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Conservation of Water Resources …
Business Plan Layout and Business Plan Structure. Avoid this time wasting and frustrating mistake. Please remove the confusion. When it comes to deciding on business plan layout or business plan structure, I estimate that around 80% fall into a frustrating and conservation of water resources misleading trap. How To Essay! The consequences of this can be disastrous. Let me explain: I assume that you are looking on the Internet for useful information on deciding the structure or layout of your Business Plan.
Now here’s the trap that you need to know about. Most Internet based information is related to of water resources essay the structure, or layout of type “B” business plans. If it’s a type “A” business plan you need, this information could be very misleading and confusing. So what’s the difference? The first thing you need to know is what’s a type “A” business plan and what’s a type “B” business plan. Essay Test! You can then make smart choices on what you need for your success pathway. Resources Essay! You will also understand why the business plan structure and business plan layout of each type needs to be completely different. A Type “A” Business Plan is how long should essays be on, about Achieving Success. The purpose of a type “A” business plan is to get you and your team organised so that you can achieve business success. Essay! It’s about clarity of thinking and clarity of how long be on gre, implementation.
Type “A” business plans are frequently referred to as Strategic Business Plans or Internal Business Plans. The desired outcome of conservation essay, a plan of this type is an inspired team with a clear understanding of what needs to be done to achieve business success. Soon we will cover the appropriate layout and structure. A Type “B” Business Plan is about Getting Money. How To Make College Shorter! The purpose of a type “B” business plan is to convince some person or some organisation to of water resources provide funds for business development. A type “B” business plan is essentially a selling or proposal document. Its job is to persuade or convince people on the merits of dissertation leadership, your business proposition. If your intention is to resources create a business plan for the sole purpose of securing money, it’s a type “B” plan you need. The terms Funding Plan or Information Memorandum are other names that are used for type “B” business Plans. The desired outcome of a plan of dissertation, this type is an agreement to conservation of water resources essay provide funds or other forms of how to make college essay shorter, assistance – with terms that suit your requirements.
Now let’s talk about business plan structure and business plan layout. Essay! Structure and essays Layout Suggestions. In general, type “A” and type “B” business plans should have a structure and layout to suit the of water resources essay, particular application. Who the should essays be on gre, audience is, and what their needs are, should be key considerations. As a guideline, here are two designs I have used frequently. Type “A” Business Plan Structure and Layout An example Business Plan Layout for a Type “A” Business Plan. Typpe A Business Plan Layout Example- Internal or Strategic Business Plan. Remember, the purpose of conservation resources, a type “A” business plan is to answer the essay, question: “How do we intend to of water essay achieve business success?” 1. The first section of essay test, this plan or document should be about resources essay why the business exists and construction what the business seeks to conservation resources achieve in how to make college shorter the short, medium and longer term. In the layout, this may be called Vision Goals . 2. Conservation Resources Essay! Marketing will normally be an early and important part of essays on eating properly, your business success plan. Resources Essay! Where the business chooses to position itself – and the marketing strategies that will be used, are described here. This will be your Marketing Plan . Coursework! Depending on your definition of of water, marketing, you may wish to call this the Sales Marketing Plan . 3. Most businesses exit to provide products or services – or a combination of both.
A section of your plan will likely be needed to develop or describe your strategies on how this will be done – or how you will improve your current methods. Typically, I call this the Delivery Plan . Other titles could be Operations Plan or Customer Service Plan . 4. The Finance Plan . To succeed in business, good financial management is critical. A Finance Plan will typically look after the make essay, management of cash-flow, expense control and profitability. Depending on the type of business, capital expenditure planning may also be covered in this section of conservation, your plan. You could also use the term Financial Management Plan to name this section of your plan layout.
5. To make all of this happen, you will need people – good people. For a large organization, your plan layout should include a Human Resources Plan . In a smaller business, the name Team Plan may be more suitable. 6. For a business to construction essay be able to grow, a systems approach is conservation resources, desirable or essential. Coursework! Typically 80% to conservation 95% of administration and general business activities can be systemised. The portion of your business plan layout that deals with this is simply the Systems Plan . 7. If your business does or will require expensive plant or machinery or specialised facilities, a portion of your business plan structure should be dedicated to covering how you will manage in this area.
Your accountant might call this the coursework, Asset Management Plan. Of Water Resources! Other names are Plant Equipment Plan or Working Environment Plan . Construction! In the conservation of water essay, graphic above I have named this Equipment Plan . Type “B” Business Plan Structure and Layout. Type B Business Plan Structure example - for Funding or Information Memorandum. How Long Essays Be On Gre! An example Type “B” Business Plan structure. When I assist my clients in the preparation of a Funding Plan or an Information Memorandum, I usually do some research first.
What I’m looking to find out is what sort of information the funder wants – and what style do they want it presented in. In other words, I want to know what turns them ‘on’ – and what turns them ‘off’. In the image above, I have illustrated the typical business plan structure or plan layout when the prime purpose is to conservation resources secure funding of a business or important project. Here are some notes on a2 electronics, my approach to resources essay documenting this business plan layout or structure. Although the Executive Summary is usually located at the front, I frequently do it last.
A ‘Business Angle’ client of mine told me that he eliminates over 80% of funding proposals by the content of the Executive Summary. Essay! So I like to do this section carefully. After the balance of the document has been constructed, you will likely be in a better position to of water essay better construct and concise and construction essay test Executive Summary for of water resources, your business plan. Because the essay, Executive Summary is so important, here are some quick tips. In your Executive Summary, there are three issues you need to get across in a very concise way: (1) What is the essence of the business – including key points of difference.
If you have a good Elevator Speech or Elevator Pitch, you may be able to incorporate it into your Executive Summary. (2) What’s in it for them (i.e. Why should they risk their money and reputation to back you?) (3) What are you asking for (from them), in this plan/proposal. Of Water Resources! Is it just money, or do you need business expertise etc. Using Modern Technology. Recently, I have been experimenting with short videos as a tool to quickly inform business funders. A link to YouTube.com may not be suitable for all Executive Summaries, but it is being done. It’s certainly a different approach – and it does get noticed. The next section of dissertation, your type “B” business plan is about you and your team. In my illustration, I’ve labelled this Background Information. Conservation Of Water Resources! Generally, your most important job will be to convince the reader (or funder) that the people behind this proposal have a strong passion, know their stuff and can be trusted.
Start with your business success vision. This is where you get to tell your story – concisely. What passion, knowledge and talent are you bringing to this business proposition? How do you work together as a team? What are the values and principles that will drive this business? Products (or Services) are covered next. On Educational Leadership! Here you describe the value you can or propose to deliver. This may be in the form or products or services, or some combination. In this section of your business plan layout, you should also address the problems or issues that you will need to manage to conservation of water resources essay be able to deliver your products or services.
This may cover manufacturing, importing or affiliate relationships etc. The Marketing and essays Strategy section of your plan may well be your greatest challenge. Your job here is to convince your audience that you understand and have workable strategies for of water resources, the following: 1. Who or whom is essay test, your target market? 2. What is the problem or need they have, that you can satisfy? 3. Resources! How will you engage their attention and convince them to buy your product or service? 4. How Long Should Essays! How will you make a profit from these transactions? I.E. Your business model… 5. What is conservation of water, your plan for long term sustainability? The Team. If an individual or organisation is considering your viability and credibility, they will want to know about nuclear your team. So part of your business plan layout will need to do a good and honest selling job in this area.
Typical items you may need to deal with are leadership, specialised skills and the team’s culture. How you plan to acquire and conservation resources essay retain key people may be an important requirement if you need to prove sustainability. Nuclear Power! Financial Projections must be included in your business plan structure. Both commercial and non-profit organisations must be able to demonstrate understanding and capability in this area. If this is a new business start-up, or a significant business expansion (for an existing business), careful consideration should be given. The inclusion of best case, likely case and worst case scenarios, can be indicative of good financial management. People and of water essay organisations with money did not get that way by accident. Risks and Rewards are a part of their everyday thinking. In your business plan layout you will need to address both of these factors.
This may be in a separate section – as shown in my visual, or you may choose to make college shorter structure this information into all of the above parts of your plan. If you have any question or suggestions, please use the comments section. I’m happy to follow up on these. Of Water Resources! The Business Plan Guy. Andrew, this certainly helps shine some disinfecting light on the confusion between the two types of business plan! I like your practical approach to business planning.
The type of planning we do in our business for our clients is essay, all about achieving success. If we get any who want to raise money, I#8217;ll refer them straight to you! In your executive summary section you mention the #8220;What#8217;s in it for conservation of water resources essay, me#8221; attitude. You are spot on. It doesn#8217;t matter if it#8217;s business or any other aspect of life, people will respond to any given situation with what is in their best interest, not mine. i like your business plan strategies that you have divided in two parts plan A and plan B#8230; woow nice and amazing lesson what i#8217;ve get from essays properly this article.business plan is conservation resources, very necessary, for both large and small businesses.thanks Mr Smith. Considering the information in your post, the make college essay shorter, initial approach to deciding on the layout of a business plan is the establish whether the business concept applies to of water resources essay plan #8216;A#8217; or plan #8216;B#8217;. The main thing I#8217;ve learned over construction essay, the years is getting the type right for the audience. Some people are looking for a #8220;how to#8221; guide which would be like your type A plan.
On the other hand some people need a business plan to raise money, which would be your type B. Getting this right is the main issue since the essay, documents serve different purposes. Thanks for the post. I especially like the point about construction essay test putting the executive summary last since it is used to of water resources essay eliminate business plans. I will incorporate that into my business plan. Hi Andrew, things are more clearer now though thinking on its complexity. Somehow there#8217;s a huge difference and yes, these particular parts in details are the a2 electronics coursework, right to get moving on the business plans. Very helpful indeed. Thanks for sharing this! This is an excellent guide, thank you.
One quick question about business plans. I#8217;m writing one now for our Laundromat Business. Is there a way to of water incorporate both styles (A B) into one document? very helpful, glady to have you site, I had projection and didn#8217;t knew where to start. thank you very much. Hi Andrew, your notes are very clarifying, thank you for sharing, and how to make shorter I have a similiar question to No. Essay! 10 Laundromat Business. I was reading a document earlier that outlines starting a nursery and it refers to a business structure and a business plan. Are there occasions when clients may need both styles (A and B)in one document? I think if anybody want to a2 electronics success his business, then this is must to need create a pre plan. Because any kind of business can be success with some innovative and unique pre plan.
As per my point of view your post can give us a lot of perfect and success business idea. Your business plan structure and layout can be inspired people for apply their business. Of Water Resources! However, I want to thank you again for sharing those idea with us.
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Conservation of natural resources …
paul farmer resume Testimony of Dr. Paul Farmer. Clinique Bon Sauveur. First, allow me to thank Senator Lugar for this invitation, Senator DeWine for his longstanding commitment to Haiti , and Senators Kerry, Kennedy, and Dodd for having suggested that I be afforded this opportunity to comment on the current health situation in Haiti . Haiti and the United States are the two oldest independent republics in the Western hemisphere. And Haiti , our oldest neighbor, is living a true health crisis. This means, of of water resources, course, that our neighbors are dying because of a health crisis. Construction Test? This health crisis can be described concisely. It has many causes but none of them are mysterious. This crisis has solutions that are well within our reach.
Because some of what I say will be contentious, I will do two things today. First, and very briefly, I make mention of conservation resources, my own acquaintance with the health problems of Haiti . Second, I will document extensively all of my remarks and am making this documentation available for those of you here today and for the Congressional Record. I am a professor at Harvard Medical School but for the past 20 years have had the good fortune of spending at least half of properly, my time in central Haiti , where I direct a large charity hospital. Essay? This past year alone we have seen over a quarter of essays, a million patients and done our best to resources, provide modern medical services to a population living in dire poverty. Indeed, the nuclear hospital I direct sits in a squatter settlement and it would be difficult, I suspect, to find a more impoverished site in which to conservation resources essay, build such a facility. I’ve called this settlement home since 1983. During the past two decades, I’ve lived under the rule of dictatorships, military juntas, and elected governments. Essay? Our clinical facility has remained open during almost all of these long and conservation of water resources essay, often violent years, and we have developed strong feelings regarding the difference between working with unelected versus elected governments. These views are less political than pragmatic because doctors, nurses, and community health workers tend to how to essay, be a pretty pragmatic bunch: we want to help our patients get well or, even better, to prevent them from getting sick. Our group, I should add, is conservation of water, a church-affiliated but ecumenical non-governmental organization, and it’s been our privilege to work extensively, especially in recent years, with the Haitian Ministry of Health. The history of coursework, how we developed Zanmi Lasante, our complex in Cange, guides our everyday approach.
We began by looking at the rights of the Haitian people and asking the people of Cange what they needed. What they wanted was to have their Constitutional right to health recognized. So we set up a clinic which grew into a socio- medical complex. We worked with the government because they are the ones who can meet the demands of the Haitian people; they are the only ones who can respond to their demand for rights. Our patients’ assertion of rights is codified in the Cange Declaration which is of water, their patients’ Bill of Rights. Using this approach, we have worked to put children in school, improve the water supply, and tackle new health challenges, some of is good essay, them deemed— incorrectly, it transpires— intractable. None of the problems I will discuss today, from of water resources, AIDS to malnutrition among children, are intractable. Finally, I’ll note for essay, the record that I have written several books and dozens of conservation, scholarly articles about health conditions in Haiti . In short, I’ve spent my entire adult life worrying about the construction topic we’re here to discuss today and resources essay, feel well-placed to comment on Haiti’s health crisis, its causes, and— most importantly— what we might all do to help our neighbor overcome this crisis. 1. Health Conditions in Haiti Today. Describing the current situation is the easy part: put simply, health conditions in Haiti are among the worst in the world. This part of the how to make college shorter story is undisputed and should, in and of of water resources, itself, trigger immediate action from anyone well-placed to help a neighbor in on educational, need.
All of Haiti ’s public health indices are bad. Life expectancy, for example, is the lowest in our hemisphere. I rely mostly on data from either the Pan American Health Organization or the conservation essay World Health Organization, but if our own CIA’s website is to be believed, Haiti is the only country in the hemisphere in which life expectancy at birth is under 50 years and falling.  As elsewhere in nuclear power is good, the world, infant mortality rates fell fairly slowly but steadily over the course of the past few decades, but in Haiti some of these trends have been reversed and infant mortality now stands at 80.3 per conservation of water essay, 1,000 live births.  This is unacceptable, since the majority of infant deaths are readily preventable. Juvenile mortality rates, similarly, are the worst in the region, in large part because of malnutrition, low vaccination rates, and other by-blows of nuclear is good, poverty. Maternal mortality rates are— no other way to put this— appalling. Even the low-end estimates (523 per 100,000 live births)  are the worst in the hemisphere, and one community-based survey conducted in the 1980s pegged the figure at 1,400 per 100,000 live births. Conservation Of Water Resources?  For a sense of essays on eating properly, scale, those same figures in the United States, Costa Rica, and Grenada are 7.1, 19.1, and 1.0 per 100,000 live births, respectively.  ,  ,  Losing one’s mother is a nightmare for any child, but for of water, children living in poverty it all too often means that they too are doomed to penury and nuclear is good, premature death. When food and water are in conservation of water essay, short supply, who is there to fight for the survival of infants and dissertation on educational, toddlers if not their mothers? Orphans who do survive are often pressed into servitude, where their childhood years are filled with abuse and, as often as not, cut short by AIDS or some other dreadful side effect of conservation of water, poverty. Is Good Essay? 
What, then, of infectious diseases, my own specialty? Polio, announced eradicated from the Western hemisphere in 1994,  resurfaced on conservation of water resources essay the island in 2000.  This unexpected resurgence occurred because of a sharp decline in vaccination rates under military rule. Haiti ’s self-appointed leaders had scant interest, it would seem, in public health. National vaccination rates for essays on eating, measles and polio reached their lowest point ever, with one PAHO survey suggesting that, in 1993, only 30% of Haitian children had been fully vaccinated for measles, polio, mumps, and rubella. Essay?  It was only a matter of leadership, time— in this case, a few months to a few years— before these diseases came back. The measles epidemics came quickly, as we documented in central Haiti . Conservation Resources Essay?  But even polio, deemed vanquished forever, could and did return. The strain of polio that spread was actually derived from a vaccine, I should point out: but a strain fully capable of causing paralysis and death and able to spread only because so few children had been vaccinated during the early nineties.  You know already that AIDS is a serious problem in Haiti , perhaps the on eating properly only country in this hemisphere in conservation of water, which HIV stands as the number-one cause of all adult deaths.  The Haitian epidemic has been described as “generalized,” since it affects women as much as or more than men; is not confined to any clearly bounded groups; and has spread from urban areas to essays be on, the farthest reaches of conservation of water essay, rural Haiti, such as the villages in which I work. What’s worse, HIV not only kills 30,000 Haitians each year and orphans 200,000 more,  it has also aggravated an already severe tuberculosis epidemic. In one careful survey conducted in an urban slum in test, Port-au-Prince , fully 15% of all adults were found to be infected with HIV.  Stunningly, the conservation of water resources rate of active and thus potentially infectious tuberculosis among these HIV-positive slum dwellers was 5,770 per 100,000 population. Again, for a sense of scale, the number of Americans with active TB is pegged at 5.6 per 100,000 population. Coursework?  For Jamaica , Haiti ’s neighbor, the number is 5 per 100,000 population;  for conservation of water resources, Cuba , rates of active TB are only slightly higher than those registered in shorter, Jamaica .  Only 8 of conservation of water, every 100,000 Israelis are sick with active tuberculosis.  You get the picture, I’m sure.
I could go on, telling you about anthrax, which in Haiti is a zoonosis associated with unvaccinated livestock. As one Haitian veterinarian explained wearily, Haitians are victims of a sort of make college shorter, bioterrorism linked to poverty— in this instance, a failure to vaccinate goats, itself a symptom of our failure to resources, share the fruits of science with the poor, including our very closest neighbors. In poor countries, doctors must also take an interest in coursework, education— not merely medical education, but the education of women and children. We know from many studies, including some conducted in poor regions of Mexico , that good health outcomes among poor children are related “independently” to the educational status of the mother.  That is, poverty is far and away the primary predictor of poor health outcomes for Mexican children, but even poor mothers who are better educated can hope to do a better job protecting their children. Whether this association holds true in far poorer countries, such as Haiti , has not yet been demonstrated.  But the fact remains that Haiti ’s illiteracy rates are the essay highest in Latin America ,  which is how to college essay, why the Haitian government has declared its alphabetization campaign the top public priority. All those interested in the health of the Haitian people would do well to of water resources, support these efforts. As for food and dissertation, water, again the story is grim. According to the World Bank, Haiti is the third hungriest country in the world,  the only hungry country located close to our shores. The water story is even worse: a group in the U.K. , the Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, recently developed a “water poverty index” and carefully surveyed 147 of the resources essay world’s countries for supply and quality.
Haiti was ranked in 147th place.  Now picture these conditions— I can’t resist saying it— a mere hour and a half from Miami . From door to door, Harvard to central Haiti , my monthly journey takes only 12 hours, and a third of that is spent jolting along in a Jeep. This brings me to coursework, one last point about of water resources essay, current conditions: Haiti ’s roads are a threat to public health and nuclear power is good, have a horrific impact on health care. Allow me to share the story of of water, Isaac Alfred, a boy who came to Cange in January of this year. Isaac contracted typhoid by drinking unclean water.
Isaac traveled eight hours from his village near Thomazeau to a2 electronics coursework, Cange. The journey was much longer than needed because of resources, roads much more treacherous than most of us in the United States can imagine. Microbes had borne holes through his intestines and when he was at essay, the clinic, hooked up to morphine and of water, antibiotics, he was in excruciating pain. The pain he would have experienced over essays on eating properly the unpaved roads to Cange would have been unbearable. By the of water resources essay time Isaac reached Cange, he received medical treatment, but it was too late. Isaac died a few days later. Isaac died because of unsafe water and Haiti ’s often impassable roads.
The story that is even closer to home is that of an AIDS patient at the Zanmi Lasante. All of our patients on community based anti-retroviral therapy have survived, save one, our patient who died in a fatal bus accident a year into his treatment. So far, I’ve mentioned roads, public health, water, and education and I’m doing so on purpose. These disparate factors are linked together. One must ask who is to blame for these problems. Are the Haitian authorities blind to test, the obvious need for conservation resources essay, urgent action in each of these arenas? Do they care nothing for their own people? Senators, please keep these questions in mind as I turn towards a brief review of our policies towards Haiti . 2. Policies Healthy and Unhealthy.
Our own country is the richest in the world, and encompasses a third of the world’s GDP. It’s also, the world’s superpower. Having established that Haiti , our oldest neighbor, is the poorest country in this hemisphere, it stands to reason that U.S. Power Essay? policies towards that country have an overwhelming influence. This too should be an undisputed claim. Has the influence of resources, our policies been a good one?
Here, of course, is where the dispute comes in. I wish to argue the case as a doctor might; I’m not a politician, nor do I have any wish to leave my clinic. What I want to see is a healthy Haiti , and I believe— I need to believe— that this desire is shared by leadership, all of us in this room today. I will not dwell on what some non-Haitians would call “ancient history” (that is, anything that occurred prior to the 21st century), but can’t resist noting that while the Haitians willingly sent troops to aid us in the Battle of Savannah, in 1779,  our own response to conservation, their appeal for assistance in construction essay test, their war of independence was to conservation of water essay, support the slave owners. Dissertation On Educational? And when, against all odds, the Haitians defeated the French on the battlefield— which led, according to John Adams and to many others, to the Louisiana Purchase — we continued to behave ungraciously. From 1804 until 1862, when Lincoln changed our policy, we simply refused to recognize the existence of “the Black Republic .”  Worse, we later pressured other countries in the hemisphere not to recognize Haiti ’s sovereignty. Of Water?  Our policies did not improve much during the late 19th century, and in the early 20th century we invaded and occupied Haiti militarily.  In fact, the modern Haitian army, which would later come to how long essays, be the bane of my medical staff’s existence, was created right here in this city, by an act of the United States Congress.  Evidence shows that our past policies towards Haiti were remarkable for their consistently antidemocratic tilt.
Modern U.S. Conservation? historians agree on this, as do the essay Haitians. More recent policies may appear, to the untrained eye, a bit more haphazard. But there have been discernable trends. As of today, almost all U.S. aid to Haiti goes through NGOs or through what are now called “faith-based organizations” rather than through the Haitian Ministries of resources, Health, Education, or Public Works. Construction Essay Test? Some of you here today will applaud this situation, and you’d think I would, too: after all, I represent an NGO, belong to a faith-based organization or two, and am not part of any government. But I do not applaud this trend, not at all. I think these policies are unhealthy. Resources? I think these policies are unfair and poorly conceptualized because in a country like Haiti , that has suffered from 180 years of poor governance, we need to build a human rights culture. It is a long process and one that is far too long overdue.
I am convinced that these policies of only giving money to NGOs is unsustainable. These policies cannot succeed. First, allow me to note, since my Haitian patients invariably do, that during the reign of both the Duvalier family dictatorship, which lasted almost 30 years, and properly, the military juntas that followed, the United States was unstintingly generous through official channels.  ,  That is, hundreds of millions of our dollars went to and through these Haitian governments, such as they were. If the aid was supposed to better the lot of the Haitian poor, it wasn’t very efficiently targeted, I’d say. But you don’t have to trust me: in 1982, the U.S. General Accounting Office summed up its own activities as follows: “The United States has provided Haiti about $218 million in food aid and of water, economic assistance. After 8 years of operating in Haiti , AID [Agency for coursework, International Development] is still having difficulty implementing its projects.”  This report appeared at conservation of water essay, almost exactly the how long should be on same time that I arrived on the scene, your typical young American do-gooder. I did not have a lot of preconceived notions about how best to do health and development work, but as an American I was of course suspicious about working with dictatorships, and I didn’t like the way the Duvalier kleptocracy siphoned off such significant fractions of all aid for “extrabudgetary” activities of their own. Again, the assessments of officialdom (the GAO, as mentioned, but also the World Bank, USAID, and conservation resources essay, most of the large multilateral agencies that dominated, and still dominate, the international health scene) were grim enough.
And the verdicts of the rural poor with whom I cast my lot— they were even more scathing. “Why does your government support the dictators and military?” they asked me, politely enough. I was then a young medical student and so I replied, “I don’t know. I’m just a young medical student.” But this was a disingenuous response, and I knew it. It was important for me to come to understand what was going on if I, a U.S. How To College Shorter? citizen, were ever going to be able to defend the policies of my own country. That proved impossible, frankly. When you hear this, it will be July 15th. Conservation Resources Essay? But I am writing this on essay test July 4th, since I am taking the day off and using it to prepare these remarks. I thus refer you to another July 4th speech, made in 1985, my third year in Haiti . One month earlier, the Haitian Parliament had unanimously passed a “political parties law,” allowing political parties to exist as long as their statutes recognized “Baby Doc” Duvalier as President-for-Life.  The same law gave the army and the Ministry of the Interior the conservation essay unconstrained power to recognize and suspend parties. A2 Electronics Coursework? Three days previously, the Haitian Constitution had been amended to give this President-for-Life even greater powers, including the right to designate his successor. These changes were approved by a referendum on July 22, 1985 . According to “official” statistics, 90% of voters turned out and 99.98% voted “yes.” 
Being at the time a young medical student on summer break, I was in conservation, Haiti on July 4th, 1985 , when, in a speech, U.S. Ambassador Clayton McManaway called the political parties law “an encouraging step forward.” Newsweek quoted an unnamed U.S. State Department official as saying, “With all of its flaws, the Haitian government is doing what it can.”  A generous assessment, and the State Department also added that “the press in Haiti has known a growing freedom of expression in recent months.”  (I should add here that the only free “Haitian” press at the time was that published in nuclear is good essay, New York , Miami , and Montreal ; and conservation of water resources, all of these newspapers have since relocated to Haiti .) The U.S. administration then certified to how long should essays be on, Congress that “democratic development” was progressing in resources, Haiti , allowing more than $50 million in essay, military and conservation essay, economic aid  to flow to the government, if that’s the word we want. Being a medical student at the time, I assumed these matters were beyond me. Better to stick to pathophysiology and essays be on gre, clinical medicine rather than to seek to understand why this all seemed like complete garbage. There was, no doubt, a reason for it. Let’s flash ahead to 2001, when such excuses deceived nobody, least of all myself. By then I’d been in Haiti for of water essay, the better part of two decades, before and coursework, after getting my M.D., and was weary of seeing children die of diarrheal disease, adults of resources, typhoid and should essays, tuberculosis and AIDS, and everyone of road accidents. Conservation Of Water Resources? I was a doctor tired of seeing children unable to attend school because they could not pay tuition or buy uniforms— even in “faith-based” schools that should’ve done better. And so in 2001 I looked into a series of four humanitarian and development loans that had been blocked.
Many other international financial institutions had also cut off aid to Haiti, but I focused on the Inter-American Development Bank, since these loans, I learned, had already been approved by the Haitians and by power, the Bank’s board of directors. Of Water? And it seemed only construction essay fitting that an American doctor should inquire, as one loan was for health care, another for education, one for conservation of water resources essay, potable water, and one for road improvement. And they’d been blocked for some time— for “political reasons,” I’d been told. Haiti had held local and parliamentary elections in May 2000, and eight senatorial seats were disputed, requiring run-offs. And I’d heard, from sources both Haitian and American, that it had been the United States that had asked the Inter-American Development Bank to make essay shorter, block the loans until these electoral disputes had been worked out. Again, I was tempted to assume that, as a doctor, I couldn’t possibly fathom the reasons that would lead my country, the world’s richest and most powerful, to try and conservation of water resources, block humanitarian assistance to one of the world’s poorest. But as a boy who’d grown up in Florida and had followed recent electoral problems there (my mother, who lives near Orlando , was sending me reams of make college essay shorter, material), I must admit that I was angry. Angry, as a doctor, that the Haitian government, with a national budget smaller than that of the Harvard teaching hospital in which I’d trained, could not have access to credit in order to conservation resources essay, clean up water supplies and revitalize its public health system. And angry about our shouting down the Haitians for elections that didn’t seem all that bad compared to some of the problems my family in Florida described.
Besides, the Haitian senators occupying the disputed seats had all resigned, and coursework, the loans were still blocked. So this time I did try to find out more, and I encouraged others to help me do so— my students from Harvard, research assistants, and influential friends in business who are donors to our charity. Anyone I could find. Of course I also tried to conservation, go directly to the source. I asked to meet with staffers from the Inter-American Development Bank. Test? One of them shouted at me, in a very public forum (again, right here in this city), but the conservation resources essay others were very courteous and kind. Should Essays? Still, they told discrepant stories. One told me, in 2001, that Haiti owed arrears, whereas another told me that no, Haiti had paid its arrears. However, the Haitian authorities said they had paid $5 million for arrears owed (they were current on their payments at that time) and had been promised that the loans would be disbursed immediately.
Despite this, the IDB did not release the loans and conservation of water, the government of how to college essay shorter, Haiti fell into of water, arrears again. Be On Gre? It was clear that the decision to withhold the loans was a political malfeasance that was brought upon by pressure from the U.S. Conservation Of Water Essay? government to block the leadership loans. An IDB staff person, who made me promise not to use his name, whispered that yes, it was the U.S. government that was blocking the loans. I even called a nice fellow at the U.S. Essay? Secretary of the nuclear power Treasury, since I was told that that’s where the levers were pulled. And he informed me that, yes, such matters were in the hands of the State Department. But when I asked how I, a doctor, might help to get clean water to the Haitian poor, I couldn’t get a straight answer anywhere. This went on and on of water and was very time-consuming.
And I needed to get back to our patients. On July 8, 2003 , in a move applauded by nuclear power is good, the international community, the government of Haiti paid the IDB $32 million to of water resources, satisfy the outstanding arrears owed the Bank. It is outrageous that the government was forced to pay these arrears because it was the nuclear is good malfeasance of the U.S. which helped to create them. Conservation Resources Essay? I am told that this move by the government will pave the way for lending to resume with Haiti . I ask this Senate body to help us to ensure that the U.S. will not stand in the way of properly, future loans from the Bank to Haiti . A friend of mind, a famous American writer, promised to look into the blocked loans. “The State Department seemed reluctant to discuss this matter,” he let me know later. “I was granted an interview with a senior department official only on condition that I not use his name. He told me it wasn’t just the resources United States that had wanted to block the IDB loans to Haiti , that the Organization of essays, American States (the OAS) was also involved. It was ‘a concerted effort,’ the conservation of water essay official said, and should gre, went on to explain that the legal justification for blocking the loans originated at an OAS meeting called the Quebec City Summit, which produced something called the Declaration of Quebec City. But that document is dated April 22, 2001 ,  and the letter from the IDB’s American executive director asking that the loans not be disbursed is dated April 8, 2001 . So it would seem that the effort became concerted after it was made.” I wasn’t surprised. The fact is, a concerted effort has long been underway to upset the Haitian people’s efforts to build an conservation essay egalitarian society.
It began in 1791, and college, the only independent country in of water essay, the hemisphere, our own, weighed in on the side of the slave owners, as noted. And so it has gone on for years, as Haiti grew poorer and we grew richer. In fact, few Americans know much about Haiti but few Haitians can afford to on educational, not know about our country. These blocked loans do not surprise the Haitians, but do surprise the good people with whom I speak up here in the country of my birth. Why on earth, family and friends and medical colleagues asked, would we want to block assistance to Haiti ? Why indeed. But it’s possible to make a long list of embargoes against Haiti , and conservation essay, I recently did so for on educational leadership, a British medical journal, The Lancet .  It is an article which seeks to document the unsurprisingly bad impact of blocking water assistance to conservation of water resources essay, the thirsty, education to the unschooled, and health care to test, the sick. I did my best to argue that such policies are not only illegal— an argument of limited value, I’m told— but also noxious. Deadly.
Morally atrocious. I submit this Lancet article to you in the hopes that it too might become a part of the Congressional Record. In any case, I know the discussion could go ’round and ’round. And that would make us all dizzy and I’d be the only one here, besides Senator Frist, qualified to resuscitate you should you collapse in Senate chambers. But since I am a doctor, I hope you will permit me to of water essay, use medical language. These are sick policies. On Eating Properly? They have a long history. And I hope I will not be dismissed as “playing the race card” when I argue that our sick policies towards Haiti are rooted in our own country’s shameful past. Again, this is easy to prove. One has only to of water, look, again, to the U.S.
Congressional Record. On the Senate floor, in 1824, Senator Robert Hayne of South Carolina declared, “Our policy with regard to Hayti [sic] is plain. We never can acknowledge her independence. The peace and coursework, safety of a large portion of conservation essay, our union forbids us even to discuss [it].”  But now, thank God, we are allowed to discuss it.
Unacknowledged or not, these are the on eating roots of our unhealthy policies toward Haiti . And one does not have to be a neurologist or a psychiatrist to conservation, know that there are many reasons that some forget and a2 electronics coursework, others remember. We Americans have forgotten because we can afford to of water, forget. 3. Towards a Healthier Haiti : Some Success Stories. I do not wish to squander your generous invitation by focusing only on the negative. Many good things are happening in Haiti , and surely the most important of these is the transition, however painful, from dictatorships to democracy. There are medical victories, as well— and most of them are the result of genuine public-private partnerships. That means groups like ours working with the Haitian public sector.
Allow me to give a couple of success stories. First, I mentioned that the island was the site of the power is good hemisphere’s first polio outbreak since the disease was declared eradicated from our half of the world. But did polio’s resurgence or huge measles epidemics in conservation of water resources, Haiti constitute insuperable problems? Not at all. PAHO and UNICEF worked with the Ministry of Health in essay test, order to launch a massive campaign to eradicate polio and stop epidemic transmission of measles.
I’m proud to say that we too were part of this movement and prouder still to report that it worked. What about AIDS, the world’s latest rebuke to optimism? Impossible to resources essay, prevent or treat in how to make essay shorter, the poorest parts of the world, you’ve been told incorrectly, until quite recently. Here again, Haiti is more of a success story than one might imagine. Conservation? First, NGOs working closely with the Ministry of essays on eating, Health have spent a decade developing culturally-appropriate prevention tools, providing voluntary counseling and testing, and working to conservation of water resources essay, improve care for how to college essay shorter, people living with HIV. Could these efforts be among the reasons why the predicted “explosion” of HIV did not occur in Haiti ? That is, the situation is conservation resources, grim and construction essay, AIDS is, as noted, the leading killer of young Haitian adults. Conservation Of Water Resources? But seroprevalence studies suggest that the Haitian epidemic is slowing down. How To College? Again, Haiti formed a public-private partnership, one of the strongest in the world, in order to of water, pull together a successful proposal to the Global Fund for AIDS, Tuberculosis, and Malaria.  The National AIDS Commission is chaired by the First Lady, Mildred Aristide, who has made AIDS and the rights of poor children her primary concerns as a public figure. As I stand before you, Haiti is probably the one country in the poor world with the most promising integrated AIDS prevention and care project already up and running. A2 Electronics? Over the past year, our project has hosted scores of conservation resources, visitors from as far away as Zambia , South Africa , Uganda , and even Japan . What about essays be on, maternal mortality? Can nothing be done to of water resources, prevent this horror?
Again, PAHO is engaged in construction test, efforts to make childbirth safer and so are we— and we all work with the Haitian government. There is, as noted, a huge challenge before us. Conservation? And yet modern medicine has made it possible to make childbirth safe, even in is good, the very poorest corners of the world. In part of conservation of water resources, central Haiti, where we work with traditional birth attendants and community health workers to offer at-risk women high-quality obstetric services (for example, cesarean sections or treatment of eclampsia), maternal mortality is under 200 per 100,000 live births and dropping. We still have a long way to go, granted, but we’re moving in the right direction. How Long Gre? Again, this success owes much to our close ties with the Ministry of Health which, though flat broke, has assigned publicly-trained nurse-midwives to assist us. UNICEF has supplied many of our traditional birth attendants with birthing kits. We are also vaccinating our staff against hepatitis B and making sure they have gloves and conservation of water resources, aprons and other supplies. If we were to work assiduously with the Ministry of Health, how difficult would it be to replicate these practices throughout a country about the size of the state of Maryland ? We are proud of our work in Cange because our methods incorporate a community-wide approach that focuses on the Haitian people’s right to health. A2 Electronics Coursework? This sets us apart from the resources other NGOs that are operating in Haiti . Dissertation? Zanmi Lasante is of water resources, a successful public/private partnership which supports poor Haitians’ demands upon the government for the right to health and further develops a strategy with them to engage the how to make college government and civil society so their demands are respected and can be met. Conservation Of Water Resources? We have a proven success rate using the human rights based approach, rather than the framework of handouts by rich countries and donors that most NGOs in dissertation on educational, Haiti work under.
This human rights approach to development, not only in the health sector, is a model that can be and of water essay, should be used by other NGOs to build sustainable solutions. 4. A Few Conclusions. Everyone who speaks today will tell you that the situation in Haiti is awful. And so it is, especially from the point of view of a physician who serves the poor. But there is so much that could be done. Permit me to continue speaking to you as a doctor. First, we need a diagnosis.
And this doctor would argue that these noxious conditions are all treatable. Should Essays Be On? What is the etiology of these problems? Haitian culture, as some have argued? Ridiculous— this has nothing to do with Haitian culture. Nor is bad governance the problem. How on earth could we say this when we were so willing to fork over hundreds of millions of of water resources essay, dollars to the Duvaliers and the Haitian army, which in over a century had known no enemy other than the Haitian people? What is even more horrendous is dissertation leadership, that the Duvalier regime was well known for resources essay, its human rights abuses internationally. Again, this was another malfeasance on essay the part of the conservation of water resources United States government. It has led to an enormous and odious debt to construction essay test, the international community, much of which has not been repatriated from the conservation of water resources essay Duvaliers. Considering this, it is should essays be on gre, appropriate for of water essay, the U.S. government and the international financial institution to pursue debt forgiveness for Haiti ’s odious debt.
The problem in Haiti is poverty and, alas, we have failed to do our best to help our neighbors rebuild their ravaged country. But we can certainly start doing so. Rebuilding Haiti will require resources. The Haitians have a saying: you can’t get blood from a rock. It is essay test, critical that capital begins to resources essay, flow once again to essays, Haiti ’s public sector in order to stay the human rights and conservation of water essay, humanitarian crises I’ve described. Be On Gre? But this capital cannot go only to groups like ours— to NGOs or “faith-based organizations.” It must be spent well using new approaches that provide Haiti ’s poor the ability to demand health, to demand potable water, to demand nutrition and have those demands met.
That is precisely what building the environment and culture that respects the full spectrum of human rights is about. We’re proud of our work in central Haiti , but that’s where we live and work: in a circumscribed bit of central Haiti . Only the Haitian government has both national reach and a mandate to serve the of water resources essay Haitian poor. Haiti still receives assistance from the United States and the European Union and how long should be on gre, Canada and Japan and various United Nations organizations. But the total amount of aid has been reduced by about two-thirds since 1995. Our country has cut its donations by more than half since 1999.
The United States contributes about $50 million a year, but none of it goes to the Haitian government  — except for a small amount to Haiti ’s coast guard, both boats of it, given in the hope that this might help prevent refugees from disembarking for Florida and cocaine-shippers from getting their product to the same destination. Of Water Essay? Again, for a sense of scale, recall that the U.S. government pumped an estimated $200 million through the Haitian military government in the 18 months following February 1986.  The World Bank, the self-proclaimed lead agency addressing world poverty, has shut down all future lending to this hemisphere’s poorest country. It has, in fact, closed its Haiti office, leaving behind only an administrator and a2 electronics, a chauffeur. Resources? Hardly an impressive strategy for poverty alleviation. As the United States continues to ramp up spending for global AIDS, TB and nuclear is good essay, malaria, both through the President’s emergency AIDS initiative and the millennium challenge account, it is important to consider the conservation resources application of those spending packages. Again, I would request that a strategy similar to the one used in Central Haiti be used as a model for this work.
This model works in Haiti and can work in other developing countries and resource poor settings. Haiti needs our help. Haiti needs resources. But Haitians need us to leadership, remember some of the things we forget all too expediently. Technical assistance is also of great importance, but we need to resources essay, be respectful of our Haitian partners.
In 1804, Haiti taught the world a great lesson, perhaps the nuclear power essay greatest lesson ever. Haiti taught us that slavery, the use of other humans as chattel, is a crime against humanity. The French claimed to have done this in 1789, but every Haitian knows that it was Napoleon himself who in 1801 sent 40,000 troops to conservation of water resources essay, reconquer Haiti , and reclaim it as France ’s most valuable slave colony. Coursework? Napoleon failed. And where were we, Haiti ’s only neighbors at the time? Where were we who should have helped Haiti rebuild an island devastated by a decade of war?
The answer: Haiti had no friends. There was no assistance. That was then and this is now. We now have a chance to make up for past errors. How are we doing? Poorly.
Blocking economic and conservation resources essay, social sector development and nuclear essay, humanitarian assistance impedes the development of of water resources, a human rights culture. Withholding health, water and sanitation, education and construction, transportation funding is a terrible tactical and moral error; it is also a medical and epidemiological error. Of Water Resources? And this error could be corrected, almost effortlessly, by the U.S. government. Nuclear Power Is Good? If I were you, I would not listen to a lot of palaver about arrears or other technicalities. The United States has the power to of water essay, unblock aid to Haiti in a heartbeat. That was my final medical metaphor, I promise. In closing, I would ask the members of this committee to essays be on gre, call for a formal reexamination of our policies towards Haiti . I would ask that we acknowledge, as a people, our errors and that we try for a fresh start. We certainly have all that is necessary to resources, do so. Call it a “Marshall Plan for Haiti ,” call it reparations, call it whatever you want.
But let us, at long last, do the right thing. Power? And then we will know the gratitude of our neighbors. Conservation Of Water Resources Essay? Certainly, you will know the gratitude of a doctor who would like to see everyone have the chance to a2 electronics coursework, live full and happy lives. And although I care deeply for all my patients, I think you will forgive me for wishing this most ardently for the Haitian people. Thank you for the privilege of conservation resources, testifying.  United States Central Intelligence Agency. The World Factbook 2002. Dissertation? Available at:  Infant mortality in Haiti has actually risen since 1996, when it was 73.8 per conservation resources essay, 1,000 live births; PAHO attributes this rise to increasing poverty, the deterioration of the construction essay test health system, and HIV.
See Pan American Health Organization. Country Profiles: Haiti . 2003. Available at:  Pan American Health Organization. Conservation? Country Profiles: Haiti . 2003. Available at: http://www.paho.org/English/DD/AIS/be_v24n1-haiti.htm. These numbers are likely to be even higher if one measures maternal mortality at the community level.  The only community-based survey done in Haiti , conducted in 1985 around the town of Jacmel in southern Haiti , found that maternal mortality was 1,400 per college, 100,000 live births.
See Jean-Louis R. Diagnostic de l’tat de sant en Hati. Forum Libre I (Mdecine, Sant et Dmocratie en Hati) 1989: 11-20. During that same period, “official” statistics reported much lower rates for Haiti , ranging from a maternal mortality rate of 230 for the years 1980-1987 and a maternal mortality rate of resources essay, 340 for 1980-1985 to a higher estimate in the years that followed, 1987-1992, of 600 maternal deaths per 100,000 live births. See United Nations Development Programme. Human Development Report, 1990 . A2 Electronics Coursework? New York : Oxford University Press for UNDP, 1990; and conservation of water resources essay, World Bank. Social Indicators of Development . Baltimore : Johns Hopkins University Press, 1994; respectively. For additional maternal mortality data from that period, see World Health Organization.
Maternal Mortality: Helping Women Off the Road to construction test, Death. WHO Chronicle 1985; 40: 175-183.  Pan American Health Organization. Country Health Profile: United States . 2001. Available at:  Pan American Health Organization. Country Health Profile: Costa Rica . 2001. Conservation Of Water? Available at:  United Nations Development Programme. Human Development Indicators 2003: Grenada . Available at:  Mildred Aristide has recently published an excellent overview of the problem of children who become “domestic servants,” grounding this phenomenon in its historical context and at the same time revealing the enormous social cost of on eating, such abuse. She writes, “It is clear that Haiti ’s rural development and the faltering road to a national public education system have been and remain at the center of the propagation of child domestic service in of water resources, the country.
This explains why the on educational prototypical image of a child in domestic service is one of a child from the conservation impoverished countryside seeking an education, working in the city.” See Aristide M. L’Enfant En Domesticit en Hati: Produit d’un Foss Historique (Child Domestic Service in make, Haiti and conservation of water essay, Its Historical Underpinnings). Port-au-Prince , Haiti : Imprimerie H. Essays Be On? Deschamps, 2003; p. 89-90.  Centers for Disease Control and resources essay, Prevention. International notes certification of poliomyelitis eradication— the Americas , 1994. How To Make Essay? Morbidity and resources, Mortality Weekly Report 1994; 43(39): 720-722.  Centers for Disease Control and make essay, Prevention. Outbreak of poliomyelitis— Dominican Republic and Haiti , 2000.
Morbidity and conservation resources essay, Mortality Weekly Report 2000; 49(48): 1094, 1103.  Pan American Health Organization and World Health Organization. Haiti — L’Aide d’Urgence en Sant. Port-au-Prince : Pan American Health Organization, 1993.  Farmer PE. Haiti ’s Lost Years: Lessons for the Americas . Current Issues in essays, Public Health 1996; 2(3): 143-151.
 Kew O, Morris-Glasgow V, Landaverde M, et al. Of Water Resources? Outbreak of poliomyelitis in should essays gre, Hispaniola associated with circulating type 1 vaccine-derived poliovirus. Conservation Resources? Science 2002; 296 (5566): 269-70.  Pan American Health Organization. “ Haiti .” In: Health in the Americas 2002: Vol. II . Power Is Good? Washington , D.C. Conservation Of Water Resources? : Pan American Health Organization, 2002: 336-349.  Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS. Epidemiological Fact Sheets on HIV/AIDS and Sexually Transmitted Infections: Haiti . 2002.
Available at:  Desormeaux J, Johnson MP, Coberly JS, et. Nuclear Power Is Good? al. Widespread HIV counseling and testing linked to a community-based tuberculosis control program in a high-risk population. Bulletin of the Pan American Health Organization 1996; 30(1): 1-8. For a more comprehensive overview of essay, Haiti ’s burden of coursework, treatable and preventable infectious diseases, see Farmer P. Infections and Inequalities: The Modern Plagues . Berkeley , CA : University of California Press, 1999.  Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Reported in Tuberculosis in the United States , 2001. Atlanta , GA : U.S. Department of Health and Human Services; 2002. Available at:  United Nations Development Programme. Human Development Indicators 2003: Jamaica . Available at: http://hdr.undp.org/reports/global/2002/en/indicator/indicator.cfm?File=cty_f_JAM.html.
 In 1999, the rate of active tuberculosis in Cuba was 11 per conservation of water, 100,000 population. See United Nations Development Programme. Human Development Indicators 2003: Cuba . Available at:  United Nations Development Programme. Human Development Indicators 2003: Israel . Available at:  For a review of these studies in Mexico , see LeVine RA, LeVine SE, Richman A, et al. Women’s schooling and child care in the demographic transition: A Mexican case study. Population and Development Review 1991; 17(3): 459-496. See also Cleland J and van Ginneken J. Maternal education and child survival in a2 electronics, developing countries: The search for pathways of influence.
Social Science and Medicine 1988; 27: 1357-1368.  Educational status is so tightly linked to social class in Haiti that it difficult to conservation of water resources essay, know whether or not educational status is an a2 electronics independent predictor of better outcomes for children. But relevant data from Haiti indicates that of mothers who had received at least a primary school education, 94% received prenatal care and essay, 74% were vaccinated against nuclear essay tetanus. Among women with no formal schooling, on the other hand, only 53% received prenatal care and 58% received vaccination against tetanus. See Pan American Health Organization. “ Haiti .” In: Health in the Americas 1998: Vol. II . Washington , D.C. Conservation Of Water Resources Essay? : Pan American Health Organization; 1998: 316-330.  Only 50.8% of adults over age 15 are literate. See United Nation Development Programme. Human Development Indicators 2003: Haiti . Available at:  United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization. The State of Food Insecurity in the World.
United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization: Rome , 2000. Available at:  Sullivan CA, Meigh JR, and construction, Fediw TS. Derivation and Testing of the Water Poverty Index Phase I. Centre for Ecology and Hydrology: Wallingford , 2002. Available at: http://www.ciaonet.org/wps/suc01/suc01.pdf.  Madeline Diaz, in the U.S. Consulate’s Haiti newsletter, describes the of water essay event this way: “… Haitian soldiers fought and died on a Georgia battlefield to help the United States gain its independence from England . About 1,500 volunteers from their country, then a French colony, joined forces with the Americans to fight the British in the 1779 Siege of Savannah.” See Diaz MB . Haitians seeking recognition of war effort in U.S. A2 Electronics? The Haiti Hotline , Consular Section of the United States , Port-au-Prince , Haiti ; May 2, 2002 .  Lawless R. Haiti’s Bad Press . Resources Essay? Rochester , VT : Schenkman Books, 1992.  In 1825, the United States blocked Haiti ’s invitation to the famous Western Hemisphere Panama Conference.
See Lawless R. Haiti’s Bad Press . Rochester , VT : Schenkman Books, 1992.  Heinl R and Heinl N. Written in Blood . Boston : Houghton Mifflin Co., 1978.  See the essays properly account of conservation resources essay, Gaillard R. Hinche Mise en Croix . Port-au-Prince, Haiti: Imprimerie Le Natal, 1982. Essay? This book is part of a seven-volume overview of the U.S. occupation of Haiti .  Hancock G. Lords of Poverty: The Power, Prestige, and Corruption of the of water resources essay International Aid Business . How To Make College Essay? New York : Atlantic Monthly Press, 1989.  Lawless R. Haiti’s Bad Press . Rochester , VT : Schenkman Books, 1992.  United States General Accounting Office. Assistance to Haiti : Barriers, Recent Program Changes, and Future Options. Washington , D.C. : United States General Accounting Office, 1982; p. i.  Americas Watch. Haiti : Human Rights Under Hereditary Dictatorship . Conservation Of Water Resources? New York : Americas Watch and nuclear power, the National Coalition for Haitian Refugees, 1985.  Americas Watch. Haiti : Human Rights Under Hereditary Dictatorship . New York : Americas Watch and conservation of water, the National Coalition for Haitian Refugees, 1985.
 Cited in Americas Watch. How To Make? Haiti : Human Rights Under Hereditary Dictatorship . New York : Americas Watch and the National Coalition for Haitian Refugees, 1985; p.30.  Cited in Americas Watch. Haiti : Human Rights Under Hereditary Dictatorship . New York : Americas Watch and the National Coalition for Haitian Refugees, 1985; p.32.  Hooper M. “ Haiti ’s Despair.” The New York Times 27 August, 1985 .  Declaration of of water essay, Quebec City , Third Summit of the Americas . United States State Department, 2001. Available at: http://usinfo.state.gov/regional/ar/summit/declaration22b.htm.  Farmer P, Smith Fawzi MC, and Nevil P. Essays? Unjust embargo of aid for Haiti . The Lancet 2003; 361: 420-423.  Cited in Schmidt H. The United States Occupation of Haiti , 1915-1934.
New Brunswick , NJ : Rutgers University Press, 1971; p. Conservation? 28.  For information on Haiti ’s proposal to the Global Fund, see http://www.globalfundatm.org/proposals/round1/fsheets/haiti.html.  United States Agency for gre, International Development. Congressional Budget Justification 2004: Latin America and the Caribbean – Haiti . Available at:  Farmer PE. Conservation Essay? The Uses of Haiti . Monroe , ME : Common Courage Press, 1994.
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8 Catastrophic Examples of Word Choice Mistakes. Nobody likes to feel confused—when we don’t understand something, we tend to essay, reject it. Even worse is when we get the incorrect impression about something and don#8217;t find out we were wrong until later. Clarity is key when it comes to business writing, and word choice plays a crucial role in how easy it is for the audience to understand your message. What is word choice? The concept is easy to coursework, define; it#8217;s simply the usage of the best words for getting your point across.
Words are powerful tools and when used correctly, they#8217;re all you need to compel your audience to action. Essay. However, words can also be dangerous weapons—ticking time bombs in your writing that can backfire on you by leading the audience astray, leaving them perplexed or turning them off completely. A2 Electronics. It’s important to learn how to spot problematic words and replace them with clear, powerful ones so that your copywriting can be as effective as possible. Here are some of the most common mistakes people make when it comes to their choice of words in business communication. Every now and then, you might find yourself using a word that is completely wrong—either because you thought it meant something different or because it sounds similar to the word the you actually wanted to use. In some cases, you might even use a word that doesn’t exist, such as #8220;irregardless.#8221; Improper word choice can sometimes be the result of spelling or grammar errors. A car dealership might write an resources essay ad where they say they can #8220;ensure#8221; a great deal on a used vehicle, but if they wrote #8220;insure,#8221; the coursework, audience would think they were talking about auto insurance. #8220;Ensure#8221; means guarantee, while #8220;insure#8221; means to conservation of water, protect. See how one little letter can make a big difference? A simple spelling error has changed the meaning of a2 electronics, this sentence to something completely different from its intent. It always helps to have an extra set of eyes take a look at your final draft to verify proper word usage.
When in doubt, consult a dictionary to ensure you’re using the conservation of water essay, right definition. How To Make Shorter. You can also review a list of commonly misused words to determine if you#8217;re already making mistakes you#8217;re not aware of. Some words are just too wishy-washy and non-specific to effectively deliver your message. Vague words are weak and of water resources can lead to situations where the audience isn’t sure of your intent. For example, #8220;Our product does plenty of leadership, stuff#8221; is a weak sentence because the conservation of water essay, audience wants to know exactly what the product can do.
Whenever possible, use descriptive word choice that give the audience a clear idea about the ideas you want to convey. Using an power is good ambiguous word leaves too much room for interpretation, which can lead to the audience drawing the wrong conclusions. A poor sentence like #8220;Our product is good#8221; could mean any number of conservation, things—it could mean the on eating properly, product is conservation of water resources, effective, it could mean the product is a good value, it could even mean the product is dissertation, delicious. These are just a few examples of the conclusions your audience might jump to essay, after hearing a vague word like #8220;good.#8221; Leaving it up to dissertation leadership, the audience to decide is resources essay, a risky game to play. For some people, the word #8220;good#8221; is enough to make a positive connection, while other audiences might think that #8220;good#8221; is step below #8220;great#8221; or #8220;excellent.#8221; It#8217;s generally much better to should essays be on gre, choose words with vivid, clearly defined value, such as #8220;inexpensive,#8221; #8220;gorgeous,#8221; or #8220;durable.#8221; The last thing you want from your marketing collateral is to accidentally offend your audience. Be sure that the word choice you use doesn#8217;t have double meanings or negative connotations that might confuse readers.
For instance, the word #8220;youth#8221; has positive overtones relating to both childhood and vitality. Conservation Resources. Meanwhile, #8220;juvenile#8221; may technically mean the same thing, but it can also have negative connotations relating to immaturity. If you were advertising a health and beauty product, you would talk about how it leaves you with a #8220;youthful appearance,#8221; not a #8220;juvenile appearance;#8221; the latter would simply imply that you look childish. Even though #8220;youthful#8221; and #8220;juvenile#8221; technically have the same meaning, #8220;juvenile#8221; has negative connotations that wouldn#8217;t be appropriate for dissertation on educational this type of ad. Pronouns make communication quicker and easier, but when there are multiple subjects being discussed, pronouns can easily be misunderstood. For example, #8220;Dr. Macklin often brings his dog Champion to conservation of water essay, visit with the patients. Make. He just loves to resources, give big, wet, sloppy kisses!#8221; The dog is the one giving the kisses, but the uses of the #8220;he#8221; pronoun makes it sound like it could be the doctor giving the kisses instead! With the usage of just one innocent but ambiguous pronoun, your audience might perceive this writing in dissertation on educational a totally inappropriate way. You can simply fix the of water, problem by clarifying the should essays gre, subject; in this case, #8220;Champion just loves to give big, wet, sloppy kisses!#8221; However, since you want your business writing to make an of water essay impression, consider a choice of more descriptive words than pronouns or proper names. #8220;Our friendly, furry pup just loves to give big, wet, sloppy kisses!#8221;
Using slang and regional terms might give your copywriting a bit of leadership, extra flavor, but choosing the right words helps ensure that your audience will understand what you’re saying. The words you use should match the vocabulary of your target audience; keep in mind that the wider your audience, the less colloquialisms you can effectively use. Faygo#8217;s usage of the conservation of water essay, word #8220;pop#8221; makes sense because they target a very regional audience. Photo Credit: Chuck Olsen. Consider advertisements for a2 electronics coursework national soft drink companies like Coke and Pepsi. You never hear them called #8220;pop#8221; or #8220;soda#8221; or any other regional term. For the most part, these companies are so big that they can use the conservation resources essay, brand name itself as the de facto descriptor for their product.
If need be, they will use broad terms such as #8220;drink#8221; or #8220;beverage#8221; that will be clear for any audience, despite region or age. On the other hand, the soft drink company Faygo uses the term #8220;pop#8221; to describe their product. Although pop is a regional term. Test. it coincides with the conservation of water resources, region where Faygo is distributed. If the brand were to go national, it would likely need to on eating, change the name of some of its products in order to conservation of water resources essay, reach a wider audience. Like colloquialisms, jargon words will only be understood by select audiences. Essay Test. In some cases, that may be your target audience, but even so, you want to make your copywriting as accessible as possible to conservation of water essay, attract new customers—even the ones who might not fully understand the finer details. Jargon is often unavoidable in business writing because you need to should essays gre, give your audience all of the information necessary to make an informed decision.
However, there is conservation, a time and place for it; you don’t want to use jargon in your brand’s message or slogan, but you would include it in a list of specs and features. And when you do use jargon, you want to follow it with an properly explanation in conservation layman’s terms, whenever possible. Consider the copywriting found in a restaurant menu that explains how a dish is cooked, how it’s served and what it contains. Essays Properly. Without a clear, jargon-free choice of of water essay, words, it would be difficult for new customers to coursework, know what they’re ordering, especially if they’re unfamiliar with the type of food that#8217;s being served. Advertising and business writers sometimes have a tendency to exaggerate. Conservation Of Water Essay. We all want our product or service to sound appealing, and that desire sometimes makes us go a bit overboard and use words like #8220;ultimate#8221; or even call a product #8220;inexpensive#8221; when it#8217;s actually quite pricey. Hyperbolic words such as #8220;ultimate#8221; or #8220;flawless#8221; can often act as a red flag to your audience, lowering your credibility and giving the impression that your offer is should, too good to conservation resources, be true. Coursework. if your customers discover that the conservation resources, language in your marketing is misleading, it can backfire in how long should a big way. Focus on using words that accurately represent your business#8217;s strengths; if your product is popular, efficient or long-lasting (or if it actually is inexpensive), go ahead and use words that express those traits. Just don#8217;t try to conservation of water resources, embellish the truth if you don#8217;t have the credentials to back up your claims. Dissertation Leadership. Words that go against your brand identity or target audience. Conservation Of Water Essay. Most importantly of all, your persuasive writing has to be in tune with your brand identity and target audience; word choice that goes against these can easily lead to brand confusion.
For example, a high-end jewelry store targeting upscale consumers would use formal language, while an accessories boutique for young girls would use slang. Calling a diamond bracelet #8220;cute#8221; would be just as confusing to the audiences as referring to a plastic bracelet as #8220;elegant.#8221; Even if an adjective is specific and has positive connotations, it may not be right for your particular brand. This also means you have to be consistent across all platforms. The word choices you make for your print media should also match your online media, your social media posts and even company e-mails. How To College Essay Shorter. You have to figure out the #8220;voice#8221; of your brand in conservation resources essay order to know what word usage works best with your identity and audience.
The hardest part of choosing the right word is trying to get it right the first time. Nobody is perfect and the best strategy is how long should essays be on gre, always to write first, then edit later. Essay. Trying to figure out the best word choice while in the middle of the writing process may stifle your voice or make it difficult to get your message across. Focus first on what you want to say, then go back to make sure you’re saying it clearly. Power. Know of any other common word choice mistakes? Any cringeworthy examples of poor word usage in conservation essay advertising? Share your thoughts and questions in the comments!
One Response to #8220;8 Catastrophic Examples of make, Word Choice Mistakes#8221; You#8217;ve presented a comprehensive list. I write for real estate agents and others involved in the real estate industry, and I harp at them constantly about using words like #8220;great#8221; when writing property descriptions. Since none of them are going to conservation resources, hire me or anyone else to write all the words they need, I advise them to nuclear power is good, enlist help from a word-loving friend to proofread for them before sending a letter or hitting #8220;publish#8221; on a blog post. Agents seem to have a lot of trouble with words like advise/advice; there/their; waste/waist; rain/reign/rein; hear/here; perspective/prospective #8230; and the list goes on. Conservation Of Water Resources. Some even get confused between #8220;are#8221; and #8220;our.#8221; They also have trouble with plurals and possessives putting an should essays be on apostrophe before the s in SO many places where it doesn#8217;t belong.
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Celtic Kingdoms of the British Isles. The earliest traces of human habitation in the British Isles dates to of water resources essay, about 700,000 years ago. These people were Homo Heidelbergensis , early humans who formed small, migratory groups of how long should hunter-gatherers. They entered a Britain that was still firmly attached to of water resources, the Continent by is good, land following the end of a glacial period. As subsequent glacial periods ebbed and flowed, habitation faded and was re-established (it failed an estimated total of seven times). Modern humans entered the British Isles around 30,000 years ago, although the ice eventually forced them out during a fresh advance. Conservation Of Water! The most recent (and current) recolonisation occurred from about 12,000 BC onwards, a little over five thousand years before the last vestiges of the land bridge were submerged beneath the newly formed North Sea (the English Channel was formed much earlier). Essays Properly! These people made up a culture with a relatively peaceful communal society, part of the Early Mesolithic Period (8300-6500 BC) and the Late Mesolithic Period (6500-4000 BC). It was Pytheas of Massalia who first recorded a name for the British Isles and Ireland. He was a Greek geographer and explorer who undertook a voyage of exploration around north-west Europe in resources, the later years of the fourth century BC. During his trip he visited Britain and Ireland, which he collectively recorded as the Prettanic islands (with various spellings due to the translation from the original Greek, a name which covers all of the islands and also Ireland).
Whether he coined the name himself or (more likely) gained it from the inhabitants is unknown. Later sources recorded the name of Alba for the British Isles, and Ere for power is good Erin (Ireland) (see feature link, right, for a detailed exploration). (Additional information by Edward Dawson, and from the Cambridge Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology, Dr Chantal Conneller at the University of Manchester, Professor Nicky Milner at York University, and the Vale of Pickering Research Trust, and from External Links : Stonehenge, and Science.) The most recent ice age is now fast fading in conservation of water essay, its intensity. As the how long, ice recedes northwards, anatomically modern human hunter-gatherers reach Britain. Their arrival may be as much as the of water resources, eighth such wave of settlement over the course of 700,000 years, but the first to last any appreciable time. By this date Aborigines have been in Australia for at least 55,000 years, greatly outlasting the human occupation of the British Isles. These early arrivals largely live in caves. Gough's Cave in Cheddar Gorge, Somerset, is one such site for these people. It is a fairly dry place that makes a good camp, with a good food supply from the land immediately outside.
The Gorge channels animals such as horse and red deer quite close to the caves, and setting up ambushes to properly, trap game as it goes past is relatively easy. Until now a land bridge has connected Britain to Ireland, roughly from the south-eastern tip of the latter to south-western England. Trapped between this land bridge and the ice sheet to the north, the Irish Sea is filled by of water resources essay, melt water that forms a vast lake. At this time, the land bridge is finally submerged beneath the properly, salt water of the Atlantic. Conservation Of Water Essay! Animals, including the Giant Deer, and the hunter-gatherers who have followed them are now cut off. The land bridge makes a few more brief appearances as short-term fluctuations interfere with average sea levels before being swallowed up permanently. Evidence of the earliest people to inhabit Scotland is found by construction test, archaeologists in 2001. Discarded hazelnut shells and of water resources essay stone tools are amongst three thousand finds at the site which point to a temporary encampment at Cramond, on the coast near Edinburgh.
An archaeological discovery in construction essay test, 2015 concludes that wheat is present in Britain at least two thousand years before its first confirmed use in conservation of water resources, 4000 BC. Fragments of wheat DNA that are recovered from an ancient and now-submerged peat bog between the Isle of Wight and the Solent on Britain's south coast suggest that the grain is traded or exchanged long before it is grown by the first British farmers. The research also suggests that there exists a sophisticated network of cultural links across Europe at this time. A2 Electronics! It seems likely that the hunter-gather societies of Britain, far from being isolated, are part of extensive social networks that trade or exchange exotic foodstuffs across much of Europe. The DNA of the einkorn wheat comes from sediment that, at of water resources essay, this time, is a peat bog next to a river that feeds into the massive river system where the English Channel lies today (see feature link, right). Scientists think that traders arrive in Britain with the wheat, where they encounter a less advanced hunter-gatherer society. The wheat, unused for crops, may instead be used to make flour to supplement the diet, but a search for pollen and other clues has revealed no signs that the crop is grown in Britain until much later. The DNA evidence corroborates the archaeological evidence, demonstrating a tangible link with the Continent that appears to be severed when Britain becomes an power is good essay island over the course of the resources essay, next millennium. Almost the how long, last vestiges of the Dogger Hills are submerged beneath the rising waters of the conservation resources essay, North Sea.
Hunter-gatherer communities have been living a semi-nomadic life on the sweeping plains of construction essay grass that had stretched from the east coast of Britain up to the Shetland Islands and across to essay, Scandinavia (an area known as Doggerland) since the end of the last ice age, around 10,500 BC. They had lived in family groups in huts and hunted animals such as deer and wild boar until slowly rising water levels increasingly forced them to how long should essays be on, retreat to higher ground, land which today forms Britain or Continental Europe. While initially dated roughly to 6500 BC, more recent archaeology has pinpointed a very precise date of resources essay 6150 BC for a disaster that is related to disappearance of Doggerland. This takes the form of a catastrophic tsunami. By this time, Doggerland is already little more than a mass of islands that are divided by the encroaching North Sea waters. To the north, layers of sand and boulders have built up during the ice age along the coast of Norway, under the water on the edge of the continental shelf. Professor David Tappin, marine geologist for the British Geological Survey, points to a geological scar on the ocean floor as proof that an earthquake strikes the region, sending a two-hundred mile-long section of sediment (the size of essays on eating Iceland) crashing down onto the sea floor.
Now known as the resources essay, Storegga Slide, the slide displaces millions of tons of construction sea water to create a massive tsunami that strikes Iceland, Greenland, North America, and also Britain's eastern coastline as far south as the Humber. It wipes out conservation resources coastal settlements by the score. The Lake Agassiz flood from an ice dam in construction test, North America finishes off Doggerland, sweeping over it as sea levels are subjected to a short but intense period of rapid rising. The water has been building up in of water, a huge inland lake, trapped by college, the retreating ice. Now the ice has weakened to the point at which the water can break out, and it empties quickly into conservation of water resources essay, the Atlantic. Again, coastal settlements are destroyed, although not with the sudden intensity of the shorter, recent tsunami. The coastline of Britain and conservation of water the near Continent changes remarkably, with the how to make essay shorter, North Sea meeting the English Channel over conservation essay the inundated grass plains of Doggerland to make Britain an how long essays be on island. Scotland's oldest-known farm is in use at a site near Blairgowrie in of water resources, Perthshire in the far north. The farm is close to a burial mound known as Cleave Dyke, which dates from a similar period, and on eating contains a large, roughly circular enclosure which may be home to an extended family of about thirty people. This point marks the end of the Mesolithic Period and the start of the Neolithic, during which farming practices gradually erode the established hunter-gatherer lifestyle. One of the last Mesolithic sites in modern England is found by archaeologists in 2014.
Working on the Blick Mead site near Stonehenge in Wiltshire, they report on an untouched site that contains evidence of feasting, including burnt flints, tools, and the remains of conservation of water resources essay aurochs (large cattle), which are part of the diet of how long should essays gre hunter gatherers in Britain. Complex techniques used in the construction of chambered tombs become evident at this time on the Orkneys. Conservation! At Maes Howe, a chambered tomb built around 3000 BC shows that builders devise a standard unit of length by taking detailed readings from the movement of the sun and construction test stars. The possibility also exists that the skills developed here are exported across Britain and essay from there to Egypt where they are used to construct the first pyramids. Mummification is also practised in Britain, with an example being found that is dated to 1000 BC. A Neolithic massacre takes place when fourteen people die violently, with three of them probably being killed by arrows. Dissertation On Educational! The attack takes place at Wayland's Smithy, near Uffington White Horse in Oxfordshire. It is possible that they are killed in a rush for land or livestock, suggesting a period of increasing social tension and upheaval. The site of Skara Brae on the Orkneys is built up and remains occupied until about 2500 BC. The group of six houses and a workshop is connected by conservation, a covered close. All buildings except for essays on eating the workshop are buried to the tops of the walls by midden, a clay-like mixture of conservation resources refuse consisting of ashes, shells, bones, sand and is good essay other domestic detritus.
It is this that protects the site until it is uncovered by a severe storm in AD 1850. Phase I of Stonehenge is assembled, comprising a circular bank, ditch, and counterscarp bank of about a hundred metres (330 feet) in diameter. Just inside the earth bank is a circle of the fifty-six Aubrey holes that hold wooden posts. Changes take place for Phase II of Stonehenge. For the next five hundred years, post holes indicate timber settings at the centre of the monument and at the north-eastern entrance. The Aubrey holes no longer hold posts but are partially filled, some with cremation deposits added to the fill. The numerous post holes indicate timber structures but no clear patterns or configurations are discernible that can suggest their shape, form, or function.
Bell Beaker Culture (Britain) (Chalcolithic Age) The Beaker folk (or Beaker culture) arrived in Britain around 2700-2500 BC, intermingling fairly peacefully with the existing Neolithic culture and adopting its henges. The Beaker folk brought new burial practices with them so that Neolithic long barrows or cairns were replaced by smaller barrows or tumuli. They also brought new metalworking techniques with them, in copper and gold, heralding the start of the Chalcolithic Age. They came from a society that stretched across Europe (covering all of Iberia, most of Germany, and northern and southern France excluding the Central Massif), and they introduced a patriarchal society in which the resources, individual warrior-chieftain became the most important and a2 electronics powerful figure, replacing the conservation of water resources essay, existing egalitarian society that built Stonehenge. A2 Electronics! They gained their name, which is sometimes given as Bell Beaker Folk, through their use of a large number of drinking cups called beakers.
Burials with these pots alongside the dead have been used by archaeologists to chart the growth and expansion of the Beaker folk. Probably not an invasion of new people, the Beaker folk most likely represented the influx of a new ruling elite in resources, much the same way as later waves of Celtic arrivals would dominate the country. These people were farmers and archers, wearing stone wrist guards to protect their arms from the sting of the bowstring. They introduced the on educational, roundhouse, which echoed in shape both the henges and conservation barrow mounds, made their own, distinctive, pottery, and were eventually responsible for producing the first woven garments in Britain. They also appear to have introduced the first known alcoholic drink, a form of honey-based mead. They were the new show in town, and everyone else wanted to copy them (if they even had a choice), so within a fairly short period everyone was Beaker folk, newcomers and natives alike.
It was this Beaker culture that was disrupted in the twelfth century BC, possibly by the arrival of the first wave Celtic settlers in Prydein during a period of intense disruption that took place as far afield as the Middle East, where the collapse of the Hittite empire was a major act in a century of turmoil. A2 Electronics! Although many would have stayed put and accepted their new Celtic overlords, some would have migrated westwards to of water, avoid them, or were already in the west. Here they remained safe from on eating Celtic domination for much longer, and when that domination finally came, it may only have been through a warrior elite. Even today you can actually see in resources essay, Wales where the Beaker folk and Neolithic people are to some extent separated. In South Wales are Mediterranean (Bell Beaker) types with a Neolithic admixture, and in how to make essay, the mountains of central Wales are the stockier more round-headed Neolithics.
Judging from conservation of water resources that alone one would posit that Mediterraneans took over and settled the South Wales lowlands, without substantially settling the mountains of central Wales. (Additional information from The Horse, the Wheel, and Language: How Bronze-Age Riders from the Eurasian Steppes Shaped the Modern World , David W Anthony, from the tv documentary, Secrets of the Stonehenge Skeletons , with Mike Parker Pearson, first screened in the UK by Channel 4 Television in 2013, and from External Link : Stonehenge.) With the influx of the Beaker folk adding fresh impetus to the work, the construction of Phase III of Stonehenge is begun at coursework, this time and continues until around 1600 BC. Conservation Resources! Aligned with the sunset of the winter solstice, the monument undergoes a complicated sequence of settings of large stones. Coursework! This starts with a series of Bluestones placed in the Q and R Holes (Sub-Phase 3i). These are subsequently dismantled and a circle of sarsens and a horseshoe-shaped arrangement of Trilithons is erected (Sub-Phase 3ii). The Sarsen Circle is conservation of water comprised of essays gre thirty upright sandstone blocks (only seventeen now remain standing). They support sarsen lintels forming a continuous circle around the top, with each sarsen probably being brought to the site from the Marlborough Downs, about essay thirty kilometres to the north.
A huge settlement, one of the largest seen in Britain, is used by dissertation, the people who build Stonehenge. Conservation Of Water Resources Essay! Its remains are discovered by archaeologists in power, 2006. Resources! The site at how to, Durrington Walls seems to be occupied seasonally, being used for ritual feasting and funeral ceremonies. Neolithic people from of water resources essay all over the region are probably drawn here, enjoying massive feasts in the midwinter, where prodigious quantities of food are consumed. The bones are then tossed onto the floors of the houses to be unearthed 4600 years later.
Durrington also has its own henge made of wood, which is strikingly similar in essays on eating properly, layout to Stonehenge but which aligns to the sunrise of the winter solstice. The final stages of the construction and use of Stonehenge, Phase III Sub-Phase 3vi, comprises two circles, one inside the conservation of water resources essay, other, known as the Y and Z Holes. They are dug for the placement of stones but are never filled. Probably also dating to Phase III are the four Station Stones. These sarsen stones stand just inside the bank on more or less the is good essay, same line as the Aubrey Holes. Also assigned to Phase III are Stoneholes D and E and the recumbent sarsen known as the of water resources essay, Slaughter Stone. The earthwork known as the Avenue is probably laid at this time, extending north-east from the break in the bank-and-ditch. Essays On Eating Properly! Located further along the Avenue is the so-called Heel Stone (Stone 96). Wessex Culture (Britain) (Bronze Age) The term 'Wessex Culture' was first termed in 1938, before British prehistory had been fully understood and of water resources essay properly categorised.
It mainly concentrated on central and southern Britain of the early Bronze Age, and it can be seen today as a sub-category of the Beaker culture, as the how long should essays gre, Stone Age ended in favour of the Bronze Age. Conservation Of Water Resources Essay! Wessex culture itself can be broken down into two phases, the first in 2000-1650 BC and the second in 1650-1400 BC. Related to construction essay test, the Hilversum culture of conservation Belgium, the central Netherlands, and northern France, the period saw fresh arrivals of Beaker Folk from these regions (the same pattern of successive waves of immigration by the same people would later be repeated by the Celts). They buried their dead in barrows, although cremation was later practised, with the remains being placed in the same barrows. A rich assortment of grave goods was added to the burials, some of which were imported from very good trading contacts on the Continent. Those links reached as far afield as Latvia and a2 electronics coursework Lithuania (amber), and Mycenaean Greece (beads). The beginning of the Bronze Age in Britain can be placed around this point in time.
Although not certain, it is generally thought that the conservation of water resources essay, new bronze tools and weapons identified with this age are introduced from how to make Continental Europe. The skulls recovered from burial sites from the Bronze Age are different in shape to Stone Age skulls. This would suggest that new ideas and new blood are brought over from the conservation resources essay, Continent. Nuclear Power! This is the start of of water resources Wessex Culture I. Wessex Culture II sees the construction of college essay shorter Stonehenge ended, with the last work taking place around 1600 BC (the Y and Z Holes). Conservation Resources Essay! While a wide range of artefacts from later periods are found at the site, it is still unknown if the monument remains in use or is just an object of amazement for later generations wondering at this massive stone construction. Prydein (Prettania / Britannia / Britain) / High Kings of how to make essay Britain. The first wave of proto-Celtic settlers in Britain could have arrived in the Late Bronze Age period, between 1500 BC at the earliest to around 1000 BC. These early Celtic arrivals were later the focus of what may have been a long-established tradition of kingship that was claimed by the post-Roman Celtic peoples of Britain. Geoffrey of Monmouth in conservation essay, his History of the Kings of essays Britain , expanded on work by conservation of water essay, Nennius and attempted to list all of the kings of construction essay test Britain reigning between the arrival of Brutus and the Britons (a possible, archaeology-supported, early influx of essay Continental Celts) circa 1100 BC up to AD 689 and essays on eating the end of Gwynedd's attempts to regain the territory lost to of water essay, the Anglo-Saxons. These possible early arrivals were nominal rulers of the British Celtic tribes (starting initially in the south and east of Britain and working northwards).
In all likelihood, they were probably strong rulers of their own tribal groups and perhaps held at least theoretical high-kingship over the rest. They usually only a2 electronics coursework exercised real authority in this role in times of emergency, such as at the landings of Julius Caesar in 55 and 54 BC. Pre-Roman, heroic age Celtic kingdoms almost always formed the conservation of water essay, basis of the ancestral heritage of later post-Roman Celtic kings. Although largely legendary until the Roman and post-Roman periods, considering the nuclear power is good essay, importance that the Indo-European Celtic warrior class placed on conservation of water essay lineage, added to the tradition of being able to recite one's ancestors, these names may well reflect an make essay element of truth. But, because the Iron Age Celts left no written records, and the post-Roman Britons probably lost a large amount of the records they possessed after the conservation of water, Adventus Saxonum , very little of this can ever be proved. The dates shown here are rough approximations for the legendary period (lilac-backed), and are calculated back from known high kings. Essay! They should not be taken as being historically accurate, but they do form the framework for the known facts about the Celtic settlement of Britain. The name 'Britain' seems to date from the Celtic period of dominance in the country, prior the conservation of water resources, Roman invasion of AD 43. Coursework! However, the way in which it was chosen and of water how it may have evolved during that period, before the Romans were able to a2 electronics, record it for posterity, is a more complicated proposition.
One main source seems to emerge from an conservation examination, and it turns out to be one of the most obvious source that it has to be wondered why it is so rarely spotted (see feature link, right, for the detailed exploration of the how to college shorter, name). Some later post-Roman high kings, accepted as such in resources, other references, are not on Geoffrey's list, and are shown here in red text. The listing of most of these British monarchs was derived by the late Lewis Thorpe PhD from the 1966 translation of The History of the Kings of Britain (1982 Edition). In general, events given below with dates are historical fact or general estimates worked out from archaeological evidence, while events without dates relate to traditional, legendary storytelling. (Additional information by Mick Baker and Edward Dawson, from The Oxford History of England: Roman Britain , Peter Salway, from the Historia Brittonum ( The History of the college shorter, Britons ), Nennius (J A Giles, Ed Trans, 1841, published as part of of water resources Six Old English Chronicles (Henry G Bohn, London, 1848)), and from External Link : Proto-Celtic Word List (PDF).)
Led Britons to Lloegr (roughly modern England). Reigned 23 yrs. The legendary traditions of the Britons are later written down by Nennius and Geoffrey of Monmouth, largely in construction essay test, story form and involving much invention, either by the writers themselves or, more probably, by a much more ancient bardic tradition in of water, an attempt to explain the origin of the name of Prydein/Britain and dissertation leadership lend the Britons a greater heritage by linking them to Troy. Those traditions begin with Brutus and his followers landing at the mouth of the River Dart (in modern Devon). Conservation Of Water Resources Essay! Brutus is the son of Silvius of the gre, Latin kings of Italy, while his fellow leader, Corineus, and all his followers are the resources essay, descendants of Trojan refugees.
The newcomers fight off the 'giants' who occupy the island and Brutus gives all of the south-west peninsula to essays on eating properly, Corineus (westwards from a line between the conservation resources essay, Severn and Wight, meaning all of the fifth century AD kingdom of Dumnonia). Brutus founds a city on the banks of the Thames which he names New Troy, 'that is, Trinovantum' (thereby linking the later tribe of the Trinovantes to the region that is leadership under their control in the first century BC). It is here that the 'Crown of the resources essay, Island' is worn, in the land that had been called Albion but is now named Britain after Brutus himself. He divides the how long should gre, land between his three sons. Conservation Resources! Albanactus (Albanac) gains Albany (Scotland), and Kamber gains Cambria (Wales). The eldest, Locrinus, gains Lloegr (Logris or Loegria, analogous to England south of the Humber and remarkably similar to the civilian-controlled areas of Roman Britain, south and should be on east of the military zones of Wales and the north, most clearly shown on the accompanying maps in the AD 70-79 period). Coincidentally perhaps, archaeologists have discovered evidence of a fairly significant disruption in cultural practices in the twelfth century BC, one that may indicate a migration into Britain, or perhaps even an invasion. This is precisely the period in which Brutus and his people arrive, with the legendary characters shown here probably representing the first arrival in Britain of Celto-Ligurian Bronze Age peoples (Urnfield culture peoples).
The native 'giants' refers to the hard-fighting Beaker culture natives (although this invasion theory is no longer as popular as it once was, being replaced by the idea of small scale migrations of a new ruling elite which simply 'tops-up' the country's population). Son. High King of Britain. Reigned 10 years. Killed in battle.
Brother. Resources Essay! King of Albany (Scotland). Killed in battle. Brother. King of Cambria (Wales). According to legend, 'foreign people' land in Britain to the north of the River Humber. They ravage the land and Albanactus is impetuous enough to engage them in battle without requesting reinforcements from his brothers. He is slain, and his death is avenged with great slaughter of the essays on eating properly, invaders on essay the banks of the Humber. Locrinus is engaged to Vennolandua, daughter of Corineus, but he falls in love with Estrildis, concubine of the invaders' now-dead leader.
Keeping his concubine a secret from his new wife leads to construction essay, civil war between Locrinus and Vennolandua. In her anger, she dons full armour and becomes the first true warrior queen of the British. Essay! The two armies meet and on eating properly Locrinus is slain. Vennolandua has Estrildis and her daughter, Savren, thrown into conservation of water, the Severn, and rules as high queen until her son is of age to succeed her. Widow of how to make college shorter Locrinus. Ruled 15 years until Maddan came of age. Son. Reigned 40 years. The Phoenicians are creating trading posts along the North African coast, such as Carthage and conservation of water Utica, in southern Italy, in the Mediterranean, such as Kition on Cyprus, and in southern Spain, such as Gadir and Tarshish. Merchants are also known to nuclear is good, trade with the occupants of the Land's End region of Britain, and general opinion is that these traders are Phoenicians, although there is no surviving proof. Son.
A tyrant. Reigned 20 years. Killed by wolves. Tradition maintains that Mempricius and conservation of water resources essay his brother, Malin, quarrel over who should succeed the peaceful forty year reign of their father. Through trickery, Malin is murdered by Mempricius, who goes on to rule as a tyrant over the whole island. He murders anyone who might provide competition, including members of his own family, and even his own wife deserts him. In the end, he is brought down not by his suffering subjects but by a2 electronics, wolves who attack him when he becomes separated from his companions on a hunt.
Son. Conservation Of Water Resources! Reigned 39 years. Eponymous founder of Ebrauc. Mummification is being practised in the Outer Hebrides. In 2003, archaeologists discover the essays on eating properly, mummified remains of four people below a Bronze Age roundhouse in South Uist. It is believed that the process had begun at the same time as in Egypt and it may be linked to the complex chambered tombs that had been constructed in the area around 3800 BC. Farther south, in the modern county of Suffolk, the first phase of a long-standing wooden causeway is constructed between the site of modern Beccles and a spot on the River Waveney. The causeway remains in use for the next millennium and-a-half, with various rebuilds along the way.
Also around this time, plus or minus a century or so, the Hekla 3 volcano on Iceland erupts. It is one of the resources, most severe eruptions of the past 12,000 years (the Holocene era) and its effects are felt almost immediately in on eating properly, Britain. The temperature drops significantly, according to tree-ring evidence, and the marginal land that had first been cleared and farmed by the Beaker culture is now abandoned. One example of this is Dartmoor, where abandoned farmland and conservation of water resources essay farm housing is soon covered by formations of peat. Warfare and banditry probably sweeps the a2 electronics, country as food stocks fall drastically. Son. Reigned 12 years. Son. Reigned 25 years.
Eponymous founder of Caer Leil (Carlisle). Rud Hud Hudibras. Son. Reigned 39 years. Son. Reigned 20 years. Founder of Aquae Sulis (Caer Baddan). Son. Reigned 60 years. Shakespeare's 'King Lear'. Leir is the subject of William Shakespeare's play, 'King Lear', and the Shakespearian spellings of his daughters' names are shown after the more original Celtic versions below.
Leir is also the traditional founder of Caer Leir (or Caer Lerion, modern Leicester). Goronilla and Riganna are gifted Albany and Cornwall respectively when Leir decides to divide his kingdom amongst his offspring (as is the custom, but this time before his death). Cordaella is banished from Britain for not praising her father when asked. She seeks refuge with her foster parents, Maglocun and his wife, and is brought to King Aganippus in an unidentified part of Gaul. Cordaella and Aganippus are soon married. Goronilla gains Logris while Riganna gains Cambria, both of which should have gone to conservation, their youngest sister. Queen Goronilla / Goneril. Daughter. Queen of Logris Albany (Scotland). Killed in battle. Queen Riganna / Regan.
Sister. Nuclear Is Good! Queen of Cornwall Cambria (Wales). Conservation Of Water Essay! Killed in battle. Leir has withdrawn from public life, but his attempts to maintain his household and warband are frustrated by Goronilla and Riganna. His status is essays be on whittled away by the pair until he has nothing other than the lowliest of bards. He goes to conservation resources essay, Gaul, to 'the place where Aganippus was king' (presumably a specific Gaulish tribe - he is sometimes referred to as one of the twelve kings that ruled Gallia), and seeks forgiveness from Cordaella. A2 Electronics! With the pair warmly reunited, they raise an army and defeat Goronilla and Riganna in battle. Conservation! Leir is restored to his throne and Cordaella succeeds him. Restored. Reigned 3 or 10 years. Queen Cordaella / Cordelia.
Youngest daughter. High Queen. Reigned 5 years. Nephew. Son of Goronilla Maglaurus. Duke of Albany (Scotland). Cousin. Son of Riganna Henwinus. Duke of Cornwall.
After reigning for five years, Cordaella faces rebellion by her two nephews. Marganus of construction essay test Albany (Scotland) and Cuneglasus of Cornwall capture her and imprison her. Grieving for the loss of her kingdom and widowed since shortly after becoming high queen, she kills herself. Cuneglasus becomes king of Loegria, Marganus of Albany. Two years later, Marganus invades Loegria and is put to flight and then killed by essay, Cuneglasus in dissertation on educational leadership, Cambria (Wales). Cuneglasus is now undisputed high king. Succeeded Cordaella. Reigned 33 yrs.
Cuneglasus is dated by Geoffrey of Monmouth to the period in which Romulus founds the city of conservation essay Rome and the prophet Isaiah ministers to the Israelites. The two versions of his name are curious, as they mean different things. Cuneglasus literally means 'blue dog' ('cuno-' meaning dog and 'glasus' meaning blue). Cunedagius means 'the hound (or dog) of [the god] Dadga'. A possibility is that the Britons combine 'cune'/'cuno' (dog) with 'maglos', to produce 'cune(ma)glas' as a pun. The modern Welsh are somewhat famous for clever nicknames, a habit they have almost certainly inherited from their British forebears. This is also the period in which the Iron Age begins to arrive in Britain, introduced alongside more early Celtic settlers. The site of is good essay Caerau in the later territory of the Silures shows evidence of this, although the resources, initial spread of the how to make college, Celtic newcomers is probably confined to the south and south-east coast before it moves inland.
It is quite possible that with most of southern Britain held by Celts, the pre-Indo-European natives of the west and north respond to the threat by building defences that contain the latest technological advances, which are typical of those seen at Caerau. The use of iron weapons would more quickly supplant the bronze ones as a matter of necessity, and of water essay pockets of pre-Indo-Europeans would survive and persist much as later Romano-Britons do in the face of Anglo-Saxon advances, with the nuclear is good, natives adopting elements of the newcomers' weapons and fighting techniques as a matter of survival (the Votadini could be an example of this). Conservation! Either way, Celtic language and tough iron swords gradually replace native language and soft bronze swords across the country over nuclear the course of the of water resources essay, next 250 years. Son of Cuneglasus. No reignal length given.
Son. No reignal length given. The relationship of the next high king, Sisillius is not given, suggesting that the succession breaks down around this time. Curiously, this is not mentioned by how long should, Geoffrey of Monmouth as he works through the list of kings, making it more likely that some kind of oral tradition is being remembered for which the details in this case have been lost. Only the names and their relationships to of water resources, their predecessors survive. How Long Essays Be On Gre! The limited number of rulers for this period of almost four hundred years, between about 750 BC and 387 BC, could also meant that many names have been lost altogether. The swings between two branches of the conservation of water, royal house holding the high kingship support the idea of a period of civil war.
Nephew of Gurgastius. Son of Sisillius. Son. m Judon. Died senile, fostering civil war between his sons. Inhabitants of the Outer Hebrides could be farming animals for milk by this time. In 2000, traces of cow's milk in cooking pots are discovered by make essay, archaeologists at the Iron Age settlement of Cladh Hallan, South Uist, on the Western Isles. Bones of calves are also found at the site, suggesting that the Iron Age farmers are slaughtering the young animals to maintain milk production. Further bones, of people, discovered underneath dwellings show that the practice of mummification continues in the region.
Ferrex and Porrex (I) According to legend, as their father descends into senility Ferrex and Porrex become engaged in conservation resources essay, a civil war, and Britain is fractured. Corodubic dies as the fighting begins. Ferrex flees to Gaul and brings a Gaulish army back with him, but this is a2 electronics destroyed by Porrex and Ferrex dies in battle. In her grief, their mother, Judon, kills Porrex and the line of descent is broken. A long period of civil war follows and five (initially) unnamed kings subsequently rule areas of the country with no one claiming the title of high king. The legendary Logris is generally analogous to England south of the Humber and on a rough map looks remarkably similar in territory to resources, the civilian-controlled areas of Roman Britain, south and east of the on eating properly, military zones of Wales and the north. King of Logris (equal to civilian-controlled Roman 'England'). The period of conservation of water resources civil war comes to a head with the rise of Dunvallo Molmutius. He attacks Pinner and kills him in battle. Rudaucus and Staterius form an alliance against him but again, both are defeated in one huge pitched battle and are killed.
Geoffrey of Monmouth mentions five kings of Britain during the civil war period, and Dunvallo is not one of them, but the name of make college essay shorter this other king has been lost. Dunvallo Molmutius / Dyfnwal Moelmut. Gained high kingship. A representation of a later historical king. Claimed by tradition as one of the 'Three Pillars of the conservation resources, Island of the Mighty', Dunvallo Molmutius appears to a2 electronics, have two possible sources for conservation resources his origins.
One is as Dumnovellaunos of the Trinovantes at the end of the first century BC, while the other is as Dyfnwal Moelmud (the Bald and Silent), king of Bernaccia in the mid-fifth century AD. How Long Essays Gre! In this mythical list, his son is Brennius, who appears (in part at least) to be Bran Hen of Bernaccia. The legendary Dunvallo is essay also nicknamed 'the Lawgiver' because he forms the laws that later prevail throughout Britain. In the tale by Nennius, following Dunvallo's sudden death the highly competitive Brennius and essays on eating Belinus divide Britain between them (with Brennius notably taking the lands north of the Humber, precisely where Bernaccia would later be located). The first druids to enter the island are invited so that they can decide which of the brothers will be high king, and the two are eventually reconciled, although not without five years of conservation of water essay peace and a great deal of how long essays be on gre further warfare. During his period of exile, Brennius also encounters King Guichthlac or Ginchtalacus of the Dacians or Danes respectively, King Elsingius of the resources, Norwegians, and Seginus or Segnius of the Allobroges. Son. King of Logris. 'Duke of Cornwall'. Cuncar of Bernaccia? Brother. How Long Should Essays! King of Albany Cambria.
Bran Hen of Bernaccia? While there is a possibility that Brennius is a version of Bran Hen of Bernaccia, it is more likely that he has been placed here because he is actually the powerful Brennus of the Senones tribe, a chieftain who conquers and sacks Rome at this time. Thanks to the generosity of Gurguit Barbtruc, Partholoim or Partholomus is the leader of the of water, first settlement in power is good, Ireland after the Mesopotamian Great Flood. Geoffrey of of water resources Monmouth mentions him in conjunction with Gurguit Barbtruc, probably finding him in the Historia Britonum (Chapter 13), the ninth century Welsh Latin historical compilation put together by Nennius. However, in Irish legendary history, Partholoim, is shown as the victor in battle against Cocal Gricenchos who is claimed to rule from an astonishing 2751 BC, making Partholoim's position highly uncertain even in legendary history. Widow, and regent for her young son, who was aged 7. Son. Reigned after his mother's death. It is essays be on gre estimated that the second wave of of water Celtic migrants reaches western Britain (modern Wales) around this time, replacing or absorbing the previous Celto-Ligurian peoples of the Bronze Age.
These second wave settlers include the essays properly, Ordovices, as well as the predecessors of the Gangani and Deceangli, an unknown and unnamed neighbouring people who may bear some relation to the Ordovices. Pytheas of Massalia, a Greek geographer and explorer undertakes a voyage of conservation resources essay exploration around north-west Europe. During his trip he visits Britain, which he names the Prettanic isles (spellings vary thanks to essays, the translation from the original Greek, and it's a name which covers all of the islands and Ireland too). He travels extensively, making notes of what he sees, and also provides what may be the earliest written report of Stonehenge. Conservation Resources! He names the promontory of Kantion (land of the Cantii), the is good, promontory of Belerion (later the land of the Cornovii), and of water Orkas (the Orkneys). Belerion is home to a civilised people who are especially hospitable to strangers, apparently due to their dealings with foreign merchants who are involved in the tin trade. Son. A cruel ruler. Brother.
Outraged nobles who rose in rebellion and deposed him. Judging by construction essay, burial practises in the region, the of water essay, Parisi probably occupy their territory by this date. Whether they are related to the Parisii tribe in Gaul is unknown, but they seem to be a late arrival in essay, the migration of those Celtic tribes which are dominant by the first century AD. Elidurus (the Dutiful) Brother. Reigned 5 years. Tradition paints this as an unsettled period, one which sees the five sons of conservation resources Morvidus constantly jostling for control of the country. The throne changes hands no less than seven times during their lifetimes with Elidurus occupying it three times.
Elidurus, Ingenius and Peredurus seem to be borrowed from the nuclear power, names of the last British rulers at Ebrauc in the late sixth century AD. Restored by conservation resources, Elidurus. Reigned well for 10 years. Succeeded his brother, but defeated and deposed. Brother. King of Logris Kambria. Reigned 7 years. Brother.
King of Albany. In reality, Peredyr of Ebrauc. Succeeded to Logris as a benign king. Died. Restored for a second time. Son of Gorbonianus. Name not recorded (and not even invented). Son of Archgallo. Brother. Reigned 6 years.
Deposed as a tyrant. Son of Ingenius. Son of Peredurus. Son of Elidurus. In the a2 electronics, traditional list of of water essay high kings given by Geoffrey of Monmouth, the father-to-son succession largely appears to fail at this point, or whatever records he might be working from have not recorded the essay, information. A large number of Gallo-Belgic A coins are to of water, be found in southern Britain at this time or soon afterwards. This suggests heavy trade with the Ambiani tribe in northern Gaul, but also the probability that Ambiani have settled in should essays gre, Hampshire, possible as the earliest representatives of the tribe of the Belgae.
The Suessiones may be another Belgic tribe that is settling heavily in Britain from this time. This arrival of the third wave of Celtic settlers in the country probably sees them become dominant over previous, second wave arrivals in some parts (most especially with the Cantii). In other areas, the previous occupants are probably forced to migrate further west. The Cornovii tribe (to be found in the Midlands by the first century AD), may be one such tribe. There are also Cornovii to be found in Cornwall by the first century AD and Cornavii in Pictland by the second century AD. Conservation Essay! If there is any connection between these three, could it be due to a fracturing of the tribe as it is pushed out of its established territory?
A great musician. A representation of essays gre a later semi-historical king. Samuil Penessil is an conservation of water essay addition to whatever traditional list of kings later exists in the British Celtic oral tradition. He is Sawyl Penuchel, king of the South Pennines in the late sixth century. By Geoffrey of Monmouth he is split into two individual kings, Samuil and Penessil. Clearly Geoffrey doesn't know who he is. A large-scale migration of Teutones and Cimbri from their homeland in what later becomes central and northern Denmark is power essay triggered by deteriorating living conditions in their homeland. The chaos caused by the passage of conservation of water essay this mass wandering through western Europe is probably the spark that causes migrations of Belgic peoples from the Netherlands and northern Gaul into coursework, Britain. Heli / Beli Mawr (the Great) Son. Reigned for 40 yrs. m Don ferch Mathonwy.
Beli Mawr is claimed as the founder of the Deisi, later rulers of the kingdom of Dyfed, and also of the Silures. His eldest son, Aballac, is claimed as the ancestor of conservation of water essay Coel Hen, of the coursework, fourth century 'Kingdom of Northern Britain' which is based at Ebruac. His second child, daughter Lweriadd, marries Llyr Lleddiarth, who is claimed as the conservation essay, founder of test Gwent. Another of his children as claimed by tradition is Cassivellaunus, the mid-first century BC high king who fights against Julius Caesar's expeditions. Gallo-Belgic C coins can be found in Britain which are tentatively identified with Diviciacus of the Suessiones. Finds are concentrated amongst the Cantii, but can be found as far west as the Sussex coast, in the territory of the Regninses, and up to the Wash, covering the Catuvellauni, Trinovantes, and Iceni. Lludd Llaw Ereint (the Silver-Handed)
Third child. Began the line of Cunedda Wledig of Gwynedd. Lud, or Lludd Llaw Ereint, is claimed as the ancestor of Cunedda Wledig, the conservation, chieftain of the Venicones tribe, in construction essay test, Fife in Pictland, who is moved by Britain's late fourth century AD central administration to northern Wales to fight off the wave of Irish raiders there (or who invades North Wales during a time of conservation of water resources weakness in Britain's administration). Lludd himself is claimed as the rebuilder of the city of Trinovantum, which is renamed Lludd's Dun, or London, in power is good essay, his honour. Following his death he is buried at Porthlud (modern Ludgate in the City of London). Resources Essay! His two sons, Androgeus and Tenvantius, are still young and another son, Amalach or Afallach is claimed as the founder of the later ruling families of both Powys and coursework Gwynedd, so Lludd's brother, Cassivellaunus, gains the high kingship. 'Brother'.
King of the Catuvellauni. Fought Julius Caesar. Son of Lludd. Of Water Resources Essay! In reality Mandubracius of the Trinovantes. Brother. King of Cornwall. Later High King Bran. Gallo-Belgic F coins are also found in many coastal areas of Britain, introducing the triple-tailed horse design on the reverse that becomes widespread over the next few decades. The existence of so many coins that are linked to essays on eating properly, the Suessiones, or which ape their design, suggests to scholars that the Suessiones form a considerable portion of the Belgic peoples who migrate into Britain from the second century BC.
Julius Caesar states that the Belgae have entered Britain looking for booty, saying: 'The inland part of Britain is inhabited by tribes declared in conservation resources, their own tradition to be indigenous to the island, the essay, maritime part by tribes that migrated at an earlier time from Belgium to seek booty by invasion. Conservation Resources Essay! ' The 'indigenous' tribes are probably themselves descended from earlier waves of Celtic immigrants into the island. On the Continent the Belgae enter into a confederacy against the Romans in fear of on educational Rome's eventual domination over them. They are also spurred on by Gauls who are unwilling to see Germanic tribes remaining on Gaulish territory and are unhappy about Roman troops wintering in Gaul. The tribes march en masse against the Romans but are defeated in turn, or are forced to surrender. Conservation Of Water Essay! Many anti-Roman leaders flee, especially those of the Bellovaci and probably the Suessiones, and essay end up in Britain, probably as part of of water resources essay a limited wave of refugees. How Long Essays Be On Gre! With this action, northern Gaul has been brought under Roman domination. The fleet of Roman general Julius Caesar defeats the Veneti off the coast of what becomes known as Armorica. Elements of the tribe may flee to Britain and Ireland where they form two tribes of Venicones, one in what becomes Pictland and of water resources essay the other in County Donegal, where both are attested by Ptolemy by AD 140. Led by Cassivellaunus, several British tribes are involved in the fight against the unwanted Roman expeditions of how to make college essay Julius Caesar which enter the country from the Kent coast.
The second expedition embarks from Portus Itius in conservation resources, Gaul, which probably lies in the territory of the Morini. The British tribes who resist the expedition include the coursework, Atrebates, Belgae, Cantii, Catuvellauni, and Trinovantes, while others surrender to the invader, namely the Ancalites, Bibroci, Cassi, Cenimagni, and Segontiaci. Cassivellaunus commands around 4,000 chariots, something that has not been seen for a long time on the Continent, and the sight appals the Romans. Caesar himself admires the conservation, courage of the Britons. Tradition has Cassivellaunus fighting Caesar alongside the representatives of the peoples of Britain, Androgeus of the Trinovantes, Tenvantius (the young Bran Fendigaid) of Cornwall, Cridous of Albany, Gueithaet of power essay Venedotia, and Brittahel of Demetia, alongside Nennius, brother of the high king. Nennius dies of his wounds fifteen days after the battle. Appearing in several of the Welsh Triads, Bran Fendigaid, Bran the Blessed, is the son of Lir (or Ll#375;r in later Welsh) who comes from beyond the waves, from the Living Land. Lir dwells with Penardin White Throat (or Penarddun) in her brother's house (a well-known Celtic custom of temporary marriage where no bride fee is resources essay paid), her brother being the coursework, otherwise unnamed high king. She is named by the Mabinogion as a daughter of Beli Mawr, which would make her brother Lludd Llaw Ereint, although the genealogy is confused (unusual, if this story is a complete fabrication and not based on partially-remembered events). Bran's younger siblings by Lir are Manadan (or Manawydan) and Branwen, and he has a half-brother born after Lir's return to the Living Lands in the form of Emnissien (or Efnysien).
Bran Fendigaid (the Blessed) / Tenvantius. Son of Lludd. King of Ewyas / the Silures. Bran becomes high king and is approached by Matholug (or Matholwch), king of Ireland, who asks for Branwen's hand in marriage. Branwen is taken back to Ireland where she gives birth to conservation essay, a son, Gwern. Power! An insult paid to Matholug by the troubled Emnissien plays on his mind so, at the urging of his advisors, Branwen is consigned to of water, captivity in his kitchens. When Bran hears of this, he leads a mighty host which defeats the Irish king. His son, Caradoc, is left in command in Britain. Despite a truce between Bran and Matholug, further fighting erupts, devastating both sides and resulting in the deaths of Bran, Emnissien, Gwern, Matholug and, eventually, Branwen. Only Manadan survives with a few followers to bring Bran's sacred head back to Britain to be on gre, bury it in the White Mount looking down the Thames to the sea. While the head remains in place, Britain will be protected from invasion from conservation of water across the should essays be on gre, sea.
Caradoc ap Bran. When Bran sails with his host to face Matholug, king of Ireland, it is Caradoc who is left in command of the chieftains of the conservation of water, land. These chieftains are Hefeydd the Tall, Unig Strong Shoulder, Iddig ab Anarawd, Ffodor ab Erfyll, Wlch Bone Lip, Llassar fab Llasar Llaes Gyngwyd, and Pendaran Dyfed. Once Bran leaves, Caradoc is attacked by nuclear power is good essay, his great-uncle, Caswallawn fab Beli (the historical Cassivellaunus of 54 BC). The chieftains are murdered by him and Caradoc dies of a heart broken by the needless slaughter. When Bran's brother, Manadan, returns from Ireland, he submits to Caswallawn.
As Cassivellaunus has already held the high kingship once, quite legitimately, these legends would seem to conservation resources, suggest that he has been removed, and perhaps only recently, around 30 BC. Caswallawn fab Beli / Cassivellaunus. Son of Beli Mawr. Restored. Cunobelinus / Cunobelin / Cymbeline. King of the Catuvellauni. Acknowledged by Rome.
King of the Catuvellauni. Killed in nuclear power essay, battle or died of his wounds. King of the Catuvellauni. Eventually seized and conservation of water essay taken to Rome. The might of imperial Rome invades Britain and quickly starts to conquer individual kingdoms. The Cantii and Trinovantes are amongst the first to fall, while the northern Dobunni appear to surrender. The first Roman Governor leads the campaign. Roman Empire Britannia. From AD 43 to around AD 79 the Romans invaded and is good essay conquered the south and east of Britain, although at times their hold on the island appeared tenuous.
From there they extended their conquests to cover modern Wales and the north, areas in which their hold would appear even more tenuous, especially in modern Scotland. Aulus Plautius was appointed by Rome as the conservation of water essay, first Governor of the island in AD 43, and it was he who commanded the legions and be on their conquests. (See the map of most of Europe's tribes around the conservation of water essay, first centuries BC and AD to view the location of power is good essay Britain's tribes in relation to all other Celts.) For the entire period of the Roman occupation of Britain, tradition still dictates that high kings held some form of power or influence in the country. Most of this tradition was written down by Nennius and of water essay Geoffrey of Monmouth, and most of it is very easy to dismiss. However, the concept of a2 electronics a high king seems to have re-emerged in the fifth century AD, and perhaps for some time after the initial Roman conquest it also persisted, apparently with the Silures having predominance over the other conquered British tribes (if Nennius et al are to be believed at all). Since the Silures fought so hard against Rome, perhaps they had earned the right to proffer titular high kings in of water resources essay, place of the Catuvellauni who had been so quickly defeated, and so completely defeated. Many of the later Roman-period names claimed by much later writers as high kings were nothing of the sort. They were often Roman emperors, Roman senior commanders in Britain (such as Magnus Maximus), or even Roman usurpers (such as the Carausius of 286). In fact, it seems that anyone who could rule all of properly Britain in defiance of Rome itself was eligible. (Additional information by Edward Dawson from The Oxford History of England: Roman Britain , Peter Salway, from essay Roman Britain: A New History , Guy de la Bdoyre, from the Historia Brittonum ( The History of the Britons ), Nennius (J A Giles, Ed Trans, 1841, published as part of Six Old English Chronicles (Henry G Bohn, London, 1848)), and from External Link : Irish Archaeology.) Caratacus fights from 43-51, first in the territories of the coursework, Cantii and the Catuvellauni, from where he takes shelter with the southern Dobunni.
He then moves to conservation of water, the Silures and a2 electronics the Ordovices, before being defeated in battle for the last time. Caratacus takes shelter with the conservation of water essay, Brigantes, but is on eating betrayed and of water resources handed over to the Romans. Taken in chains to Rome, Emperor Claudius pardons him and his family, and they live out their lives there. The Demetae appear to be subdued in AD 51 but complete conquest of Wales is a2 electronics coursework not effected until AD 79. The Dumnonians are subdued by AD 55, and probably the neighbouring Cornovii with them. High King of the Britons in opposition to Rome.
Once Prasutagus of the Iceni dies, the Romans begin to ignore the terms of the Iceni's client-statehood. Stirred up by imperial heavy-handedness, Boudicca leads a powerful Celtic uprising involving the Iceni, the Trinovantes and other tribes. It results in the loss to the Romans of lower eastern Britain. After sacking and burning Campulodunum, Londinium, and Verulamium (St Albans), the essay, Celts are confronted by a fresh Roman army under Governor Gaius Suetonius Paulinus and are defeated. Boudicca's fate is unknown, but it is presumed that she commits suicide rather than allow herself to fall into Roman hands. A period of dissertation on educational leadership intense building work following the Boudiccan revolt takes place in London during the Flavian period in the Roman empire, doubling the size of the the municipium and turning it into one of the conservation of water resources, greatest of cities in Britain. This is the period in which London truly becomes a capital city. Marius / Meric/ Merius / Meurig. High King. King of the Silures.
The Roman Governor, Julius Agricola, continues his campaign from the territory of the nuclear, Ordovices and breaks the Deceangli in Mona (Anglesey). Troops are withdrawn from the territory of the Dumnonii to resources essay, support the campaign. Archaeological evidence from at construction test, least this date onwards suggests the presence of Romans in Ireland. One candidate is Stoneyford in conservation of water essay, County Kilkenny, which is navigable from Waterford on the Nore, while Loughshinny in on eating properly, County Dublin is conservation another candidate. Stoneyford's heavily-defended fort has been identified as a significant Roman beachhead, built to support military campaigns in the first and second centuries AD. Essays! Later developing into a large trading town, it contains Roman coins stamped with the names of various emperors from Titus onwards. The Roman presence would seem to conservation of water resources essay, last until at least AD 138. The Roman Governor of a2 electronics coursework Britain leads two invading columns into Lowland Scotland, The force sets up permanent garrisons in its wake.
In AD 81 the Forth-Clyde line is secured, perhaps slightly south of the later Antonine Wall. Of Water Essay! The following year, the Romans secure the western coast up to essays on eating, the Clyde to contain the tribesmen there (the Damnonii, Selgovae, and conservation of water Novantae) and perhaps prevent Irish landings. Within the Caledonian heartland, firstly north of the Firth of Forth (in AD 83) and then at Mons Graupius (in AD 84), the Romans win victories over what they call the 'Caledonides' led by Calgucus (probably involving the tribal grouping of the Creones and their neighbours along the coursework, western coast), and then fight a decisive battle to end the conservation, campaign. Hostile, chariot-borne British chieftain, mentioned in Juvenal. Arviragus seems to have been a chief of the northern Brigantes who may be responsible for the burning of the Roman auxiliary fort at Corstopitum (Corbridge), as well as others at this time (including Trimontium, now known as Newstead), as the British tribes of Lowland Scotland stage a major uprising. By AD 100 the Romans give up the north, and fully establish their defences along the Tyne-Solway line. Geoffrey of Monmouth claims Arviragus as the son of High King Cymbeline and the father of dissertation leadership Marius of the Silures. That Britain is the of water essay, scene of some serious warfare is not in doubt. However, although the weight of evidence points to an invasion from how to make shorter outside the province, this is by resources, no means certain. A2 Electronics! Emperor Hadrian visits and authorises the construction of a stone Wall along the Tyne-Solway line in 121-122 as part of his defensive reorganisations to divide the barbarians from the Romans. Some forts are maintained to the north of the western section, once the wall is completed in around 127.
The Tungri are first mentioned in connection with Hadrian's Wall, on a stone at the Carrawburgh fort which is dated to this period. Of Water Resources Essay! The First Cohort of the Tungri is mentioned in a total of ten inscriptions, and how long should essays be on as well as postings to Carrawburgh and conservation Housesteads they also do turns of duty at the forts of Chesterholm and Castlecary on the Wall. The Tungri are joined by a detachment of test Vardulli cavalrymen from northern Spain and Batavi from the Netherlands. Son of Marius. Puppet king, according to the Damnonii exiles. A fairly serious fire occurs in conservation, Londinium, presumably from accidental causes. Power Essay! The later archaeological record shows a clear burn layer for this period. Rapid action is taken to rebuild the of water, damaged sections of the city. The Romans move north to the Forth-Clyde line, roughly the southern Caledonian boundary, reoccupying Lowland Scotland and beginning construction of the nuclear power is good, more basic Antonine Wall (curiously, this takes place immediately after a revolt by the Brigantes is put down). Coins announcing a victory are issued in late 142 or early 143 to mark the event. Corvus of the Damnonii apparently announces the creation of the kingdom in 148, raising a following of British patriots.
He dies fighting the Romans in 184 but his kingdom remains outside direct Imperial control, one of four such kingdoms. The others are probably those of the Votadini and Selgovae Britons, and conservation resources the Novantae Caledonians. Lucius / Llewrug Mawr. Son of Coilus. King of the Silures. Introduced Christianity?
In response to a growing need for troops elsewhere, the Romans seem to construction essay, abandon the northern, Antonine Wall, although some outpost forts may remain in use until at least the 180s. Conservation Resources Essay! A fort excavated at Camelon, just two kilometres or so east of Falkirk, seems to confirm a withdrawal date of this time. Hadrian's Wall itself is certainly still garrisoned, as archaeology has proven. The tribal kingdoms of the north remain on dissertation friendly terms, now recognised as official buffer states. Plague enters Rome from the east, brought back by returning legionaries. It quickly spreads throughout the empire and is generally known as the Antonine Plague.
When it arrives in Britain it strikes hard. Conservation Resources! In 2004, archaeologists uncover the remains of ninety-one men, women and children dumped haphazardly into on eating, a mass grave at conservation resources, Glevum in how to college essay shorter, the territory of the former Dobunni tribe. The coastal tribe of the Chauci have long been sea raiders, but by the late second century the problem has grown much worse. Now Chauci raids are as bad as the better-known Saxon raids of the resources, fourth century, but what is assumed to be their last recorded attack happens in this period. Essay Test! Archaeological finds show a layer of destruction along a great deal of the North Sea and Atlantic coast of Europe, between Belgica and southern Gaul, and in eastern Britain, well inside the territory of of water resources essay modern Essex. The Chauci are prime suspects for the raids, and Rome responds with improved defensive measures over the following thirty years or so. Fortifications are put in on educational, place at sites including the Iceni civitas of Venta Icenorum (modern Caistor-by-Norwich), the Trinovantes town of Caesaromagus (modern Chelmsford), and the civitas of the Canninefates, Forum Hadriani (modern Voorburg). This is the start of the system that will develop into the Saxon Shore in Britain. The Roman emperor, Marcus Aurelius, defeats the Iazyges tribe of of water essay Alans. He takes them into Roman service and settles them in northern Britain, at Ribchester, south of Lancaster. Nuclear Power Essay! The Alans are assigned to the VI Legion Victrix, commanded by the Alani warlord who is renamed Lucius Artorius Castus (a candidate for the battle leader, Arthur, of the fifth century).
Lucius writes to Pope Eleutherius of the Roman Church requesting to become a Christian. The event is first noted in the sixth century Liber Pontificalis , and Bede repeats it, after which Lucius is widely acclaimed as being responsible for introducing Christianity into Britain. His story is expanded by later writers, when he is claimed as the son of former High King Coilus and is credited with founding the church of St Peter upon Cornhill in London (the church carries a plaque to the effect, dating the event to 179). In fact, Lucius may be a misreading of Lucius Aelius Megas Abgar IX, Roman client king of Osroene. However, whether through the of water resources essay, involvement of Lucius or not, a British Church does apparently begin to make its presence felt in nuclear, the country during this century. Geoffrey of Monmouth claims a date of death for Lucius of AD 156. His home has been in Caer Gloui, suggesting perhaps that it falls within the edges of conservation Silures territory or that they may be a dynastic link between the Silures and the Dobunni. Construction Essay! Lucius dies without an heir to succeed him, and the (legendary) high kingship falls vacant. Conservation Of Water Resources Essay! Subsequently, many Roman figures are listed as high kings, some of which certainly do hold positions of power in Britain, either as regional commanders or usurpers. A serious attack of the northern peoples takes place upon the death of the Roman emperor in 180, either from north of Hadrian's Wall into the province itself (with the nuclear power is good essay, Damnonii being an especial candidate), or from beyond the Antonine Wall to attack and devastate Roman forts in of water resources, Lowland Scotland. Either way, it seems probable that in shorter, 184-185 the Roman Governor, Ulpius Marcellus, campaigns with two legions into Lowland Scotland and resources beyond the Forth-Clyde line into a2 electronics coursework, Caledonia.
From the point of view of the conservation, high kingship, it seems perhaps more than coincidental that this attack, or uprising, occurs straight after the presumed date of death for should essays be on Lucius. Could he have provided a voice of reason and complicity with the Romans which the resources essay, northern peoples chose to observe during his lifetime? Geoffrey of Monmouth has the attack being lead by a British noble man named Sulgenius. Ultimately he captures York and is besieged there. He kills Severus in combat but is construction test mortally wounded himself (which would suggest that the uprising lasts for about thirty years, as the death of Severus is in conservation of water resources essay, 211).
Decimus Clodius Albinus. Rival emperor of Rome. Governor of Britain. After an attempt to have Albinus assassinated fails, Emperor Severus marches on Gaul to meet Albinus' forces. Construction Test! The final battle is a close-run affair, but Albinus does not survive the encounter. Severus immediately divides the of water, single province of Britannia, probably in a temporary fashion at first, with division being confirmed within two or three years. Son of Septimus Severus.
Emperor of Rome. In 2015, archaeologists examining a site in the Roman city of nuclear power is good essay Corinium (modern Cirencester) find a rare burial with tombstone still in place (although it had fallen before being covered by the debris of centuries). Possibly the first of its kind to be discovered in the British Isles, the tombstone is found near skeletal remains thought to belong to the person named on its inscription, Bodica, aged twenty-seven. Bodica is a Celtic name, and conservation of water the quality of the burial shows that some wealth was involved. The bodies of three children are also found in the 'family burial plot'. The tombstone contains an essay empty space for another inscription, presumably that of the widowed husband who could have married again and been buried elsewhere. Bodica's name is further proof that the native Britons continued honouring their fallen resistors of the Roman conquest by naming their children after Boudicca, Caratacos, Cunobellinos, and resources so on. Construction Essay Test! Linguistically, could Boudicca be an indication that the letter 'c' (a 'k' sound) is repeated?
The use of Boudicaca points to this being a possibility. (Note: Briton names ending in conservation resources, '-us' are Romanised. The correct suffix is '-os', the test, same as in Greek, and both are descended from the reconstructed proto-Indo-European suffix '-az'.) Brother. Joint emperor of Rome. Murdered by Caracalla. Roman Emperor Severus leads a campaign against the Caledonii in conservation of water resources essay, person, making his headquarters (and the centre of the Roman empire for three years) at Eboracum (York), but ill-health means he has to hand control of its day-to-day conduct to Caracalla. Against a backdrop of almost unknown Roman Governors in how to college, Britain, crisis strikes the weakened empire, with the of water, Rhine frontier collapsing completely to the Alemanni. Britain and Gaul revolt against Rome's control when Marcus Cassianus Latinius Postumus, second-in-command on the Rhine, murders the praetorian prefect, Silvanus, and declares himself emperor. Coursework! The Roman provinces in Germany, Gaul, Spain, and Britain and their armies support him. For the next thirteen years the whole of the north-western part of the empire is run as an independent but fully Roman state with its own series of emperors, and is called the 'Empire of the conservation, Gallic Provinces' (Imperium Galliarum / the Gallic Empire - 260-274). Marcus Cassianus Latinius Postumus.
Usurper emperor of coursework Rome. Murdered. Usurper emperor of Rome. The threat of Saxon raids along the east coast appears to become serious in this period. Essay! Major improvements are made to the coastal defences in south-eastern Britain as a result. Two forts in the system, Bradwell-on-Sea and Walton Castle (in Suffolk) are near Colonia, capital of the Trinovantes, and a2 electronics probably belong to the second half of this period. Colonia lies less than sixteen kilometres (ten miles) from the coast and, although protected to an extent by those two forts, is still vulnerable to sea-borne raiders, especially via the mouth of the River Colne. Three coin hoards from the Colchester area, all dating to about 275, attest to the widespread feeling of insecurity at of water resources, the time.
Usurper emperor of Rome. Usurper emperor of Rome. 'Ruled' for four days. Vandali and Burgundians who had crossed the dissertation on educational, Rhine to invade the Roman empire are defeated by Emperor Probus and of water are resettled in Britain. Octavius / Eudaf Hen. King of Ewyas, a successor state to the Silures. Roman emperor Diocletian takes the title of Britannicus Maximus, and it seems reasonable to assume that a military success of some importance had been won in his name in Britain. Coincidentally, perhaps, this could be the how to essay, period in which any remaining Roman presence in the south-western territory of the Dumnonii is withdrawn.
Carausius, a Roman commander of low birth who had been impressive under Maximianus' command, is suspected of collusion with raiding barbarians. When his execution is ordered he proclaims himself emperor and seizes the of water essay, Diocese of the Britains. How Long! It is at this time that at least one of the conservation resources essay, Saxon Shore forts is built, that of Anderitum in a2 electronics, the territory of the Regninses. Marcus Mausaeus Carausius. Usurper emperor of Rome. Following the loss of their territories in conservation resources, Gaul to Constantius Chlorus, the western Roman Caesar, Allectus assassinates Carausius and assumes command himself. Usurper emperor of properly Rome. Allectus is defeated and killed as Rome recaptures Britain, leaving its victorious commander in charge.
Geoffrey of Monmouth gives Asclepiodotus the title, duke of Cornwall. Roman commander who recovered Britain for Rome. St George, an officer of the Roman army, is in Britain when he hears that Christians of the Roman Church are being persecuted by Emperor Diocletian in Rome. He returns to plead their case but is eventually beheaded for refusing to renounce his own belief (George becomes the patron saint of England in the fourteenth century). Lord of Colchester (early Roman capital of conservation of water resources essay Britain). High king. According to Geoffrey of Monmouth, Coel Godhebog is lord of Colchester, or Caer Colim (effectively a dux , and perhaps even a protector of part of the Saxon Shore, given his location). In legendary terms, he begins a rebellion against Asclepiodotus and kills him in battle. Then Coel rules the country, submitting to construction essay, Constantius (suggesting that Coel is a mere figurehead high king, just as Lucius may have been before him, in the second century). Coel dies after a short reign.
Emperor of Rome. Of Water! Married Helena. Died at Eboracum. Britannia's two provinces are subdivided into four by Roman reorganisations. These are named (by no later than 314) as Britannia Prima (with a capital at Glevum in test, former Dobunni territory), Britannia Secunda, Maxima Caesariensis, and Flavia Caesariensis. The new provinces form part of the Diocese of the Britains.
At the same time, Constantius personally leads a campaign into Caledonia to bring the elusive tribes in the Highlands to battle and ensure a period of renewed peace. Constantine the Great. Emperor of Rome. Elevated at conservation of water resources essay, Eboracum. Three bishops of the British Church participate in the Roman Church's Council of Arles: Eborius of York, Restitutus of London, and is good essay Adelphius of Lincoln or possibly Colchester. The death of of water Constantine, and then his eldest son, Constantine II in battle in 340, proves serious for Britain. Its early fourth century age of peace and prosperity begins to vanish. Constans makes a sudden visit in early 343, suggesting something happens in 342 to bring him to Britain at a most unusual time for Channel crossings (possibly warfare against the tribes north of the Wall, evidenced by construction essay test, severe fire damage to at least three forts, Risingham, High Rochester, and Bewcastle). It is conservation resources also suggested that the widespread refortification of cities which occurs in this century happens as a result of this visit. Units of Germanic laeti begin to appear in nuclear power is good, some cities, notably Venta Belgarum in the Belgae civitas, and migration begins from resources south-western Britain (notably the former territories of the coursework, Cornovii and Dumnonii) into Armorica.
Following the rebellion of the Roman usurper Magnentius, a witch hunt is conducted, notably in the Diocese of the Britains, where the feared notarius (imperial notary) Paulus lives up to his reputation by targeting the innocent as well as the guilty. In fact the methods used are so extreme and unjust that the vicarius of Britain, Flavius Martinus, attempts to persuade Paulus to release the innocent, and, failing, threatens resignation. This only results in false accusations against him, so as a final desperate act, Martinus is driven to attack Paulus with a sword. Unsuccessful, he commits suicide. An unverified usurper between 354-358.
Three bishops of the resources essay, British Church participate in the Roman Church's Council of Ariminum. The fact that they have to accept assistance with their travel suggests that as institutions the on educational, churches in Britain are not well-off. According to Ammianus Marcellinus, the Picts, Scotti, Saxons, and Attacotti (possibly the conservation of water essay, Britons of nuclear power is good Alt Clut) attack the Diocese of the Britains in what seems to be a serious incursion. The term 'Saxons' is used by the Romans to cover all Teutonic races, so these attacks might also be by Jutes, Frisians, or Angles on conservation of water the eastern North Sea coast, or even the Danes in southern Scandinavia. Shortly before 367, three people are killed in Vindolanda Fort near Hadrian's Wall. Archaeologists discover two of them in the 1930s and a coroner's inquest decides they are 'victims of murder by persons unknown'. The third person, who is not necessarily killed at be on gre, the same time, is thought to be a girl aged between eight and ten who may be tied up before she dies. Human burials are strictly forbidden within built-up areas, and Vindolanda has a cemetery laid out on the settlement's outskirts. The body is located in a shallow pit dug in a corner of the garrison's living quarters at the heart of the fort. It would be very difficult to get a body out of the essay, barracks, through the nuclear power is good, wider fort and out of the gate, so hiding it here is much easier, but whether the men who share the barracks are accessories is unknown.
The Barbarian Conspiracy sees attacks falling on the Diocese of the Britains from all sides, although this seems to conservation of water resources, be the culmination of seven years of large-scale trouble on behalf of the Picts, Scotti, Saxons, and the mysterious Attacotti. Initially, Rome is taken by surprise, and the emperor's dux Fullofaudes is put out of action, either killed or cut off, probably near the Wall. Then Nectaridus, comes maritimi tractus (count of the essay, maritime region), is killed in action. Both losses are serious blows, and the barbarians are now able to divide up into bands so that they can steal and sack and burn whatever they like. General Theodosius (the Elder) is sent to salvage the situation, which he does by of water resources, restoring the army in Britain as a fighting force, pardoning soldiers who had deserted, attacking bands of brigands and looters wherever he finds them, and installing a new vicarius . At the is good, same point in time, the conservation resources essay, evidence points to Roman towns being much poorer, politically inactive, and socially weak, although by no means dead. However, decline is clearly setting in. Ratae, in nuclear is good, the civitas of the Corieltavi, is struck by a serious fire which destroys the forum, basilica and market hall, as well as a fair chunk of the centre of town.
The buildings are never restored. Conservation Essay! Many forts along the coursework, Wall and in the Pennines had also been damaged by fire, probably during the Conspiracy, and only some are restored. In an act of imperial favour, an Alamannic king, Fraomar, is sent to Britain as a military tribune to command a Roman unit of Alemanni cavalry which is already stationed on the island in the modern county of conservation Norfolk, as recorded by Ammianus. A German prince and his small army in Norfolk in the late fourth century sounds like a perfect avenue of essay shorter entry for later waves of Angles in of water resources essay, the following century, where they set up the kingdom of the East Engle. Geoffrey of dissertation on educational leadership Monmouth relates that Octavius begins a rebellion against Roman rule which ousts the Roman proconsul. Of Water! Octavius rules the country until Trahern, a Briton commanding Roman forces, defeats him in two battles and recovers the nuclear essay, country for Rome. He is soon murdered, and Octavius is conservation of water resources essay restored to power. How To Make College Shorter! However, it is impossible to discover how true any of this might be. Perhaps it represents a level of unrest in resources essay, the country that is related to the Barbarian Conspiracy of 367, or perhaps it is power simply an invention by later story tellers to enhance the background from of water essay which Magnus Maximus emerges.
Some confusion about is good this Octavius and Eudaf Hen of c.283. Defeated Octavius for Rome. Murdered in resources essay, the street. Western Roman emperor 383-388. Although his exact rank is college essay shorter unknown, Magnus Maximus (or Maximianus, British Maxsen, or Welsh Macsen Wledig) is clearly a senior commander in Roman Britain, possibly with a position that is based in Wales (possible, considering his influence on the region).
In this year an invasion of Picts is successfully defeated by him shortly before he mounts his expedition into Gaul. According to British oral tradition which later survives in Wales, High King Octaf has a daughter named Elen who is sought out by resources, Emperor Maximus after he first sees her in a dream. Octaf's sister's son is Conan Meriadoc, the foremost of the princes of Britain. At first he is angry that a foreigner has been selected to marry Elen when there are so many eligible Britons, but after threatening to expel the foreigner by dissertation leadership, force he is won over and becomes firm friends with Magnus. Maximus revolts against ineffectual governance from Rome and plans to invade Gaul with a large army. In preparation, he sets up defences in Wales to protect the west coast from conservation resources essay Irish raiders. This includes the creation of a territory in mid-south Wales under the command of his son, Eugenius (incorporating Cernyw and Ewyas). Power Is Good Essay! Another son is set up in resources, Demetia in construction essay test, South Wales. Some forts are abandoned at this time, probably as part of a general reorganisation of the available defensive units.
From this point on, all of Britain's high kings originate from within the country, and Maximus selects Coel Hen as his replacement to command most of the militarised zone of Northern Britain. Once the invasion of Gaul commences, Armorica is probably one of the first areas captured, and Maximus is credited by Geoffrey of Monmouth with setting up Conan Meriadoc as high king there. Mentioned by Geoffrey of Monmouth. Of Water Resources! Ruled in Maximus' name. Warfare flares up with the nuclear essay, Picts again, and according to Gildas (the first of his ' Pictish Wars '), it lasts 'for many years'.
Upon Maximus' death in 388, Emperor Theodosius sends a legion (or a specialist taskforce), probably by 390, to help stop the Pictish attacks once he has promises of of water submission from the island. Another dux appears in Britain (the previous known incumbent of college this military office being the conservation of water, unfortunate Fullofaudes who had been put out of action during the Barbarian Conspiracy of 367). Coel Hen, as he is dissertation on educational known in later British oral and written material, appears to exercise a good deal more power in the northern half of Britain than previous holders of the office. According to tradition, he is assigned to the post by Magnus Maximus, and if this and other traditions about him are correct, he may represent a transition between Roman military official and conservation of water essay a ruler in an increasingly independent Britain. Coel Hen, Dux Brittanorum. 'King of Northern Britain', based at Ebrauc. The Deceangli and make college Ordovices tribes do not have a chance to re-emerge at a time when Roman central authority in the west of Britain is fading earlier and faster than elsewhere.
Under threat by waves of Irish raiders, much of the of water resources, land of these two tribes is on educational leadership incorporated into a new territory when Cunedda Wledig and conservation of water essay his branch of Romanised Venicones are transferred from the Manau dependency of the Guotodin to secure North Wales from the raiders. They are extremely successful, and dissertation on educational the kingdom of Gwynedd is formed by them. Britain is again isolated from Rome by conservation resources essay, the revolt of Arbogast and Eugenius. Theodosius responds by raising his own two year-old son, Honorius, as Western Emperor, and marches on Italy, defeating his enemies at the Battle of Frigidus in 394 on the Italy-Slovenia border. It is nuclear is good essay possible that Roman forces defeat Saxons, Irish Scots, and the Picts in fighting which has been linked to the second of Gildas' ' Pictish Wars '. Conservation Of Water Essay! This is the probable source of the Britons' appeal for help to Rome around this time, although it seems possible that there is in fact no victory, and Stilicho merely attends to the island's defences before withdrawing more troops.
One of the Saxon Shore forts known to undergo repairs at this time is how to college shorter that of Anderitum, in the civitas of the Regninses. The official import of new coinage in large quantities comes to an end. Without those coins, trade as it has been known across the empire begins to stutter and slowly die out. Troops are withdrawn from Britain to conservation of water resources, form part of the how to college essay, Roman army that defeats a force of Goths and other barbarians in northern Italy. This comes in the same year as further Irish Scotti raids take place on the south coast.
The British provinces are relatively isolated and now constantly lack support from the Empire in their fight against of water resources barbarian incursions, so from 406 the remaining soldiers raise a series of essays on eating their own claimants to the throne. Marcus is probably Geoffrey of Monmouth's Dionotus, whom he calls the duke of Cornwall. Gracianus Municeps is named by Bede. Elevated Roman soldier. Ruled for a few months. Gracianus Municeps (Gratian) Urban magistratus or councillor.
Ruled for four months. Killed. After failing to of water, win support from Rome in their hour of need, Geoffrey of Monmouth's semi-mythical history of Britain has the nuclear is good essay, Britons seeking help from Aldroenus, fourth king after Conanus in 'Little Britain, called at that time Armorica or Letavia'. Guithelinus, archbishop of London (see the British Church entry for c.446), is sent to ask the king to take the crown of Britain, but the country has fallen so far from its former magnificence that he declines the offer. Instead he sends his brother, Constantine, with two thousand soldiers. Of Water Resources Essay! Constantine is raised to the kingship of Britain. Constantine III (Custennin ap Selyf) Usurper Western Roman emperor. Not content with governing Britain, Constantine has his eye on the imperial purple. With Honorius weak in Italy, he quickly crosses into Gaul and secures the Rhine, making Arles, the coursework, recently relocated headquarters of the Gallic prefecture, his capital in 408.
Constans ap Custennin. Son. Caesar. Killed in Gaul. Constantine sends his son, Constans, and General Gerontius to Hispania to defeat the cousins of Roman Emperor Honorius there and secure that province (Gerontius could be the conservation of water resources essay, Gerenton mentioned in test, connection with Domnonia in the Vannetais). Stilicho's forces in Italy rebel and conservation resources he is executed.
As a result of this and intrigues at the imperial court, plus the fact that Alaric's Visigothic army is roaming Etruria, Honorius is left powerless, and gladly accepts Constantine as co-emperor. The Alans, Suevi and Vandali enter Hispania, disrupting Constantine's hold on his territory. Gerontius rebels against Constantine, and raises Maximus as his own puppet emperor. With Constantine now in serious difficulties in Gaul, further Saxon raids convince the British and Armoricans to rebel and expel Roman officials, thereby breaking ties with Rome that are never renewed. Essays Gre! Roman presence in Britain has been dwindling anyway, for at conservation of water essay, least the previous three decades, so the split probably produces little change, except that British officials now occupy former imperial posts. Records from this point become extremely sparse and British control on a national level appears to break down for a time. With the expulsion of Roman officials in AD 409, Britain again became independent of Rome and was not re-occupied. The fragmentation which had begun to nuclear power essay, emerge towards the end of the fourth century now appears to have accelerated, with minor princes, newly declared kings, and Roman-style magistrates all vying for power and influence while also facing the threat of of water resources essay extinction at the hands of the various barbarian tribes who were encroaching on the borders from a2 electronics all sides. Various units of laeti and foederati had been settled in the country from the mid-fourth century onwards (probably following the sudden visit to Britain by Emperor Constans in 343). By 409 they had been settled for up to conservation of water essay, sixty years, and may not have retained much of their 'Germanness'. The country was probably filled with immigrants from all over the former empire: Italians, Gauls, Spanish, Danubians, many of essay them the descendants of legionnaires and all settled for some time.
By now they were part of the very fabric of the country. However, as Edward Dawson points out, later units of conservation of water resources laeti may not have been so settled, and there appear to have been large numbers of them around many towns in the south-east of Britain. Amongst all the empire's immigrants, it was the Germanic groups who best retained their cultural identity, sometimes for generations, continuing to teach their children German when others were learning Latin, or perhaps native British. When fresh waves of Germans arrived, conquering all in their path, it was probably not hard for coursework the settled Germans to experience a change of loyalty. The new states that appeared in resources essay, Britain (and in some cases disappeared) or were consolidated in the fifth century include Alt Clut, Bernaccia, Bro Erech, Caer Celemion, Caer Colun, Caer Gloui, Caer Gwinntguic, Caer Went, Ceint, Cernyw, Cornouaille, Cornubia, Demetia, Domnonia, Dumnonia, Ebrauc, Elmet, Ercing, Guotodin, Gwent, Gwynedd, Powys, Rhegin, and Vannetais. The region around Caer Lind Colun may also have been under independent British control for a short time, although this was quickly subsumed by Lindsey. It may have been in this period in dissertation, which emerged the Welsh concept of Lloegr (Lloegyr, Logris or Loegria).
This was a span of territory which was roughly analogous to England south of the Humber, and was remarkably similar to the civilian-controlled areas of Roman Britain, south and east of the military zones of Wales and the North, most clearly shown on the accompanying maps in the AD 70-79 period. Could it have been purely a local term used by tribal Britons to refer to the areas that were under Roman law (continued by the post-Roman administration) instead of military or royal rule (which covered the North and the western principalities by this period)? The name Lloegr may stem from the Latin 'legibus', which means 'laws', and which was also present in Oscan as 'ligis'. There may not have been a Celtic equivalent as this may have been a new word, something that hadn't existed when the Celts and Latins shared a common language. It also has to be wondered just who coined this new name.
Was it the Romanised Britons in the south of conservation resources Britannia who took the general Latin word for laws, 'legibus', and mangled it, or fused it with some Gaulish or Old Brythonic cognate, to form a proper noun which referred to the area of Britannia that was not under military rule or royal tribal rule, indicating that it was ruled by Roman civil law (and therefore, perhaps, a cut above the rough-and-ready North and West). The result might be Lloegr, a word that later entered the a2 electronics coursework, Welsh language as the name for England as a whole. (Additional information by Mick Baker and conservation of water resources Edward Dawson, and from The Landscape of King Arthur , Geoffrey Ashe, from The Anglo-Saxon Kingdom of Lindsey , Kevin Leahy, from The Oxford History of England: The English Settlements , J N L Meyers, from Herefrith of Louth, Saint and Bishop; A Problem of Identities , A E B Owen, from Lincolnshire History and Archaeology , Vol XV, from The Oxford History of England: Anglo-Saxon England , Sir Frank Stenton, and from the Historia Brittonum ( The History of the Britons ), Nennius (J A Giles, Ed Trans, 1841, published as part of Six Old English Chronicles (Henry G Bohn, London, 1848)).) This is a period in which central administration apparently breaks down to an extent, with local administrative centres and then rulers beginning to appear. The climb to power of Vortigern of the on eating properly, Pagenses seems to reverse this trend, although in some regions he probably has to administer what are in effect kingdoms rather than provinces. Quite possibly, in of water resources essay, true Roman fashion, he acquires the title of emperor, perhaps proclaiming himself 'Emperor of Britannia' in order to cement his hold on on eating power. It seems that he and Aurelius Ambrosius of Caer Gloui form the figureheads for opposing parties, but for essay the moment it is he who has dominance.
During this period, mercenaries, or laeti , are settled in some regions of the country, possibly to bolster populations of foederati and laeti that may already have been in place for on educational leadership some generations. Groups are known to exist along the Thames Valley, in the north of Caer Celemion, and along the Saxon Shore from Caer Gwinntguic to Ceint and Caer Went. There is a strong economic reason for placing them in the Thames Valley and other lowland areas. Northern coastal Germans (Angles, Jutes, Frisians and conservation of water Saxons) are accustomed to how long should be on gre, employing a farm economy set in lowlands, not uplands. They know how to work marshes and river valleys, so these settlement areas suit them entirely. A synod is held in Carthage (the Council of Carthage) in the Roman province of Africa which takes a firm line against the Pelagian 'heresy'. Pelagius (c.354-420/440) is conservation essay a British ascetic who has allegedly denied the doctrine of how to college essay shorter original sin and he finds many supporters in Britain and the British Church, especially amongst the educated classes. The use of coinage (usually silver coins) as the means of substantial payment seems to die out within ten years of this date. However, a high level of self-sufficiency in conservation of water essay, both civil service and how to make essay the army has already become the established norm in Britain for the best part of a century, so this in itself is far from being a sign of the collapse of conservation of water resources civilisation. Triphun is the Irish leader of the Disi in construction, Demetia. As the fourth generation of Disi to have been raised in Britain, the tribe now has roots in the country and has clearly developed a certain degree of reliability and trustworthiness.
By taking a Roman name, Triphun has become part of the of water, British ruling elite, so much so that he is able to marry Gweldyr, the Romano-British heiress of Demetia and become king himself of how to shorter what becomes known as Dyfed. Wortigernos / Vitalinus (Vortigern) King of Pagenses. First emperor of Britain? Died by fire. St Germanus, bishop of Auxerre, and Lupus, bishop of Troyes, visit Britain to fight the Pelagian 'heresy' that is resources running rampant through the British Church. They meet with a still extant Romano-British aristocracy (the principle proponents of the nuclear is good, heresy), probably at Verulamium (Caer Mincip, possibly administered from Caer Colun). The following year, in line with standard Roman imperial policy in Gaul, Vortigern brings in Saxon allies to help restore order along the borders. Aurelius Ambrosius of Caer Gloui is apparently a leader of a British council, which presumably answers to Vortigern. It is his decision to confirm the Irish Deisi as commanders of the Demetia area of the west coast to counter the threat of Irish raiders.
Vortigern acquiesces and conservation of water resources assigns Ambrosius 'Dinas Emrys and all the dissertation on educational leadership, western lands', suggesting that Ambrosius becomes the architect for the defence of these western areas. This is motivated by the council's reluctance to depend entirely on Saxon mercenaries, with their constant demands for increased provisions, especially in essay, an area were they would be lightly supervised. The Deisi have already been settled for some time and would be self-supporting. According to Gildas and Nennius when referring either to Aurelianus Ambrosius (Ambrosius the Elder) or his son, this family represents the how to make shorter, Romanised nobility in Britain, and they appear to be based at the city of Caer Gloui and its surrounding territories. They are the main opposition to Vortigern's pro-Celtic faction, and it is at conservation of water resources essay, this time that the increasing animosity between the two groups erupts into internecine warfare. The factions fight the Battle of Guolloppum (Cat Guolph, Wallop in Hampshire). Dissertation On Educational! The result is uncertain, but it is probably followed by a period of civil strife in eastern and southern Britain. Ambrosius the Elder. Leader of the Romanised opposition in Britain. Killed by plague. Saxon foederati and resources laeti (settled on is good the east coast and Thames Valley, and probably increased in number since the barbarian raids on Britain of 409) take advantage of the unrest and openly revolt.
As a cause they cite the failure of the British to supply them with provisions which may have been reduced to zero as a consequence of the civil war. By 441, the Gallic Chronicles report large sections of Britain under German control following Saxon revolt: Britain, abandoned by the Romans, passed into the power of the Saxons. Communications between Britain and Gaul are disrupted, vacated towns and cities are in ruin. The migration of Romano-British towards the west and to Armorica turns into a torrent, with emigrants coming especially from Dumnonia and Cornubia. The country begins to conservation essay, be divided geographically, along factional lines. St Germanus' second visit to Britain rids the dissertation, country of the last of the Pelagian heresy when he visits Elafius' subjects. Elafius seems likely to be the leader of the territory of Caer Gwinntguic. Of Water Resources Essay! Severe plague hits southern Britain in the same year, and unburied bodies are to be found in the streets of cities such as Caer Ceri.
Former Celtic tribal associations continue to re-emerge as independent territories and kingdoms develop over the course of the fifth century. There is evidence of the how to make essay shorter, reuse and refortification of conservation Iron Age hill forts. Essays On Eating! Cadbury Congresbury in conservation of water resources essay, Somerset is producing substantial quantities of Mediterranean pottery, with smaller amounts also coming from construction essay South Cadbury as local leaders move their residences to more protected locations. It is conservation attacks by the Picts (under Drust mac Erp) and Irish Scotti that prompts Vortigern to hire Jutish and Angle mercenaries to fight them off. Hengist and Horsa are invited into Britain and land at Ypwines fleot (Ebbsfleet). Traditionally, they fulfil the nuclear, terms of their contract by fighting back the invaders and conservation of water resources receive territory on which to how long gre, settle on the island of Ynys Tanatus (Thanet) in Ceint (although according to British oral tradition, they are first given territory around the Wash and only gain Tanatus after their numbers are swelled by a massive influx of their countrymen). According to resources essay, later British tradition, Vortigern is removed from office by the council after trying to settle yet more foreign laeti in Britain, this time in the north-east, within the territory of the 'Kingdom of dissertation on educational leadership Northern Britain'. The high kingship is given to his eldest son, the able and popular Vortimer. Hengist, seeing that he no longer has a malleable ally, revolts and the territory or kingdom of Ceint is quickly overrun. Son of Vortigern. King of Gwent.
Appointed to replace Vortigern. In the conservation of water resources essay, east of the island, the should essays, new and more serious foederati revolt sees a loss of territory to Jutes and Angles that is never regained by the Britons. The new arrivals have seen how weak are the British defences and begin a takeover of the kingdom of Ceint, aided by the many foederati settlements in key areas of the land, especially along the Saxon Shore forts and at Canterbury. They are probably further encouraged by the chaos in Roman Gaul following the murder of the magister militum Aetius. Hengist's polyglot army fights British forces (traditionally commanded by Vortimer) at of water, a place they name gelesthrep or gelsthrep (probably Aylesford or, less likely, Epsford, both in Kent). Vortimer's brother, Cadeyrn Fendigaid, king of the essays on eating properly, Pagenses, is killed, as is Hengist's brother, Horsa. Again according to resources essay, later tradition, Vortimer is poisoned and his death allows Vortigern to reclaim the high kingship temporarily before he is faced by Ambrosius Aurelianus. Vortigern flees to his ancestral lands, 'at the fortified camp of Genoreu, on the hill called Cloartius', in Ercing, by the River Wye. There he meets his end when Ambrosius sets fire to his fortress with him inside it. Coursework! Historically speaking, as much as extremely limited historical knowledge will allow, Aurelianus and his probable successor, Artorius, seem to lead the fight to preserve the remaining British territory. If Vortigern had titled himself 'Emperor of Britannia', then it seems reasonable to assume that his successors copy this, but after Artorius even the conservation resources, grounds for this supposition become reduced.
As if all that isn't enough, in how to college essay, the region of Deywr within the 'Kingdom of of water essay Northern Britain', Soemel is noted by the later royal pedigree as someone who 'separated Deira from Bernicia'. It seems to be Soemel who probably refuses to blindly obey orders and power instead establishes negotiated terms of service, perhaps on a semi-independent basis. This time of chaos and confusion would be an ideal date for this event. At the same time, it would seem likely that Angles from Deywr are settling in Lindsey, which may still be under Romano-British control. Ambrosius Aurelianus (Riothamus?) Magistrate of Caer Gloui. Possible 2nd emperor of Britain. Geoffrey of Monmouth proposes an almost entirely mythical account of the life of Ambrosius Aurelianus.
It ends with him being poisoned by Saxons, and his brother, Uther Pendragon, succeeds him. Uther immediately sets out to conservation resources, attack the Saxons involved in his brother's death, who have teamed up with Paschent (Pascent of Buellt), son of Vortigern, and a young nobleman of Ireland named Gillomanius (could this individual be the contemporaneous High King Leguire macNill?). Uther defeats them all, killing Paschent and Gillomanius. Then Uther has to defeat a resurgent Octa (which scholars think might actually be the real name of Hengist of Kent) before enjoying a largely peaceful reign that leads up to the well-known death of college Gorlois of Cornwall and the birth of Arthur Pendragon (with this event, according to conservation essay, legend, taking place in Tintagel, possibly a Dumnonian royal court at this time). After much hard fighting at a place called Crecganford (Crayford in Kent), and apparently heavy losses, the British abandon Ceint.
The Saxons who had joined Hengist in 455 also settle in what is becoming Kent, but they have little impact on the Jutish nature of the kingdom and leave few traces. Some of them instead push further west to form early elements of the Middel Seaxe. Occupation of Cadbury Castle is re-established, perhaps selected for its defensive capabilities in these troubled times. Its reoccupation is not in the form of a city or an established seat of government for successive rulers. Nuclear Power Is Good! Instead it seems to be a place that a British leader of stature, perhaps Ambrosius Aurelianus, or Riothamus (if they are not one and the same person), makes his personal headquarters. Riothamus, 'King of the Britons', crosses the Channel to Gaul, bringing 12,000 ship-borne troops. 'Riothamus' is a title rather than a name, apparently meaning 'supreme king', which raises the possibility that he is Ambrosius Aurelianus. Riothamus remains in the country for a year or more (perhaps reinforced by essay, Armorican Bretons), and advances to Bourges and even further.
Gaul's imperial prefect, the deputy of the Western Roman emperor, treacherously undermines him by how long be on gre, apparently dealing with the Visigoths. Caught by surprise by the Visigoths, Riothamus fights a drawn-out battle near Bourges but is eventually defeated when no imperial forces come to his assistance. He escapes with the remnants of his army into of water resources, the nearby territory of the Burgundians, never to be heard of again. A second battle soon follows which involves a combined army consisting of units of Romans, troops from Soissons under Comes Paulus, and Burgundian foederati , but they are also defeated, and Soissons and Armorica are cut off from Rome. The disappearance from history of Riothamus does not rule out the on eating properly, possibility of him successfully returning to Britain, but this would also be a reasonable date for of water essay Arthur to take command of Britain's defence as his successor.
Newly arrived Saxons under lle and his sons land at college shorter, Cymens ora and beat off the Britons who oppose their landing (part of the proposed British kingdom of Rhegin), driving them to take refuge in the great forest called Andredesleag (The Weald). These Saxons quickly become known as the Suth Seaxe. Artorius / Arthur Pendragon. Son of Uthyr/Uther Eigr. Possible 3rd emperor of Britain. There is a great deal of material that has been written about Arthur, or more properly Artorius, but there is little direct proof of of water essay his existence. For that reason, several scholars have chosen to disbelieve entirely in construction, his existence. However, it seems impossible that an of water essay individual who makes such an impact on history that later generations of dissertation leadership kings name their sons after him, and who is included in a vast body of literature could not exist. Conservation Of Water Essay! In an historical sense, it seems logical to place him in the last few decades of the fifth century, governing, or at least protecting, the coursework, country after Ambrosius Aurelianus and before his traditional date of death in 511 (or 537 by some sources), and perhaps claiming Cadbury Castle as his headquarters. Traditionally, again, he is the son of Eigr (Ygerna), the daughter of Anblaud 'the Imperator', who has a connection to Ercing.
He marries Guinevere, a medieval form of a Cornish name which is probably Veneva (and which descends as the modern Jennifer). She is a princess of Dumnonia, and possibly a sister to King Gerren. Artorius himself is primarily a leader of cavalry, the best weapon of the British against resources essay the foot-slogging Saxons for as long as they can maintain their breeding stock. This is the force he leads against Geoffrey of Monmouth's Saxon leaders, Colgrin, Badulf, and Chelderic (the first of whom is sometimes linked to Deywr), while being supported by King Hoel of Brittany. This is should essays be on gre also how he enters into legend. Clovis of the Franks defeats, captures and executes Syagrius, the last Roman commander of Soissons. The Franks are now completely dominant in northern Gaul and conservation of water resources essay Roman control has been thrown off. The death of Syagrius also sends a signal to the Saxons and other Germanic peoples that attempting to settle in Gaul is now hopeless.
This would seem to be the single defining event that forces the Saxons to turn their attention to invading Britain instead. This is the essays, last recorded entry for the Jutes of Kent in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle until 565. Resources! The battles against the Britons move further westwards as they lose the dissertation, south coast to the Suth Seaxe, Londinium to the Middel Seaxe and their Suther-ge, and the Upper Thames to the Thames Valley Saxons and Ciltern Saetan. However, the influx of Saxon fighters may have slackened since 460, when the prospects for soldiers of fortune may have seemed better in the remnants of conservation of water resources Roman Gaul, coupled with the fact that the power is good essay, Britons are apparently starting to gain the upper hand (especially in the traditional twelve victorious battles of Arthur in locations such as Lind Colun). Despite this apparent improvement in fortunes, the sense of profound shock that has been dealt to resources, British society by events since the first major Saxon revolt around 441 has triggered changes that will see the rapid mutation of British into early Welsh in the space of about a century.
Young people in this period who grow up with British and Latin languages may be hearing their grandchildren speaking a different tongue. Even the how long be on, bardic tradition begins to break down, with the sounds and patterns of their words destroyed by the changes. Much of the Iron Age tradition is lost, although fragments survive. According to tradition Cerdic lands in five ships on the south coast at Cerdices ora, together with Saxon and essay possibly some Jutish companions, and begins a takeover of the local Jutish, Saxon and sub-Roman territories. The Jutes and Saxons who are already settled there are apparently already referring to themselves as the West Seaxe (possibly separate from the earlier Meonware settlers to the east). The fighting begins on the same day as Cerdic 'arrives', suggesting that his potential power play begins in violence or immediate resistance. If Cerdic is in fact a Briton who rebels against the remaining central authority (which seems to be a distinct possibility), then given his location he could be serving as a magistrate of the Belgae territory of on educational Caer Gwinntguic until he seizes part of the tribe's territory in order to found his own little empire. It is another blow to British unity and defence. Arthur commands the defence of Mons Badonicus against a confederation of Saxon and Jutish warriors which is conservation resources essay led by nuclear power is good, lle of the Suth Saxe.
The British victory grants them a generation of relative peace and consigns the South Saxons to subsequent obscurity. Conservation Of Water Resources Essay! All building and repair work on should gre major new defensive works probably comes to an end with the victory. There is now a gap in Germanic Bretwaldas for the next half century. This is probably due to the Mons Badonicus defeat and the long peace between the Britons and the Germanic coastal settlements. As there is conservation of water no significant warfare, there can be no significantly superior war leader to push forward the Germanic advance. Quite the opposite, in fact, as there seems to be a reverse migration of Angles and Saxons into the Continent during the first half of the college, sixth century. Geoffrey of Monmouth has Arthur handing the kingship over to Constantine, but that would presume that the dating shown here is conservation wrong. An alternative date (also given by Geoffrey) for Arthur's retreat to Avalon (Glastonbury in Dumnonia) is 542, which would provide an overlap between Arthur and Constantine, but would displace Arthur's fifth century activity against the Saxons. This revision might only work if his father, Utherpendragon, had actually existed and had enjoyed the long reign given to him by Geoffrey. Constantine / Custennin ab Cado.
On the how to make shorter, Continent, the conservation of water resources, Franks of Austrasia conquer the nuclear is good, Thuringians. Portions of territory are lost to the Saxons, probably to the Continental Saxons, but there also seems to resources, be a reverse migration of Germanics from the east coast of Britain, where the recent British victory at leadership, Mons Badonicus has cut them off from the acquisition of conservation of water new lands. These returning Angles and Saxons appear to be given land in Thuringia by King Theuderich. However, it is also at this time, in this century, that the migration of Britons from the mainland to Brittany is at its heaviest, weakening the construction essay, British defensive position for conservation essay the future. King of the formerly client Disi of Demetia.
Vortipor(us) of the Disi of Demetia is clearly a powerful figure in British history, as noted by his being included in the list of nuclear power is good high kings of Britain. Conservation Essay! His name has been recorded in various ways, from the Latinised Vortipor itself, to the Gaulish Voteporix, and the (perhaps) more genuinely original Vortepor mac Aricol. Even this has been recorded as Gartbuir mac Alchoil. Malgo / Maglocun / Maelgwyn Gwynedd. In the north, the British kingdom of a2 electronics Bernaccia is seized by the Angles who have been serving as laeti and the ruling king, Morgan Bulc is forced out. He takes refuge with the Guotodin, shifting his power base there, but the loss leaves a gaping hole in the defences of the conservation of water, eastern coastline. It is the first such breach in the defences of the north, despite a century of essays be on gre such chaos to the south of conservation essay Britain, and suddenly the college, defensive strength of the Men of the North looks shaky. Following the death of the powerful Maelgwyn, and given the dearth of information about the Northern British kings at this time, it is entirely plausible to place Keretic and the 'three unnamed tyrants' below as kings in the North. The Yellow Plague that sweeps the country hits the Britons far harder than it does the invaders, finally shifting the balance of power in conservation resources, favour of the latter. Even the Picts seem to be affected by the plague, with the possible loss of at least one of their kings, Drust mac Munaith, in 552.
It is odd to have such a gap so late in the list, but not if those rulers were from the poorly documented North. The Saxon advance in coursework, the south also lends weight to this hypothesis (by Mick Baker). Of Water Resources! Their westwards advance becomes much more rapid, with them soon swallowing much of Somerset and Dorset from Dumnonia. The Angles also advance, taking large swathes of a2 electronics coursework central and northern Britain, and ending any realistic claim by the high kings of Britain to rule over the whole island. Three unnamed tyrants now claim the high kingship. The names below are accepted as high kings in other references, and their dates fall conveniently into the gap left between the reigns of conservation resources essay Malgo and how to essay Keretic, but they are not in the list formed by Geoffrey of Monmouth. To differentiate them, they are shown here in red text.
King of conservation essay Bernaccia (to 547), and Guotodin (c.560 onwards). The West Seaxe conquest of Caer Gwinntguic proves that the southern Saxons have recovered from their massive Mons Badonicus defeat. From this point onwards, the essay, Britons continually lose territory until the of water resources, modern borders of Wales are decided. Caer Gloui, together with Caer Baddan and Caer Ceri, falls to the West Seaxe. With this collapse, the territory of Caer Celemion to the east is now totally isolated, and Dumnonia is cut off from any overland contact with other surviving British territories (and largely disappears from the overall story as far as the construction test, rest of the resources essay, Britons are concerned).
Gwent and Pengwern now form the western frontier against further Saxon advances. The Hwicce take over the territory and construction test eventually push its borders north into Worcestershire, at the expense of Pengwern. Keretic / Keredic / Ceredig. Probably the same Ceretic as in conservation of water resources, Elmet. Ebrauc (York) falls to the Angles of Deira.
It is a major blow to British hopes of regaining control of the country and blots out at least two and-a-half centuries of Christian worship in one of the British Church's key bishoprics. It seems likely that, if he exists, Geoffrey of Monmouth's Archbishop Tadioceus of York flees the city with the rest of the construction essay, nobility, holding his title as an exile, perhaps from Elmet. The Annales Cambriae records the conservation resources essay, death of Dynod of Dunoting in battle against the Bernicians. He is probably the last British ruler of the dissertation on educational, Pennines (unless the of water essay, remnants of the territory are absorbed into North Rheged). His family are forced to flee to Powys, including his second son, the power is good essay, famous bard, Aneirin, while another son, Deiniol, is already in conservation essay, Gwynedd as the British Church's first bishop of Bangor. By this time the Deiran and Bernician Angles are pushing far into British territory, and the Iclingas are expanding to essays on eating properly, the south with only Elmet and Cynwidion holding out in conservation of water resources, this region as enclaves until 616-617, and South Rheged until about 613.
The Gododdin is a long series of elegies composed from the early seventh century onwards which commemorates a force of Britons who assemble in Guotodin at this time. Essay! This force marches south to fight the Angles at Catreath and seemingly attacks the Roman fort near the strategic road junction now called Scotch Corner. Ultimately, the battle is a disaster for of water the Britons. The flower of the Northern British warrior class is decimated by the superior numbers of the Bernicians. Essays On Eating! Guotodin, as well as the other kingdoms of the north, probably including Elmet, are all fatally weakened by the defeat. The first meeting between the Roman Church in of water, the form of St Augustine of Canterbury, and construction the Celtic Church (the descendant of the former British Church of the Roman period) takes place. It is arranged when thelbert of the of water resources essay, Cantware uses the Hwicce as intermediaries, and the meeting goes favourably for Augustine. A second meeting is quickly arranged, although perhaps not in the same year.
This takes place at Abberley in Worcestershire, probably close to on educational leadership, the border between the Hwicce and Pengwern. It is attended by seven bishops of the Celtic Church, along with many learned monks, mainly from Bangor-is-Coed (in Pengwern). The meeting ends in conservation of water, disappointment for the Roman envoy, with no agreements of cooperation or unity being reached between the two churches, especially in regard to the important question of the calculations for Easter and evangelising the pagan English. The territory of Caer Celemion is destroyed, probably by Ceawlin of the West Seaxe. It is the how long, last British-held territory south of London and east of conservation of water resources essay Dorset to fall. The town of Calleva Atrebatum is abandoned and its wells are filled in to prevent its citizens from a2 electronics coursework returning. Pressure from the Ciltern Saetan to the south and the Middil Engle to the north forces the kingdom of Calchwynedd into collapse around this time. The territory is subjugated by the rapidly growing power of the kingdom of Mercia, which in this period often shows signs of being partially British itself, either in its early ancestry in Britain or in resources essay, its choice of allies and the people who probably form a good percentage of the population. After Keretic, the high kings are dominant only in how to make college essay, Wales and conservation of water resources essay surviving British western territories. However, even contact with territories such as Dumnonia, Elmet, and essay Gododdin are becoming tenuous, as the conservation of water essay, lines of communication are cut.
In the essays on eating, first half of the seventh century, the whole of northern Britain is lost, including South Rheged around this time, cutting off Alt Clut, Gododdin, and Galwyddel. Further tragedy is about to strike. In one of the bloodiest and hardest fought battles of its time, several British kings form a coalition to halt thelfrith of Bernicia at the Battle of Caer Legion (Chester). Cearl of the Mercians could also be involved on the British side (according to scholarly theory). Iago of Gwynedd and Selyf of Powys are both killed, and the battle is a disastrous British defeat. Cadwallon (and probably his father) already holds a claim on the crown of Deira as part of his domains. He now apparently includes Elmet in this claim, following the kingdom's conquest by conservation of water, Edwin of Deira. Cadwallo / Cadwallon ap Cadfan.
King of essays properly Gwynedd. Claimed the Deiran crown, including Elmet. Uniquely, perhaps, Penda of Mercia allies himself not to of water, other English kingdoms but to the Brito-Welsh of the west Midlands and Wales. In this year, already working in alliance with Cadwallon, Penda kills Edwin of Bernicia and Deira at the Battle of Hatfield Chase (just outside the western borders of Lindsey). It seems that, up until this great victory, Penda is the junior partner in the alliance, but following Cadwallon's death in 634 he holds all the cards and is senior partner in the alliance with Pengwern. King of Gwynedd. Last high king of Britain. Cadwaladr is probably killed by the great plague that hits the college, country. There is conservation resources essay no obvious candidate to essays on eating, replace him, and such is the extent of the loss of territory over the past century that there is no longer a 'British' Britain over of water which to claim any high kingship. Instead, the rival Anglo-Saxon Bretwaldaship takes precedence.
Kingdoms such as Dyfed, Gwynedd, and Powys remain independent in the west, with Dumnonia in the south-west, and Alt Clut in the far north, but everywhere else the how long be on, English are in control. A revised form of the British high kingship later emerges in medieval Wales, but only after centuries of internecine rivalry to work out just who qualifies as a 'prince of Wales'.
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