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International standard paper sizes. Standard paper sizes like ISO A4 are widely used all over the world today. This text explains the ISO 216 paper size system and the ideas behind its design. In the ISO paper size system, the height-to-width ratio of all pages is the square root of two (1.4142 : 1). In other words, the width and the height of a page relate to each other like the america essays, side and the diagonal of a square. Apush Dbq Essay. This aspect ratio is religion and society america essays especially convenient for a paper size. If you put two such pages next to each other, or equivalently cut one parallel to its shorter side into two equal pieces, then the daisy buchanan dream essay, resulting page will have again the same width/height ratio. The ISO paper sizes are based on the metric system.

The square-root-of-two ratio does not permit both the religion and society america interpretive essays, height and width of the pages to dbq essay be nicely rounded metric lengths. Therefore, the area of the pages has been defined to and society america have round metric values. As paper is distribution usually specified in g/m?, this simplifies calculation of the mass of a document if the format and number of america interpretive pages are known. ISO 216 defines the A series of paper sizes based on these simple principles: The height divided by the width of all formats is the square root of daisy buchanan american two (1.4142). Format A0 has an area of one square meter.

Format A1 is A0 cut into two equal pieces. In other words, the religion america interpretive essays, height of A1 is the width of A0 and the width of A1 is apush 1998 half the height of religion in latin america interpretive A0. All smaller A series formats are defined in the same way. If you cut format A n parallel to creative letters its shorter side into two equal pieces of paper, these will have format A( n +1). The standardized height and width of the paper formats is a rounded number of millimeters. For applications where the ISO A series does not provide an adequate format, the in latin interpretive essays, B series has been introduced to cover a wider range of motivation essay paper sizes. The C series of formats has been defined for envelopes. The width and height of a B n format are the geometric mean between those of the and society in latin america interpretive, A n and the next larger A( n ?1) format. For instance, B1 is the daisy american essay, geometric mean between A1 and religion and society america essays, A0, that means the 2000, same magnification factor that scales A1 to B1 also scales B1 to religion and society in latin america A0. Similarly, the formats of the C series are the geometric mean between the A and B series formats with the same number.

For example, an (unfolded) A4 size letter fits nicely into a C4 envelope, which in in china, turn fits as nicely into a B4 envelope. If you fold this letter once to A5 format, then it will fit nicely into a C5 envelope. B and religion in latin essays, C formats naturally are also square-root-of-two formats. Note: The geometric mean of stanford creative fellowship two numbers x and y is the in latin, square root of creative letters their product, ( xy ) 1/2 , whereas their arithmetic mean is half their sum, ( x + y )/2. For example, the geometric mean of the numbers 2 and 8 is america 4 (because 4/2 = 8/4), whereas their arithmetic mean is buchanan 5 (because 5?2 = 8?5).

The arithmetic mean is half-way between two numbers by addition, whereas the religion and society in latin interpretive essays, geometric mean is creative fellowship half-way between two numbers by religion in latin america interpretive essays, multiplication. By the way: The Japanese JIS P 0138-61 standard defines the same A series as ISO 216, but a slightly different B series of paper sizes, sometimes called the JIS B or JB series. JIS B0 has an area of ideas for writing christmas 1.5 m?, such that the in latin, area of JIS B pages is the arithmetic mean of the apush 1998 dbq essay, area of the A series pages with the same and the next higher number, and not as in the ISO B series the geometric mean . For example, JB3 is 364 ? 515, JB4 is 257 ? 364, and JB5 is religion and society america interpretive essays 182 ? 257 mm. Using the apush 1998 dbq essay, JIS B series should be avoided. It introduces additional magnification factors and is not an international standard. The following table shows the width and and society essays, height of battle essay all ISO A and B paper formats, as well as the ISO C envelope formats.

The dimensions are in and society in latin america interpretive, millimeters: The allowed tolerances are ±1.5 mm for dimensions up to 150 mm, ±2 mm for dimensions above 150 mm up to 600 mm, and ±3 mm for dimensions above 600 mm. Some national equivalents of ISO 216 specify tighter tolerances, for instance DIN 476 requires ±1 mm, ±1.5 mm, and ±2 mm respectively for the same ranges of dimensions. The ISO standard paper size system covers a wide range of daisy dream formats, but not all of them are widely used in practice. And Society Interpretive. Among all formats, A4 is population distribution clearly the america interpretive, most important one for daily office use.

Some main applications of the most popular formats can be summarized as: The main advantage of the ISO standard paper sizes becomes obvious for users of copying machines: You are in battle essay, a library and want to copy an article out of a journal that has A4 format. In order to religion in latin interpretive essays save paper, you want copy two journal pages onto each sheet of A4 paper. If you open the journal, the two A4 pages that you will now see together have A3 format. By setting the magnification factor on for writing creative letters the copying machine to 71% (that is sqrt(0.5)), or by pressing the A3>A4 button that is and society interpretive essays available on most copying machines, both A4 pages of the journal article together will fill exactly the A4 page produced by apush dbq essay, the copying machine. One reproduced A4 page will now have A5 format. No wasted paper margins appear, no text has been cut off, and no experiments for and society america interpretive essays, finding the appropriate magnification factor are necessary. The same principle works for books in B5 or A5 format. Copying machines designed for ISO paper sizes usually provide special keys for the following frequently needed magnification factors: The magnification factors between all A sizes:

Not only the operation of motivation essay copying machines in offices and libraries, but also repro photography, microfilming, and printing are simplified by the 1:sqrt(2) aspect ratio of ISO paper sizes. If you prepare a letter, you will have to and society know the population distribution, weight of the content in order to religion determine the postal fee. Population Distribution In China Essay. This can be very conveniently calculated with the ISO A series paper sizes. In Latin Interpretive. Usual typewriter and laser printer paper weighs 80 g/m?. An A0 page has an area of 1 m?, and the next smaller A series page has half of this area. Therefore, the in china essay, A4 format has an area of 1/16 m? and in latin, weighs with the common paper quality 5 g per page. If we estimate 20 g for a C4 envelope (including some safety margin), then you will be able to put 16 A4 pages into a letter before you reach the 100 g limit for the next higher postal fee. Calculation of the mass of books, newspapers, or packed paper is equally trivial. You probably will not need such calculations often, but they nicely show the beauty of the concept of metric paper sizes.

Using standard paper sizes saves money and makes life simpler in many applications. Daisy. For example, if all scientific journals used only and society ISO formats, then libraries would have to buy only very few different sizes for the binders. Shelves can be designed such that standard formats will fit in essay gettysburg, exactly without too much wasted shelf volume. The ISO formats are used for surprisingly many things besides office paper: the German citizen ID card has format A7, both the religion and society in latin america interpretive essays, European Union and the U.S. (!) passport have format B7, and 2000 essay, library microfiches have format A6. In some countries (e.g., Germany) even many brands of toilet paper have format A6. The ISO paper sizes are specified in the standard in a table that states their width and religion in latin america, height in millimeters. Following the principles described above, the dimensions could be calculated with the following formulas: However, the battle essay gettysburg, actual millimeter dimensions in the standard have been calculated instead by using the above values only at n = 0, and then progressively dividing these values by two to obtain the and society in latin interpretive, smaller sizes, each time rounding the result to the next lower integer number of millimeters (floor function). This rounding to the next lower integer guarantees that two A( n +1) pages together are never larger than an A n page. The following programs demonstrate this algorithm in buchanan american essay, several programming languages: iso-paper.c – C version iso-paper.py – Python version.

Sometimes, paper formats with a different aspect ratio are required for labels, tickets, and other purposes. These should preferably be derived by cutting standard series sizes into 3, 4, or 8 equal parts, parallel with the religion and society in latin america interpretive, shorter side, such that the ratio between the longer and shorter side is ideas christmas letters greater than the square root of two. And Society Interpretive Essays. Some example long formats in millimeters are: The 1/3 A4 format (99 ? 210 mm) is word essay also commonly applied for reduced letterheads for and society interpretive, short notes that contain not much more than a one sentence message and fit without folding into a DL envelope. For postal purposes, ISO 269 and DIN 678 define the following envelope formats: The DL format is the most widely used business letter format. DL probably originally stood for “DIN lang”, but ISO 269 now explains this abbreviation instead more diplomatically as “Dimension Lengthwise”. Its size falls somewhat out of the system and equipment manufacturers have complained that it is slightly too small for reliable automatic enveloping. Stanford Creative Writing Fellowship. Therefore, DIN 678 introduced the C6/C5 format as an alternative for and society america interpretive essays, the DL envelope.

Window envelopes, A4 letterheads, folding marks and standard layouts. There exists no international standard yet for creative writing, window envelopes and matching letterhead layouts. There are various incompatible national standards, for example: Germany: DIN 680 specifies that a transparent address window is 90 ? 45 mm large and and society in latin interpretive essays, its left edge should be located 20 mm from the left edge of the envelope. For C6, DL, and C6/C5 envelopes, the bottom edge of the window should be 15 mm from the bottom edge of the envelope. For C4 envelopes, the top edge of the window should be either 27 or 45 mm from the top edge of the envelope. The letterhead standard DIN 676 does not specify the actual content or form of a pre-printed letterhead, it only specifies zones for the location of certain elements. The letterhead format specified in DIN 676 has a 85 ? 45 mm large address field visible through the window, in stanford creative, which the top 5 mm are reserved for printing in a small font the sender’s address and the bottom 40 mm are for writing the and society in latin essays, recipient’s address. This field starts 20 mm from the left paper edge and either 27 mm (form A) or 45 mm (form B) from the top. The two alternatives allow a choice of either a small (form A) or large (form B) letterhead layout in the area above the address field.

Standard folding marks on the letterhead assist users to insert the letter correctly into C6, DL, or C6/C5 window envelopes. There is one folding mark (for C6) on motivation 2000 word the top edge of the religion and society america, page, 148 mm from the left edge. There are also two folding marks on 2000 word the left edge of the page, either 105 and 210 mm from the interpretive, bottom edge (form A) or 105 and 2000, 210 mm from the and society america interpretive, top edge (form B). United Kingdom: BS 4264 specifies that the transparent window on a DL envelope should be 93 ? 39 mm large. Its top-left corner should be located 20 mm from the left margin and buchanan essay, 53 mm from the top margin of the envelope. BS 1808 specifies an 80 ? 30 mm large address panel on the letterhead. Its top-left corner is and society interpretive essays located 20 mm from the letters, left margin and 51 mm from the top margin of the page. The address panel is and society interpretive embedded inside a 91 ? 48 mm large exclusion zone whose top left corner is located 20 mm from the left margin and 42 mm from the top margin of the page. In other words, the area 9 mm above and daisy buchanan, below and 11 mm right of the address panel should be kept clean of any other printing.

Switzerland: The envelope window is 100 ? 45 mm large and located 12 mm either from the left or the right edge. Religion And Society America Interpretive. The distance to population distribution in china the top edge is religion america interpretive essays 48 mm (for C6 and C5/C6) or 52 mm (for C5). The SNV 010130 letterhead format places the recipient’s address into a 90 ? 40 mm large field 45 mm from the top and 8 mm from the right edge of the A4 page. [from: H.R. Bosshard, 1980, ISBN 3-85584-010-5] Finland: SFS 2488:1994 specifies that for E series envelopes the daisy essay, size of the window is religion and society america interpretive 90 ? 30 mm and for the C series 95 ? 35 mm. In either case, the left margin is 18 mm and the top margin 40 mm.

SFS 2487:2000 (“Layout of document text area”) and stanford creative writing fellowship, SFS 2486:1999 (“Forms Layout”) specify that the area for the recipient’s address is and society in latin america interpretive 76.2 ? 25.4 mm, located 20 mm from the left, and 10±1 mm plus 25.4 mm from the top (the 25.4 mm are for creative fellowship, the sender’s information). According to ISO 11180 and Universal Postal Union standards, an international postal address should be not longer than 6 lines with up to 30 characters each. This requires a maximum area of 76.2 ? 38.1 mm with the commonly used typewriter character width of 2.54 mm (1/10) and a baseline distance of 6.35 mm (1/4). The Universal Postal Union Letter Post Regulations specify a standard position of the address on the envelope, which is within 140 mm from the right edge, at least 40 mm from the top edge, and is surrounded by at least 15 mm unprinted envelope to the left, right and below of the address text. A widely used international standard A4 document format is the United Nations Layout Key for Trade Documents (ISO 6422). Folding larger pages to and society america A4 for filing. DIN 824 describes a method of folding A0, A1, etc. pages to A4 format for filing. This clever technique ensures that there remains a 20 mm single-layer margin for filing holes, that the page can be unfolded and folded again without being removed from the file, and that the label field at the bottom-left corner of technical drawings ends up in correct orientation on stanford creative writing top of the folded page in religion in latin interpretive, the file. ISO 623 specifies the sizes of folders and files intended to receive either A4 sheets or simple folders (without back) that are not designed for any particular filing system or cabinet. The sizes specified are those of the overall rectangular surface when the folders or files are folded, exclusive any margin or tabs. Simple folders without back or mechanism are 220 ? 315 mm large.

Folders and stanford fellowship, files with a very small back (less than 25 mm) with or without mechanism are 240 ? 320 mm large. Files with wide back (exceeding 25 mm) are 250 ? 320 mm (without a mechanism) or 290 ? 320 mm if they include a mechanism. All these are maximum dimensions. Standardizing folder and file sizes helps to optimize shelf designs and provides a uniform look and handling even if folders from various manufacturers are used. ISO 838 specifies that, for filing purposes, two holes of 6±0.5 mm diameter can be punched into the sheets. The centers of the two holes are 80±0.5 mm apart and have a distance of 12±1 mm to the nearest edge of the sheet.

The holes are located symmetrically in religion and society in latin america interpretive essays, relation to the axis of the sheet or document. Any format that is at least as large as A7 can be filed using this system. Not specified in ISO 838, but also widely used, is an apush dbq essay upwards compatible 4-hole system. Its two middle holes correspond to ISO 838, plus there are two additional holes located 80 mm above and below these to provide for more stability. And Society In Latin America Interpretive. This way, sheets with four punched holes can also be filed in stanford fellowship, ISO 838 2-hole binders. This system is also known under the nickname 888, presumably because the three gaps between the holes are all 8 cm wide. Some hole punches have on their paper guide not only markings for A4, A5, and and society interpretive essays, A6, but also for 888. The latter helps to punch either the top or bottom two holes of the 888 4-hole arrangement into an A4 sheet. Technical drawing pens follow the population distribution in china essay, same size-ratio principle.

The standard sizes differ by religion and society america essays, a factor sqrt(2): 2.00 mm, 1.40 mm, 1.00 mm, 0.70 mm, 0.50 mm, 0.35 mm, 0.25 mm, 0.18 mm, 0.13 mm. So after drawing with a 0.35 mm pen on A3 paper and reducing it to A4, you can continue with the 0.25 mm pen. Buchanan. (ISO 9175-1) There seems to america be no international standard yet for ruled writing paper. Ideas For Writing Creative Christmas. The German standards organization has published DIN 16552:1977-04 (“Lines for handwriting”). Religion And Society America Interpretive. That system is widely used, at least in writing fellowship, Germany, by primary school teachers to specify which school exercise books pupils should use at which stage of learning how to write. Writing paper with fine gray 5 mm grid lines seems to be very popular in many countries. All A and B series formats described so far are trimmed paper end sizes, i.e. these are the dimensions of the paper delivered to the user or reader. Other ISO standards define the format series RA and SRA for untrimmed raw paper, where SRA stands for “supplementary raw format A” (“sekundares Rohformat A”). These formats are only slightly larger than the corresponding A series formats.

Sheets in religion and society america interpretive, these formats will be cut to essay gettysburg the end format after binding. The ISO RA0 format has an area of 1.05 m? and the ISO SRA0 format has an area of 1.15 m?. Religion Interpretive Essays. These formats also follow the sqrt(2)-ratio and half-area rule, but the dimensions of the start format have been rounded to the full centimeter. The common untrimmed paper formats that printers order from the gettysburg, paper manufacturers are. The RA and SRA dimensions are also used as roll widths in religion and society america interpretive, rotating printing presses. When you prepare overhead projector slides for a conference, you might wonder, how large the picture area of the projector that you will have available is. ISO 7943-1 specifies two standard sizes of overhead projector picture areas: Type A is 250 ? 250 mm (corners rounded with a radius less than 60 mm) and Type B is 285 ? 285 mm (corners rounded with a radius less than 40 mm or cut off diagonally no more than 40 mm). Therefore, if you use A4 transparencies, leave at least a 30 mm top and bottom margin. Most computer displays have the same aspect ratio as (traditional) TV sets, namely 4:3 = 640:480 = 800:600 = 1024:768 = 1280:960. If you prepare presentation slides, I recommend that you arrange your layout inside a 280 ? 210 mm field and motivation 2000 essay, make sure that you leave at religion in latin least 20 mm margin on the left and right side. Daisy Dream. This way, you plan for the aspect ratio of a TV/VGA projector and ensure at the same time that you can print on religion and society in latin interpretive A4 transparencies such that every standard overhead projector will show all parts of your slides.

ISO 7810 specifies three formats for identification cards: ID-1 = 85.60 ? 53.98 mm (= 3.370 ? 2.125 in) ID-2 = 105 ? 74 mm (= A7) ID-3 = 125 ? 88 mm (= B7) ID-1 is the common format for banking cards (0.76 mm thick) and is also widely used for business cards and driver’s licences. Some people prefer A8 (74 ? 52 mm) for business cards. The standard passport format is writing fellowship B7 (= ID-3), the German ID card has A7 (= ID-2) format and the European Union driver’s licence is an ID-1 card. One of the essays, oldest written records regarding the sqrt(2) aspect ratio for paper sizes is a letter that the physics professor Georg Christoph Lichtenberg (University of Gottingen, Germany, 1742-1799) wrote 1786-10-25 to Johann Beckmann. In it, Lichtenberg explains the practical and daisy dream, aesthetic advantages of the sqrt(2) aspect ratio, and of his discovery that paper with that aspect ratio was commonly available at the time. (There are also suggestions that the religion in latin america, task to daisy american find a paper format that is similar to itself after being cut in half appeared as a question in mathematics exams as early as 1755.)

After introducing the meter measurement, the French government published 1798-11-03 the “Loi sur le timbre” (no. 2136), a law on the taxation of paper that defined several formats that already correspond exactly to religion and society interpretive the modern ISO paper sizes: “Grand registre” = ISO A2, “grand papier” = ISO B3, “moyen papier” = ISO A3, “petit papier” = ISO B4, “demi feuille” = ISO B5, “effets de commerce” = ISO 1/2 B5. The French format series never became widely known and was quickly forgotten again. The A, B, and C series paper formats, which are based on the exact same design principles, were completely independently reinvented over a hundred years after the “Loi sur le timbre” in Germany by Dr. Walter Porstmann.

They were adopted as the German standard DIN 476 in 1922 as a replacement for ideas, the vast variety of other paper formats that had been used before, in religion and society in latin interpretive, order to make paper stocking and distribution in china, document reproduction cheaper and more efficient. (For those interested in and society, historic details of the discussions leading to the standard, there are some DIN committee reports, 1918–1923.) Porstmann’s DIN paper-format concept was convincing, and soon introduced as a national standard in many other countries, for example, Belgium (1924), Netherlands (1925), Norway (1926), Switzerland (1929), Sweden (1930), Soviet Union (1934), Hungary (1938), Italy (1939), Uruguay (1942), Argentina (1943), Brazil (1943), Spain (1947), Austria (1948), Romania (1949), Japan (1951), Denmark (1953), Czechoslovakia (1953), Israel (1954), Portugal (1954), Yugoslavia (1956), India (1957), Poland (1957), United Kingdom (1959), Venezuela (1962), New Zealand (1963), Iceland (1964), Mexico (1965), South Africa (1966), France (1967), Peru (1967), Turkey (1967), Chile (1968), Greece (1970), Simbabwe (1970), Singapur (1970), Bangladesh (1972), Thailand (1973), Barbados (1973), Australia (1974), Ecuador (1974), Columbia (1975) and Kuwait (1975). It finally became both an american essay international standard (ISO 216) as well as the official United Nations document format in 1975 and it is today used in almost all countries on this planet, with the exception of North America. In 1977, a large German car manufacturer performed a study of the paper formats found in their incoming mail and concluded that out of 148 examined countries, 88 already used the A series formats then. [Source: Helbig/Hennig 1988] Note: The Lichtenberg Ratio – used by the standard paper format series – is occasionally confused with the Golden Ratio (which Euclid referred to as the “extreme and mean ratio”). The Lichtenberg Ratio is religion defined by population distribution essay, the equation a/b = 2b/a = sqrt(2), whereas the Golden Ratio is defined by a/b = (a+b)/a = b/(a?b) = (1 + sqrt(5))/2. In Latin America Essays. While aesthetically pleasing properties have been attributed to both, the Lichtenberg Ratio has the advantage of preserving the aspect ratio when cutting a page into two. The Golden Ratio, on creative fellowship the other hand, preserves the aspect ratio when cutting a maximal square from the paper, a property that seems not particularly useful for religion and society, office applications. The Golden Ratio was for a while a more fashionable topic in the antique and renaissance arts literature and it has a close connection to the Fibonacci sequence in mathematics. Hints for North American paper users.

The United States, Canada, and in part Mexico, are today the only industrialized nations in which the ISO standard paper sizes are not yet widely used. Buchanan American Essay. In U.S. And Society In Latin Interpretive Essays. office applications, the apush dbq essay, paper formats “Letter” (216 ? 279 mm), “Legal” (216 ? 356 mm), “Executive” (190 ? 254 mm), and “Ledger/Tabloid” (279 ? 432 mm) are widely used today. America Interpretive. There exists also an American National Standard ANSI/ASME Y14.1 for technical drawing paper sizes A (216 ? 279 mm), B (279 ? 432 mm), C (432 ? 559 mm), D (559 ? 864 mm), E (864 ? 1118 mm), and there are many other unsystematic formats for various applications in gettysburg, use. Religion. The “Letter”, “Legal”, “Tabloid”, and other formats (although not these names) are defined in the American National Standard ANSI X3.151-1987. While all ISO paper formats have consistently the daisy american dream, same aspect ratio of sqrt(2) = 1.414, the and society in latin interpretive essays, U.S. format series has two different alternating aspect ratios 17/11 = 1.545 and 22/17 = 1.294. Therefore, you cannot reduce or magnify from daisy american dream, one U.S. format to the next higher or lower without leaving an empty margin, which is rather inconvenient. American National Standard ANSI/ASME Y14.1m-1995 specifies how to use the religion in latin interpretive essays, ISO A0?A4 formats for technical drawings in apush 1998, the U.S. Technical drawings usually have a fixed drawing scale (e.g., 1:100 means that one meter is drawn as one centimeter), therefore it is not easily possible to resize technical drawings between U.S. and standard paper formats. As a result, internationally operating U.S. corporations increasingly find it more convenient to abandon the old ANSI Y14.1 formats and prepare technical drawings for ISO paper sizes, like the rest of the religion in latin essays, world does. The historic origins of the 216 ? 279 mm U.S. Letter format, and in 2000 word, particular its rationale, seem rather obscure.

The earliest documented attempts to and society in latin standardize U.S. paper format used a completely different format. Buchanan Essay. On 1921-03-28, the U.S. Secretary of Commerce (Hoover) declared a 203 ? 267 mm format to religion and society in latin america essays be the standard for apush 1998 dbq essay, his department, which was adopted on religion america essays 1921-09-14 by creative, the Permanent Conference on Printing (established by General Dawes, first director of the Bureau of the Budget) as the general U.S. government letterhead standard. Independent of religion in latin that, on 1921-08-30 a Committee on the Simplification of Paper Sizes consisting of daisy buchanan dream printing industry representatives was appointed to work with the Bureau of Standards. It recommended standard basic sizes of in latin america essays 432 ? 559 mm (17 ? 22 in), 432 ? 711 mm (17 ? 28 in), 483 ? 610 mm (19 ? 24 in), 559 ? 864 mm (22 ? 34 in), 711 ? 864 mm (28 ? 34 in), and 610 ? 914 mm (24 ? 36 in). What became later known as the U.S. Motivation 2000. Letter format is just the first of these basic sizes halved. One hypothesis for religion and society in latin america interpretive, the origin of this format series is that it was derived from apush dbq essay, a then typical mold size used then in the production of and society america interpretive essays hand-made paper. “It does not appear, even in the selection of 8 1/2 ? 11 inch size paper, that any special analysis was made to prove that this provided an ideas for writing creative optimum size for a commercial letterhead” [Dunn, 1972.]. It appears that this standard was just a commercial compromise at the time to reduce inventory requirements without requiring significant changes to existing production equipment. The Hoover standard remained in force until the government declared in in latin, 1980-01 the 216 ? 279 mm format to be the new official paper format for U.S. government offices.

The Canadian standard CAN 2-9.60M “Paper Sizes for Correspondence” defines the six formats P1 (560 ? 860 mm), P2 (430 ? 560 mm), P3 (280 ? 430 mm), P4 (215 ? 280 mm), P5 (140 ? 215 mm), and P6 (107 ? 140 mm). Creative Letters. These are just the U.S. Religion. sizes rounded to the nearest half centimeter (P4. U.S. Christmas. Ledger). This Canadian standard was introduced in 1976, even though the Ontario Government already had introduced the ISO A series formats before in 1972.

Even though these Canadian paper sizes look somewhat like a pseudo-metric standard, they still suffer from the two major inconveniences of the in latin essays, U.S. formats, namely they have no common height/width ratio and they differ significantly from what the rest of the world uses. Note: It was proposed for apush 1998, an early draft of and society america interpretive ISO 216 to battle essay gettysburg recommended the special size 210 ? 280 mm (a format sometimes called PA4) as an interim measure for countries that use 215 ? 280 mm paper and have not yet adopted the ISO A series. Some magazines and other print products that have to be printed economically on both A4 and U.S. Letter presses use the religion and society in latin essays, PA4 format today. Population Essay. Incidentally, this PA4 format has a width/height ratio of religion interpretive 3:4, the word essay, same as traditional TV screens and most computer monitors and religion and society america interpretive essays, video modes. Both the “Letter” and “Legal” format could easily be replaced by A4, “Executive” (if it is really needed) by essay gettysburg, B5, and and society in latin, “Ledger/Tabloid” by A3. Similarly, the A–E formats can be replaced by A4–A0. It can be hoped and expected that with the continuing introduction of the metric system in essay gettysburg, the United States, the ISO paper formats will eventually replace non-standard paper formats also in North America. Conversion to A4 as the common business letter and document format in North America would not be too difficult, as practically all modern software, copying machines, and laser printers sold today in religion interpretive essays, the U.S. already support A4 paper as a standard feature. Users of photocopiers outside the U.S. and Canada usually take it for granted that the machine is able to enlarge A4 > A3 or reduce A3 > A4, the two paper formats usually kept in machines with two paper trays.

When they use a copier in North America, it often comes as a disappointing surprise when they find out that magnifying an distribution entire page is not a function available there. The absence of this useful capability is a direct result of the unfortunate design of the U.S. In Latin America. paper formats. North American copiers usually also have two or more paper trays, but these are mostly used for the two very similar “Letter” and “Legal” formats, wasting the opportunity of offering a highly useful magnifying capability. Any enlarging of a “Letter” page onto “Legal” paper will always chop off margins and is therefore of little use. 1998 Dbq Essay. The Legal format itself is quite rarely used, the notion that it is for “legal” work is a popular myth; the vast majority of U.S. legal documents are actually using the “Letter” format. Some copiers also offer in addition or instead the next larger “Ledger” format, but that again has a different aspect ratio and america interpretive, will therefore change the margins of a document during magnification or reduction. Based on stanford writing fellowship the experience from the religion and society america interpretive essays, introduction of ISO paper formats in apush, other industrialized countries at and society in latin america essays various points during the 20th century, it becomes clear that this process needs to be initiated by motivation 2000 word, a political decision to move all government operation to the new paper format system. In Latin Interpretive Essays. History shows that the commercial world then gradually and 1998, smoothly adopts the new government standard for office paper within about 10–15 years. It would not be a major operation to america interpretive do this in the U.S. and Canada as well, especially considering that most standard software and office machines are already prepared for A4. However, such a project can succeed only if the distribution in china, national executive has the political will to and society in latin interpretive essays accomplish this.

The transition period of about a decade is daisy buchanan american dream essay necessary to religion in latin america interpretive essays avoid expensive equipment replacement costs for printers, especially those with older large rotary presses that were not yet designed to stanford writing fellowship be easily retooled for ISO paper sizes. If you purchase new office or printing equipment in North America, it might be wise to pay attention whether the equipment is suitable for use with A4 paper. Religion In Latin Interpretive. When you make inquiries, best indicate to dream vendors that ISO 216 compatibility of equipment is of concern to you. If you live in the U.S. and have never been abroad, you might not be aware that paper and accessories in the North-American sizes are not commonly available outside North America. They are very difficult to in latin interpretive obtain in most other countries and daisy dream, the only practical way to get U.S. “Letter” there is to religion in latin america interpretive cut one of the next larger available sizes (usually B4, A3 or RA4). Therefore, do not expect anyone to send you documents in “Letter” format from abroad. If you send documents to any other country, your use of A4 will greatly ease the handling and filing of distribution in china your documents for the recipient. And Society In Latin. If you design software that might be used globally, please keep in mind that the vast majority of laser printer users will print onto A4 paper.

Therefore, always make A4 the default setting and fellowship, the first selection choice in religion, your printing user interface. Daisy Buchanan American Essay. Remember that it is the paper format used by about 95% of the religion in latin america interpretive essays, people on daisy buchanan american dream this planet. Due to popular demand, I have prepared an unofficial table with the ISO sizes in and society america interpretive, inch fractions. Each listed inch fraction has the smallest denominator that keeps the value within the ISO 216 tolerance limits. Product designers should use the official millimeter values instead. There is also a table in PostScript points. The dominance of the “Letter” format instead of ISO A4 as the common laser-printer paper format in North America causes a lot of problems in daily international document exchange with the motivation essay, USA and Canada.

ISO A4 is 6 mm less wide but 18 mm higher than the U.S. “Letter” format. Religion And Society America Interpretive Essays. Word processing documents with an A4 layout can often not be printed without loss of information on 1998 “Letter” paper or require you to reformat the text, which will change the page numbering. “Letter” format documents printed outside North America either show too much white space on and society in latin america interpretive the top or bottom of the buchanan essay, page or the printer refuses to operate as “Letter” format paper has been selected by and society interpretive, the software but is not available. A4 size documents have to be copied or printed with a 94% magnification factor to fit on the 6% less tall “Letter” paper, and battle essay gettysburg, “Letter” documents have to be printed with 97% size to fit on america the 3% less wide A4 format. Universities in the U.S. increasingly use A4 size paper in laser printers and library copying machines, because most conferences outside North America require papers to be submitted in A4 format and many journals and conference proceedings are printed in A4 format. The three-hole 108-mm filing system widely used in the U.S. is not compatible with the two-hole 80-mm ISO system used in most other countries. The three-hole system could of gettysburg course also be used on A4 pages, but many files with a three-hole mechanism are only designed for U.S. “Letter” sheets and are not tall enough to reliably protect A4 pages. Another disadvantage of the three-hole system is that it is not suitable for storing formats smaller than U.S. “Letter”. The U.S. Postal Service standard-size range for first-class or single piece third-class mail weighing up to 28 g includes ISO C6 and DL envelopes. The U.S. currently use quite a large number of envelope formats.

The U.S. paper industry has managed to come up with a truly bizarre way of specifying the density of paper. Instead of providing you with the obvious quotient of mass per area (e.g., in grams per square meter, ounces per square yard, whatever), they specify the religion and society in latin america, total mass M of a ream of N pages of some size X ? Y . This means, you have to know four (!) values in order to ideas creative christmas understand how to calculate the (scalar) paper density M /( N ? X ? Y ). The problem is that N ? X ? Y depend on and society in latin america interpretive the type of population essay paper, but are rarely stated explicitly. Example: “20 lb paper” can mean that a reference ream of 500 pages in format 24?36 in has a total mass of 20 pounds. The particular reference ream size of 24 in ? 36 in ? 500 pages = 278.70912 m?/ream is often used in news-print applications. Religion Essays. With 453.59237 g/lb and 278.70912 m?/ream, we get a conversion factor of stanford writing fellowship about 1 lb/ream = 1.63 g/m?. But that factor applies only for religion and society in latin, the news-print reference ream size 24?36 in, which is by no means universal! Example: If you look instead at ideas creative letters U.S. “Letter” office paper, “20 lb paper” means something very different. Here, the reference ream size is in latin interpretive essays usually 17 in ? 22 in stanford creative writing, ? 500 pages = 120.6449 m?/ream, which corresponds to four actual reams. And Society In Latin. And so the conversion factor becomes 1 lb/ream = 3.7597 g/m?, meaning that for example 20 lb/ream = 75.19 g/m? and daisy buchanan american essay, 24 lb/ream = 90.23 g/m?.

It is a big pain if you have to do these conversions yourself and you really should complain to religion america interpretive paper suppliers who still do not manage to communicate simple g/m? values (commonly called “grammage” in both English and French) for their products. Before I forget it: readers fascinated by the idea of some Europeans using A6 as a toilet paper size might also be interested to hear that the motivation, U.S. Religion In Latin. have for the same application field a standard square format of 4.5?4.5 in = 114?114 mm, which is for instance documented in New Jersey Specification No. 7572-01 (May 1997), section 2.3. Below follow some links to motivation word various other on-line locations that will help you to enter the and society america interpretive essays, ISO paper format world. The Guide to International Paper Sizes by EDS Inc. describes ISO, JIS, and non-metric paper formats Brian Forte: A4 vs US Letter and Paper sizes for screenplay presentation Making Postscript and Acrobat Files International by essay, Jacob Palme explains the problems caused by the difference between U.S. Letter and ISO A4 laser printer paper formats Imperial Paper and Book Sizes Some very nice A4 paper artwork by Peter Callesen.

Although it is still rarely advertised, ISO A4 laser printer and and society in latin essays, copying paper, as well as suitable files and folders, are available today from many U.S. Essay Gettysburg. office supply companies. A4 paper and supplies have been regularly ordered in religion essays, the U.S. for apush, many years, especially by and society interpretive essays, companies and organizations with a lot of international correspondence, including patent lawyers, diplomats, universities, and some government agencies. Many of the larger stationery chains do offer at least one type of christmas A4 paper in their catalogues. Often the essays, only type of A4 paper available is creative writing fellowship a higher-quality brand: the and society in latin america interpretive essays, type of paper one might prefer for motivation word, important documents, such as international patent applications. The U.S.-manufactured laser-printer paper perhaps most widely available in A4 format appears to be “Hammermill Fore MP White” (search for order code HAM103036), but there are others as well.

If the shop assistant is unfamiliar with “A4 paper”, try asking for “210 mm ? 297 mm”, “8 1/4 in ? 11 3/4 in”, “international size”, or “European size” paper. When I first wrote this page in america interpretive essays, 1996 while I lived in the U.S., most shops there did not keep A4 paper on essay stock routinely and might have to order it first. Many were only able to order entire boxes of 10 reams (5000 sheets) and many shop assistants were unfamiliar with the religion in latin america interpretive essays, ISO paper-size system. I am being told that the situation has improved quite a bit during the last decade and that A4 paper and accessories are now a lot easier to obtain, but are still considered specialty items. If you still cannot find any supply for A4 paper in your area, then try for example the following vendors in North America, who have confirmed to have A4 paper or related articles on stock for battle essay gettysburg, fast delivery: Empire Imports Inc., European Office Supplies, P.O. Box 2728, Amherst, MA 01004-2728, phone 1-800-544-4744, fax 1-800-835-5140, has a very good selection of and society A4 filebinders, ISO hole punches, A4 paper, etc.

Try their A4 starter kit. European Office Solutions Inc., 6103 Silken Laumann Way, Mississauga, Ontario L5V 1A1, Canada, phone 1-877-929-9713, sells A4 copier paper and many accessories. Office Depot sells Hammermill Fore DP Paper, 8 1/4 x 11 3/4, 20 Lb., 96 Brightness, Ream Of 500 Sheets, Item #: 261782 Staples has recently started to offer A4 paper (e.g., HammerMill Fore MP Premium Multi-Function Paper A4-Size, item no. HAM103036), A4 ring binders, A4 sheet protectors, and other international size office accessories. (You can select “Paper size 8.27 x 11.69” on the U.S. web site to find A4 products.) OfficeMax sells X-9 Multiuse Copy Paper, 92 Bright, 500 Sheets/Ream, A4, 20 lb.. Xpedx operate a chain of paper stores in the U.S. Population Essay. (mainly in industrial or commercial areas) and store A4 paper as a regular stock item. Religion And Society In Latin Interpretive Essays. IKEA has been reported to sell in its U.S. stores not only filing cabinets that are designed for both A4 and U.S. “Letter”, but also frames, office paper and other office supplies in ideas for writing letters, both ISO and U.S. format.

Hammermill Fore MP White Office Paper, 20-lb.Sub., 210mm x 297mm, Internat’l A4 Xerox, sells A4 paper (e.g., “Premium Multipurpose 4024, A4” or “Business 4200, A4”, order no. 3R2594) for laser printers and religion and society america, copying machines. GRAYTEX PAPERS, phone 1-800-813-5828, are another US supplier of A3, A4, and A5 papers. more on-line paper vendors can easily be found via the 2000 word essay, Yahoo! Internet directory. This is and society interpretive essays just a small, arbitrary collection of battle essay some North American paper vendors that offer ISO format paper or related supplies. This text summarizes and explains the religion america essays, content of the 2000 word, following international standards: ISO 216:1975, Writing paper and certain classes of printed matter — Trimmed sizes — A and B series. Religion And Society America Interpretive Essays. ISO 269:1985, Correspondence envelopes — Designation and population distribution, sizes. ISO 623:1974, Paper and board — Folders and and society interpretive, files — Sizes. ISO 838:1974, Paper — Holes for general filing purposes — Specifications.

ISO 7943-1:1987, Overhead Projectors — Projection stages — Dimensions. The following standards contain related information but are not covered here completely: ISO 217:1995, Paper — Untrimmed sizes — Designation and tolerances for primary and supplementary ranges, and indication of machine direction. ISO 328:1974, Picture postcards and lettercards — Size. ISO 353:1975, Processed writing paper and certain classes of printed matter — Method of essay expression of dimensions. ISO 416:1974, Picture postcards — Area reserved for the address. ISO 478:1974, Paper — Untrimmed stock sizes for religion essays, the ISO-A Series — ISO primary range. ISO 479:1975, Paper — Untrimmed sizes — Designation and tolerances. ISO 593:1974, Paper — Untrimmed stock sizes for the ISO-A Series — ISO supplementary range. Apush Dbq Essay. ISO 618:1974, Paper — Articles of stationery that include detachable sheets — Overall trimmed sizes. These standards are available from. Case postale 56.

1, rue de Varembe. CH-1211 Geneve 20. fax: +41 22 733 34 30. The most comprehensive source of religion and society interpretive essays information about the ISO and North American paper formats and many related standards, as well as their respective histories, is the book Max Helbig, Winfried Hennig: DIN-Format A4 – Ein Erfolgssystem in christmas letters, Gefahr. Beuth-Kommentare, Deutsches Institut fur Normung, Beuth Verlag, 1988, 144 pages, ISBN 3-410-11878-0,

DIN also produced a brief German prospectus with information about the history of the DIN paper sizes: Die Geschichte der Papierformate.

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Airline Pilots Get Paid More Than Nurses. We will write a custom essay sample. on Airline Pilots Get Paid More Than Nurses or any similar. topic specifically for you. Airline pilots get paid more than nurses. Should this be the case? Note(*Based in the context of USA as wages significantly differ between countries*) Airline pilots are aviators who fly passengers and/or cargo on long or short-haul flights for religion and society in latin america interpretive, leisure, business or commercial purposes. 1998? They earn a median annual salary of $129,250 and are responsible for safety for the safety of the plain, pasengers, crew and cargo. Nurses on the other hand is a healthcare profession focus on the care of individuals, families, and religion and society america interpretive essays communities so they may attain, maintain or recover optimal health and apush dbq essay quality of life from conception to death.

In the context of religion and society registered nurses(because to be a nurse they must be registered they earn a median annual salary of $52,330. In China? And are responsible for religion and society in latin america interpretive, the safety care to creative writing fellowship patient and are accountable for the patient care delivery. Airlines pilots fly aircrafts of varying sizes, transporting passengers around the world. They are responsible for and society essays, the safety of the airplane, its passengers, the crew and any cargo on board. In any flight airlines require two pilots; the captain and the copilot known as the first officer. And before a flight they check airplane controls and equipment for checklist. Battle? While the religion america interpretive essays, copilots charts route and allocate flying time. After the receive clearance for takeoff, the population essay, pilot accelerates the plane until I lifts and becomes airborne.

After that planes goes on autopilot, however pilot regularly report air route controls, and any problems. Near the interpretive essays, destination airport, captain rechecks landing gear and motivation 2000 essay requests for religion, landing clearance. And if there’s poor landing visibility landing may be performed entirely manually by distribution in china essay instrument. Interpretive? Pilots also goes through various check by motivation word essay pilots examiners who regularly observe them to religion in latin interpretive essays review their flying ability, these examiners are employed by daisy buchanan american essay the Federal Aviation Administration and by large airlines. The complexity and precision required in their work meant that pilots undergo rigorous courses of education and training.

All airline pilots must have commercial pilots licenses to religion fly. Applicants must have at least 250 flight hours and be at least 18. They alsomust pass strict physical examinations to population in china essay ensure that they are in good health and religion and society in latin america interpretive essays have both good hearing and vision. Page 2 Airline Pilots Get Paid More Than Nurses Essay. The FAA also requires pilots to apush pass two tests; one being a written test to check knowledge of pilots in america interpretive, FAA rules, navigation techniques and apush 1998 principles of in latin america interpretive essays safe flight,while the other being a demonstration of flying skills, including flying by instruments. License are also granted for certain classes and types of stanford fellowship airplanes where most pilots with more experience and training would be able to fly larger multiengine planes.

Airline pilots are also required to have an airline transport license. Where to qualify they must be at least 23 years old and have a total of 1500 hours of flying time, including night and instrument flying. Commercial pilots also need restricted radio operator’s permit from Federal Communications Commission. They must also pass psychological and aptitude tests. Once airline pilots are hired they also usually undergo a week of company orientation and a further three to six weeks of ground school and interpretive essays simulator training plus a twenty five hour operating experience and then finally a check ride with an FAA pilot examiner. However above all this it is stanford creative writing important to note that most pilots begin as flight engineers who are stationed in the cockpit and make certain that aircraft and all instruments look in religion and society in latin interpretive essays, good working order. And After two to five years, they can then advance as first officer (pilot). While Registered nurses on the other hand work to promote good health and population distribution prevent illness. They educate patients and the public on various medical conditions as well as treat patients and help in their rehabilitation; and also give advice and emotional support to patient’s families. Many registered nurses however are general duty nurses who focus on overall care of patients. They administrate medication under doctor’s supervision; keep record of symptoms and progress.

General registered nurses also supervise licensed practical nurse. Religion And Society In Latin Interpretive? RN does have choices to dbq essay specilise; they can either specialize by work setting or type of treatment, by disease, ailment or condition, by and society interpretive organ of body or by population of type. These choices meant they have to a certain level of flexibility within they job which expels them from boredom. To become a registered nurse, nurse can earn associate degrees through two years nursing program at community colleges or earn a diploma in a three year program offered by hospital or independent nursing schools, they can also earn a bachelor of science in nursing degree which ake from four to essay four to five years to complete. After completing these programs nurses take on licensing exams administrated by each state that approves them for nursing practice. The profession of nursing is also now moving towards two levels of religion in latin america nursing; technical nursing requires associate degrees while profession nursing requires bachelor degrees. Under such system, only graduate nurses would be eligible for RN licensing which is recognized by the Ameriacan Assocation of College of Nursing as a minimum for profession nursing. As this represent a higher level than that of technical nursing. Stanford Creative? In terms of working conditions airline pilots works at an average of about sixteen days a month. They usually spend fewer than seventy hours a month actually flying. And although aircrafts are usually clean confortable, the nature of their job involves considerate risk.

As commercial pilots flying international routes may suffer from jet lags – disorientation and fatigue caused by many hours of flying through different time zones. And although flying does not involve considerate effort to are subject to mental stress as they must always be alert and religion and society in latin essays make quick decisions. They also work in pressure, as they are responsible for the safety of the aircraft, passenger and cargo. Stanford Creative Writing Fellowship? And they may lose their job anytime of the fail the demanding physical examinations that are taken yearly. Nurses on the other hand have significantly varying conditions based on their place of employment, however nearly all nurses job involve close contact with people so good health and emotional stability are extremely valuable assets. Essays? Nurses also have risk as they must be careful workers who take their responsibility seriously, as a simply wrong dosage given to a patient could harm their life. Nurses must also follow rigid guideless that ensures the health and stanford creative writing fellowship safety of themselves and their patients. America? In general nurses work forty hours per week and sometimes work in night and weekend shift. Nurses and airline pilots also take up various benefits that may be substituted for their pay.

For pilots they are paid accord into the type, size, and speed of their airplanes and the number of ideas for writing letters hours and america miles they fly. They also receive extra pay for essay, night works and extra flights. As for benefits they vary by employer. But generally includes paid vacations, sick leave, retirements plans and health and life insurance. Airline pilots and their immediate families can also fly at reduced airfares. Living accommodation and alliances are also provided when they are away from home. And for religion and society america interpretive, nurses their benefit includes paid vacation and holidays, sick leave, as well as good health insurance, and retirement plans. Thus this shows that their benefit is fairly similar so would have a similarly equal substitution effect on wage. The equilibrium price of labour(ie market wage rate) in a given market is determined by the interaction of supply and demand for battle essay, labour.

Employees are hired to a point where the extra cost of hiring an employee is equal to the addition to sales revenue from hiring them, their MRP. As represented by Fig 1 where employment stops at D3W3 which is where extra cost of in latin america essays hiring an employee equals the additional sales and revenue gained. Stanford Writing? In the labour market to determined the wage differentials of and society interpretive airline pilots and registered nurse, but rather a series of relevant factors that determined their wage. In the context of compensation wage differentials, airline pilots suffer greater degree of risk and unsatisfying flight hours so their wage represents partly the higher compensation receive than nurses who have greater flexibility where most work part time, and also their risk is also substantially less if they take care in following doctors order (as illustrated previously). In the context of daisy buchanan american dream equalizing difference and human capital, wage differentials compensates for cost of human capital acquisition which is the opportunity cost of religion america essays acquiring qualifications measured by the current earnings forgone by dbq essay staying full or part-time education, in essays, such context, airlines pilots rigorous and motivation 2000 word essay longer training period represents their higher paid salary than nurses. Interpretive? In terms of battle essay gettysburg their skill levels airline pilots again are required certain flying experiences in order to become a pilot thus meaning a comparatively higher skill level required entering the pilot job market where education and experience is religion america interpretive essays require for pilots as oppose to nurses who have to only pass their degree or training and then go through their licensing exams. Both cost of human capital acquisition and 2000 essay skill level can be explained through supply curve of labour for airline pilots and egistered nurse, where the inelastic supply curve of labour for pilot’s (fig 2) meant that its slope would be steeper as the supply of airline pilots are more inelastic due to more skills, training and education required to become one. Whereas for nurses their supply curve is more elastic (fig 3) as less skill and training is required to religion and society in latin become a nurses making it easier to population distribution in china become one.

In the concept of transfer earnings and and society in latin interpretive essays economical rent, the theory is supply and demand suggests that airline pilots which have a more inelastic in supply and demand with have larger area of economic rent than transfer earnings, this is simply again due to the fact that are more scarce and to certain extend harder to battle gettysburg become than nurses (as shown in Fig2). While fur nurses their transfer earnings would have a smaller economic rent and larger transfer earning (as shown in fig 3) as supply of labour is more elastic as becoming a nurse is comparatively easier. Religion In Latin? As for the difference in labour productivity and revenue creation, workers whose efficiency is highest and ability to generate revenue for a firm should be rewarded with higher pay. Thus airline pilots can command higher wages as flying a flight generates more revenue than nurses taking care of patients. So when the concept of marginal revenue product of labour is in china applied, acquiring additional pilots to religion fly flights clearly generate more to firms for each addition pilots that adding additional nurses to take care of patients.

Strength of population distribution trade union also to certain extent affect averages wages in different occupations, where it is likely that the religion america essays, larger the percentage of union members in population in china essay, such occupation or company, the larger their collective bargaining power to achieve mark up on wages will be, this shown in Fig 2 where the effect of religion and society in latin interpretive a strong trade union in a competitive labour market for both airline pilots and nurses is represented. For airline pilots, they are represented by ALPA a very strong union representing all 66000-airline pilots under one union. As for registered nurses they also have a recently established National Nurses United union where 170000 nurses come together and represents a similarly strong union to that of ALPA where numerous protest has similarly received good results such as the recent healthcare funding protest. Discrimination is also important here as many researchers point that nurses pay have been decimate on their pay due to them being female. And as most airline pilots are males they may have not face such problems, such factor represents only contradict to airline pilots high pay. Ideas For Writing Christmas? However there are criticism that pilots have been overpaid while nurse are underpaid. As for pilots the increase in automation due to technological advance in aircraft desing and engineering meant that the life of pilots and precedures in flying an airplanes and in latin america interpretive essays significantly become an essay gettysburg, easier and smoother expireance, however their pay does not represent the and society in latin america interpretive, increase in ease. Morever, pilots union being one of the strongest in the industry is population distribution essay also one of the strongest in the industry.

As for nurses, they have been recent critiscism and nurses being underpaid and overworked, as well as shortages, where nurses in in latin essays, recent times have said to have increased their job description to other parts usually allocated to gettysburg other departments such as reception checks. As for shortages, sustained shortages of RNs are seemingly inconsistent with a theory of in latin interpretive competitive markets wherein wages tend toward levels equating labor demand and supply, thus nurses should be paid more. However, evidence of wage analyses indicate that RN relative wages have increased markedly over time and are well in excess of 1998 wages received by other college-educated women. To sum up, taking into consideration these criticism it can be justified that pilots should be paid more than nurse however with pilots having easier jobs their wages should to a small extent to religion america represent that. Population Distribution? However on evidence based, conclusively pilots should get paid more than nurses ,as they have greater risk and fixed unsociable working hours so higher compensating wage differentials is needed as opposes nurse comparatively greater flexibility.

Moreover higher cost of human capital acquisition for pilots meant their wage differentials compensate that as oppose to nurse lower cost. Also compensation of higher skill level needed for religion and society america essays, airline pilots as they need certain flying experiences is also compensated by their higher age as oppose to nurses simplicity a having a degree.

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colonial dames essay (Art and Education, a alliance between Artforum and e-flux, is a global platform for religion and society in latin essays distributing research in christmas letters, the field of modern and in latin america interpretive contemporary art). [Images, not originally in artandeducation.net, have been added here] This is the very ecstasy of love, Whose violent property fordoes itself. It is impossible to overlook the extent to letters, which. civilization is built upon a renunciation of instinct. Andr Masson was born in 1896 and spent his early years in one of the in latin, most beautiful provinces of Northern France. Fresh rivers, fertile fields, and the rich forests of the Ile-de-France, celebrated by Barbizon and Impressionist painters, were the word essay, backdrop of his childhood and inspired his lifelong love of nature. His father’s business took the family to Brussels, where he encountered Old Master paintings in the local museums. He was admitted to the Acadmie Royale des Beaux-Arts et l’Ecole des Arts Dcoratifs at and society america interpretive essays age eleven.

In cities all over Europe at the turn of the 1998 dbq essay, century young people were enthralled by Art Nouveau, Impressionism, and Symbolism, as well as Nietzsche and america interpretive Wagner. Something of a drifter in his teenage years, he became a vegetarian, went barefoot, read avidly in literature and philosophy, considered himself a Wagnerian and a Nietzschean, resisted social conventions - and battle essay gettysburg was taken in religion america interpretive, by the authorities more than once. By 1913 Andr Masson was in Paris, studying at apush 1998 dbq essay the cole des Beaux-Arts , and first learned of the work of the Cubists through reproductions (he thought they were obsessed with automobile accidents). When war was declared he volunteered because he wanted to experience the Wagnerian aspects of battle[1] and know the in latin america interpretive essays, ecstasy of death. [2] He experienced that ecstasy the day a bullet ripped into the young artist's chest during the offensive at Chemin des Dames in April of 1917 (Adolf Hitler also fought at Chemin des Dames). Stretcher-bearers were unable to get him to safety and he was left for the night, half-dead, on his back, where he was a submissive spectator of the struggle, gazing at the conflict overhead. Masson had spent three years in the trenches in conditions so horrible he was unable to speak of gettysburg, them for years, and and society in latin interpretive his wounds caused him psychic trouble to the end of battle essay, his life.

Torrential Self-Portrait, 1945, ink on paper, 18-7/8x24 in. [48x61 cm]. Musée National d’Art Moderne, Centre Pompidou, Paris. There followed a succession of and society interpretive essays, hospitals for two years, and even padded cell confinement in a psychiatric ward. His doctor advised that he never again live in a big city. The war left him nervous with nightmares; he suffered from insomnia and spent long painful hours dreaming new paintings. The Crows, 1922, oil on canvas,

92x73 cm [36¼x28¾ inches]. private collection, Le Havre. A Throw of the Dice, 1922, oil on canvas, 37#8539;x25¼, Essen Museum, Germany. A Throw of the Dice is doubtless a reference to 2000, Stphane Mallarm’s Un Coup de ds jamais n’abolira le hazard , and/or Igitur . Anna Balakian wrote that the “throwing of the dice, of which we had the initial example in religion in latin america interpretive, Igitur, is the representation of human power, and the “hasard,” which it cannot succeed in mastering…” “Igitur’s life, therefore, is directed toward one single act, symbolized in the blowing out of the candle followed by the casting of dice.” [3] In contrast to 1998 dbq essay, the bareness of Crows, A Throw of the and society in latin america interpretive essays, Dice is filled with references to events and personal experiences as well as to acquaintances who gathered in his studio on the rue Blomet (this Cubist-influenced painting was bought by Ernest Hemingway directly from the artist’s studio). For Writing Creative! Guite Masson, Director of Comit Andr Masson, identifies the figure throwing the dice as Georges Limbour; the others as Roland Tual, Theodore Fraenkel, and “sans doute Michel Leiris.” Could these personages also be an allusion to Masson’s having survived the war in what Nietzsche called, “the great dice game of existence.” The dice, at religion america interpretive essays bottom center, are about to slip off the bottom of the daisy american dream, painting into in latin interpretive essays, the unknown - the daisy dream essay, “ nant .” Dice have a connotation of predetermined fatalism and appeared in many paintings at that time by Picasso, Braque, Klee, and others. Although Picasso admired his work, years later Masson said he had never been truly Cubist, for Cubists “have nothing to do with the representations of and society essays, dreams of those instincts which lie at the root of our being.” The Repast, 1922, oil on canvas, 31#8542;x36#8541;, private collection, Paris.

To eat together is spiritual union; meals in an ancient household were sacred because the household god was present. Masson’s close friends, artists, philosophers, and poets, were often portrayed in daisy buchanan, a variety of shared activities, as in religion and society america interpretive essays, The Repast . The pomegranate has a long symbolic tradition, going back to pagan mythology where it was the attribute of Persephone, signifying her periodic return to earth in the spring. Because of its abundant red seeds it is word essay a symbol of fertility. However, the French word grenade means both pomegranate and and society in latin essays hand grenade. For Masson the pomegranate, “the only fruit that bleeds,” was a sign of death, for he suffered a battlefield memory of a soldier’s head blown open and looking very much like a gaping pomegranate. Yet the figure on the right holds a glass of wine, another holds bread - the “liquid of ideas for writing christmas, life” and and society in latin america the “staff of life.” Masson affirmed life even with conflicting flashbacks. In 1923 Hitler’s Nazi putsch failed in Munich, while General Primo de Rivera became dictator of Spain. Cubist influence was evident in the artist’s work but with personal metamorphoses; even his still lifes were charged with an motivation, intensity of feeling at odds with the spirit of Cubism. Classic Cubist still life elements: tilted tabletop in shallow space, musical instruments, drinking glasses, fruit, even a Braque-like white clay pipe, plus Masson’s symbolic pomegranate, are apparent in religion and society in latin essays, Still Life with Candle . The lighted candle is fraught with allusions: uncertainty of daisy buchanan essay, being, illumination in the darkness of life, intelligence, and spiritual strength. 28x31½, collection of Mr Mrs Alexander P. Rosenberg, New York.

However, this candle burns but does not illuminate. The primary significance of the flame for Masson stems from the ancient Greek philosopher Heraclitus of Ephesus, who regarded fire as the fundamental substance, “Everything, like a flame in a fire, is religion in latin interpretive essays born of the death of buchanan dream, something else … the primordial element out of which everything else arises.” Heraclitus, Masson stated, “remains for religion in latin interpretive essays me the essential philosopher.” To a great degree Heraclitus foreshadowed the modern conception of the 2000 word essay, uniformity of natural law. If we substitute energy for religion Heraclitus’s term fire , as Werner Heisenberg [4] suggests, virtually everything he says about change is acceptable from the modern scientific point of view . The following year Masson became involved with Surrealism, [5] and by 1927 there were depictions of physical conflicts in his animal world: fish, birds, insects, and horses engaged in battle, as well as scenes of slaughter, massacres, copulation and rape. Andre Masson was possibly the most consistent portrayer of cruel confrontations and bizarre combat in Surrealism. He also painted some of his most symbolic and speculative works as his erudition served insight and revelation.

In Ophelia Shakespeare's female. Ophelia, 1937, oil on canvas, 44#8542;x57½, Baltimore Museum of Art, Sadie A. May Collection. protagonist is apush dbq essay surrounded by a countryside filled with ponds and religion america lush vegetation, like the fertile fields of the Ile-de-France where Masson grew up. Ophelia’s face is made up of floral forms. Word Essay! Flowers are a traditional symbol of life, fecundity, and joy, but Ophelia says: “There’s rosemary, that’s for remembrance; pray, love, remember; … there's rue for you; and here's some for me … O you must wear your rue with a difference.” Rue was a sign of repentance. More importantly it was also known and used in ancient times, and in the Renaissance, as a contraceptive and in latin america essays an abortifacient. [6] Rosemary was an established emblem of apush 1998, betrothal, but the religion in latin essays, Prince must wear his “rue with a difference.” Ophelia, like a supine non-erotic odalisque, is submerged in primordial waters; only her face, echoed in the cloud formation above, is visible. Life comes from water; immersion in water signifies a return to a pre-formal state, like baptism, with a sense of birth and regeneration on one hand and death and annihilation on the other. The sunlit sky is filled with cosmic forms and astral bodies; Ophelia is transformed into a cosmic planetary constellation not unlike Titian’s Bacchus and Ariadne where Bacchus, seeing the deserted, lovelorn Ariadne, leaps from his chariot to embrace her.

That event is creative mimicked by the clouds whose shapes echo the drapery and gestures of the principles, and where the in latin america essays, starry crown of immortality awaits Ariadne as a constellation. National Gallery, London. Above Ophelia is no Bacchic benefactor, but the reaper Death, Claimer of Souls; while scorpion-like insects (similar to mantes, scorpions show cannibalistic sexuality [7]) frolic, play, and serenade Ophelia - as their lives go on unencumbered by Shakespearean tragedy. As Ophelia said, “We know not what we are, but know not what we may be” (IV,5,45). militias on the Place de la Concorde near the seat of the National Assembly.

It was one of the major political crises. during the Third Republic and entered the popular consciousness of the socialist movement as an attempt. to organize a fascist coup d'tat; 16 people were killed and 2,000 injured. Masson witnessed the fascist riots of 1934 in Paris; he anticipated another war and decided to leave France. Recalling the doctor's advice to avoid city life, he decided Spain would offer a peaceful life. Hardly had he and his family reached Spain than insurrection broke out in Barcelona.

They found themselves trapped in the home of a friend in the middle of shelling and sniper fire. American! Lying behind mattresses for and society in latin shelter, Masson felt he was in the trenches again. [8] The Masson family returned to population distribution in china, France when the Spanish Civil War broke out in religion in latin interpretive essays, 1936. The next year German planes bombed the little town of Guernica, Picasso painted his mural, and Andre Breton was put in stanford, charge of Galerie Gradiva for the Surrealist exhibitions. Religion And Society In Latin America Interpretive! It is likely that Masson, just returned from the terrible scenes of the Civil War, and disturbed by ideas for writing creative letters the indifference of Europe to the fascist horror, was making a statement about the existence of dreadful suffering and religion america interpretive essays impending disaster. A titanic figure, like Samson destroying the temple, seems to be bringing down the modern world around himself in essay, the disturbing In the Tower of Sleep. 32x39½, Baltimore Museum of Art, Sadie A. In Latin! May Collection. Vital fluid gushes from his genitals and a gaping head wound spills forth seeds like an stanford creative writing, open pomegranate. Blood flows, fires (Heraclitean?) are burning. At upper right a woman’s nipples are bleeding as though pierced from religion and society america essays within with sword-points. A humanoid, Bosch-like musical instrument (left of the central figure), reminiscent of the scorpion-like insects in Ophelia , tears its own strings with a saw-like bow in a sadomasochistic serenade. The flayed figure came from distribution in china a memory of the war,” explained Masson, “a figure lying in a trench with his head split open;” [9] it all takes place in a tower from which there is no way out except into the abyss. [10] In ancient and medieval warfare, a tall tower was used in storming fortified castles, and terrible carnage ensued.

The tower, in dream symbolism, represents elevation, pedestal, and inaccessibility, with phallic connotations. Masson’s subconscious flashback explains the chaotic composition of the religion and society america essays, painting, almost psychotically* thrown together like a horrible nightmare with its plethora of complex motifs. As with the motivation, infamous “Famine Tower” where Ugolino and religion in latin interpretive children were immured, horrific images grow in the imagination. Possibly also a reference to the Tour de Nesle Affair, a scandal of the French royal family in 1314, during which the daughters-in-law of Philip IV were accused of adultery. The Tour de Nesle was a tower in Paris where much of the 1998 dbq essay, adultery occurred. The scandal led to torture, executions and imprisonments, with lasting consequences for the final years of the Capetian dynasty. The knights suffered horrific deaths: flayed, broken on the wheel, burned with hot lead and sulfur, genitals thrown to religion in latin interpretive essays, the dogs, and decapitation. Is Masson making a comment on “the final years” of European dynasty? * William Rubin refered to the late 1930 pictures as “ugly” and In the battle essay, Tower of and society america essays, Sleep as the “most repugnant of these Guignols.” (William Rubin, “Notes on Masson and Pollock,” Arts , November 1959, p. 41). 1998 Dbq Essay! [Presumably, he meant Grand Guignol theatre [ Le Thtre du Grand-Guignol ] in religion and society interpretive essays, the Pigalle area of Paris that specialized in horror shows, not Guignol, the character in a puppet show for children]. Masson had wide-ranging fascination and interest in all things throughout his life. Sigmund Freud's essay of 1906, Delusions and Dreams in letters, Jensen's Gradiva, translated into French in 1931, impressed the Surrealists more forcefully than his other writings.

It was an and society, analysis of a novel about an archeologist so devoted to his profession that he had no place in his life for 1998 dbq essay women. He visited Pompeii where he met Gradiva, who turned out to be a childhood friend who, in love with him, conformed to his delusions in order to cure him. Freud refers to this revelation and final salvation as the medication of love. The Surrealists adopted “medication” as their program, and religion in latin interpretive essays Gradiva as their Ideal Woman; Gradiva could intercede between the real and the surreal, life and distribution in china essay death, creation and destruction. 34½x48½, Collection Parti, Paris. Masson's Gradiva retains the religion in latin america interpretive essays, right foot in erection, [11] as in the ancient marble relief of Gradiva in ideas for writing letters, the Vatican Museum - and similar to the stance of a preying mantis. The body of Gradiva is in both a birth and death stance, like a combination Aztec birth goddess and and society interpretive essays an Ariadne sleeping pose. Masson, other Surrealists, Freud's paper, Breton's essay, all used the Gradiva theme as a myth of metamorphosis and regeneration of life. 19#8541;x25¾, collection of Francois Odermatt, Paris. Le rve d'Ariane , (1941, Francois Odermatt Collection, Paris) betokens the mysteries of ideas creative, female organs, just as the shell-vulva in Gradiva is associated with water and religion america interpretive Venus, sources of fertility and battle essay gettysburg symbols of one generation rising from the death of the preceding - similarities and religion interpretive essays parallels to motifs in Ophelia and fellowship the Heraclitean concept.

The profile of the sacred white bull (ominously darkened here) morphs frenziedly through spiraling tubal labyrinths to the waiting Ariadne (the volute suggests a vaginal plexus ). W.F. Jackson Knight cites Hommel as finding Cretan and religion and society in latin america Babylonian evidence of essay, a connection between the spiral labyrinth and the internal organs of the human anatomy, one being a microcosm of the america interpretive essays, other. [12] Indeed, in Leiris' novel, Aurora [13] the act of descending stairs is a descent into stanford fellowship, the self, a characteristic surrealist form of a pursuit of self-knowledge: “This stairway is … set in a spiral which permits access to in latin america interpretive, the various parts of the premises which contain your attic, it is your very viscera, it is your digestive tract which connects your mouth of writing fellowship, which you are proud, to your anus, of which you are ashamed, hollowing out through the body its sinuous sticky way.” Does Ariadne’s labyrinthine umbilical-thread help Masson to represent the “dreams of those instincts which lie at america interpretive essays the root of our being”? or the apush, medication of love? Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, poet and author, worked as a scientist in various fields such as mineralogy, comparative anatomy, botany, and the theory of color. There were years when science occupied him more than poetry. 28¾x45#8541;, Vera and Arturo Schwarz Collection, Israel Museum, Jerusalem. In Masson’s Goethe and the Metamorphosis of Plants , Goethe, who wrote “the eye both perceives and speaks,” [14] gazes intently at a gorgeous vision of primordial-looking germinations, crystalline radiations, and prisms. Perhaps the in latin essays, geometric “prism” between Goethe and the plants is gettysburg a reference to Isaac Newton’s rationalistic documentation of color that Goethe resisted. Religion And Society In Latin America Essays! Until then, most of the population essay, accepted concepts about color had been advanced by artist-scientists, like Leonardo da Vinci, who based their theories on their experiences with pigment rather than light.

Paint and light are fundamentally different: light is the source of and society essays, all color, and pigments are simply reflectors, absorbers and transmitters of colors. Dbq Essay! Eventually the sensation of religion and society america interpretive, color is in our brain. Like Masson, Goethe knew that the sensation of color was a psychological and sensual experience of the mind; his “Theory of Color” (a premise now known as phenomenology of colors) he regarded as proof against Newtonian optics. In his epoch-making, Essay on Metamorphosis of Plants Goethe set out to trace the american dream essay, specific phenomena in the magnificent garden of the religion in latin america interpretive essays, universe, back to one simple general principle. He saw plants as reflections of life forces and believed that the genera and species were variations of a basic archetype, the Urplanz , Ur -Plant, or First Plant. He published his scientific theory, but botanists and scientists snickered and advised him to stick to creative letters, poetry. He took their advice and interpretive rephrased his views in a poem, “The Metamorphosis of Plants.” Gradually his theory accumulated supporters, and is today the foundation for much of the study of plants, just as his color theories have new adherents through Color Field paintings. Masson felt great affinity for this genius whose insight was illuminated by his study of nature.

When the Germans occupied France in 1939, Masson was in creative writing fellowship, danger of religion, persecution by the Nazis because of his “degenerate” work, because the Surrealists had ties to the Communist Party, and because his wife was Jewish. Shortly after finishing the painting, Masson and motivation essay his family fled to Auvergne in unoccupied France and eventually to and society in latin america interpretive, America. Masson found Manhattan “a sublime city … entirely made by our contemporaries.” Nevertheless, his old horror of the confusion of urban life was intensified by the city, so he moved to the seclusion of an old Colonial-style house in suburban Connecticut where he painted Meditation on an Oak Leaf . 40x33, Museum of Modern Art, New York. The Japanese bombed Pearl Harbor in 1941 and the U.S. Daisy Buchanan American Essay! declared war. Masson’s “American Period” began with what he called “triumphant tellurism … symbols of blooming and germination.” [15] During the religion and society america interpretive, war Americans were urged to grow their own food in Victory Gardens; accordingly the artist dug into the dark rich Connecticut earth and grew his own vegetables. He was impressed by the fertility of American soil; years later in France he exclaimed: In New England there are oak trees three times larger than here, the leaves also!

The weeds are three times larger than here and the insects gigantic, for there is an astonishing fauna and it remains very wild 250 kilometers from New York . so I put a wildcat in my painting.” [16] No Cartesian meditation, no contemplation on the Tree of motivation 2000 word, Life, Meditation on an Oak Leaf is and society in latin essays organized in organic, cartouche-like compartments, pinched in 1998 dbq essay, the middle like cell division; the in latin essays, entire configuration is a kind of totem pole of private myths of pod and womb-like forms. The wildcat’s head surmounts this staff, and next to it are two eyes - one glowing red connected by a figure-eight, symbol of infinity. The painting is in population distribution, primary colors: red, blue, yellow; and white, on interpretive essays, a black ground that stands for earth, as the source of growth and regeneration, like Goethe’s “reflections of life forces.” Red is the energy principle, yellow the solar force, and christmas letters blue the color of interpretive essays, contemplation. “American energy fascinated me,” Masson said, “I painted the power of the earth. The magic. The climate.” The saturated hues of his American works, the sensual and mental experiences were an attempt to battle against the light that he found so fiercely bright in his adopted country. There are suggestions of for writing creative, roots and tendrils in the painting, of growing things weaving throughout the composition. Compressed, bisected shapes are translated into “vegetable and human fragments: leaf, worm, seed, flower, eye.” [17] Below the oval, womb-like compartment is a depiction of the quiescent artist in meditation (not unlike the pose in Matisse’s Girl Asleep , or Le Rêve, and in latin interpretive essays reminiscent of the. 31#8542;x25½, private collection, Paris.

figure in Repast , slumped over with his head in his arm and a pomegranate in population essay, (Masson’s?) hand, along with the religion and society in latin essays, umbilical threads of Le rve d'Ariane . Creative! At middle right is primordial, cactus-like foliage, as in Goethe and the Metamorphosis of Plants . Religion Essays! The larva, seed, or embryo of nascent white below the peacefully dreaming painter has a broken line (always a sign of movement in Masson’s art) indicating that fertilization has taken place. Masson designed a curtain, Libert, Egalit, Fraternit , in 1942 for motivation a Society of American Friends of religion in latin interpretive essays, France ceremony that showed his involvement with France’s plight in the midst of stanford writing, war. Clement Greenberg stated that Masson's visit to and society america interpretive, America played a pivotal role in the development of Abstract Expressionism in New York. Jackson. Pollock's Totem 1 (1944) is considered an extrapolation of 2000 word essay, Masson's Meditation on Oak Leaf , [18] and his Pasipha (1943) was painted soon after Masson’s work of the same title, while Gorky’s Garden in Sochi series (early 1940s. They were neighbors in Connecticut) has parallels with Masson’s art of those years.

With the end of the war, Masson returned to his native France where he was the subject of retrospective and solo exhibitions throughout Europe. He won France's National Prize for in latin america interpretive Painting in 1954. He had seen the large collections of Chinese art at the Metropolitan Museum in New York and at the Boston Museum in Massachusetts, and recognized sensibilities toward nature that paralleled his own. “At first glance there’s no human trace in Chinese landscapes,” he said, “as the eye travels over the painting, a few brushstrokes reveal the figure of a man. A grain of dust in that world” - reminiscent of daisy american, William Blake’s “To see the World in a Grain of Sand, / And a Heaven in a Wild Flower…” In the mid 1950s, calligraphic forms derived from and society essays Chinese and Japanese ideograms began to ideas creative christmas letters, appear in Masson’s works. He was enthralled by the play of spontaneity and control in Asian art and in latin america interpretive essays was drawn to the philosophy of Zen Buddhism. Interestingly, Surrealism and creative fellowship Zen share the concept that surprising juxtapositions can inspire powerful insights and intuitions. “Having left the in latin, realm of Surrealism, Masson was expressing a broadly humanistic, existentialist conception of the artist’s activity,” stated Clark Poling. “In their visual dynamism these works embody creative energy, thus recapitulating a central aspect of automatism without bearing particular evidence of a source in the unconscious.” [19] 39#8540;x59, Mobilier National, Paris. In Pursuit of motivation 2000, Hatchings and Germinations is religion in latin america interpretive essays a study Masson made for a Gobelin tapestry. Over an earth-brown underpainting is a fusion of subtle depictions of a bird, a floating figure with fruit, heart-fashioned vagina, fish, insects, leaf, worm, seed, flower, eye, egg and embryo shapes, - images that have long intrigued Masson - and trailing hatchings of colorful meandering calligraphic lines, veins and streaks.

Masson is pursuing the hidden reality, the psyche, or spirit of the dynamics of nature that can’t be detached from its aesthetic values. Zen, the meditative method of reaching serenity and imbued by a deep sense of the cosmic order of creation, opened the essay, way to inner tranquility and enlightenment for Masson. In 1976 Masson was honored with a retrospective exhibition at the Museum of Modern Art in New York; four years later he had to abandon painting because of ill health. In early 1987 a large exhibition of his drawings was held at religion and society in latin interpretive the Haywood Gallery in London; he made his last trip to population distribution in china, see it. He died, age 91, in his Paris home in October of and society interpretive essays, that year. Without “a renunciation of instinct” Andr Masson sought the “ecstasy of death” as a young man. He survived, and found the ecstasy of word essay, life, love, and and society interpretive art, of courage and sagacity, in the chaos and carnage that was the twentieth century. Sophocles ended King Oedipus with: “… learn that mortal man must always look to his ending, for none can be called happy until that day when he carries his happiness down to the grave in peace.” Masson’s valor and acumen, his affirmation of life in the face of devastating odds, earned him the ancient Greek maxim: “Satisfaction, all passion spent.” [1] Interview with Masson, Newsweek magazine, 15 November 1965, vol.

2, no. 35, p. 106. [2] An allusion to Tristan und Isolde ’s Liebestod where death is the dbq essay, only consummation. Isolde’s final words were höchste Lust [highest bliss]. When Polonius says “ecstasy of love” (II,1,113), when Ophelia describes Hamlet as “blasted with ecstasy” (III,1,160), and when Hamlet declares “ecstasy was ne’er so thrall’d” (III,4,74) to his mother, Shakespeare uses the word “ecstasy” in the Elizabethan sense of disordered, madness, unbalanced, - a derangement of the senses . [3] Anna Balakian, Literary Origins of Surrealism: A New Mysticism in French Poetry (New York, King's Crown Press, 1947), p. 129, p. 92. [4] Werner Heisenberg, Physics and Philosophy , NY: Harper and religion in latin america interpretive Row, 1958, p.71; as quoted in Robert Nadeau, Readings from the New Book on Nature: Physics and Metaphysics in the Modern Novel , University of Massachusetts Press, Amherst, 1981, p. 21. [5] Masson introduced the word essay, idea of the Minotaur and labyrinth to in latin america interpretive, the Surrealists, “ it was Masson and Georges Bataille who suggested Le Minotaur as well as Labyrinthe as titles for Albert Skira’s publications”: Martin Ries, “Picasso and the Myth of the Minotaur,” Art Journal , XXXII/2, Winter 1972/73, p.142. In a letter, dated 26 June 1967, in answer to questions by Martin Ries: “The title of the magazine Le Minotaure had not been proposed by the orthodox Surrealists but by Georges Bataille and myself in a meeting at for writing letters Vitrac's house, Rue de Seine, we won after arguing against religion and society in latin interpretive essays the opposing Surrealists who wanted to call the magazine l'Age d’or . It was only later that Breton and the rest of the loyal Surrealists worked for it too. But not without some reserve because of the title.

About Labyrinthe , it was Bataille who gave the idea to Skira.” [6] John M. Daisy American Essay! Riddle, J. Worth Estes, and Josiah C. Russell, Ever Since Eve . . . Birth Control in the Ancient World. Archaeology vol. 47, no. 2 (March/April, 1994), 29-35. [7] Mantes, unlike other insects, do not eat plant life; they are the cannibals of the insect world and devour members of their own family. They appealed to the Surrealists because of the fact that, while mating, the religion in latin america interpretive essays, female devours the male, although the male continues to copulate. See William L. Pressley, The Praying Mantis in Surrealist Art, Art Bulletin , vol.

LV, no. 4, (December, 1970) [8] Dawn Ades, André Masson , NY: Rizzoli, 1994, p.17. [9] Jean-Paul Clébert, Mythologie d'Andr é Masson , Geneva:Cailler, 1971, p. 57. Cited in William Rubin and motivation 2000 essay Carolyn Lanchner, André Masson , New York, Museum of Modern Art, 1976, p. 227, n. 94. [11] Freud described her foot as perpendicular, in Jensen's 'Gradiva' , ( Standard Edition of the Complete Psychological Works of Sigmund Freud, trans. America Interpretive Essays! James Strachey, London, 1959, IX, pp.

10, 28, 46, 95). See Jean-Paul Clébert, Mythologie d'Andr é Masson , Geneva:Cailler, 1971, p. 95; also cited in William Rubin and christmas Carolyn Lanchner, André Masson , MOMA, 1976, p.227, n. Interpretive Essays! 94; Whitney Chadwick, Masson's Gradiva : The Metamorphosis of a Surrealist Myth, Art Bulletin , vol. Population Distribution In China! LII, No. 4, (December, 1970); and Martin Ries, Andre Masson: Surrealism and His Discontents, Art Journal , vol. 61, no. Religion Interpretive! 4, winter 2002. [12] Knight, W. F. Jackson, Maze Symbolism and Trojan Game Antiquity , December 1932, vol. 6, #24, p. Daisy Dream Essay! 450; citing Fritz Hommel in religion and society in latin interpretive, Orientalistische Literaturzeitung , 1919, XXVI, 63 ff. [13] J. H. Ideas Creative Christmas! Matthews, Surrealism and and society in latin interpretive the Novel , Ann Arbor 1966, p. 108; citing Michel Leiris, Aurora , Paris: Gallimard, 1946. For Writing Letters! p. Religion And Society America Interpretive Essays! 23. Aurora was written between 1927 and 1928, published in 1946 (Matthews, p. 122). [14] The ear is dumb, the mouth deaf, but the eye both perceives and speaks, Naturwissenschaftliche Schriften, [Nature Studies] vol.

5, p.12. [15] Andre Masson, Entretiens avec Georges Charpentier , Paris: Julliard, 1958. [18] William Rubin and Carolyn Lanchner, André Masson, NY: Museum of Modern Art, 1976, p. 67. [19] Clark V. Poling, Andre Masson and the Surrealist Self , New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 2008, p.162. This paper was written with the help of a Release-Time Research Grant from Long Island University, the Brooklyn Center.

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Ghost World is the movie of a generation. Submitted by CdMScott on america, Fri, 08/12/2005 - 3:00am. The song Turn My Way on New Order's Get Ready album goes I don't want to be like other people are, down want to own a key, don't want to wash my car, don't want to have to work, like other people do. I want it to be free. I want it to be true. This lyric sums up a lot of what I see in the attitudes toward life of people of my generation [I'm 37] and those born after me; this feeling of: Hello? I am so very special and unique that I shouldn't have to population distribution in china, hold a normal JOB. I, who alone see through all the bullshit to comprehend the true essence of life, must follow my own personal muse and everyone else should a) pay for it, and b) feel glad to and society in latin interpretive essays, act as recipients of my inherent brilliance. Look around. Since the ideas for writing creative late 60s all the movies, music, books, and everything else is and society in latin america essays all filled with messages about what a special little snowflake you are and how you have to follow your heart and blaze your own path.

The majority of population distribution in china, movies are full of adulation for those who break the rules. Now more than ever messages are everywhere about in latin interpretive, a) how being a celebrity is the highest state of human achievement possible, and b) you too will be a star, it's just a matter of time before someone sees the essay gettysburg TRUE GENIUS within your soul. I remember seeing a piece in the New York Times magazine where they interviewed high school dropouts about what they were going to do with their lives. One of america essays, them said that it's no problem that she didn't finish high school, because she's going to be a model, and if not, she'll be a veterinarian. The thing the New Order song gets exactly right is in battle, marrying this feeling of essays, being too special and apush 1998 dbq essay, unique to hold down a normal job with the feeling that one needs to stay true to oneself and religion and society in latin america, experience things as they really are. To not be suckered in by all the for writing creative bullshit of contemporary life, particularly in American society. It also works in the reverse-one can feel that one is too true and pure to handle having a normal job, because we see through all the bullshit and that makes it harder to interpretive essays, fit in essay gettysburg, with the normal people who, we assume, just want to america essays, go to the mall, eat fast food, have superficial conversations, and see Deuce Bigalow. You see how self-serving this is-in either case it's all about how very special the person is and motivation 2000 word essay, how they alone see through all of the bullshit.

To me, Ghost World sums up this phenomenon, about a girl who sees through the utter bullshit of and society essays, everything going on around her, and how she does or does not cope with it. Thora Birch plays Enid, a snarky girl from divorced parents who lives with her weak, ineffectual father. Scarlett Johansson plays her best friend Rebecca. The movie joins then during their graduation from high school, announcing its wicked sense of dbq essay, humor in having a girl in a wheelchair and head brace give a speech about how she doesn't need drugs to enjoy life [implying that drugs were how she ended up in religion and society in latin interpretive, her condition], immediately followed by a trio of students rapping about graduation. It is just the stanford writing fellowship everyday tastelessness of religion and society in latin interpretive, life in suburban America, and Enid's expression of appalled disgust registers her feelings about it. Enid and population in china essay, Rebecca follow a couple they suspect are Satanists to a 50s-themed diner with 80s metal-pop on the soundtrack. They make fun of the personal ads, focusing on a missed connection ad placed by a lonely man. Religion Interpretive Essays. They call the number, pretending to be the woman sought, and arrange a meeting at apush, the 50s diner.

When the man [Steve Buscemi] shows up, they observe and make fun of him to themselves, wrapped up in their own fun, oblivious to religion in latin essays, the hurt they are causing him. Enid and Rebecca hang out, as it is clear they have done for distribution, a long while. Neither plans to go to college, they plan to and society interpretive essays, get jobs and live together. In China Essay. Soon Rebecca starts looking for a job. Enid keeps making excuses. They decide to seek out Seymour, the man they tricked with the fake ad response, in religion in latin america essays, order to gain further amusement from him. They find him selling old records out of his garage.

He is a serious record collector, interested in ideas for writing creative, early jazz and blues. Religion America Essays. Enid buys a blues collection as a novelty. Informed that she needs one more credit before she can get her diploma, Enid is motivation essay enrolled in a summer art class. The teacher is played by Illeana Douglas, introduced through a snippet of her hilariously artsy BW video art piece that shows a man's shadow climbing the stairs as a voice on religion in latin america interpretive essays, the soundtrack drones Mirror. Father.

Mirror.. She wants the students to use art to express their feelings and how they see social issues. and she obviously has a very preconceived notion of how that can be done. She hopes to display their work in an upcoming local show amusingly entitled Brotherhood and community: Art as dialogue. One night, Enid listens to the record she bought from apush 1998 Seymour, and religion in latin, really responds to one song; Devil Got My Woman. She goes back to find Seymour, and population in china, a friendship develops. Enid takes it upon herself to religion and society, find Seymour a girlfriend, and they go out looking for suitable women.

During one sequence they go out to a blues club where an old Delta blues musician is opening for writing, a group called Blues Hammer [a not very well disguised Blues Traveler or Jon Spencer Blues Explosion?]. The authentic blues musician is drowned out by the people waiting for the headlining band. Then a potential date for Seymour tells him that if he really loves authentic blues he'll love Blues Hammer. Blues Hammer then comes on; they are suburban white guys playing blues-tinged heavy metal about picking cotton for the man. Rebecca gets a job at a Starbucks-like cafe. She wonders when Enid will get a job so they can start looking for apartments together.

Enid continues to say she will. At one point they see an older man in a suit sitting on a bench, waiting for interpretive essays, a bus. He's always there, Rebecca says. Ideas For Writing Christmas. They inform him that the bus line was cancelled years ago, and in latin essays, a bus will never come, No, he insists, a bus will come. Enid isn't doing very well in her art class. Her teacher responds to the other kids' banal projects [a tampon in a teacup reflects one student's feelings about a woman's right to distribution essay, choose], but doesn't approve of in latin america interpretive, Enid's drawings, which she deems simple. It is the one unrealistic note in the film that the teacher cannot recognize the obvious artistic ability demonstrated by stanford writing fellowship Enid's drawings [created for the film by Robert Crumb's daughter]. Enid's father has begun to see a woman he had previously been involved with, whom Enid hates. Seymour begins a relationship with a woman, the one he was trying to reach with his personal ad from the beginning of the film. Some of the religion america essays most painfully funny moments come from Seymour's trying to lower his expectations for human companionship enough to accept this woman and stanford writing fellowship, begin a relationship.

My favorite moment is the utterly appalled look on america, his face when Ashford Simpson's Solid comes on, and the woman jumps up and says Oh! I love this song! At one point, Enid says to Seymour that sometimes she fantasizes about going off to 2000 word, some random place, and I'd just disappear and no one would ever see me again. Enid attempts to get a job at a movie theater, but her sarcastic comments get her fired after one day. Rebecca enlists her to look for apartments, even though Enid doesn't have a job. She asks Enid to dress relatively conservative, as they will need to impress their potential landlord.

Enid responds by dyeing her hair bright green. This is just the latest passive-aggressive thing that Enid has done to Rebecca, like inviting her to and society interpretive, a party that turns out to be gathering for geeky serious archival record collectors. Enid wants to keep everything at an ironic distance, to be able to annoy her friend, but receive in 2000 essay, return affection for how lightly they both take things and how much Rebecca will take from her. But Rebecca has begun to move on, to understand the importance of taking certain things seriously, and they grow apart. Rebecca makes excuses to avoid hanging out and society in latin, with Enid, and begins to look for an apartment on her own.

Enid finally turns in essay, a project that her art teacher approves of [this is in latin america essays a large part of the story, but it is also best left to be seen in creative, the movie], and her teacher offers to submit her for a full scholarship to a nearby college. The situation with the art project blows up into religion in latin america essays, a controversy that involves Seymour. He ends up returning to live with his mother, and in therapy. Ideas For Writing Christmas Letters. The implication is religion and society that Enid will not be seeing him much anymore. Enid fails to show up to move into an apartment with Rebecca, and her friend has finally had enough. Enid's father informs her that the former flame that Enid hates will be moving back in with them. Population Essay. And finally, Enid is informed by her art teacher that, because of the controversy her art project caused, she is religion and society interpretive being forced to withdraw her nomination for daisy dream, the scholarship. Abandoned by everyone, Enid walks the streets.

She looks across the street and sees the man waiting for the discontinued bus. And Society In Latin Essays. Only, the bus arrives, and he gets on. Next we see Enid with her suitcase in hand. Ideas For Writing Creative. She waits, the bus arrives, and she gets on. The final shot is a wonderfully-photographed dusk scene as the bus crosses a bridge. We cannot see what is on the other side.

In attempting to write this rough synopsis, it occurs to me how very small the numerous details that make up this movie are. The plots meander and are told with tiny touches that accumulate over its running time. It occurred to me during my last viewing of this film that the deadpan sense of humor and focus on minute details of Napoleon Dynamite could not exist if this film had not come first. The reason this movie works so well is that a great majority of the audience will believe that Enid is RIGHT. The world around her is rife with false and religion and society interpretive essays, forced sincerity, banality, desperate grasping at elusive visions of happiness, and empty products-and the movie does a fantastic job of sprinkling evocative details throughout. A great many of the american dream essay laughs generated by the first half of the film arise from recognizing all the luminous details from our own lives, and the thrill that can come from interpretive essays finding a movie that has the same viewpoint toward them that we do.

Enid sees how entirely stupid, false, and pointless virtually every aspect of the suburban reality around her is. And, like any intelligent person, she doesn't want to daisy dream, participate. Interpretive. She wants to be different, to both stand outside the culture and make fun, and also to be sincere in her own actions and ideas for writing, feelings. The many passive-aggressive stunts and caustic remarks she makes to her friends can be seen as an attempt to connect to them sincerely [if annoyingly], in contrast to religion america interpretive essays, the smiley-faced falseness all around. Essay Gettysburg. She is never more offended than when someone takes an outfit she's wearing as a lame attempt at aping an old fashion, when it's obviously a genuine 1977 punk look! The problem is that, wrong, stupid, and false as everything is, if you don't participate in it in some way. you end up on the bus to nowhere. This aspect is what really elevates this movie above being a cute but ultimately empty trifle about lovable nerds, like Napoleon Dynamite, and to in latin interpretive, a serious statement about a social phenomenon in this country.

Ghost World's fully-realized social environment, deep and realistic characters, and delicately-rendered moral conundrum make it about more than just the few characters it follows. When I first watched this movie in the theater, I recall speculating as to how it would end; maybe Enid would meet someone, or she'd get the art scholarship, or something good would happen. During the letters last half hour, when all possible avenues of escape were closing to her, I remember the concerned feeling of WHAT is religion america essays going to happen to this girl? There is battle gettysburg no doubt that the movie wouldn't have had nearly the religion america interpretive impact that it does if it didn't have the courage to follow its story to its natural conclusion, and to conclude it in 2000 essay, such a brilliantly artistic and evocative way. I also remember thinking back to what I had heard from several people who had seen the film before me: that it was hilariously funny! I could only shake my head; sure, there are funny touches, but overall, to and society in latin america interpretive, me this film is distressingly painful. Probably because I recognize myself and several of my friends in buchanan american, Enid's struggle to remain free of the bullshit that surrounds us everywhere in and society in latin essays, American society. And also the resistance to apush 1998, being forced to in latin america interpretive, participate in the society, yet the reality that one must participate or simply disappear. In perfectly capturing a wide swath of an entire culture, and 1998 dbq essay, so evocatively and precisely creating such an accurate picture of a certain generation of Americans and religion in latin essays, the moral and spiritual dilemmas they face, or refuse to face, this movie really becomes a definitive statement on the life situation and future faced by those born in the 70s and 80s. rob kirby replied on Tue, 10/27/2015 - 11:00am.

This is still the best analysis of this movie I've ever read. It's one of stanford, your finest pieces, I feel; it made me appreciate the religion and society interpretive movie way more than I did on my initial viewing. Thanks. CdMScott replied on Tue, 10/27/2015 - 11:28am. Wow, Rob, thank you so much!

It means a lot to me. Scott. All content ©2005-2015 Cinema de Merde. Images are used in accordance with the Fair Use Law and are property of the film copyright owners. You may freely link to any page on distribution in china essay, this website, but reproduction in any other form must be authorized by the copyright holder.

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