Such developments at these institutions contributed to the development of our house in order more libraries, which in turn had to accept new responsibilities to meet society's changing needs and demands. Libraries are recognized to instructions play an important role in education, scientific research and social-economic development of a class a country.
This envisages the need for professionally qualified personnel to manage and run the libraries and information centres effectively and efficiently. In order to feed the growing number of libraries, more trained library professionals were needed. For this purpose, library science departments started springing up, and library science developed into a distinct field of specialization with its own normative principles, theories, techniques, and practices that were deemed sufficient to meet the growing dimensions of instructions library services. Handling of recorded knowledge in modern libraries has given birth to the functional aspects of collecting, organizing and promoting the use of university essay reading materials relevant to the users through information transfer activities. These activities, no doubt, assist in instructions defining the spectrum of studies for librarianship.
The basic tenet of LIS education is to to set in order provide balanced training, integrating theory with practical exercises, and to cover all aspects of professional work with equal emphasis embracing new frontier of librarianship. LIS education aims at providing trained manpower to manage different types of libraries, information and documentation centres which, over a period of time have undergone changes in terms of instructions needs, functions, types and range of services offered as well as tools and techniques being used when offering the services. Research in library and information science in India is not deep rooted. In the beginning it was in the form of a trial and error method. It was Padamashree S R Ranganathan (1889-1972) father of library science who lifted trail librarianship to layout the level of a science with the formulation of laws of library science, and establishment library schools and instructions, research centres. He even graded them as normative principles, fundamental laws, canons, principles and postulates. Essay Without. Ranganathan cut new grounds and blazed new practices in library and information science initially by solo research. This is evidence from the published literature that Ranganathan era's is instructions characterized by a period of intellectual contribution to the library and information science, particularly library classification. The root of the university essay layout library and information science research in instructions India were off shoots from the country first LIS intellectual workshop (i.e., Department of Library and Information Science, University of Delhi) instituted by Dr S R Ranganathan a day of library science profession in India in 1946. The first research degree in the library and information science in the country and reflection paper, even in the commonwealth countries was awarded by instructions the University of Delhi in 1957 to D B Krishna Rao for his thesis 'Facet Analysis and Depth Classification of Agriculture' under the supervision of Dr.
S R Ranganathan. 4.4 Historical Development:- The modern period in the history of education for librarianship began in the mid-1800s as librarians around the world recognized that systematic education and training were required so that proper order could be brought to the collections that had been growing in all libraries. The need for professionally qualified personnel to manage these libraries effectively and efficiently was duly recognized during the university first half of the present and consequently, the library education programme had been started at several places much before Independence. The history of the education of library science in India may be traced far back as the year of 1911 with the instructions starting of a short term training programme in library science in the Baroda State, under the patronage of Maharaja Sayajirao Gaikwad of Baroda, who, impressed by chicken soup for the soul essay the splendid work done by public libraries in the West, secured the services of an American librarian Mr. W. A. Borden as Director of the State Library Department.
Mr. Bordon had been a pupil of Mr. Melvil Dewey, who established the first library school in the Columbia College, New York in 1887. In 1915, another student of Dewey, Mr. A Dickenson, the then librarian of instructions Punjab University, Lahore started a three months apprentice training programme for scientific testing essay working librarians. Instructions. Before Independence, only five universities namely the Andhra University, Banaras Hindu University, Calcutta University and Madras University were offering diploma course in library science.
Library education was given a new status and design by soup for the essay Professor S. R. Ranganathan in 1920, when the first systematic programme in library education was started under the auspices of the Madras Library Association in collaboration with the Madras University. This library school was subsequently taken over by the Madras University in 1931 and in 1937 the instructions course was converted into Postgraduate (PG) Diploma in Library Science. This was the first diploma programme in Library Science in India. University of Delhi was the first university to establish a full-fledged Department of chicken for the soul Library Science just before independence in 1946, and instructions, started admitting students to the PG Diploma in 1947. In 1951, the diploma was changed to Master in a class reflection paper Library Science (M.Lib.Sc).
Later, between 1956 to 1959, six new LIS departments were established at Aligarh Muslim University, M.S.University of Baroda, Nagpur University, Osmania University, Pune University and Vikram University. Instructions. Since 1960s, the number of LIS departments has continued to increase. After Independence the stimulus for the growth and development of libraries and library science education has come from the progress in and extension of education, scientific research and programmes of socio-economic development which started in 1951 with the commencement of the First Five-Year Plan. As a result of these developments, Library and essay three without, Information Science today is a well-recognized discipline of study and research at the post-graduate level in more than hundred universities in the country. The Baroda and Nagpur universities started training course in library science in 1956 and the Vikram University in 1957. 4.5 Present scenario of LIS Education in instructions India:- Since its inception decades ago, LIS education has grown and developed into a full-fledged multi-disciplinary subject. To Set Our House In Order Essay. LIS courses at bachelors, masters and research level are being impacted by different institutions ' university departments, colleges, library associations and specialized institutions. There are now 96 universities in India imparting Library and Information Science education as independent departments in instructions different levels.
The list is shown in appendix. Apart from scientific on animals these departments, there are also specialized RD organizations imparting library and information science education. Instructions. Worth mentioning is the without two years Associateship in Documentation and Information Science (ADIS) imparted by instructions Documentation Research and scientific essay, Training Institute (DRTC), Indian Statistical Institute, Bangalore (Karnataka) and National Institute of Science Communication and Information Resources (NISCAIR) formerly INSDOC, New Delhi which is instructions equivalent to essay principle three Mater degree of Library and Information Science (LIS). Instructions. In addition to, these universities/departments there are several other open universities imparting library education as distance education. The professional associations such as Delhi Library Association (DLA) and essay principle without, the polytechnic institutions throughout the country are also imparting LIS education as lower level such as Certificate/Diploma in Library and Information Science.
With the realization of the importance of higher education and research, research in instructions Library education is not lagging behind like other disciplines. The University Grants Commission (UGC) and the Indian Council of a class reflection Social Science Research (ICSSR) are promoting to instructions research activity in library and in order, information science by awarding scholarships to research and doctoral students. 4.6 Objectives of Library and Information Science Education:- The goal of library and information science education is the preparation of personnel for the task of successful performance at different levels of competence in different types of instructions libraries with an insight into the role of these libraries in essay life principle without a fast changing society. It should impart a thorough grounding in the intellectual foundations of the instructions profession and competence in the technical and technological skills required for their day-to-day practice in different positions.
In other words, education for library and information science should be both knowledge and theory oriented task or practice oriented. The two aspects of theory and practice blend harmoniously in a sound programme of chicken for the soul essay library and instructions, information science education because on this aspects LIS education depend the essay effectiveness and success of the programme. In achieving this objective the methods of teaching and evaluation employed are as important as the quality of the faculty. The main objectives of LIS profession are to provide training for building up leadership qualities among the LIS profession develop knowledge on the latest techniques of information storage, transfer and instructions, retrieval of soup for the soul information help to acquire necessary skills in handling information, accessing and application of electronic resources, tools and media; and help to instructions know the latest developments in chicken soup for the soul essay the Information Technology (IT) To sum up, the basic aims of library and information science education may be as follows. ' To develop necessary technical skills; ' To develop administrative skills; ' To develop service orientation; ' To develop thorough knowledge of various sources of information, necessary to give traditional and modern library services. ' To develop professional awareness. 4.7 Levels of Education:- Out of the 96 university departments, 56 departments conduct one-year Bachelors degree and one year Masters Degree in Library and Information Science at the postgraduate level. Instructions. Thirteen of these universities conduct two years integrated Masters Degree in Library Science.
These programme further leads to M.Phil. and PhD levels. The levels of essay life principle without LIS education in instructions India are discussed as follows in brief: 1.7.1 Certificate/Diploma in Library Science (C/D. Lib. Sc.):- Many polytechnic colleges, schools and Library Associations impart the low level of library science courses in India having duration of six months to one year.
The basic qualification for these courses is 10+2. This course prepares students for low level professional positions in libraries such as Library Attendant, Library Clerk, etc. 1.7.2 Bachelor of university layout Library and Information Science (BLIS) after any graduation:- This is a one-year post graduate degree course. The basic eligibility is a three years degree from instructions any discipline. Essay Principle Three Without. This course prepares students for junior professional positions at all types of libraries and they perform technical libraries.
1.7.3 Master of Library and Information Science (MLIS):- In the early 19th Century, young people learned librarianship by working under the instructions more experienced practitioners. But, gradually the tasks performed by librarians became more complex and more dependent on technology. As a result, the study of library science has moved from the work-setting to professional schools in Universities. The first ever library school was started by Melvil Dewey in USA in 1887 at Columbia College (now Columbia University). Nyu Creative. In 1889 the programme moved to the New York State Library in Albany when Dewey became the Director there. The success of Dewey's training programme and the publication of Training for Library Service, a book by the economist Charles Williamson in 1923, led other universities, institutes of technology, and large public libraries to establish their own professional degree programmes in library science. Master of instructions Library and Information Science is imparted as a one-year post graduate degree course in some universities while in some, it is conducted as a two years integrated course. Many universities which offered one year BLISc and nyu creative, MLISc courses are now switching to two years integrated MLIS course in the line of instructions other masters degree courses.
The North East Hill University (NEHU), RTM Nagpur, Punjab University Chandigarh, Karnataka University, Dharwad, etc are now offering two years MLISc course. This course trains persons for senior professional position in our house essay libraries, documentation centres and/or information centres and teachers as well. 1.7.4 Associateship in Documentation and Information Science (ADIS):- The Documentation Research and Training Centre (DRTC), Bangalore (Karnataka) offers two years Associateship in Documentation and Information Science (Now know as Master of Science in instructions Information Science). The National Institute of a class divided reflection paper Science Communication And Information Resources (NISCAIR), New Delhi , formerly INSDOC also impart two years documentation programme i.e., Associateship in Documentation (AID) after graduation. The course offered by the DRTC and instructions, NISCAIR have upper age on the courses as offered by soup essay the university departments in terms of ICT syllabus and intake of the enrolments. 1.7.5 Master of Philosophy in Library and Information Science (M.Phil):- In Library and Information Science prepares a student for further advanced research in LIS.
The basic eligibility for admission for this programme is minimum 55% MLISc or any equivalent degree recognized by the UGC. With candidates having more qualifications are being preferred for superior position, many students are opting for instructions M.Phil. Courses to better equip them for better positions and develop research activity. 1.7.6 Doctor of Philosophy of Library and Information Science:- This is an advanced level of research programme being offered after the completion of MLISc or M.Phil. In Order. The general aim of a research degree, whether M.Phil. or Ph.D. is to provide training in instructions doing research as well as to develop in the candidate a critical and analytical process of thinking with the essay layout purpose that they would be able to provide leadership in instructions the profession. They would also be able to essay help librarians and information scientists to develop techniques and skills required to meet their requirements of the fast changing society.
They should be able to instructions identify the needs, set objectives, identify and analyze the divided reflection problems and find appropriate solutions. They would also be in a position to participate in the planning, organization and implementation of programmes at various levels. 1.8 First Course of Library Science in India(Certificate, Diploma and Training courses):- In India the existence of in service training was initiated by John Macfarlane, the instructions first librarian of the Imperial Library (Now National Library) at Calcutta from 1901-06, as mentioned in some reports. In subsequent years, the training programme was opened to the staff of other libraries and even those interested in librarianship who deals with books and other documents. 1.8.1 Baroda School:- In 1911, Sayajirao Gaikwad (1862-1939), the ruler of Baroda state called the a class paper American librarian Mr. William Allenson Borden (1853-1931), a disciple of Melvil Dewey to create a cadre of men for instructions the newly established libraries in the state library system. In 1912, he initiated the first training school in library education in India. In 1913, another training class for working librarians of university layout town libraries was started. These classes continued even after the departure of instructions Borden.
1.8.2 Lahore School:- In 1912, the Punjab University called another librarian Mr. Asa Don Dickinson (1876'1960) from USA. He started the second educational course of three month duration in library science in the year 1915. This happens to be the first university course in to set our house essay India. Mr. Instructions. Asa Don Dickinson later becomes the Librarian of Panjab University, Lahore (now Pakistan) during 1915'1916. 1.8.3 Andhra Desha:- The Andhra Desha Library Association (founded in 1914) started conducting 'training classes for the library workers' at Vijayawada in 1920. The classes covered a module on running adult education classes in addition to library technique.
1.8.4 Mysore State:- In 1920, a course for the training of life principle three librarians was conducted at Bangalore under the 'program of library development' initiated by the then Dewan of Mysore Mr. M. Visweswaraya. 1.8.5 Madras Library Association:- A summer school for instructions college librarians and lecturers in charge of college libraries in Madras was held in 1928 and repeated in 1930. The Madras Library Association also organized a regular certificate course in library science from 1929. Then in 1931, University of Madras took up the training course of MALA in 1931 and started offering the course on a regular basis. 1.8.6 Andhra University:- Andhra University started a certificate course in nyu creative writing program 1935, which was letter abandoned.
1.8.7 Imperial Library, Calcutta:- The Imperial library, Calcutta started a training class under the supervision of its librarian Mr. K. M. Instructions. Asudulah in 1935. Chicken For The Essay. It was a full time regular Diploma course in librarianship at the Imperial Library, Calcutta (now National Library, Kolkata). It continued till 1946. 4.9 Post Graduate Diploma courses:- University of Madras, in 1937, introduced a one year Post Graduate Diploma course in place of the certificate course of three month duration. This was the first P G Diploma in instructions library science in India. The second university to start a post graduate diploma course was the Banaras Hindu University in 1942. University of Bombay initiated a diploma course similar to to set essay Banaras Hindu University in 1943.
A training course for instructions the staff working in various government organizations was started in 1953. This course was recognized as equivalent to the university diploma courses. 4.10 Degree Courses:- In 1947, Aligarh Muslim University started B.Lib. Science Course for the first time in for the soul the country. University of Delhi was the first university to establish a full fledged Department of Library Science in 1946. It also instituted the first post diploma degree course in 1948. Instructions. In 1949, the structure was changed. The programme of Master of Library Science was introduced as a two year course with the first year leading to Bachelor of nyu creative program Library Science.
In between 1956-59, six new LIS departments were established at instructions Aligarh Muslim University, MS University of Baroda, Nagpur University, Osmania University, Pune University and Vikram University. In 1960, Madras University replaced its full time one year diploma course to B.Lib.Sc. Degree course. By mid 1960, many other universities had fallen in the line of university of Madras following the recommendation of Review Committee Report of UGC in introducing different degree courses. The Government Polytechnique for women, Ambala, Bangalore, Chandigarh, Delhi, Jullandhur, and Rourkela started post matric (class X) diploma courses of two years duration in late 1960s. 4.11 Documentation Research and Training Centre (DRTC):-
In 1962, Dr. S. R. Ranganathan established Documentation Research and university essay layout, Training Centre at instructions Bangalore. Previously DRTC courses were of 14 month duration which was later on moved to two years programme. INSDOC conducted a short term course for Asian Documentalists in essay life three 1963. In 1964, it started a one year post graduate course in instructions Documentation and Reprography leading to 'Associateship in Documentation and Reprography'. In 1977, the programme was renamed as 'Associateship in Information Science (AIS)'. A Class. On September 30, 2002, INSDOC merged with the National Institute of Science Communication (NISCOM) and was renamed as National Institute of Science Communication And Information Resources (NISCAIR). At present, it is conducting 'Courses in Information Science'. The DRTC and NISCAIR concentrate on the training of professionals for special and industrial libraries and information centres. Their course contents are biased toward information science and technology.
The programme of instructions these two institutes are class apart from scientific on animals essay other similar programmes offered by various institutes. In India advanced professional education has remained attached to universities, though there are some regional library associations conducting certificate courses of a few months duration and women polytechnics offering post-masters two year diplomas in library science to train paraprofessionals. At present, about instructions 107 institutions, mostly university colleges and polytechnics, have library science education courses. Out of these, M. Lib. I. Sc. course is being offered by more than 75 universities. 4.12 Five Year Integrated Course in LIS:-
In 2010, University of Calcutta introduces five year integrated course in essay principle three Library and Information Science and thus becomes the first university to launch such course in LIS domain. The entry qualification for this course was set at Higher Secondary (10+2) in Arts / Science or Commerce. Launching of this course will force the learners to choose the LIS by choice and not by chance. It will again help the students to grasp and instructions, understand the contents for LIS in a better and exhaustive way. 4.13 Present Status of LIS Education in India:- Only few departments and to set in order essay, associations now provide Certificate Courses in Library and Information Science (CLIS) and instructions, Diploma in Library and Information Science (DLIS). The others provide BLISc and MLISc courses.
In most of the universities, the prerequisite for admission into our house essay the Bachelor or Master degree course in Library and Information Science is 10+2+3 years of instructions education from essay any faculty (arts, science, commerce etc). The majority of the instructions universities generally conduct two separate courses for the Bachelor's degree followed by the Master of Library and Information Science of one year (or two semesters) duration each. In recent years, some institutions have offered two years of integrated courses of four semester duration. The University of Calcutta went a step ahead and university essay layout, introduced five years integrated course in LIS with entry qualification as 10 +2. Instructions. Similarly IGNOU and YCMOU are also playing major role in imparting LIS education along with deemed and formal universities. Students in most schools of library and information science have the opportunity to develop at least some degree of essay specialization.
Some may take advanced courses in particular library functions, such as reference work, while others may take courses related to a particular type of library, such as a course in instructions medical librarianship or public librarianship or academic librarianship. In simple, there are many different courses available in LIS. It makes the professionals available to nyu creative writing program work at all levels of library irrespective of instructions type, structure and function. The University Grants Commission (UGC), from essay three time to time recommended the broader outlines of courses of Library and Information Science. Instructions. The latest effort has been through a UGC Curriculum Development Committee (1993). The UGC and other higher bodies now give emphasis to for the soul essay semester system rather than annual system, and credit-based rather than marks-based system. Every university being autonomous is free to frame its own course of studies, and instructions, syllabi of many universities / schools are quite modernized. All programmes to educate librarians share certain characteristics. Programmes typically offer courses in the history of books and librarianship to give students a background in divided reflection paper the profession's past.
It also includes courses in knowledge organization (classification, cataloguing, bibliography, indexing abstracting, Metadata, semantic syntactic analysis, controlled vocabularies, etc.), collection development (acquisition), information seeking behaviors of users, search strategies, library services (dissemination of the acquired library materials, reference), and management of the collection (preservation conservation of documents). It also includes contents related to instructions scholarly communication (bibliometrics, Infometrics, scientometrics, webometrics), digital libraries and ICT. 4.16 ICT as an Integral Part:- Technology is a class reflection paper entering in a very big way in every sector and in LIS where it has been used extensively to store and retrieve information in different forms and structures. This new dimension is reflected in instructions the course structure of almost all universities that provides courses in LIS. The courses include topics that impart new skill in organizing web resources, and providing web-based services. 4.17 Practical Exposure:- All courses provide scope of practical knowledge rather than restricting to only theory. Even some universities make it compulsory for their learners to undergo some apprenticeship before practicing the principle without librarianship. 4.18 Problems with Present LIS Education and Research:- 4.18.1 Limited Accommodation Capacity:-
All universities which provide Library and instructions, Information Science courses witness a great flow of learners. Layout. But they are able to instructions accommodate only a limited number of such desired students. 4.18.2 A Very Competitive Entrance Examination:- In most of the universities, students desire to study the LIS has to go through a very competitive entrance examination for university admission. 4.18.3 Limitation as a Professional Subject:-
LIS is a professional course and so it has the limitations of instructions any other professional courses. In Order Essay. The non-inclusion of Library and Information Science in UPSC, Civil Service / State Public Service Commission examination, SET / SLET is a very common. The other problems include lack of a standard cohesive syllabus of LIS and low level of awareness among the general people about this course. 4.19 LIS Research in India:- The LIS research briefly means the collection and analysis of original data on a problem of librarianship, done within the library school according to scientific and instructions, scholarly standard. Research in this connection broadly includes investigation, studies, surveys, academic work at the doctoral, post doctoral and research staff level, It also includes in house or action research by practicing librarians, information personnel and documentalists, etc. The aim of research in scientific essay LIS, like any other discipline is to contribute towards the advancement of subject and contribution to the existing knowledge.
4.19.1 Dr. S. R. Ranganathan's Effort:- The era of LIS research in India started with S. Instructions. R. Writing Program. Ranganathans efforts. He performed individual research for several years. His works that lead to instructions some of the our house in order essay fundamental and theoretical principles have dominated the research activities for five decades. His idea of classification and cataloguing becomes the area of research in different library schools all over the world. The library and academic community of those days, even today also respect him as a pioneer researcher in LIS.
Some of his worth notable contributions are. a) Five laws of library science. b) Colon Classification. c) Prolegomena to library classification. d) Classified Catalogue Code. e) Documentation and its facets. f) Library administration, etc. In India research activity to reflect in instructions two programs. 4.19.2 M. Phil Programme:- i) University of Delhi:- University of Delhi was the first to introduce M. Testing On Animals Essay. Phil programme in Library and Information Science in 1980. Today more than 11 universities offer the M.Phil programme.
The duration of M. Phil programme in almost all universities in this country is one year. 4.19.3 PhD Programme:- i) University of Delhi:- The credit for introducing the doctoral degree programme in library science in instructions India goes to Dr. S. R. Ranganathan (1892'1972). In 1951, he started PhD program in university Delhi University in instructions 1958. The university offered first doctoral degree in Library science to D. Testing On Animals. B. Krishan Rao for his 'Facet Analysis and Depth Classification of Agriculture' under the guidance of Dr. Instructions. S. R. Ranganathan. In 1977, Panjab University, Chandigarh offered the second Ph.D. Today more than 125 Universities in India have Ph.D. research facilities. ii) Documentation Research and Training Centre (DRTC):- In 1962, Dr. S. R. In Order. Ranganathan established Documentation Research and instructions, Training Centre at Bangalore.
Since its inception, it has been carrying out university essay layout, research studies on documentation and related areas. iii) Library Associations:- The contribution of library association of India towards research activities is negligible but they restrict their activities in instructions the field of publication of journals, organization of seminars, conferences and essay layout, workshop, etc. for making ground to instructions do research in LIS. IATLIS, NASSDOC, ILA, IASLIC are the mentionable among them. iv) Funding of LIS Research in India:- The University Grants Commission (UGC) is for the soul essay promoting LIS research by awarding different kinds of fellowships to the students. Indian Council of Social Science Research (ICSSR) and Defence Scientific Information and Documentation Centre (DESIDOC) are also promoting LIS research programme by awarding scholarship to doctoral students. v) D.Litt Programme:-
In 1992, Utkal University, Bhubaneswar awarded D.Litt. to instructions Dr. B. B. Shukla. It claimed to be the first such degree in library science all over the world.(Kumar, 1998) 4.20 LIS Research : Global Overview:- Rochester and Vakkari (2003) conducted various national studies of different countries to analyse the trends in LIS research at global scenario and record the research trends in LIS research at global level based on the analysis. The different national studies in research were conducted by these two authors as an a class paper assignment of IFLA project during 1997-1998 and compared national and international trends in LIS research and recorded the development in research. The countries covered in the analysis were basically European countries Japan, China, UK, USA etc. The analytical study conducted and instructions, results reported by IFLA provided a descriptive account of essay research conducted in various prominent countries of the world.
The author's analysis on the research activity and instructions, broad subject in which prominent research covered during the period 1965-1995 indicated that the major focus in LIS research at International level was concentrated mainly of the following topics. 1. Information storage and retrieval (87) 2. Library and information services (77) 3. Information seeking behavior (8) 4. Other LIS topics (25)
Thus out of 197 research studies it was reflected that ISR, LIS services and ISB were in prominent areas. Though these are common during the period the trend was almost similar in other countries also. European countries covering Finland, Spain etc had research activity in library services, information seeking behaviour, information services and retrieval where as in UK the same situation was reported. In Spain 1995 LIS degrees were recognized as academic degrees in universities. University Essay. Information science research took leading position in European countries. The research trends in Australia reflected in LIS services, information seeking and history were more prominent (74). Instructions. In China principals in a class divided paper LIS , LIS services, information industry were the major research areas, were more considered but library and information services area was more popular.
The most popular sub topics on instructions which research was conducted more during 1965-1995 in China were : ' Library management and administration. In China during the period 1979-1985 it was known as revolver phase of LIS research, 1986-1990 flourishing phase and 1991 onward developing stage and information service, library education were the prominent areas. A comparative study conducted Vakkari (1996) for LIS research in scientific testing on animals Scandinavia countries like Denmark, Finland, Sweden, Norway; Spain etc. also reflected European trends in instructions LIS research. Thus it was reflected that major countries noted below during this period involved more in research concentration at broad information topics. It was found that research at international level had orientation towards solving information problems. In LIS many authors reviewed the research methods used by LIS scholars for in order essay conducting effective research and noticed that the instructions among the different methods in which descriptive research covering survey (66), historical conceptual research element (79) as well as discussions, mathematical methods, literature review were the prominent methods. In UK, LIS research was examined by Layzell Ward (1998) and scientific, pointed out the instructions research trends and informed that research output was low initially and increased latter after establishment of library association which setup research committee 1946 and reflection paper, from 1960 Government funding made available for LIS research. Since the establishment of instructions British Library 1994 the growth in research gradually increased after 1980 and information technology, information storage and retrieval become more popular topics.
From the above global study it is noticed that LIS research progress was slow and different topics were grouped in to three areas based in traditional practices and since 1990 area were shifted towards modernization covering : 1. Library history: Library profession, Library administration, Library education, Analysis of libraries, Publishing and life principle three without, book industries. 2. Library and information services: Circulation, Collection development, Information and seeking behavior, User education. 3. Information storage and retrieval: Cataloguing, classification and indexing, Information retrieval, Bibliographic databases. 4. Information seeking behavior: Methods of information dissemination, Information sources, Information seeking behavior in different subject, Information use, Information management. 5. Scientific and professional communication: Scientific publication, Citation pattern and structures, Methods of communication. At the end of 2001 centre for instructions information research at to set our house university of central England, Birmingham examines the research landscape in instructions LIS domain. Nyu Creative Program. They have reviewed LIS research 2002-2005 and recorded potential gaps in instructions LIS research activities. The survey using questioners covered LIS organizations links public library, universities libraries, schools and colleges, government libraries etc. the survey was focused on core areas in LIS. The centre reported that in our house in order essay LIS research domain may be local regional, national and international have a practice or academic focus. Hayns et. al (2000), pointed out instructions, that strategic research, basic research, exploratory research, action research, applied research are the major types of research.
Strategic research deals with practical applications, basic research relate to theoretical investigation and helps in understanding principals of information management where as exploratory research generate new ideas with practical applications. Applied research creates applications or products as well as transferable knowledge. Action research covers findings solutions to problems at work places worked of different services in 1984 Stewert felt that research area in LIS. This covers resources and services, new technologies, management of change, library services, staff skills, literacy, staff motivations etc. thus the divided reflection paper prominent areas in LIS research was predicted was information retrieval, library co-operation, digital resources, information services, preservation and access to instructions knowledge, information providers, public library etc. Till 1995 prominent research was conducted in testing on animals essay above areas using different research methods for conducting research in LIS like, historical method, survey method, qualitative, evaluation, action (case) research method, content analysis, citation analysis, bibliometric methods, secondary analysis (Literature review) and experimental research, bibliographic methods etc. The data collection techniques used by researcher while conducting the study during 1965-1995 mainly covers questioner, observation, interview, content analysis, citation analysis, historical resources analysis and secondary analysis.
In UK research conducted mainly in the area public library, library management, user studies, technical processing, information storage and retrieval etc. (Meadows 1994, 1995). Peritz (1977) conducted a study in which analysed research articles published in 39 core journals published during the period 1950-1975 from LIS to find out the publishing trends in the stream. Author analysed about 900 journals articles and recorded the research trends. Similar study was also performed by Atkins (1988) and he analysed subject trends in LIS research carried out during the period 1975-1984 using questionnaire. The purpose of the author in conducting this study was to find past, present and future trends in LIS research. Atkins in his study presented a table indicating popularity of the subject in instructions which research articles were publish and these were treated as a base to conduct LIS research.
The areas isolated by him are : 1. Library management. 2. Information retrieval. 5. Public library. 6. Library automation. 7. For The. Library history. 8. Library finance. 9. Collection development. 10. Information services.
15. Citation studies. 16. Special libraries. 17. Research libraries. 18. Library education. 19. University library. 20. Library building. 21. Special collection. 22. National library. 23. Library security.
The author opined that in developed countries till 1980 traditional concept were considered and since 1980 emphasis was given on latest trends related topics which were in instructions currency like databases, ICT applications. The growth of OCLC, RLIN and WLN gave more attention towards research in in order essay the advanced topics and modernization, automation, database developments etc were considered more by the researcher. 'Citation analysis' was the subject area proved more popular and reported more studies as compared to other topics in LIS, due to its applications in the field to manage libraries and provide better services to users and uses in library at its highest potential. Mcnicol and Nankivell (2003), in their study 'The LIS research landscape: A review and instructions, prognosis' conducted a survey of research in LIS covering the period in two parts 1997-2002 and 2002-2005. The comparative analysis of the study leads to find out trends in research in LIS. This study highlighted LIS research landscape to divided identify trends and analysis as well as the gaps in research. Slewart (1984) in his study prepared a research agenda and instructions, indicated few research areas in LIS which are not yet considered. 1. Resources utility and user and services requirement.
2. New technologies. 3. Management change. 4. Library services. 7. Retraining staff. 8. Restructuring libraries. Sumsion (1994), also focused on the following research topics and also opined that there is essay principle three without a need to work on the current development to instructions get the quicker solution . 1. Library principals.
2. Identify trends. 3. New user needs. 4. New type of services. Pluse and Prythech (1996), studied and analysed LIS research conducted during 1990-1996 and paper, identified few prospective areas like: 1. Operational management. 2. Standards and benchmarking. 3. Use of internet. 5. Staffing pattern. Few authors pointed out instructions, areas of scientific on animals research conducted in UK, USA during period 1996-2002 after a study and instructions, reported few of the prominent areas considered more in developed countries are: 1. Information retrieval. 2. Nyu Creative. Information skill.
4. Professional development. 7. LIS education. 8. User development. 9. Electronic services. Thus research conducted in developed countries during 1996-2002 indicated increasing trends and it was highest since 2001. Further while indicating future research development themes for research activities suggested were, 1. Electronic information. 2. Information policy. 3. Multimedia policy. 4. LIS education.
5. Business information. Electronic resources and information services based on instructions digital media is the need of the to set essay time including internet resource management. Few prominent subjects presented to undertake future studies are: 1. Impact of digital resources. 2. Instructions. Digital library development. 3. ICT and school library. 4. Use of electronic resources.
5. Community building. 6. Essay Three. Controlled vocabulary. 7. Information searching. 10. Semantic web and controlled terminologies. The editorial of library and information science research (1997), in which research agenda beyond 2000 was highlighted by instructions Burke and others and focused the areas in LIS research before 1997 and next bilinear were also highlighted. Information seeking and information retrieval, storage and preservation technology, information quality was covered more. The opinion of editorial board covers the major topics like economics, manage rising cost of journals, electronic publishing, information retrieval, internets and its impact on libraries, bibliographic information resources, library services, quality information services, information need/assessment, managing organizational change due to application of information technology, digital information services, web technology, value added information services are the major core areas to be looked in to 2000 onwards. Samdani (2011), in his article narrated the on animals status of instructions doctoral research in LIS in Pakistan and appended the views indicating the writing LIS research was started in 1967 from university of Karachi. Instructions. In Pakistan seven universities and one private university is offering doctoral research programme in LIS.
During 1967-1971 only scientific testing, five candidates admitted for research program and only one i.e. M A H Chishti completed his thesis and awarded degree in instructions 1981 entitled 'Islamic libraries (749 AD-1257 AD)'. Writing. In 1992 second PhD degree was awarded to Nasim Fatima under the guidance of Dr. Jamil Jalibi from university of Karachi entitled 'cataloguing and standardization of Urdu manuscripts'. The third degree awarded to Munira Ansari in 2005 entitled 'Information needs and information seeking behaviour of the media practitioners in instructions Pakistan'. The fourth degree awarded to Shamshad Ahmed in 2009 for entitled 'A study of library and archival record in directorate of Sindh archives Karachi'. The ongoing research activity involve 13 candidates in research programme and their topics are information generating and to set in order, handling, health science libraries, news paper library, digital library, library and information science education curriculum, reference and information sources etc. Instructions. It is review that university of Karachi four PhD degrees awarded and 13 ongoing PhD research work. From university of soul essay Panjab, Lahor initiated doctoral research program in 1971. First degree awarded in 2004 and instructions, second degree awarded in 2005. The topics were funding model in library and collection management in libraries, at present till 2009, three students have submitted the thesis.
In university of Sindh research programme started in 2001 first degree awarded in 2005 and presently four students have registered for ongoing research program and their topics school libraries, college librarianship, user survey/user satisfaction, digital libraries etc. From Islamia University started doctoral program in life principle three without 1986 and first degree awarded in 1991 for university library and presently three students have registered for PhD ongoing research program. From university of instructions Balochistan only scientific testing essay, one candidate having registered in 2003. Instructions. University of chicken for the essay Peshawar, Urdu university of Karachi, Hamdard University, Karachi research has been reflected only at instructions initial stage. It is thus reported that 19 PhD degrees in LIS were awarded during 1964-2010. From foreign university thus 1964-2010, 28 PhD degrees were awarded in 46 years duration, almost single degree in a twice year. On Animals Essay. During 2004-2010 total ten PhD were declared and this is the real contribution of Pakistan. The topics were covered academic library, collection management, library education, classification, cataloguing, library funding, school library, university library, user education etc. as compared Indian progress is excellent. Miwa (2011), in his article trends in Japanese LIS education is instructions highlighted in which more trace was given on LIS education to maintain quality. The problem areas indentified were public library, academic library, special library, research activities, ICT, professional system etc. it has also same educational pattern followed in India i.e. any bachelor degree, bachelor degree in LIS, master degree and doctoral in LIS.
In Sri Lanka (Chamani 2008), the to set our house in order major research covered till 2008 were library professional, library history, publishing, LIS education, Information system, information storage and retrieval, information seeking behaviour etc. The review of instructions LIS research in different countries highlighted that till 2005 almost traditional research was focused more but since 2005 more research is covering latest trends in the profession. From the review of India the same picture is soup soul reported except the ICT and technology based research initiated since 2009 onwards. 4.21 Research trend in Indian Universities: The research activity in Indian universities is gathering momentum as there is a greater demand for the research in the discipline. During the recent past, quite a number of research activities have been carried out in the universities and research institutions in various parts of the world.
In India, due to the establishment of University Grants Commission (UGC), AICTE and other similar bodies and their active support, many students are caring out M. Phil. and PhD degrees. Instructions. During pre-independence, there were only few doctorate degree holders, but after independence the research output increased drastically in every field. University Essay. In India about 125 universities and research institutions are offering PhD programs in instructions LIS. Many researchers made an effort to collect data from different universities and to set in order, analyzed it to fix the research productivity of the various universities in instructions India (Chandrashekara 2009). The credit for reflection paper the formal institution of the doctoral degree program in library science in India goes undeniably to Dr. S.R.
Ranganathan (1892'1972). In 1951, he started library science education at the University of Delhi. Instructions. The University of Delhi awarded the first de jure degree in library science in 1957 to D.B. Krishan Rao who worked on 'faceted classification for agriculture'(Chandrashekara 2009, Gupta 2010). Doctoral research remained in the wilderness when Ranganathan shifted to Delhi in 1955. In 1960s and 1970s some doctorates in library related topics were earned by library professionals under the guidance and supervision of faculties belonging to the disciplines such as sociology, history, law, economics, management, and a class reflection, the like. The purpose of instructions reviving and furthering doctoral research facilities was assumed by J. Program. S. Sharma (1924'1993), the then university librarian and head of the library science department of the Panjab University, Chandigarh.
Under his guidance, the second de jure (de jure means devoting something and someone) Ph.D. in library science was awarded in instructions 1977 after a gap of two decades. Many universities followed with mostly individual efforts and enthusiasm and doctoral research raised since 1980s and gradual improvement in scientific essay facilities paved ways for India to maintain its third world leadership in library research and library literature. PhD programs thereafter, mushroomed even despite the lack of facilities or adherence to instructions standards (Satija 1999, Gupta 2010). Chandrashekara (2009) collected the data from various authorized sources for the degrees awarded in Indian universities from 1957 to 2008 in LIS discipline and analyzed in for the soul proper manner in his paper. His results indicated that during the period 1957 to 2008 about instructions 802 theses were submitted and awarded the degrees to the researchers. From his analysis it is very clear that LIS researches gained momentum since 1991 to 2008 and on an average degree awarded per year were 36 and from 1957 to 1990 only 8 per annum average degrees were awarded. The drastic change is reported since 2003 onwards and on an average 43 degrees were awarded per year in Indian universities. Even author had grouped decennial growth of university layout research degrees awarded in Indian universities.
The trends resulted from the data presentation indicated that the real growth starts from 1980 to instructions 2008 and during 1950 to life principle 1979 only instructions, 15 degrees were awarded. The analysis of in order degrees awarded in different states and arranging them the top 10 states in India conducted LIS research are Karnataka (169), AP (96), MP (80), MS (58), West Bengal (56), Punjab (45), Orissa (43), UP(42), Rajasthan (41), TN (31) and instructions, other states contribution is essay (141). The analysis made by Chandrashekara and Ramashesh (2009) regarding the research conducted in India during the period 1957-2008 and found that research activity in instructions Karnataka state is leading and Maharashtra is ranked at 4th position. The library and essay life three, information science deals with all aspects of instructions information and knowledge which includes acquisition of materials, classification and cataloguing, searching tools, information retrieval, library services, preservation and conservation of documents and so on. The library and scientific, information science closely related to all other subjects. It forms its own foundation by taking the help of some other subjects.
Dr. Instructions. S. R. Ranganathan is a pioneer in the field of Library and Information Science in the world and our house in order essay, India in particular. Instructions. He contributed in university almost all aspects of the library science. Nowadays many university and colleges provides different courses in instructions Library and Information and its related subjects. It ranges from certificate course to PhD. The research trends indicated the growth at global level and also in India. This chapter satisfies the objective 'To study research growth and research trends in LIS and compare it with current developments in LIS'. This chapter summarizes the progress in LIS education, LIS research at global and national level.
' Asundi, A Y and essay, Karisiddappa C R (2007) Library and Information Science Education in India: International perspective with special reference to Developing Countries. DESIDOC Bulletin of Information Technology Vol. 27(2) March, p.5-11. ' Atkins Stephen E (1988), Subject trends in library and information science research, 1975-1984, Library Trends, Spring, p. 633-658. ' Barman Badan (2012), Library and information science education, Accessed at http://www.netugc.com/library-and-information-science-education-in-india dated on 14.04.2012. ' Burke R M and others (1998), A research agenda beyond 2000, Library and information science research, Vol.
19(3), p. 209-216. ' Chamani G (2008), library and instructions, information science research literature in scientific Sri Lanka: A bibliometric study, journal of the university librarians association of instructions Sri Lanka, Vol. 12. ' Chandrashekara, M and Ramasesh, C P (2009) Library and Information Science Research in India. Asia Pacific Conference on essay LIS education and practice, p.530-537.
' Gupta, D K and instructions, Bhardwaj, K (2010) Library Management Research in Indian Universities. Annals of Library and Information Studies. Vol. 57(Dec), p.333-338. ' Higgins, S E(2007) LIS education and research area for developing countries. 5th International CALIBER. Punjab University Chandigarh. 8-10 Feb. ' Jarvelin, K. and P. Vakkari. 1993. The evolution of library and information science 1965-1985: a content analysis of journal articles.
Information Processing and Management, 29(1): 129-144. ' Joshi Manoj K (2010), Library and information science education in India: Some government initiatives, DESIDOC journal of essay layout library and information technology, Vol. 30(5), Sept., p 67-73. ' Kumar PSG (1998), Doctoral studies in instructions library and information science in India: A study, DESIDOC Bulletin of information technology, vol.18(1), p5-9. ' Layzell Ward (1998), Layzell Ward, P. (1997). The nature of UK research literature: Some thoughts arising from a bibliometric study. IFLA General Conference in Copenhagen, 1997. Library Theory and layout, Research Section Open Forum paper accessed at http://ifla.queenslibrary.org/IV/ifla63/63rocm.htm accessed on 12.06.2012. ' McNicol; Sarah and Nankivell, Clare (2003) LIS Researchers and instructions, Practitioners: a Research Culture, Library and Information Research News 26(83), pp. Essay Without. 10-16.
' Miwa M et. al. (2011), Global LIS: An effort to describe trends in Japanese LIS education for global collaboration, Asia Pacific conference on Library information education and practice 2011. ' Naukri24 (2012), Library and information science education in India, Accessed at http://www.news24online.com/Library-and-Information-Science-Education-in-India--Options,-Opportunities-and-Places_career24_23.aspx accessed on 14.04.2012. ' Peritz (1981), the methods of library science research: some results from a bibliometric survey, Library Research2, p. 251-268. ' Pluse, John M., and Prythech, Ray (1996), Research in Public Libraries, Final Report of the Project on Research in Public Libraries, British Library Research and Innovation Report 8, London: BLRIC. ' Rath, P (2010) Information and communication technology - Application in higher education with special reference to north Eastern region. Located at www.caluniv.ac.in/news/prabhakar.doc accessed on 23.07.2011. ' Rochester Maxine, and Vakkari, Pertti (1998), 'International LIS research: A Comparison of National Trends', IFLA Journal 24(3), pp. 166-175. ' Rochester Maxine K (1995), Library and information science research in Australia 1985-1994. A content analysis of research articles in the Australian Academic and Research Libraries 26, p. 163-170.
' Rochester Maxine K and Vakkari Pertti (2003), International library and information science research: A comparison of national trends, IFLA professional reports, Nr. Instructions. 82. ' Samdani R A and Bhatti R (2011), doctoral research in LIS by Pakistani professionals: An analysis, Library philosophy and practice, accessed on http://inillibunl.edu/lpp accessed at 25.02.2012. ' Sumsion John (1994) strategic research areas and to set, possible research models for UK public libraries, Library Review, Vol. 43(4), p 7-26. ' Tsuji Keita, Yoshida Yuko and Miva M (2006) Survey on instructions faculty of Library and Information Science education in Japan, Graduate school of library, Information and Media Studies, University of Tsukuba, 2-3, Kasuga, Tsukuba-shi, Ibaraki 305-8550. If this essay isn't quite what you're looking for, why not order your own custom Science essay, dissertation or piece of coursework that answers your exact question? There are UK writers just like me on hand, waiting to help you. Each of us is qualified to a high level in to set our house in order our area of instructions expertise, and we can write you a fully researched, fully referenced complete original answer to your essay question. Just complete our simple order form and you could have your customised Science work in your email box, in as little as 3 hours.
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What do CEOs do? A CEO Job Description. The Chief Executive Officer is one of the instructions, most coveted titles, and least understood jobs in a company. Everyone believes that CEOs can do whatever they want, are all powerful, and are magically competent. Divided Paper. Nothing could be further from the truth. By its very nature, the job description of a CEO means meeting the instructions, needs of employees, customers, investors, communities, and writing program, the law. Some of a CEO’s job can be delegated. But several elements of the job must be done by the CEO. Instructions. Read on for the details of what makes a CEO.
What is intrinsic to the CEO’s job? This isn’t a traditional job description; it’s an examination of the actual roles that a CEO plays (legally or de facto) within a company. The principle components of a CEO’s job description includes the following areas. Any individual CEO may take on any tasks that they wish, but these are the things that can’t be delegated: While a CEO may get input for some of those duties, it is the CEO’sand only the CEO’sresponsibility to perform those well. Testing. Being the CEO, they can spend the rest of their time doing whatever they decide they want to spend their time on. Instructions. But ultimately, everything else about a given CEO’s job is optional.
Admit it. Testing Essay. We all feel a touch of awe when someone has it: the CEO title. The power, the instructions, salary, and the chance to Be The Boss. It’s worthy of awe! Too bad so few CEOs are good at what they do. In fact, only 1 in 20 are in soup soul essay the top 5%. Instructions. Many don’t know what their job should be, and scientific testing on animals essay, few of those can pull it off well. The job is simplevery simple. Instructions. But it’s not easy at all. Our House. What is a CEO’s job?
More than with any other job, the instructions, responsibilities of university essay a CEO diverge from the duties and the measurement . A CEO’s responsibilities: everything, especially in instructions a startup. The CEO is responsible for the success or failure of the company. Operations, marketing, strategy, financing, creation of company culture, human resources, hiring, firing, compliance with safety regulations, sales, PR, etc.it all falls on the CEO’s shoulders. Being responsible means that the CEO is the one held accountable for the success of the company’s efforts, across the divided, board. But of course, the CEO doesn’t actually do all that work. The CEO’s duties are what she actually does , the responsibilities she doesn’t delegate. Some things can’t be delegated. Creating culture, modeling values, building the senior management team, financing road shows, ultimate approval of how money gets spent, and, indeed, the instructions, delegation itself can be done only by the CEO. What is the CEO’s main duty? Setting strategy and vision.
The senior management team can help develop strategy. Investors can approve a business plan. The Board can approve, advise, or ask the CEO to revise a business strategy. But at writing program, the end of the day, it’s the CEO who ultimately sets the direction: Which markets will the company enter? Against which competitors? What will the company’s product lines be? How will the company differentiate itself? Will it be low cost?
High service? Convenient Locations? Flexible financing? High-touch? Mass produced? The CEO decides, sets budgets, forms partnerships, sells off incompatible product lines, makes acquisitions, and hires a team to steer the company accordingly.
Modeling and setting the company’s culture, values, and behavior. The CEO’s second duty is building culture. Work gets done through people, and people are profoundly affected by culture. A lousy place to instructions, work can drive away high performers. Essay. After all, they have their pick of instructions places to work.
And a great place to scientific on animals, work can attract and retain the very best. Culture is instructions, built in dozens of ways, and the CEO sets the tone. Her every actionor inactionsends cultural messages (see Life Under a Magnifying Glass). Clothes send signals about to set our house, how formal the workplace is. Who she talks to signals who is and isn’t important. How she treats mistakes (feedback or failure?) sends signals about risk-taking. Who she fires, what she puts up with, and instructions, what she rewards shape the culture powerfully. This can not be emphasized enough! People imitate a CEO’s behavior when deciding how to act. The book Pre-suasion by university essay Robert Cialdini, documents at length the ways in which, for example, a dishonest CEO makes employees feel as if they can cut corners, steal from the company, and generally behave according to those same standards.
A project team worked weekends launching a multimedia web site on instructions, a tight deadline. Their CEO was on holiday when the testing essay, site launched. Instructions. She didn’t call to congratulate the a class divided paper, team. To her, it was a matter of keeping her personal life sacred. Instructions. To the team, it was a message that her personal life was more important than the essay life three, weekends and evenings they had put in to meet the deadline. Instructions. Next time, they may not work quite so hard. The emotion and effect on the culture was real, even if it wasn’t what the CEO intended. Congratulations from the CEO on a job well done can motivate a team like nothing else.
Silence can demotivate just as quickly. If vision is where the testing, company is going, values tell how the company gets there. Values outline acceptable behavior. The CEO conveys values through actions and instructions, reactions to others. Slipping a ship schedule to meet quality levels sends a message of soup valuing quality. Not over-celebrating a team’s heroic recovery when they could have avoided a problem altogether sends a message about prevention versus damage control. People take their cues about interpersonal valuestrust, honesty, opennessfrom CEO’s actions as well. Building and leading the senior executive team. Team-building is the CEO’s #3 duty.
The CEO hires, fires, and leads the senior management team. Instructions. They, in turn, hire, fire, and lead the rest of the for the soul essay, organization. The CEO must be able to hire and fire non-performers. She must resolve differences between senior team members, and keep them working together in a common direction. Instructions. She sets direction by chicken for the soul communicating the instructions, strategy and vision of where the company is going.
Strategy sets the direction for the senior team, who in reflection paper turn set it for the rest of the company. With clear direction that everyone understands, the team can rally together and make it happen. Don’t underestimate the power of setting direction. Instructions. In 1991, at our house in order, Intuit’s new employee orientation, CEO Scott Cook presented his vision of Intuit as the center of computerized personal finance. Intuit had just 120 employees and one product. Ten years later, it’s a billion-dollar company with thousands of employees and dozens of products. Instructions. Worldwide, it is the winner in personal finance, bar none.
The success is due in no small part to every Intuit employee knowing and to set in order essay, sharing the instructions, company’s vision and strategy. Allocating capital to the company’s priorities. Capital allocation is the CEO’s #4 duty. The CEO sets budgets within the firm. She funds projects which support the strategy, and ramps down projects which lose money or don’t support the strategy. She considers carefully the essay, company’s major expenditures, and instructions, manages the firm’s capital. If the company can’t use each dollar raised from soup essay, investors to produce at least $1 of instructions shareholder value, she decides when to return money to the investors. Some CEOs don’t consider themselves financial people, but at the end of the day, it is their decisions that determine the essay, company’s financial fate.  Pay no attention to the math background peeking from behind the instructions, curtain… back.
Knowing the job description is a good first step for a CEO, but to know how she’s doing, she needs to design her own measurement system. Unlike inconvenient lower-level jobs, no one tells the Chief Executive how she’s doing. Chicken Soup Soul Essay. Do managers let her know she’s undermining their authority, making poor decisions, or communicating poorly? Not likely. Even when a CEO asks for instructions, honest feedback, the a class divided paper, fear is there: non-flattering feedback may stall a promising career. Even when a company uses 360-degree feedback, no one penalizes the CEO if she doesn’t act on the feedback. The Board of Directors supposedly oversees the CEO, but they are far removed from instructions, day-to-day actions. Chicken For The. Over time, they can evaluate performance, but they look mainly at share price and company strategy. They are rarely interested in(or qualified to instructions, comment on!)the CEO’s daily behavior. But the essay three, CEO’s daily behavior will make or break the company!
The CEO’s duties don’t change because they are unmeasured. Indeed, lax measurement makes it easy for the CEO to feel confident, even when she shouldn’t. Good feedback is the instructions, only way to know what’s working, but share price simply doesn’t do it. Scientific Testing On Animals. External measures measure the company, not the instructions, link between the CEO’s actions. A low share price tells her something’s wrong, but it doesn’t help her figure out what. By measuring her performance based on her duties, a CEO can learn to to set, do her job better.
As explained in part 1, the CEO’s job is setting strategy and vision, building culture, leading the senior team, and allocating capital. The last of these is easy to instructions, measure. The first three are more of a challenge. How does a CEO know she’s doing the vision thing? It’s hard.
Having vision isn’t enoughthat just takes a handful of mushrooms and a vision quest. Divided Paper. Communicating the vision is the key. When people “get it,” they know how their daily job supports the vision. If they can’t link their job to instructions, the vision, that tells a CEO that her communication is faulty, or she hasn’t helped her managers turn the vision into actual tasks. Either way, a CEO can monitor her success as a visionary by questioning and listening for employees to link their jobs with the university essay layout, company vision. Culture building is subtle, the instructions, culture a CEO sees may be very different from the culture of the rank-and-file. Writing Program. One company had a facilities policy that all equipment within 450 feet of the senior management offices was kept in top working order. Senior managers saw a smoothly running company, while everyone else saw neglect and carelessness. Surveys about openness, values, and morale can be used to develop a measure of culture. The questions to ask aren’t rocket science. The book First, Break all the Rules gives a great questionnaire for measuring overall culture.
Also, check turnover. When 95% of instructions your workforce says they can’t wait to get to program, work, something is going right. Instructions. If people rarely leave, and if it’s easy to attract top talent at below-market prices, you can be sure the nyu creative, culture plays a large role. If people leave (especially your top performers), againlook to culture. And don’t underestimate the power of walking around and counting smiles. If people are having fun, it will show. The CEO’s success at team-building can often be measured through the team. Instructions. Teams usually know when they’re effective. They can also rate their team using assessments that measure specific behaviors. For example, “I can trust my teammates.” “My teammates deliver their part of the project on time.” “Every member knows what is expected of them.” Regular team self-assessments can help the CEO track the principle three, team’s progress and hone her abilities to instructions, keep the team running smoothly. Easiest to measure is a class divided reflection, a CEO’s capital allocation skill.
In fact, financial measures are the ones made public: earnings and instructions, share price. But how can a CEO link those to her actual decisions? Working with her CFO, a CEO can devise financial measures appropriate to her business. Sometimes traditional measures are most appropriate, such as economic value added or return on assets (for a capital-intensive company). Other times, the CEO may want to invent business-specific measures, such as return on training dollars, for a company which values state-of-the-art training for employees. Soup For The Soul Essay. By monitoring several such measures, a CEO learns to link her budget decisions with company outcomes. Ultimately, the instructions, CEO’s should be creating more than a dollar of to set our house in order essay value for every dollar invested in the company. Otherwise, her best bet is to return cash to instructions, the shareholders for them to invest in more productive vehicles.
In startups, earnings begin low to nonexistent, and share price is more about salesmanship and vision than earnings. So the CEO gets almost no useful feedback about her capital allocation wisdom. She doesn’t know whether a dollar spent on a slightly nicer-than-necessary copy machine is wasted or is a wise investment in a long-term. Careful attention to the design and tracking of financial measures can help her prepare for the transition to an earnings-driven company. In his 1988 Annual Report, Berkshire Hathaway chairman Warren Buffett included an excellent essay on CEO accountability.
Click here to read Mr. Buffett’s observations on CEO measurement.  The CEOs don’t help the problem. Many of my CEO clients highlight the value of honest feedback from their coach. Essay Layout. Yet they complain about employees who disagree with them, just don’t “get it” or don’t have enough information “to understand the real issues.” In a coaching call, they can hear feedback and consider it. At work, they treat disagreement as dissension, and then wonder why everyone’s a “Yes man.” back. Pitfalls and Solutions for the CEO.
A CEO can tank a company by not understanding their duties, or failing to set up good measurement systems. Instructions. But it’s also true that the our house, job itself can screw up the person, as well. It’s said that power corrupts, and few positions are more powerful than CEO. While the USA may be a democracy, our companies are legal dictatorships with the CEO calling the shots(1). Instructions. While she may be having a great time playing Boss, the a class divided reflection paper, position may be taking a very human toll. It’s all too easy for the CEO to become a …; jerk(2) …; without realizing it. They can forgetif they ever knewwhat it was like to have a boss.
They are free to ignore feedback that they don’t want to hear, and no one will call them to task for it. They can bypass the chain of command when they want to instructions, meddle. They can give themselves raises and genuinely believe they deserve it. And most dreadfully, they can forget what it is university essay, like to be “one of the little people”: don’t you have your nanny do that? The worker was an instructions, incredibly productive person. She worked harder than the CEO, got more done, yet couldn’t have afforded a nanny if her life depended on it.
The CEO didn’t intend to a class reflection, be a jerk, but his lack of empathy didn’t win many supporters. A CEO can become arrogant by externalizing blame. Having no day-to-day accountability for her actions can also turn a CEO sour. When things go wrong, she can blame everyone around her without facing her own shortcomings. “My employees just don’t get it,” proclaims the CEO, never thinking for a moment that she is the one who hired them. Did she hire incompetents? Or has she failed to communicate goals consistently and clearly? “Market conditions have changed.” she declares. A nice excuse, but isn’t it the CEO’s job to anticipate the market and instructions, position the company for essay, success under a variety of scenarios?
Without someone to keep her honest, she can gradually absolve herself of all responsibility. Believing in a title can lead to overconfidence. Arrogance also threatens a CEO. “Because I am CEO, I must know the business better than anyone else.” It has been said, but it just isn’t true. Instructions. No CEO can be an expert in all functional areas. A CEO who is doing her job is spending time with the big picture. If she knows the details better than her employees, she’s either hiring the wrong people or spending her time at the wrong levels of the organization. It’s appropriate for a CEO to manage operations if absolutely necessary, but she should quickly hire good operational managers and writing program, return to leading the instructions, whole business.
If she also comes to a class reflection paper, believe that the instructions, CEO title grants infallibility, watch out. Even the Pope is only infallible a couple of times each century. To Set In Order. But CEOs can reinforce their delusions of grandeur by giving themselves higher salaries (surely she deserves it! After all, salary benchmarks show how underpaid she is) and instructions, more perks. Then when layoffs come, the CEO wants applause for having the moral strength to make “hard choices,” quietly overlooking how her own poor decision making led to the need for paper, layoffs. Of course, once infallible, there’s no more to learn, and instructions, a CEO may quietly stop learning. Without daily oversight and to set our house in order essay, high quality feedback on how she does her job, she can mistakenly believe her actions lead to instructions, success.
In reality, she may be doing the a class paper, wrong thing, but her staff may be working around the clock to instructions, cover for her. Furthermore, sins of omission aren’t penalized. A CEO who does an adequate job, but far less than she could/should have donegoes unnoticed. In hindsight, XYZ Software(3) could have had a $1 billion market niche, and gone public with a valuation of tens of billions. Instead, it stuck to one product, had little understanding of its markets, and essay principle without, ignored competition. Yet it still went public in a $300-million IPO. Instructions. Was management penalized for a lack of vision and three, market responsiveness? Hardly! The top managers walked off with $60 million apiece, reinforcing the notion that they had done a great job. Yet with a slightly grander vision, the company might have been 10 or 100 times its size. Setting vision is the CEO’s job, but nothing tells her if her sights are too low.
She isn’t penalized for missing the grander vision. Such sins of omissions are a CEO’s worst enemy. She can be lulled into mediocrity by not knowing what would have been possible. The four-minute mile was considered impossible…until Roger Bannister ran it. Now, it’s commonplace. Likewise, a CEO may limit herself by instructions not realizing she can do her job better.
Though salary benchmarks are common, performance benchmarks are surprisingly rare. Quality learning demands a CEO benchmark herself against to set our house, other superb CEO’s. Her central learning question is not “are you doing a good job?” but “are other CEOs doing a better job and instructions, if so, how can you learn to measure up?(4)“ (1) Ok, ok. Technically the Board of Directors has hire/fire authority over the CEO, but the Board can’t control day-to-day operations. Life Principle. And while there are certainly boards that replace inept CEOs, it takes sustained incompetence over a long time to move a board to instructions, action. So for practical purposes, the buck stops with the soup for the, CEO. back.
(2) Her employees may use less diplomatic terms. back. (3) Names are changed to protect the innocent. back. Coaching tips to stay sane and skillful at the top of the heap. These coaching assignments will help an executive avoid some of the pitfalls of the CEO job. They are simple, easy, and won’t take much time.
They’ll help a CEO stay connected with workers, keep herself humble, and instructions, increase her learning while becoming more successful. The suggestions strive to be quick and easy to do, while still producing real results. Make Space to Practice These Assignments. Set aside 5 to 10 minutes, daily, to a class reflection paper, developing as a leader and human being. Instructions. This will be the soup essay, time you think about the below topics and set your mind for the day. Instructions. Schedule the time if necessary. Just make sure that you do what’s right for your growth. Pace yourself. Life is long. Adopt these suggestions one or two at for the soul essay, a time, and practice until you make them your own. Then move on.
Forcing won’t help; this is about developing at your own natural rhythm. Do one assignment for instructions, a few weeks, then move on to another. Keep the ones that work for you and drop those that don’t. Staying connected with “the little people” Cultivate an attitude of respectyour respect for them.
The “little people” are the ones turning your vision into reality. Meditate on this for a few minutes and ask yourself whether you can their jobs as well as they can. If you can, then you’re not hiring the right peoplego change that! Otherwise, once a day, go talk to one of your low-level employeessomeone more capable than you in nyu creative program their area of expertiseand learn from them. Choose a different person each day. Get as close to instructions, the front line workers as possible. Listen with an layout, open mind and learn. Learn about their job.
Ask what works for them and instructions, what doesn’t. Above all, listen to nyu creative, their comments without judgment. Your goal is to connect with their experience of the world, not impose your own. Learn about their life. Find out what motivates them. Why did they come work for you instead of instructions somewhere else? Simply by spending a few minutes understanding their life, you can greatly increase your appreciation of nyu creative program how they’re different (and similar!). Share your vision and job with them, from a position of service. Pretend that your job is to make this person a success. Ask them how their job fits into the work the company does.
If they don’t know, take on the responsibility of helping them understand how their job links to the vision. Instructions. Clarify any confusion they may have about where the company is going. And ask them what you can do to help them succeed at doing their best. Then do it. Acknowledge, often! Without your employees, your dreams and life principle three without, plans wouldn’t amount to instructions, much. Take every available opportunity to acknowledge the contribution of those around you and give them credit, especially in chicken essay public. Feedback is rare in most companies, and positive feedback is rarest of all(1). “Get” that it’s all your responsibility. Instructions. When things don’t go the way you want, take responsibilitywhether or not it’s your fault. The mindset of responsibility will put you in three without a much more powerful place than the mindset of instructions blame.
Regularly review circumstances asking, “What could I do differently (or stop doing) to make a positive difference?” Identify the for the essay, action and instructions, then take it. You’ll be surprised how much more power you have over externalities, operating from responsibility rather than blame. Gather honest advisors to hold you accountable for university essay, your behavior. Sometimes a Board of Directors will give honest feedback, but they are removed from instructions, your day-to-day behavior. Scientific Testing. Actively solicit feedback from third parties: friends, peers, associates. Share your issues and how you’re handling them, and instructions, ask for an honest assessment. Our House Essay. Everyone in a company is accountable to instructions, someone for nyu creative, their behavior, except the CEO. Make yourself accountable as best you can. Identify your limits. Ask, “can someone else in the world do my job better than I am currently doing it?” If the answer is Yes, seek out that person and ask for their guidance in getting better. If the answer is No, validate that answer by asking your advisors, competitors, suppliers, customers, and instructions, employees.
Many companies have crashed and burn because they believe they were the best, for to set in order essay, no good reason but pride and ego. Create measurable performance criteria for instructions, your executive team, including yourself. Make sure people within the organization know your goals, and chicken, know what you can be counted on to do. Hold yourselves accountable. If you don’t meet your goals, withhold your bonus, take no raise, and treat yourself exactly as you would treat an employee who missed their targets. It sends a powerful message to the company that you’re serious about performance.
Ask your direct reports, your Board of Directors, and anyone else you work with for feedback a couple of times a year. You can use a 360-degree feedback process or simply ask in an e-mail. It’s a lot easier to hear feedback on your performance if you’ve explicitly asked for it. Videotape yourself receiving bad news. Watch the videotape and decide whether or not you would want to work for that person. If the answer is No, learn to instructions, chill when you hear bad news. Study excellent CEOs . A Class Reflection Paper. Call a CEO you admire and invite them to instructions, lunch. Exchange tips and adopt tactics that others have found useful. Read books like First, Break All the Rules, which are broad-based studies of soup for the soul habits of instructions top-performers.
Adopt at divided reflection paper, least one new habit a month. Create systems for gathering feedback. Interview customers, competitors, analysts, and others in your industry to know how your company and products are perceived. Make sure you’re gathering feedback that will disconfirm your beliefs about the instructions, world, as much as confirms it. For example, if you think you’re #1 in your market, don’t just ask customers why they like your products. To Set Our House. Ask what other products they use, and how your products fall short. Spend time learning about the fundamentals of a CEO’s job: Setting strategy. The strategy and vision for the company determine where everyone will focus their efforts.
Find a vision and strategy and use it to align your entire company. Creating the corporate culture. Your culture will determine what people do and don’t try, who will stay, who will leave, and how business will get done. Culture starts with you. Decide how you want people to act and start modeling the behavior publicly. Capital allocation. Every dollar you raise and spend should produce more than $1 of return for the company, or it’s a waste of money. Learn how to make these judgements.
Hiring and Firing. The job of executives is primarily team and culture building. Hiring and instructions, firing are must-have skills. Read, take classes, and review past hiring successes and nyu creative program, mistakes. Instructions. Do whatever you can to hone your abilities. Hold yourself to higher standards next year than you did this year. Challenge yourself to learn to get more done with fewer hours and fewer resources while creating a more balanced life for a class divided reflection, yourself. These are just a few of the things you can do to increase your chances for instructions, success as a senior executive.
I also believe in working with a coach to our house essay, identify and overcome (or compensate for) blocks in your performance. Success can be had with many different skill sets. The more you learn about yourself and your capabilities, the better you will be able to shape a job that works for instructions, you. The more you learn about the capabilities of those around you, the better you will be able to build teams that produce spectacular results. (1) Social psychology has shown that rewarding desired behavior is far more effective than punishing bad behavior or non-performance. For reasons that aren’t entirely clear, our culture has evolved around using punishment as the main way of controlling behavior. Unfortunately, punishment doesn’t work very well. Interestingly, animal trainers have known this for years. For an excellent book on the subject, check out Don’t Shoot the Dog by Karen Pryor. back. Whether you’re a C-suite executive or just starting your career, you need to be able to produce results fast.
Stever gives simple, practical advice for eliminating distractions, honing in on divided reflection, what’s most important, and reaching your goals faster and with more fun. Put his advice into action and increase your impact! 1996-2017, Stever Robbins, Inc. All rights reserved in all media. | Terms Privacy.
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95 theses ap euro http://www.tomrichey.net/euro Mr. Richey explains Martin Luther's Reformation to instructions his AP European History students, including Luther's 95 Theses, his problems . Luther and the Protestant Reformation: Crash Course World History #218. Paper. In which John Green teaches you about the Protestant Reformation. Prior to the Protestant Reformation, pretty much everyone in Europe was a Roman Catholic. The Catholic Counter-Reformation (AP Euro Review) http://www.tomrichey.net/euro SWERVE, MARTIN LUTHER! Mr. Richey explains the key elements of the Catholic Counter-Reformation, including the Council of . Causes of the Reformation (AP Euro Review) http://www.tomrichey.net/euro Mr. Instructions. Richey explains the chicken for the soul causes leading to the Protestant Reformation - specifically problems facing the instructions Catholic Church in the . Chapter 14 The Protestant Reformation AP Super Genius Mr. Oliver.
What's an indulgence? Who's Martin Luther? Who is John Calvin? If you've got questions, I've got answers. While this is for the soul essay intended primarily for Mr. Oliver's AP . Who Was Martin Luther? AP Euro Bit by instructions Bit #14. This video is about Martin Luther and the beginning of the Protestant Reformation. I cover his early life, his challenge to three the Catholic Church, the spread of his . AP Euro Review Live Hangout #1 (Renaissance Reformation) In this Hangout, we're going to review early AP European History from the Italian Renaissance through the Reformation and Religious Wars.
Religious Wars . Instructions. AP Euro Live Review (Renaissance and Reformation) Live review with Paul Sargent! Multiple Choice Strategy Session (Tuesday): . The Protestant Reformation: AP Euro Bit by Bit #12. This is an introduction to the major themes surrounding the Protestant Reformation. I discuss what it was, its long-term and short-term causes, and some of its . The Protestant Reformation Explained: World History Review. A super fast, fun and focused look at the Protestant Revolution and role Martin Luther played in changing the history of the world.
Subscribe to HipHughes to . The English Reformation: AP Euro Bit by Bit #16. Yes, that's right. AP Euro Bit by Bit is back for a second season! I'm picking up with the English Reformation. While most of the Reformation happened because of . BEST AP European History Review Protestant Reformation [part 1] PLEASE READ* [How to] Guide to get a 5 on the AP test. Essay Three Without. check out my channel or AP Euro playlist for more videos that I think will help you. Instructions. I am getting my . Scientific On Animals. What Was the Catholic Reformation? AP Euro Bit by Bit #50. The Catholic Counter-Reformation was the reaction by the Catholic Church to instructions the challenge posed by nyu creative writing program Protestant faiths.
Meeting at the Council of instructions, Trent, the . The English Reformation (Henry VIII and the Church of England) http://www.tomrichey.net When the Protestant Reformation began, Henry VIII opposed Martin Luther and sided with the Catholic Church. This changed when his . Life Principle Three. Ap European History music project mr. seech @ Edward H. White Highschool. Martin Luther's Doctrines (Reformation Theology) http://www.tomrichey.net I've already recorded a lecture on instructions Martin Luther, but I wanted to scientific testing on animals focus specifically on his doctrines in this segment, which I kind of . Join me for an overview of the Protestant Reformation. Instructions. We will discuss the causes of the Reformation and the different Protestant groups that arose during the . AP European History Review Unit 2: The Reformation and Religious Wars. The Reformation and Religious Wars. AP European History Reformation Rap.
AP Modern European History Reformation Rap with references to Martin Luther, Huldrych Zwingli, John Calvin, Pope Leo X, and more. Made as an end of the . Life Principle. The Protestant Reformation was an incredible event in the history of the church. Instructions. Martin Luther was the soul essay man who caused the Reformation, but this video explains . Instructions. Introduction to principle without the Protestant Reformation: Martin Luther. Learn about the life of Martin Luther and his dispute with the Catholic church. Created by Beth Harris and Steven Zucker. Oprah sits down with Martin Luther to discuss his 95 Thesis.
Chapter 13 Protestant Reformation 1. Chapter 13. Protestant Reformation. AP Euro. http://www.tomrichey.net I've posted lectures on Luther, Calvin, and the Counter-Reformation, but I felt the need to instructions post one specifically on the subject of Free . Martin Luther, the nyu creative writing program 95 Theses and the Birth of the Protestant Reformation. Martin Luther, the 95 Theses and the Birth of the Protestant Reformation. The Italian Renaissance (AP Euro Review) http://www.tomrichey.net/euro Mr.
Richey discusses the nature of humanism and the Italian Renaissance with his AP European History students, including the . AP European History Review Live Hangout #3 (Scientific Revolution) AP European History Review Live Hangout #3 (Scientific Revolution) AP European History Rap Protestant Reformation by Martin Luther, Pope Leo X, and John Calvin. Featuring David DeFranco as Martin Luther, Kamarudeen Ayankunbi as Pope Leo X, and Fournier Calixte as John Calvin. Martin Luther - The Protestant Reformation. Instructions. http://www.tomrichey.net The Thirty Years' War was fought from 1618-1648 (Thirty Years!) in the Holy Roman Empire. It began as a conflict between Catholics . University Essay. Reformation and Religious Wars Overview. This video is instructions about Reformation and Religious Wars Overview. The Northern Renaissance (AP Euro Review) http://www.tomrichey.net/euro Mr. Richey explains the Northern Renaissance, contrasting its religious and social spirit with the comparatively secular and . Calvinism (Introduction to chicken soup essay John Calvin's Reformed Theology) http://www.tomrichey.net This video is an introduction to instructions the teachings of John Calvin, the father of Reformed or Calvinist theology. Calvinism is a school of . Renaissance, Reformation, and Exploration Review. Let's review the 15th and 16th centuries together.
It's time to a class reflection paper make some connections across time periods and themes. Instructions. It's time to chicken for the soul review some major course . 6 minute review of AP euro! Guaranteed to get a 5! Martin Luther- Reformation Hall of instructions, Fame. From a 2002 documentary.
On Location with Martin Luther and the Protestant Reformation. A video that explores and locates places that influenced Mart Luther and the Reformation. This video is part of 'The Protestant Revolt' playlist: .
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chapter 5 thesis Resources for the celebration and enhancement of love, intimacy, ecstasy, and partnership. Commitment in Polyamorous Relationships. This chapter starts with some comments on the ways that the sample may not be representative of instructions, people who are polyamorous. It then has a summary of the common factors in layout, these relationships which contributed to their success, followed by some general observations from the instructions, study. Next there is a section which discusses the reasons for monogamy which were given in soup for the, chapter 2 in instructions, light of the results. A section on possible conclusions from the research is followed by a section on a class divided possible future research. The people who participated in this study are clearly not a representative sample of the poly community in general, or even of those in long term committed relationships. Some attributes of the sample are examined in this section. There was a shortage of parents with children at home in this sample - only one such couple was included. Why were there so few?
Is this representative of the poly community as a whole? In this author's opinion, this is instructions, likely to have to do with the time factor. Life Principle Without! For some people, working and raising children does not leave any extra time to consider having additional relationships, especially ones which require a lot of talking and processing, so they are not actively polyamorous while they are raising children. For others, they are simply too busy to be part of a study. They may not have heard about it because they do not have time to be on the email lists which were used to solicit participants, and even if they have time for email, the one to three hour interview for each person may have seemed unmanageable.
Without a carefully designed study, it is not possible to know whether fewer people in the poly community have children at home than in society at instructions large, and if so, whether people currently raising children are less likely to become polyamorous, or people who are polyamorous are less likely to subsequently have children. The effect of the combination of polyamory and raising children on the stability of the primary relationship is also unknown. The high average age of the sample may also be a factor in the lack of children at essay life principle home, which leads to a question about why it is instructions, so high. Scientific Testing On Animals Essay! This may be because of greater time availability (some of the instructions, participants are retired, others are not working full time jobs), or simply because the groups that this interviewer used for recruitment purposes are less appealing to the younger generation of adults. It is also possible that younger adults do not engage in essay life without, this type of type of behavior as much, have not yet had time to discover that there is a like-minded community, or simply do not feel a need for a community. Note that couples who are interested in a polyfidelitous (similar to instructions, monogamous but with more than two people in the relationship) relationship are naturally excluded from this study. Either they are part of three, a larger group, and therefore no longer simply a couple, or they have not yet found other partners for their group, and therefore are not in instructions, multiple ongoing relationships. The study group members appeared to be exclusively white, which was unsurprising given the author's experience that the vast majority of people who participate in organized poly activities are white. Testing On Animals Essay! Possible reasons for this would need to be addressed in another study. While there was no specific question about education in the interviews, it was clear from instructions occupations and from comments made that the majority of the people in the sample were at least college educated, and many had further education.
This is consistent with the author's impression of the essay layout, poly community in instructions, general, that most people who identify as polyamorous are well educated, whether formally or, in some cases, informally. Divided Reflection! This researcher speculates that people who are educated are more likely to be able to find a subset of the society that is outside their original social group, and perhaps also more likely to be willing to instructions, question the traditional values that would discourage them from becoming members of that community. It is possible that if information about university, polyamory becomes more widely available, especially on television, that this might change. There are some common factors in these long term polyamorous relationships that might provides clues as to why they have been successful. One thing that stands out in instructions, the interviews is the level of chicken for the essay, appreciation expressed by instructions, the respondents. They have a great deal of appreciation for principle without, each other and for instructions, their relationship.
They want to be together, they enjoy their relationships. Some of this comes from a sense of shared history. Some appreciate the effort that the other has put into the relationship in difficult times, or the soup, other's willingness at times to relax the agreements they have made. Some of the respondents seem to dwell on what it is that they like about instructions, each other and the good things that they have together. Appreciation can be helpful for any relationship. Gottman and DeClaire remarked that Our research shows that married couples who regularly express their appreciation for each other have much happier, stronger marriages (2001, p. University Essay Layout! 79). They include an instructions exercise on how to transform a crabby, critical habit of mind to one that praises and appreciates. A Class Divided Reflection Paper! The relationships examined in this study are in accord with their findings. Perhaps related to appreciation, the participants expressed a sense of closeness to their primary partner. Several expressed the sense that they just keep getting closer and closer. Instructions! Some feel an underlying closeness even if they are currently experiencing some tension or are in the midst of chicken essay, reworking their agreements.
Since only committed couples were included in instructions, the study, perhaps couples who do not feel close to each other have been weeded out. However, if that is the case, it adds credibility to the idea that nurturing a sense of closeness is one of the essay principle, ways to help maintain commitment. Instructions! What is interesting is that for essay life three, some of these couples, being polyamorous appears to instructions, have increased their sense of essay, closeness and instructions, their commitment to each other. Nyu Creative Program! Some of this closeness appears to be a result of the communication needed to manage a polyamorous relationship. As Lizful noted, the level of honesty and communication required to instructions, be polyamorous is one that all couples should practice, but it is required for polyamory to work. Communication and honesty were mentioned repeatedly as vital to essay layout, maintaining poly relationships. Instructions! As Mary mentioned, being polyamorous is forcing us to essay without, communicate, and that's always a good thing. Jackie noted that in instructions, a monogamous relationship, there isn't that constant need to layout, maintain communication. Good communication was seen by the participants as both a requirement to make their relationships work, and a benefit of being in a poly relationship. All of the respondents have had to make changes in their relationships, changes which are not part of the instructions, standard expected experience of marriage.
They have had to listen to their partner's expressed needs and essay life three, desires, and instructions, work with their partner to figure out what works for both of them. Our House! They have had to be adaptable. We might speculate that someone with fairly rigid ideas of how things should be done might have a difficult time in a polyamorous relationship, or in instructions, any long term relationship. While a few of the a class, participants did not experience any jealousy, most of them have had to find ways to avoid letting it control them. They have been willing to face it and let it pass. They have actively worked on finding ways to reduce its hold on them, and on helping their partners manage it as well. The issues that Carol and Pseud were trying to work through related to veto power and their agreement to instructions, spend nights together have some very interesting implications for what enables a couple to stay together happily. Carol had the wisdom to recognize that acquiescing to Pseud's desire to spend all their nights together when she very much wanted to reflection paper, spend the instructions, night with Joanie would not be healthy. She saw only two good choices. Essay Three Without! One was surrender, meaning let go of my want, honor his want, and do it in a way of love so that I don't resent it.
Since she was not able to instructions, do that, she had to take the chicken soup for the soul essay, other option, namely to keep talking about what she wanted and needed, even though that involved a lot of instructions, crying. She had to stand up for her needs and desires. Pseud was able to recognize that Carol's desire for a night with Joanie was more important than his desire for her to come home. As he said, it was not a deal breaker. He did not want her to feel resentment towards him, so he was willing to let go of scientific on animals, their agreement, or at least to loosen it. This incident points to the limitation of agreements. Agreements can be helpful, but they also need to instructions, be flexible. What one person agrees to at one point in a relationship is divided reflection, not necessarily what will work twenty, ten, five or even one year later.
There can come a point when one person says, enough, I can't do this any more. Instructions! The partner can try to hold him or her to the agreement, but at that point that will likely lead either to resentment and our house in order essay, a deterioration of the relationship, or to a breakup. If both partners can be flexible, and do as Carol mentioned (which is look for a win-win resolution) then the relationship, with modified agreements, is more likely to survive. A corollary to this is that, as Schnarch (1998) pointed out, when your partner's happiness is as important to you as your own happiness (as happens when people love each other), it is in your self interest to find a way to do the instructions, things that will make your partner happy. In a healthy relationship this could lead a couple to university, assess the instructions, relative importance of reflection paper, their desires in a particular situation, and give priority to the person with the stronger need or desire. As long as both partners are doing this with a willingness to be flexible, they are more likely to create the kind of relationship that will work for both of them. Agreements are also limited by instructions, the willingness of the people involved to stretch and push their boundaries. Moving at the pace of the slowest person worked for Mary and Fred, because there was movement. They moved forward at a pace they both felt comfortable with. A Class Reflection Paper! In poly groups an agreement to instructions, move at the pace of the slowest is often promoted; however, there is also discussion of the problem that occurs when the slowest person stops moving. In principle he or she may be willing to principle, allow his or her partner to have other relationships, but in instructions, practice there is always some reason the particular one in question is unacceptable.
At some point such agreements are likely to break down. Couples sometimes have opposing desires which they both feel very strongly about. Divided Reflection Paper! For couples in the study, it could have to do with polyamory, but it could just as easily have to do with whether or not to have children, or where to live, or many other types of instructions, choices that have to be made. How can these be resolved? Lizful mentioned a process which had been extremely helpful for her and Paul, called the heartshare, which she said they learned from an article by the UV Family (the UV Family is a group of people dedicated to our house in order essay, exploring new territory in instructions, relationships. For information about them, see http://www.context.org/ICLIB/IC10/UVFamily.htm). She described it as follows: You sit down and one person is the initiator, you sit down and the initiator simply talks for scientific testing on animals, as long as it's necessary to do it. Basically it's coming from, this is what I'm feeling, this is what's going on, this is - I'm opening to you, trusting you to not get hurt personally, to be able to take it.
It's not venting. This isn't trying to punch somebody out. Instructions! It's basically a no-holds-barred opening. And the writing, business of the person who's listening is to totally refrain from not only instructions, saying anything, because you must remain completely silent, but you don't start building your rebuttal in your mind. You don't do anything other than hear. You just fucking listen. And then, when it's run its course, the listener can say, Can you talk to life principle without, me more about this? I'm not sure that I got that. Or, if I tried to express something back to instructions, you like this, would I be saying it right? And then that's it. There's no rebuttal.
Now you can turn around the other way, and the other person does their own, but it's not on our house in order the basis of what you just said. It's not a response. It's what the other person would have said if they went first. And then that's it. That's it. And you'd think, by god, there's no communication, oh yes there is.
It's absolutely mutually agreed that . the only thing that's going to instructions, flow from it is an embrace, and if there's something that wants further clarification, then you do. And that has been - oh, it's made such a difference. Here are some general observations from the study. A common comment used to justify polyamory is that one person should not have to (or cannot) meet all of another person's needs. This type of comment showed up during the scientific testing essay, interviews, and instructions, the author has heard it many times elsewhere. However, this did not really seem to be a prime motivator in the study sample. For two women, being polyamorous allowed them to have emotional and sexual relationships with both women and men, although in one of nyu creative writing program, those cases, the instructions, woman identifies as a lesbian, and her male primary partner is writing, grandfathered in. (None of the instructions, men indicated a romantic or sexual interest in other men, though there are many men in scientific testing on animals, the poly community in general who are bisexual). In some cases, one person enjoys some particular types of sexual activities with his or her secondary partner that the primary partner is not interested in, but that seemed to be a benefit rather than the motivating force behind the instructions, secondary relationship.
Some people recognized that they were not successful at monogamy. Annie mentioned that she and Jerry agreed that since they had both failed at monogamy, they would not attempt it again. Writing Program! Perhaps this could be construed as polyamory helping them meet their need or desire for multiple partners. In the monogamous paradigm, as discussed in instructions, the review of testing, literature, sexual intimacy needs to be reserved for one person. The participants in this study have created a different meaning for sex and intimacy, one that allows them to maintain a strong primary bond with one other person while also allowing them to experience closeness, connection, intimacy and sexuality with other people as well. As described above, Mary and Carol both explicitly commented on the meaning of sex. Mary noted that experiencing a shift in the meaning of sex had allowed her to become open to polyamory, and Carol described how she consciously created a meaning that allowed her to keep her relationship with Joanie from becoming threatening to her primary relationship. Mint (2004) noted that the enforcement of monogamous behavior extends well beyond actual sexual behavior and includes restrictions on Spending time alone with someone. holding hands, and of course flirting, touching, or smiling too much. All of these actions are signifiers of a possible sexual relationship in our culture, and instructions, this is what makes them socially dangerous (p. 60). Some people who are polyamorous have redefined the meaning of touch as well as of sex so that it is essay, no longer necessarily dangerous.
This is instructions, shown in a class divided, Carol's observation that in her experience polyamorous people were more open to instructions, sensuality and touch. Redefining the meaning of sex, intimacy, and touch allows people greater opportunities for having those experiences. Soul! It gives them a greater choice in how they relate with other people and instructions, allows them to explore what types of activities are most satisfying for them. Schnarch (1991, 1998) proposed that the monogamy provides a crucible for growth. He suggested that the purpose of monogamous marriage was to produce differentiation: integrity, the ability to scientific, stand up for what you believe in, the ability to maintain a clear sense of self in close proximity to instructions, a partner. This requires the willingness to risk your partner's displeasure rather than letting the relationship deteriorate because talking about what you really want seems too risky. Essay Three! He stated that other relationships detract from instructions this. This might be true for clandestine affairs, which allow people to testing essay, meet their sexual needs without having to confront their partner.
However, when people are open and honest about their relationships, it appears that they have to grow and engage in the type of communication and confrontation which encourages differentiation. As Evelyn commented, polyamory tends to be a crucible. It forces growth - or the couple may split up. Making conscious choices may be a greater factor in differentiation than the particular choice (such as whether or not to be monogamous). While some people in the poly community are adamantly against instructions, the open couple model, as was evident in some of the responses to for the soul, the solicitation for participants in this study, the respondents appreciated having the daily connection with another person and the ongoing support they found in their relationship. However, some of them could imagine the instructions, same benefits in a triad or larger configuration of committed partners.
Some appreciated the a class paper, ease of instructions, fitting into society as part of a couple, as well as the practical benefits that come from scientific testing on animals marriage (such as tax or health insurance benefits). Some also noted the instructions, growth opportunities that come with a long term relationship. Chapter 2 examined some reasons given in the literature for monogamy. This section responds to those reasons based on the observations of the participants. As we have seen, people who are not monogamous can still be very committed to each other. For some, the pleasure bond that Masters and Johnson (1974) discussed can even be enhanced by sharing with others sexually. While the respondents did not specifically talk about healing, and certainly not the type of physical healing discussed by nyu creative writing program, Pearsall (1994), they did talk about growth. Some of them mentioned that polyamory is instructions, one of the growth paths that people can take.
There were even some comments that people who are not interested in and willing to a class divided reflection, work on growth should not choose polyamory. Instructions! This emphasis on growth may provide the opportunity to heal childhood wounds, which Hendrix (1990) emphasized as the purpose of university, monogamous marriage. While not many people specifically mentioned spirituality in the context of polyamory, for instructions, those that did, it was a positive element. One example is Rogelio's comment that welcoming being confronted when one is not fully authentic is a commitment to spiritual growth. Divided Reflection! Similarly, Carol, who said that a lot of being in a relationship is about emotional and spiritual growth, commented that for her personally polyamory is more spiritual than monogamy. While they would probably agree with Moschetta and instructions, Moschetta (1998) about the presence of a spiritual element in strong and essay, vibrant marriages, they clearly disagree that that necessarily leads to choosing monogamy. This paper has presented the instructions, observations of seven long term committed polyamorous couples about their relationships. It has portrayed some ways two people can be in a committed relationship with each other without using sexual exclusivity to testing on animals, protect their connection; in other words, some of the instructions, ways that people who are not monogamous have organized their emotional lives to maintain a strong couple bond over the long term while at the same time they develop emotional and sexual bonds with others. It has described the ways the participants handle multiple relationships, the ways they view their commitment to each other and nurture it, the ways they handle jealousy, and the benefits they perceive in polyamory.
These relationships are custom made, created by each couple to meet their own needs. The cohesive factors which have been discussed by the participants are mutual appreciation, emotional closeness, good communication, and flexibility. They have embraced honesty and essay life principle, personal growth. This study suggests that the desire to be together and instructions, finding value in life principle three without, the relationship can be a major factor in the success of relationships. These couples stay together because they want to instructions, be together. What this suggests for relationships in a class reflection, general is instructions, that attention needs to be focused on life without what is working well in instructions, a relationship, not just on what needs to to set, be changed. To encourage marriages to last, it may be more important to help couples stay in touch with the qualities they appreciate in each other than to instructions, stress the obligation they incurred in our house in order, marrying. The couples in instructions, this study manage to keep a focus on each other, even though their attention is also on others. They pay attention to and nourish their relationships. This suggests that one of the factors for a successful relationship may be to avoid taking each other for granted, to pay attention to each other and nurture each other. The respondents do not get trapped by their concept of what they should be doing, but talk with each other about what they want and how to create it.
They keep a perspective that helps them avoid getting too caught up in NRE, in new love, by recognizing that this is a stage and the current excitement does not mean that the new relationship is our house in order essay, better than the existing one. So flexibility and the willingness to be creative in instructions, finding the ways of relating that work for both partners are other factors in commitment. Since there has been little research on essay without polyamory, future research could take many directions. Here are some questions that could provide a focus for future research on polyamory. Future research on commitment in instructions, polyamorous relationships could be expanded to include triads (3 people), quads (4 people) and even larger groups. Some of these groups are polyfidelitous (meaning they are sexual only chicken, with others within the group) and others are open. How does this affect the dynamic? How do polyfidelitous groups gain new members? A longitudinal study of people in committed poly relationships could study the differences between the couples or groups which remain together after five or ten years and those that split up. Are there some factors that are good predictors of the longevity of the relationship?
Some people prefer not to have a primary, marriage-like relationship with anybody. What types of relationships do they want? Do they create (or want to create) long term committed relationships? Our society tends to assume that a nonmonogamous situation is bad for children, and a court may remove a child from the mother's custody simply because the instructions, mother is in a polyamorous situation (see discussion of the Divilbiss case in Emens, 2004 and Cloud, 1999). What effect does living with parents who have open, honest, loving relationships with multiple partners really have on children? Children who are currently in that situation could be interviewed, along with adults who grew up with polyamorous parents. Does it make a difference whether the extra adult(s) live with the family or not? What effect does having children have on nyu creative writing people who are polyamorous? Parents who were poly before they had children as well as parents who became poly while their children were growing up could be interviewed in order to look at the effect that the children have on their connections with other adults. Is there a correlation between polyamory and being childless?
Do people who do not have children or whose children are grown up more often choose polyamory, or does being polyamorous discourage some people from having children? What is the relative frequency of instructions, various types of poly relationships? This should include both actual situations and the ideal that people have. In addition to to set essay, committed couples and groups, and people who prefer to remain single, there are people who have more than one relationship that they would consider to be primary, even though those relationships are separate. How many people have had an affair (a clandestine relationship) even while in a polyamorous relationship? What are the factors that caused that (the relationship and the lack of communication about the relationship)?
How many people who are now polyamorous had affairs in the past? Some couples manage to maintain a relationship where one person is polyamorous and the other is instructions, monogamous by choice. Essay Without! In our culture, many people are more concerned about the monogamy of their partner than their own. This is an observation based on numerous discussions over the years, and is also noted by Schnarch (1991, 1998). This can make being in instructions, relationship with someone who is polyamorous particularly hard on the monogamous partner. How do these couples make their relationship work? Are there techniques that they have used which other couples in a similar situation could use? What attitudes towards marriage do polyamorous people have? How many would like to have group marriage legalized? How many would like to layout, abolish marriage altogether?
How many would abolish marriage if some practical matters were handled, such as universal health care and an easy way to include multiple partners as members of the instructions, immediate family (for example for hospital visits)? How do the psychological and sociological profiles of poly people compare with the general population? Do they have a different Myers-Briggs distribution, for example? Do they have a greater interest in sex than average? Do they have a greater focus on emotional intimacy than others? What was their religious upbringing and what is their current religious affiliation/identification? Do they differ from societal norms in other ways? Where are they on the political spectrum?
Is there any reason polyamory would be less appealing to people of color? The participants in this study have some noticeable differences from the general population. Among these differences are the number who have children at home, the average age, and the racial composition. The factors contributing to testing on animals, the success of these relationships, as mentioned by the respondents, are their appreciation of each other, their ongoing and instructions, often increasing emotional closeness, a high degree of honesty and good communication, and flexibility in meeting the desires of soup soul, both people. Finding a way to meet unmet needs (other than for variety) did not seem to be a major factor in the choice of polyamory.
The participants have created a different meaning for sex and intimacy than is instructions, common in the culture, and have found polyamory to be a crucible for growth. Some of the reasons given for monogamy seem to be met by soul essay, polyamory. This study suggests that some of the factors for successful relationships include paying attention to each other, caring about the partner's needs and desires, finding ways to instructions, enjoy each other, focusing on what is working well, honesty, and our house, flexibility in finding ways to relate that works for both partners. Some possible directions for future research involving polyamory were presented.
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Commentaire compos© : Les Essais, Montaigne - Fran§ais - PremiЁre L. digiSchool vous propose un document de Fran§ais de PremiЁre L sur le thЁme La question de l'homme dans les genres de l'argumentation du XVIЁme siЁcle nos jours , propos de la proposition d'un commentaire compos© pour le texte de Montaigne , extrait des Essais . [Les Cannibales] font des guerres contre les nations qui sont au-del de leurs montagnes, plus loin sur la terre ferme, guerres o№ ils vont tous nus, n’ayant d’autres armes que des arcs ou des ©p©es de bois, aiguis©es par un bout, la fa§on des fers de nos ©pieux. Instructions. C’est une chose ©tonnante que la duret© de leurs combats, car, pour ce qui est des d©routes et de l’effroi, ils ne savent pas ce que c’est. Essay Principle. Chacun rapporte, en troph©e personnel, la tЄte de l’ennemi qu’il a tu©e et il l’attache l’entr©e de son logis. Instructions. AprЁs avoir longtemps bien trait© leurs prisonniers et avec touts les agr©ments auxquels ils se peuvent penser, celui qui en est le ma®tre fait une grande assembl©e des gens de sa connaissance : il attache une corde l’un des bras du prisonnier par le bout de laquelle il le tient, ©loign© de quelques pas, de peur d’Єtre bless© par lui, et il donne au plus cher de ses amis l’autre bras tenir de mЄme [fa§on] ; puis eux deux, en pr©sence de toute l’assembl©e, l’assomment coups d’©p©e. Layout. Cela fait, ils le rґtissent et en mangent en commun ; ils en envoient aussi des morceaux ceux de leurs amis qui sont absents. Instructions. Ce n’est pas, comme on chicken soup pense, pour s’en nourrir, ainsi que faisaient anciennement les Scythes : c’est pour manifester une trЁs grande vengeance. Instructions. Et pour preuve qu’il en est bien ainsi, [voici un fait] : s’©tant aper§u que les Portugais, qui s’©taient alli©s leurs adversaires, usaient contre eux, quand ils les prenaient, d’une autre sorte de mort qui consistait les enterrer jusqu’ la ceinture et leur tirer sur le reste du corps force coups de traits , puis les pendre, ils pensЁrent que ces gens-ci de l’ancien monde, en hommes qui avaient sem© la connaissance de beaucoup de vices dans leur voisinage et qui ©taient beaucoup plus grands ma®tres qu’eux en toute sorte de m©chancet©, n’adoptaient pas sans cause cette sorte de vengeance et qu’elle devait Єtre plus p©nible que la leur ; [alors] ils commencЁrent abandonner leur maniЁre ancienne pour suivre celle-ci. Nyu Creative Program. Je ne suis pas fўch© que nous soulignions l’horreur barbare qu’il y a dans une telle action, mais plutґt du fait que, jugeant bien de leurs fautes, nous soyons si aveugles l’©gard des nґtres. Instructions. Je pense qu’il y a plus de barbarie manger un homme vivant qu’ le manger mort, d©chirer par des tortures et des supplices un corps ayant encore toute sa sensibilit©, le faire rґtir petit petit, le faire mordre et tuer par les chiens et les pourceaux (comme nous l’avons non seulement lu, mais vu de fra®che date, non entre des ennemis anciens, mais entre des voisins et concitoyens et, qui pis est, sous pr©texte de pi©t© et de religion ) que de le rґtir et manger aprЁs qu’il est tr©pass©.
Chrysippe et Z©non , chefs de l’©cole StoЇque, ont bien pens© qu’il n’y avait aucun mal se servir de notre chair, quelque usage que ce f»t pour notre besoin, et mЄme d’en tirer de la nourriture, comme [le firent] nos ancЄtres [quand], assi©g©s dans la ville d’Al©sia, ils se r©solurent lutter contre la faim due ce siЁge en utilisant les corps des vieillards, des femmes et autres personnes inutiles au combat. Vascones, fama est, alimentis talibus usi. Les m©decins aussi ne craignent pas de s’en servir pour toute sorte d’emploi en faveur de notre sant©, soit pour l’appliquer au-dedans ou au dehors ; mais il ne se trouva jamais aucune opinion ce point d©r©gl©e qu’elle excusўt la trahison, la d©loyaut©, la tyrannie, la cruaut©, qui sont nos fautes habituelles. Nous pouvons donc bien appeler ces hommes barbares eu ©gard aux rЁgles de la raison, mais non pas eu ©gard nous, qui les surpassons en toute sorte de barbarie. Michel de Montaigne , Les essais , Livre I, Chapitre XXXI, « Sur les Cannibales », 1595, trad. Layout. D'Andr© Lanly. Instructions. ‰ditions Champion, Paris 1989/‰ditions Gallimard, Quarto, 2009. En 1562, Montaigne qui accompagne l'arm©e royale Rouen y rencontre des « cannibales » du Br©sil.
Ces Indiens fascinent les Europ©ens qui passent leur temps les d©crire, non sans s’interroger sur eux-mЄmes. Nyu Creative Writing Program. Dans ce passage extrait des Essais , Montaigne tente de renverser l'opinion commune qui assimile le sauvage un barbare. Dans un premier temps nous verrons en quoi Montaigne questionne son lecteur sur sa repr©sentation du cannibalisme. Instructions. Puis nous analyserons la maniЁre dont Montaigne opЁre et montrerons en quoi nous avons ici affaire un mode d’argumentation original. LA DESCRIPTION DES COUTUMES DES INDIENS DU BRESIL. Montaigne se place ici en position d'observateur pour expliquer son lecteur, son interlocuteur (on notera l'utilisation assez r©guliЁre des pronoms « je » et « nous » dans le texte) ce qu'il a appris de ces Indiens du Br©sil. Chicken Essay. Le registre se fait didactique. Instructions. De nombreux verbes d'actions ©voquent les coutumes des Indiens en matiЁre de combat. Divided Reflection. L'auteur tente aussi de poser un cadre la description qu'il fait de ces peuples : au-del de leurs montagnes, plus loin sur la terre ferme , de mЄme qu'il ©voque ©galement d'embl©e leur nudit© (ils vont tous nus), pos©e comme un fait et non comme une condamnation. L’analyse des m©thodes de combat.
L'auteur choisit ici de se centrer sur la description des m©thodes de combat employ©es par les Indiens. Instructions. Le champ lexical en t©moigne « font des guerres ; armes ; arcs ; des ©p©es de bois, aiguis©es par un bout, la fa§on des fers de nos ©pieu ; la duret© de leurs combats ; la tЄte de l’ennemi qu’il a tu©e ». Une s©rie d'assez longues phrases au pr©sent de v©rit© g©n©ral d©taille les diff©rentes ©tapes du traitement des prisonniers. Scientific Testing On Animals. Des compl©ments circonstanciels de temps (AprЁs avoir longtemps ; puis ; Cela fait ) marquent ces ©tapes. L’auteur semble parfois s'impliquer dans cette description en portant un jugement qui relЁve de l’©tonnement. Instructions. La marque de modalisation que l'on retrouve dans l'expression « C’est une chose ©tonnante que la duret© de leurs combats » en t©moigne. Cependant cette intervention de l'auteur dans la description ne prend pas des allures moralisatrices. Scientific Testing On Animals Essay. On peut noter que la description des comportements lors de la prise d'un ennemi est plutґt neutre et qu'ici Montaigne se contente de rapporter des faits ( il attache une corde l’un des bras du prisonnier par le bout de laquelle il le tient, ©loign© de quelques pas, de peur d’Єtre bless© par lui, et il donne au plus cher de ses amis ). L'auteur propose ensuite une explication ces comportements qui pourraient sembler ©trangers, choquants pour le lecteur europ©en. Instructions. C’est l'id©e de vengeance et non la faim qui provoque ce comportement cannibale. To Set In Order Essay. Que faut-il entendre cette explication ? Implicitement Montaigne amЁne le lecteur comprendre que l'on s'©loigne du comportement animal ( manger de la chair de sa propre espЁce pour assurer sa survie) pour entrer dans une dimension beaucoup plus symbolique de l'acte ; gagner en honneur . Instructions. L'expression « en troph©e personnel » le confirme.
Bien loin d'Єtre un comportement dict© par un besoin vital (c’est pour manifester une trЁs grande vengeance), il s'agit ici d'un rituel d'une grande complexit©. Essay Life Principle. Tout ici relЁve du culturel et non de l’animal. UNE ATTITUDE DISTANCIEE SUR LE COMPORTEMENT DES CANNIBALES DU BRESIL : AUTRES EXEMPLES DE CANNIBALISME DANS L’HISTOIRE. De fait Montaigne ne condamne pas d'embl©e les cannibales du Br©sil. Instructions. Il va mЄme dans sa d©monstration associer sa description d'autres exemples de cannibalisme en piochant dans l'histoire ancienne (les auteurs de la Renaissance, ne l'oublions pas, sont f©rus de textes anciens). Reflection. D'une part il ©voque les Scythes, qui aux yeux des Grecs sont des barbares , puis travers la citation de Juv©nal, les actes d'anthropophagie qui se sont d©roul©s au cours du siЁge dans la ville d’Al©sia . Instructions. Dans les deux cas historiques, les protagonistes ont agi sous le coup de la faim (lutter contre la faim) qui les mena§ait d'extinction (lutter contre la faim).
Montaigne n'oublie pas de le souligner comme pour mieux mettre en regard la diff©rence avec « ses » Indiens du Br©sil. La reconnaissance des « qualit©s » des cannibales indiens. De maniЁre allusive, sans forcer le trait, Montaigne va mettre en valeur les qualit©s qu'il a entrevues dans la d©couverte de ces populations du Nouveau Monde. Nyu Creative Writing Program. Il en souligne tout autant le courage (car, pour ce qui est des d©routes et de l’effroi, ils ne savent pas ce que c’est. Instructions. ), le sens de l'amiti© (le ma®tre fait une grande assembl©e des gens de sa connaissance ; il donne au plus cher de ses amis) et de l'accueil (AprЁs avoir longtemps bien trait© leurs prisonniers et avec touts les agr©ments auxquels ils se peuvent penser,) , celui du partage (ils en envoient aussi des morceaux ceux de leurs amis qui sont absents. A Class. ). Instructions. De mЄme il note leur sens de l'observation assez aiguis© (s’©tant aper§u que les Portugais,[. Nyu Creative. ] ils pensЁrent que ) ainsi que celle d'Єtre capable d'©voluer mЄme si paradoxalement c'est pour commettre des actes barbares l'instar des Europ©ens.(ils commencЁrent abandonner leur maniЁre ancienne pour suivre celle-ci.) LE PARADOXE : LES OCCIDENTAUX SERAIENT PLUS VIOLENTS QUE LES CANNIBALES INDIENS. Montaigne opЁre dans une seconde partie de son texte un retour vers l'occident chr©tien, celui de son siЁcle. Instructions. On notera cet ©gard le jeu sur les pronoms « je » et « nous » qui s'opposent au terme « les Cannibales » de la premiЁre ligne. Nyu Creative Program. Sous la forme d'une anecdote assez longuement d©velopp©e il va ©voquer les pratiques des colonisateurs (ici les Portugais. Instructions. On est l'©poque des grandes d©couvertes) afin d'amener le lecteur adopter un autre point de vue. Life Principle Without. Le r©cit de cette anecdote d©montre sans conteste que les Europ©ens ont une attitude beaucoup plus cruelle, inhumaine, barbare.
Sa d©monstration est renforc©e par un autre exemple pris en Europe mЄme (comme nous l’avons non seulement lu, mais vu de fra®che date, non entre des ennemis anciens, mais entre des voisins et concitoyens et, qui pis est, sous pr©texte de pi©t© et de religion). L'antithЁse « entre des voisins et concitoyens » et non pas vers des ennemis lointains renvoie aux premiЁres lignes du texte (contre les nations qui sont au-del de leurs montagnes » ) et prouve que les Europ©ens sont sup©rieurs dans la cruaut© ces peuples du Nouveau monde que l'on considЁre ici comme des barbares ( Je ne suis pas fўch© que nous soulignions l’horreur barbare qu’il y a dans une telle action, mais plutґt du fait que, jugeant bien de leurs fautes, nous soyons si aveugles l’©gard des nґtres.) Montaigne n'est pas le seul au XVI e siЁcle avoir ©voqu© la violence de ces guerres de religion ( cf Agrippa d'Aubign© le soulignera encore davantage dans Les Tragiques (1616)) cf fiche sur l' Humanisme . De fait, Montaigne amЁne habilement son lecteur partager sa r©flexion sur le fait que la barbarie est un vice tout aussi pr©sent chez les Europ©ens que chez les peuples sauvages. Instructions. Int©ressons-nous sa maniЁre de proc©der. LES MOYENS DE LA DEMONSTRATION : UNE PENSEE EN CHEMIN. UNE DEMARCHE INDUCTIVE : UN « ESSAI » Montaigne adopte un raisonnement inductif : c'est dire qu'il part d'exemples, de situations pour aboutir une conclusion g©n©rale.
Entre temps, il introduit des exemples historiques qui peuvent ©galement faire figure d'arguments d'autorit©. A Class. Ce proc©d© est courant la Renaissance : la r©f©rence aux auteurs antiques (Chrysippe et Z©non , chefs de l’©cole StoЇque), permet de montrer que le propos n'©mane pas que d'une seule personne mais qu'il trouve aussi sa source dans une tradition litt©raire. L’implication de celui qui r©fl©chit. Par ailleurs Montaigne s’implique dans son propos : les nombreuses occurrence du pronom « Je » atteste qu'il formule plusieurs endroits du texte une r©flexion personnelle (Je pense que, Je ne suis pas fўch© que ). Instructions. Ces passages explicites montrent le cheminement de la pens©e de l'auteur, ce qui est caract©ristique du genre de l'essai, inaugur© par Montaigne lui-mЄme. DES REGISTRES DIFFERENTS (PATHOS ET IRONIE)
Des tableaux frappants pour susciter l’©motion et l’indignation. Montaigne propose son lecteur une s©rie de tableaux d©crivant les actes commis d'une part par les Cannibales, d'autre part par les Portugais. Chicken Soup Essay. S'y ajoute ensuite la peinture des horreurs commises au cours des guerres de religion par les Europ©ens. Instructions. Les proc©d©s d'accumulation ( d©chirer par des tortures et des supplices un corps ayant encore toute sa sensibilit©, le faire rґtir petit petit, le faire mordre et tuer), le champ lexical de la violence (enterrer jusqu’ la ceinture ; tirer sur le reste du corps force coups de traits ; les pendre ; tortures, supplices. Nyu Creative. ) donnent au texte une tonalit© path©tique, si ce n'est tragique. Tout en mЄme temps l’auteur des Essais emploie plusieurs reprises l'ironie pour provoquer une r©action chez le lecteur. Instructions. Il prend en charge cette ironie (notons cette pr©sence du je ou du nous chaque fois). Nyu Creative Writing. Nous pouvons donc bien appeler ces hommes barbares eu ©gard aux rЁgles de la raison, mais non pas eu ©gard nous, qui les surpassons en toute sorte de barbarie. Cette ironie, comme celle que l'on retrouvera par la suite chez Voltaire, n'est pas gratuite.
Elle atteste d'un r©el souci de l'auteur pour ce qui menace l'homme, savoir sa facult© engendrer de la violence et notamment l'©gard de ses semblables. Le texte est un appel regarder l'autre comme un semblable. Instructions. Les proc©d©s de comparaison sont nombreux dans sa d©monstration (plutґt du fait que, jugeant bien de leurs fautes, nous soyons si aveugles l’©gard des nґtres ; comme [le firent] nos ancЄtres ; il y a plus de barbarie manger un homme vivant qu’ le manger mort). Writing Program. Jean de L©ry, un autre humaniste qui a cґtoy© de prЁs ces Indiens du Br©sil en fera de mЄme dans son Histoire d'un voyage faict en la terre du Br©sil (1578 . Les cultures du pass©, celles du pr©sent sont sollicit©es part ©gales dans cette r©flexion. En mЄme temps Montaigne ne se place pas en juge sup©rieur des autres. Instructions. L'usage du pronom « nous » est en cela particuliЁrement int©ressant puisqu'il n'exclut pas, Montaigne ne dit pas « vous », ni « les Occidentaux ». A Class Divided. Il s'implique aussi dans cette responsabilit© travers le « nous » (Nous soyons si aveugles l’©gard des nґtres). En v©ritable humaniste il s'engage dans la condamnation des pr©jug©s. Instructions. Apprendre au lecteur se d©centrer, adopter une vision plus distanci©e, moins born©e c'est tout le travail du penseur humaniste (Je ne suis pas fўch© que nous soulignions l’horreur barbare qu’il y a dans une telle action et Nous pouvons donc bien appeler ces hommes barbares eu ©gard aux rЁgles de la raison, mais non pas eu ©gard nous, qui les surpassons en toute sorte de barbarie).
Cette le§on que nous propose ce texte c©lЁbre, d'une grande intelligence et d'une grande actualit© encore, annonce d'autres grands textes d'©crivains, Voltaire, Hugo et plus proche de nous R. Our House Essay. Badinter, eux qui se sont pench©s sur les travers de l’humain pour mieux les combattre. Vous devez Єtre connect© pour pouvoir lire la suite. Vous voulez en savoir plus sur les enseignements du Bac L ? digiSchool vous prop. S’inscrire au Baccalaur©at Litt©raire en candidat libre est une ©tape franchir. Les cours de litt©rature de Terminale L repr©sentent une ©preuve au Baccalaur©at.
Le Baccalaur©at est un examen trЁs redout© par les lyc©ens. Instructions. Entre r©visions et s.