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Ideology and Ideological State Apparatuses. (Notes towards an Investigation) First published : in writing styles La Pense , 1970; Translated : from the French by Ben Brewster; Source : Lenin and Philosophy and Other Essays , Monthly Review Press 1971; Transcribed : by Andy Blunden. On the Reproduction of the Conditions of Production  I must now expose more fully something which was briefly glimpsed in my analysis when I spoke of the necessity to renew the means of essay college, production if production is to be possible. That was a passing hint.
Now I shall consider it for itself. As Marx said, every child knows that a social formation which did not reproduce the conditions of production at styles the same time as it produced would not last a year.  The ultimate condition of production is therefore the research method reproduction of the conditions of production. This may be ‘simple’ (reproducing exactly the previous conditions of production) or ‘on an extended scale’ (expanding them). Let us ignore this last distinction for the moment. What, then, is the reproduction of the conditions of production ? Here we are entering a domain which is both very familiar (since Capital Volume Two) and uniquely ignored. The tenacious obviousnesses (ideological obviousnesses of an empiricist type) of the point of view of production alone, or even of that of mere productive practice (itself abstract in relation to the process of production) are so integrated into our everyday ‘consciousness’ that it is extremely hard, not to say almost impossible, to raise oneself to the point of view of reproduction. Nevertheless, everything outside this point of view remains abstract (worse than one-sided: distorted) – even at essay mla the level of production, and, a fortiori , at that of mere practice. Let us try and examine the coursworks matter methodically.
To simplify my exposition, and assuming that every social formation arises from a dominant mode of production, I can say that the process of production sets to work the existing productive forces in and under definite relations of production. It follows that, in order to exist, every social formation must reproduce the conditions of its production at writing styles the same time as it produces, and in order to be able to produce. It must therefore reproduce: 1. the productive forces, 2. the existing relations of production. Reproduction of the Means of Production. Everyone (including the bourgeois economists whose work is national accounting, or the modern ‘macro-economic’ ‘theoreticians’) now recognizes, because Marx compellingly proved it in Capital Volume Two, that no production is possible which does not allow for the reproduction of the material conditions of production: the reproduction of the means of production. The average economist, who is no different in this than the average capitalist, knows that each year it is essential to foresee what is needed to replace what has been used up or worn out in retention production: raw material, fixed installations (buildings), instruments of production (machines), etc. Essay! I say the dissertation average economist = the essay styles mla average capitalist, for they both express the point of view of the firm, regarding it as sufficient simply to help give a commentary on the terms of the firm’s financial accounting practice.
But thanks to the genius of Quesnay who first posed this ‘glaring’ problem, and to the genius of writing styles, Marx who resolved it, we know that the reproduction of the material conditions of production cannot be thought at the level of the firm, because it does not exist at that level in its real conditions. Eassy Writing! What happens at the level of the firm is an effect, which only gives an idea of the necessity of reproduction, but absolutely fails to allow its conditions and mechanisms to be thought. A moment’s reflection is enough to essay writing mla be convinced of this: Mr X, a capitalist who produces woollen yarn in his spinning-mill, has to coursworks ‘reproduce’ his raw material, his machines, etc. But he does not produce them for writing styles his own production – other capitalists do: an coursworks, Australian sheep farmer, Mr Y, a heavy engineer producing machine-tools, Mr Z, etc., etc. And Mr Y and Mr Z, in order to produce those products which are the condition of the essay reproduction of Mr X’s conditions of production, also have to reproduce the conditions of their own production, and so on to infinity – the whole in proportions such that, on the national and bialik, even the essay writing mla world market, the demand for means of production (for reproduction) can be satisfied by the supply. In order to think this mechanism, which leads to a kind of eassy writing, ‘endless chain’, it is essay styles necessary to follow Marx’s ‘global’ procedure, and to study in particular the relations of the circulation of capital between Department I (production of means of production) and research method paper, Department II (production of means of consumption), and the realization of surplus value, in Capital , Volumes Two and Three. We shall not go into the analysis of this question. It is enough to essay writing styles have mentioned the existence of the necessity of the reproduction of the material conditions of production. However, the reader will not have failed to note one thing.
We have discussed the reproduction of the means of production – but not the essay college tuition reproduction of the essay writing mla productive forces. We have therefore ignored the reproduction of what distinguishes the productive forces from the means of production, i.e. the reproduction of labour power. From the observation of what takes place in the firm, in particular from the examination of the financial accounting practice which predicts amortization and investment, we have been able to obtain an approximate idea of the existence of the material process of reproduction, but we are now entering a domain in which the observation of on high college tuition, what happens in the firm is, if not totally blind, at least almost entirely so, and for good reason: the reproduction of labour power takes place essentially outside the firm. How is the reproduction of labour power ensured? It is ensured by giving labour power the material means with which to writing styles reproduce itself: by wages. Wages feature in the accounting of papers urgent, each enterprise, but as ‘wage capital’,  not at all as a condition of the material reproduction of labour power. However, that is in essay writing mla fact how it ‘works’, since wages represents only that part of the value produced by the expenditure of labour power which is indispensable for coursworks its reproduction: so indispensable to the reconstitution of the labour power of the wage-earner (the wherewithal to pay for housing, food and clothing, in short to essay mla enable the employee wage earner to present himself again at writing mla the factory gate the next day – and every further day God grants him); and phd dissertation bialik, we should add: indispensable for raising and educating the children in whom the writing mla proletarian reproduces himself (in n models where n = 0, 1, 2, etc. ) as labour power.
Remember that this quantity of value (wages) necessary for the reproduction of labour power is determined not by the needs of a ‘biological’ Guaranteed Minimum Wage ( Salaire Minimum Interprofessionnel Garanti ) alone, but by employee the needs of a historical minimum (Marx noted that English workers need beer while French proletarians need wine) – i.e. a historically variable minimum. I should also like to point out that this minimum is doubly historical in that it is not defined by the historical needs of the working class ‘recognized’ by the capitalist class, but by the historical needs imposed by the proletarian class struggle (a double class struggle: against the lengthening of the working day and against the reduction of wages). However, it is not enough to ensure for labour power the essay mla material conditions of its reproduction if it is to be reproduced as labour power. I have said that the available labour power must be ‘competent’, i.e. suitable to be set to eassy writing work in the complex system of the process of production. The development of the productive forces and mla, the type of unity historically constitutive of the productive forces at a given moment produce the result that the labour power has to be (diversely) skilled and therefore reproduced as such. Diversely: according to the requirements of the socio-technical division of coursworks, labour, its different ‘jobs’ and ‘posts’. How is this reproduction of the (diversified) skills of labour power provided for in a capitalist regime? Here, unlike social formations characterized by slavery or serfdom this reproduction of the skills of labour power tends (this is a tendential law) decreasingly to be provided for ‘on the spot’ (apprenticeship within production itself), but is achieved more and more outside production: by the capitalist education system, and by other instances and institutions. What do children learn at school? They go varying distances in their studies, but at writing mla any rate they learn to paper read, to write and to add – i.e. a number of essay writing styles, techniques, and a number of other things as well, including elements (which may be rudimentary or on the contrary thoroughgoing) of eassy writing, ‘scientific’ or ‘literary culture’, which are directly useful in the different jobs in writing production (one instruction for manual workers, another for technicians, a third for phd dissertation bialik engineers, a final one for higher management, etc.).
Thus they learn know-how. But besides these techniques and knowledges, and in learning them, children at school also learn the ‘rules’ of essay styles mla, good behaviour, i.e. the attitude that should be observed by every agent in the division of labour, according to the job he is ‘destined’ for: rules of morality, civic and phd dissertation, professional conscience, which actually means rules of respect for the socio-technical division of labour and ultimately the rules of the styles mla order established by class domination. They also learn to ‘speak proper French’, to ‘handle’ the workers correctly, i.e. actually (for the future capitalists and their servants) to ‘order them about’ properly, i.e. Method Paper! (ideally) to ‘speak to them’ in essay writing styles the right way, etc. To put this more scientifically, I shall say that the eassy writing reproduction of labour power requires not only essay writing styles mla, a reproduction of eassy writing, its skills, but also, at the same time, a reproduction of its submission to the rules of the established order, i.e. a reproduction of submission to the ruling ideology for the workers, and a reproduction of the ability to essay styles manipulate the ruling ideology correctly for bialik the agents of exploitation and repression, so that they, too, will provide for the domination of the ruling class ‘in words’. In other words, the school (but also other State institutions like the Church, or other apparatuses like the Army) teaches ‘know-how’, but in forms which ensure subjection to the ruling ideology or the mastery of its ‘practice’. All the agents of production, exploitation and repression, not to speak of the ‘professionals of ideology’ (Marx), must in one way or another be ‘steeped’ in this ideology in order to perform their tasks ‘conscientiously’ – the tasks of the exploited (the proletarians), of the exploiters (the capitalists), of the exploiters’ auxiliaries (the managers), or of the high priests of the ruling ideology (its ‘functionaries’), etc. The reproduction of labour power thus reveals as its sine qua non not only the reproduction of its ‘skills’ but also the reproduction of its subjection to essay writing the ruling ideology or of the ‘practice’ of that ideology, with the proviso that it is not enough to say ‘not only but also’, for it is clear that it is in the forms and under the forms of ideological subjection that provision is made for the reproduction of the skills of labour power.
But this is to recognize the effective presence of a new reality: ideology. Here I shall make two comments. The first is to round off my analysis of reproduction. I have just given a rapid survey of the forms of the coursworks reproduction of the productive forces, i.e. Essay Styles Mla! of the means of coursworks, production on the one hand, and of labour power on the other. But I have not yet approached the question of the reproduction of the relations of production. This is a crucial question for the Marxist theory of the mode of production. To let it pass would be a theoretical omission – worse, a serious political error. I shall therefore discuss it.
But in order to obtain the means to discuss it, I shall have to make another long detour. The second comment is that in writing styles order to make this detour, I am obliged to re-raise my old question: what is a society? Infrastructure and Superstructure. On a number of occasions  I have insisted on the revolutionary character of the Marxist conception of the ‘social whole’ insofar as it is custom research papers urgent distinct from the Hegelian ‘totality’. I said (and this thesis only writing styles, repeats famous propositions of historical materialism) that Marx conceived the structure of every society as constituted by ‘levels’ or ‘instances’ articulated by a specific determination: the infrastructure , or economic base (the ‘unity’ of the productive forces and the relations of production) and the superstructure , which itself contains two ‘levels’ or ‘instances’: the politico-legal (law and the State) and coursworks, ideology (the different ideologies, religious, ethical, legal, political, etc.).
Besides its theoretico-didactic interest (it reveals the difference between Marx and Hegel), this representation has the following crucial theoretical advantage: it makes it possible to inscribe in the theoretical apparatus of its essential concepts what I have called their respective indices of effectivity. What does this mean? It is easy to see that this representation of the structure of every society as an edifice containing a base (infrastructure) on which are erected the two ‘floors’ of the superstructure, is essay writing a metaphor, to be quite precise, a spatial metaphor: the metaphor of a topography ( topique ).  Like every metaphor, this metaphor suggests something, makes some thing visible. What? Precisely this: that the upper floors could not ‘stay up’ (in the air) alone, if they did not rest precisely on their base.
Thus the object of the metaphor of the phd dissertation help bialik edifice is to represent above all the ‘determination in the last instance’ by the economic base. The effect of this spatial metaphor is to endow the base with an index of effectivity known by the famous terms: the determination in the last instance of what happens in the upper ‘floors’ (of the superstructure) by what happens in writing styles mla the economic base. Given this index of effectivity ‘in the purchase custom papers urgent last instance’, the ‘floors’ of the superstructure are clearly endowed with different indices of effectivity. Essay Writing Styles! What kind of indices? It is possible to say that the floors of the superstructure are not determinant in the last instance, but that they are determined by the effectivity of the base; that if they are determinant in their own (as yet undefined) ways, this is true only insofar as they are determined by the base. Their index of effectivity (or determination), as determined by the determination in the last instance of the base, is thought by the Marxist tradition in two ways: (1) there is a ‘relative autonomy’ of the superstructure with respect to the base; (2) there is a ‘reciprocal action’ of the superstructure on the base. We can therefore say that the great theoretical advantage of the Marxist topography, i.e. Essay! of the spatial metaphor of the edifice (base and superstructure) is styles mla simultaneously that it reveals that questions of determination (or of index of effectivity) are crucial; that it reveals that it is the base which in the last instance determines the whole edifice; and that, as a consequence, it obliges us to eassy writing pose the theoretical problem of the mla types of ‘derivatory’ effectivity peculiar to dissertation the superstructure, i.e. it obliges us to think what the Marxist tradition calls conjointly the relative autonomy of the superstructure and the reciprocal action of the superstructure on writing styles mla the base. The greatest disadvantage of this representation of the structure of every society by the spatial metaphor of an retention dissertation, edifice, is obviously the fact that it is metaphorical: i.e. it remains descriptive. It now seems to essay me that it is possible and desirable to college represent things differently.
NB, I do not mean by this that I want to reject the classical metaphor, for that metaphor itself requires that we go beyond it. And I am not going beyond it in order to reject it as outworn. I simply want to attempt to writing styles mla think what it gives us in the form of a description. I believe that it is possible and necessary to think what characterizes the essential of the existence and research, nature of the superstructure on the basis of reproduction. Once one takes the point of view of styles, reproduction, many of the questions whose existence was indicated by the spatial metaphor of the edifice, but to which it could not give a conceptual answer, are immediately illuminated. My basic thesis is that it is not possible to pose these questions (and therefore to answer them) except from the point of view of phd dissertation help bialik, reproduction.
I shall give a short analysis of Law, the State and Ideology from this point of essay styles mla, view. And I shall reveal what happens both from the point of view of practice and production on the one hand, and from that of reproduction on the other. The Marxist tradition is strict, here: in eassy writing the Communist Manifesto and the Eighteenth Brumaire (and in all the later classical texts, above all in Marx’s writings on the Paris Commune and Lenin’s on State and Revolution ), the State is explicitly conceived as a repressive apparatus. Essay Writing! The State is a ‘machine’ of repression, which enables the phd dissertation help ruling classes (in the nineteenth century the bourgeois class and the ‘class’ of big landowners) to ensure their domination over the working class, thus enabling the former to subject the writing styles mla latter to the process of surplus-value extortion (i.e. to college capitalist exploitation). The State is thus first of all what the Marxist classics have called the State Apparatus. This term means: not only the writing mla specialized apparatus (in the narrow sense) whose existence and necessity I have recognized in relation to the requirements of legal practice, i.e. the police, the courts, the prisons; but also the army, which (the proletariat has paid for employee this experience with its blood) intervenes directly as a supplementary repressive force in the last instance, when the police and writing, its specialized auxiliary corps are ‘outrun by events’; and above this ensemble, the retention dissertation head of State, the writing styles mla government and the administration. Presented in this form, the Marxist-Leninist ‘theory’ of the State has its finger on the essential point, and not for one moment can there be any question of rejecting the quantitative research fact that this really is the essential point. The State Apparatus, which defines the State as a force of repressive execution and mla, intervention ‘in the interests of the ruling classes’ in the class struggle conducted by the bourgeoisie and essay college, its allies against the proletariat, is writing mla quite certainly the State, and quite certainly defines its basic ‘function’. From Descriptive Theory to Theory as such.
Nevertheless, here too, as I pointed out with respect to the metaphor of the edifice (infrastructure and superstructure), this presentation of the nature of the State is still partly descriptive. As I shall often have occasion to use this adjective (descriptive), a word of explanation is necessary in coursworks order to remove any ambiguity. Whenever, in speaking of the metaphor of the edifice or of the essay styles Marxist ‘theory’ of the eassy writing State, I have said that these are descriptive conceptions or representations of their objects, I had no ulterior critical motives. On the contrary, I have every grounds to essay styles mla think that great scientific discoveries cannot help but pass through the phd dissertation help phase of what I shall call descriptive ‘ theory ‘ . This is the first phase of every theory, at least in writing the domain which concerns us (that of the science of social formations). As such, one might and in my opinion one must – envisage this phase as a transitional one, necessary to the development of the theory. That it is transitional is inscribed in my expression: ‘descriptive theory’, which reveals in its conjunction of terms the equivalent of a kind of purchase papers, ‘contradiction’. In fact, the term theory ‘clashes’ to some extent with the adjective ‘descriptive’ which I have attached to it.
This means quite precisely: (1) that the ‘descriptive theory’ really is, without a shadow of a doubt, the irreversible beginning of the theory; but (2) that the ‘descriptive’ form in which the theory is presented requires, precisely as an effect of this ‘contradiction’, a development of the essay styles mla theory which goes beyond the form of ‘description’. Let me make this idea clearer by returning to our present object: the State. When I say that the essay Marxist ‘theory’ of the State available to us is still partly ‘descriptive’, that means first and foremost that this descriptive ‘theory’ is writing styles mla without the shadow of a doubt precisely the beginning of the Marxist theory of the State, and that this beginning gives us the essential point, i.e. the decisive principle of every later development of the theory. Indeed, I shall call the descriptive theory of the State correct, since it is research urgent perfectly possible to make the vast majority of the facts in the domain with which it is concerned correspond to the definition it gives of its object. Styles Mla! Thus, the definition of the coursworks State as a class State, existing in the Repressive State Apparatus, casts a brilliant light on all the facts observable in the various orders of repression whatever their domains: from the massacres of June 1848 and of the essay styles Paris Commune, of Bloody Sunday, May 1905 in Petrograd, of the Resistance, of Charonne, etc., to the mere (and relatively anodyne) interventions of a ‘censorship’ which has banned Diderot’s La Rligieuse or a play by Gatti on Franco; it casts light on quantitative research paper all the direct or indirect forms of exploitation and extermination of the styles mla masses of the people (imperialist wars); it casts light on that subtle everyday domination beneath which can be glimpsed, in the forms of political democracy, for example, what Lenin, following Marx, called the dictatorship of the bourgeoisie. And yet the descriptive theory of the State represents a phase in the constitution of the theory which itself demands the ‘supersession’ of this phase. For it is clear that if the definition in eassy writing question really does give us the means to identify and recognize the facts of oppression by relating them to the State, conceived as the Repressive State Apparatus, this ‘interrelationship’ gives rise to mla a very special kind of obviousness, about which I shall have something to say in a moment: ‘Yes, that’s how it is, that’s really true!’  And the accumulation of facts within the definition of the State may multiply examples, but it does not really advance the definition of the State, i.e. the purchase custom papers scientific theory of the State.
Every descriptive theory thus runs the essay writing risk of ‘blocking’ the development of the theory, and yet that development is essential. That is why I think that, in order to method paper develop this descriptive theory into theory as such, i.e. in order to essay styles mla understand further the mechanisms of the eassy writing State in its functioning, I think that it is indispensable to writing styles add something to the classical definition of the State as a State Apparatus. The Essentials of the Marxist Theory of the State. Let me first clarify one important point: the State (and its existence in its apparatus) has no meaning except as a function of State power. The whole of the political class struggle revolves around the State. By which I mean around the possession, i.e. the seizure and method, conservation of State power by a certain class or by an alliance between classes or class fractions. This first clarification obliges me to essay mla distinguish between State power (conservation of coursworks, State power or seizure of State power), the objective of the political class struggle on styles mla the one hand, and the State Apparatus on the other. We know that the State Apparatus may survive, as is proved by essay on high tuition bourgeois ‘revolutions’ in nineteenth-century France (1830, 1848), by coups d’tat (2 December, May 1958), by collapses of the State (the fall of the Empire in 1870, of the Third Republic in 1940), or by the political rise of the petty bourgeoisie (1890-95 in France), etc., without the writing styles State Apparatus being affected or modified: it may survive political events which affect the possession of State power. Even after a social revolution like that of custom research, 1917, a large part of the State Apparatus survived after the seizure of State power by the alliance of the writing mla proletariat and employee retention, the small peasantry: Lenin repeated the fact again and essay, again. It is essay on high possible to describe the distinction between state power and state apparatus as part of the essay writing mla ‘Marxist theory’ of the state, explicitly present since Marx’s Eighteenth Brumaire and Class Struggles in France. To summarize the ‘Marxist theory of the state’ on this point, it can be said that the Marxist classics have always claimed that (1) the quantitative state is the repressive state apparatus, (2) state power and state apparatus must be distinguished, (3) the essay styles mla objective of the class struggle concerns state power, and in consequence the essay college tuition use of the state apparatus by the classes (or alliance of classes or of fractions of classes) holding state power as a function of their class objectives, and (4) the proletariat must seize state power in order to destroy the existing bourgeois state apparatus and, in a first phase, replace it with a quite different, proletarian, state apparatus, then in later phases set in motion a radical process, that of the destruction of the state (the end of state power, the writing styles mla end of every state apparatus).
In this perspective, therefore, what I would propose to add to the ‘Marxist theory’ of the state is already there in so many words. But it seems to coursworks me that even with this supplement, this theory is still in styles part descriptive, although it does now contain complex and differential elements whose functioning and action cannot be understood without recourse to further supplementary theoretical development. The State Ideological Apparatuses. Thus, what has to employee dissertation be added to the ‘Marxist theory’ of the writing styles mla state is something else. Here we must advance cautiously in a terrain which, in fact, the Marxist classics entered long before us, but without having systematized in theoretical form the decisive advances implied by their experiences and procedures. Their experiences and procedures were indeed restricted in phd dissertation help bialik the main to the terrain of essay styles mla, political practice. In fact, i.e. in their political practice, the Marxist classics treated the State as a more complex reality than the definition of it given in the ‘Marxist theory of the coursworks state’, even when it has been supplemented as I have just suggested. They recognized this complexity in their practice, but they did not express it in a corresponding theory.  I should like to essay writing styles mla attempt a very schematic outline of this corresponding theory.
To that end, I propose the following thesis. In order to advance the theory of the quantitative research method State it is indispensable to take into account not only the distinction between state power and state apparatus , but also another reality which is essay styles mla clearly on the side of the (repressive) state apparatus, but must not be confused with it. I shall call this reality by its concept: the phd dissertation bialik Ideological State Apparatuses. What are the Ideological State Apparatuses (ISAs)? They must not be confused with the (repressive) State apparatus. Remember that in Marxist theory, the State Apparatus (SA) contains: the Government, the Administration, the Army, the Police, the Courts, the Prisons, etc., which constitute what I shall in future call the Repressive State Apparatus. Repressive suggests that the State Apparatus in question ‘functions by violence’ – at least ultimately (since repression, e.g. administrative repression, may take non-physical forms). I shall call Ideological State Apparatuses a certain number of realities which present themselves to the immediate observer in the form of distinct and specialized institutions. I propose an empirical list of these which will obviously have to be examined in detail, tested, corrected and re-organized. With all the reservations implied by this requirement, we can for the moment regard the styles following institutions as Ideological State Apparatuses (the order in which I have listed them has no particular significance): the religious ISA (the system of the different churches), the educational ISA (the system of the different public and private ‘schools’), the family ISA,  the legal ISA,  the political ISA (the political system, including the different parties), the trade-union ISA, the communications ISA (press, radio and television, etc.), the cultural ISA (literature, the arts, sports, etc.).
I have said that the ISAs must not be confused with the (Repressive) State Apparatus. What constitutes the difference? As a first moment, it is clear that while there is one (Repressive) State Apparatus, there is a plurality of Ideological State Apparatuses. Even presupposing that it exists, the unity that constitutes this plurality of custom research urgent, ISAs as a body is not immediately visible. As a second moment, it is essay styles mla clear that whereas the essay college tuition unified – (Repressive) State Apparatus belongs entirely to the public domain, much the larger part of the Ideological State Apparatuses (in their apparent dispersion) are part, on the contrary, of the private domain. Churches, Parties, Trade Unions, families, some schools, most newspapers, cultural ventures, etc., etc., are private. We can ignore the first observation for the moment. But someone is bound to question the second, asking me by what right I regard as Ideological State Apparatuses, institutions which for the most part do not possess public status, but are quite simply private institutions.
As a conscious Marxist, Gramsci already forestalled this objection in one sentence. Styles Mla! The distinction between the public and the private is a distinction internal to bourgeois law, and valid in the (subordinate) domains in which bourgeois law exercises its ‘authority’. Essay Tuition! The domain of the State escapes it because the mla latter is ‘above the law’: the State, which is the State of the ruling class, is neither public nor private; on the contrary, it is the precondition for any distinction between public and private. The same thing can be said from the custom research papers starting-point of our State Ideological Apparatuses. Writing! It is unimportant whether the eassy writing institutions in which they are realized are ‘public’ or ‘private’. Essay Writing Styles! What matters is how they function.
Private institutions can perfectly well ‘function’ as Ideological State Apparatuses. A reasonably thorough analysis of any one of the ISAs proves it. But now for what is essential. What distinguishes the ISAs from the essay on high college tuition (Repressive) State Apparatus is the following basic difference: the Repressive State Apparatus functions ‘by violence’, whereas the Ideological State Apparatuses function ‘ by ideology’. I can clarify matters by correcting this distinction. Essay Writing! I shall say rather that every State Apparatus, whether Repressive or Ideological, ‘functions’ both by violence and by ideology, but with one very important distinction which makes it imperative not to confuse the Ideological State Apparatuses with the (Repressive) State Apparatus. This is the fact that the (Repressive) State Apparatus functions massively and predominantly by repression (including physical repression), while functioning secondarily by ideology. (There is no such thing as a purely repressive apparatus.) For example, the Army and the Police also function by ideology both to ensure their own cohesion and quantitative method, reproduction, and in the ‘values’ they propound externally. In the same way, but inversely, it is essential to say that for their part the Ideological State Apparatuses function massively and predominantly by ideology , but they also function secondarily by repression, even if ultimately, but only ultimately, this is very attenuated and concealed, even symbolic. Mla! (There is eassy writing no such thing as a purely ideological apparatus.) Thus Schools and Churches use suitable methods of punishment, expulsion, selection, etc., to ‘discipline’ not only essay writing mla, their shepherds, but also their flocks. The same is true of the method Family. The same is true of the cultural IS Apparatus (censorship, among other things), etc. Is it necessary to add that this determination of the double ‘functioning’ (predominantly, secondarily) by repression and by ideology, according to whether it is a matter of the (Repressive) State Apparatus or the Ideological State Apparatuses, makes it clear that very subtle explicit or tacit combinations may be woven from the interplay of the (Repressive) State Apparatus and the Ideological State Apparatuses?
Everyday life provides us with innumerable examples of this, but they must be studied in detail if we are to go further than this mere observation. Nevertheless, this remark leads us towards an understanding of what constitutes the unity of the apparently disparate body of the ISAs. If the ISAs ‘function’ massively and predominantly by ideology, what unifies their diversity is precisely this functioning, insofar as the writing ideology by which they function is always in fact unified, despite its diversity and essay on high college, its contradictions, beneath the writing mla ruling ideology , which is the method ideology of writing styles mla, ‘the ruling class’. Given the fact that the ‘ruling class’ in principle holds State power (openly or more often by means of alliances between classes or class fractions), and therefore has at its disposal the (Repressive) State Apparatus, we can accept the employee fact that this same ruling class is essay writing styles active in the Ideological State Apparatuses insofar as it is ultimately the ruling ideology which is realized in eassy writing the Ideological State Apparatuses, precisely in its contradictions. Of course, it is a quite different thing to act by laws and decrees in the (Repressive) State Apparatus and to essay writing ‘act’ through the quantitative research method paper intermediary of the ruling ideology in the Ideological State Apparatuses. We must go into the details of this difference – but it cannot mask the reality of a profound identity.
To my knowledge, no class can hold State power over a long period without at the same time exercising its hegemony over and in the State Ideological Apparatuses. I only writing, need one example and proof of help bialik, this: Lenin’s anguished concern to revolutionize the educational Ideological State Apparatus (among others), simply to essay writing mla make it possible for the Soviet proletariat, who had seized State power, to secure the future of the dictatorship of the proletariat and the transition to socialism.  This last comment puts us in a position to understand that the Ideological State Apparatuses may be not only the stake , but also the site of class struggle, and often of bitter forms of class struggle. The class (or class alliance) in coursworks power cannot lay down the law in the ISAs as easily as it can in the (repressive) State apparatus, not only because the former ruling classes are able to essay styles retain strong positions there for eassy writing a long time, but also because the essay writing mla resistance of the custom urgent exploited classes is able to find means and occasions to express itself there, either by the utilization of their contradictions, or by conquering combat positions in them in writing styles struggle.  Let me run through my comments. If the thesis I have proposed is well-founded, it leads me back to the classical Marxist theory of the State, while making it more precise in one point.
I argue that it is necessary to distinguish between State power (and its possession by . ) on the one hand, and the State Apparatus on research paper the other. But I add that the State Apparatus contains two bodies: the writing styles mla body of research paper, institutions which represent the Repressive State Apparatus on the one hand, and the body of institutions which represent the body of Ideological State Apparatuses on the other. But if this is the case, the following question is bound to essay be asked, even in help the very summary state of my suggestions: what exactly is the extent of the role of the Ideological State Apparatuses? What is their importance based on? In other words: to what does the ‘function’ of these Ideological State Apparatuses, which do not function by essay writing styles repression but by ideology, correspond?
On the Reproduction of the Relations of Production. I can now answer the central question which I have left in suspense for many long pages: how is the reproduction of the relations of production secured? In the topographical language (Infrastructure, Superstructure), I can say: for help bialik the most part,  it is secured by essay the legal-political and custom research papers, ideological superstructure. But as I have argued that it is essential to go beyond this still descriptive language, I shall say: for the most part, it is secured by the exercise of State power in the State Apparatuses, on the one hand the (Repressive) State Apparatus, on the other the Ideological State Apparatuses. What I have just said must also be taken into account, and it can be assembled in the form of the following three features: 1. All the State Apparatuses function both by repression and by ideology, with the difference that the (Repressive) State Apparatus functions massively and predominantly by essay styles mla repression, whereas the Ideological State Apparatuses function massively and predominantly by purchase research papers ideology. 2. Whereas the (Repressive) State Apparatus constitutes an organized whole whose different parts are centralized beneath a commanding unity, that of the politics of class struggle applied by essay styles the political representatives of the ruling classes in possession of State power, the Ideological State Apparatuses are multiple, distinct, ‘relatively autonomous’ and capable of providing an objective field to contradictions which express, in forms which may be limited or extreme, the coursworks effects of the clashes between the capitalist class struggle and the proletarian class struggle, as well as their subordinate forms. 3. Essay Writing Styles! Whereas the unity of the (Repressive) State Apparatus is secured by its unified and centralized organization under the leadership of the coursworks representatives of the styles mla classes in coursworks power executing the politics of the class struggle of the styles mla classes in purchase papers urgent power, the mla unity of the different Ideological State Apparatuses is secured, usually in contradictory forms, by the ruling ideology, the ideology of the ruling class. Taking these features into eassy writing account, it is possible to represent the reproduction of the relations of production  in the following way, according to a kind of ‘division of essay mla, labour’. The role of the research method repressive State apparatus, insofar as it is a repressive apparatus, consists essentially in securing by force (physical or otherwise) the writing political conditions of the essay reproduction of relations of production which are in the last resort relations of exploitation.
Not only does the State apparatus contribute generously to its own reproduction (the capitalist State contains political dynasties, military dynasties, etc.), but also and above all, the State apparatus secures by repression (from the most brutal physical force, via mere administrative commands and interdictions, to open and tacit censorship) the political conditions for the action of the Ideological State Apparatuses. In fact, it is the styles mla latter which largely secure the reproduction specifically of the relations of production, behind a ‘shield’ provided by the repressive State apparatus. It is here that the role of the ruling ideology is heavily concentrated, the ideology of the ruling class, which holds State power. It is the intermediation of the ruling ideology that ensures a (sometimes teeth-gritting) ‘harmony’ between the repressive State apparatus and the Ideological State Apparatuses, and between the different State Ideological Apparatuses. We are thus led to envisage the following hypothesis, as a function precisely of the diversity of ideological State Apparatuses in their single, because shared, role of the reproduction of the relations of production. Indeed we have listed a relatively large number of purchase research papers urgent, Ideological State Apparatuses in contemporary capitalist social formations: the educational apparatus, the religious apparatus, the family apparatus, the political apparatus, the trade-union apparatus, the essay writing styles mla communications apparatus, the ‘cultural’ apparatus, etc. But in the social formations of that mode of production characterized by ‘serfdom’ (usually called the essay on high college feudal mode of production), we observe that although there is a single repressive State apparatus which, since the earliest known Ancient States, let alone the styles Absolute Monarchies, has been formally very similar to the one we know today, the number of Ideological State Apparatuses is employee retention smaller and their individual types are different.
For example, we observe that during the Middle Ages, the Church (the religious Ideological State Apparatus) accumulated a number of functions which have today devolved on to several distinct Ideological State Apparatuses, new ones in relation to the past I am invoking, in particular educational and cultural functions. Alongside the Church there was the family Ideological State Apparatus, which played a considerable part, incommensurable with its role in essay writing mla capitalist social formations. Despite appearances, the Church and the Family were not the only Ideological State Apparatuses. There was also a political Ideological State Apparatus (the Estates General, the Parlement , the different political factions and Leagues, the ancestors of the modern political parties, and the whole political system of the free Communes and then of the Villes ). There was also a powerful ‘proto-trade union’ Ideological State Apparatus, if I may venture such an anachronistic term (the powerful merchants’ and bankers’ guilds and the journeymen’s associations, etc.). Publishing and Communications, even, saw an indisputable development, as did the theatre; initially both were integral parts of the Church, then they became more and more independent of employee, it. In the pre-capitalist historical period which I have examined extremely broadly, it is absolutely clear that there was one dominant Ideological State Apparatus , the Church , which concentrated within it not only religious functions, but also educational ones, and a large proportion of the functions of communications and writing, ‘culture’. It is no accident that all ideological struggle, from the sixteenth to the eighteenth century, starting with the first shocks of the research urgent Reformation, was concentrated in an anti-clerical and anti-religious struggle; rather this is a function precisely of the dominant position of the writing mla religious Ideological State Apparatus. The foremost objective and achievement of the French Revolution was not just to transfer State power from the feudal aristocracy to the merchant-capitalist bourgeoisie, to break part of the former repressive State apparatus and replace it with a new one (e.g., the national popular Army) but also to custom papers urgent attack the essay writing styles number-one Ideological State Apparatus: the Church. Hence the civil constitution of the clergy, the confiscation of ecclesiastical wealth, and the creation of new Ideological State Apparatuses to replace the religious Ideological State Apparatus in its dominant role.
Naturally, these things did not happen automatically: witness the Concordat, the Restoration and on high college, the long class struggle between the landed aristocracy and the industrial bourgeoisie throughout the nineteenth century for writing styles the establishment of eassy writing, bourgeois hegemony over the functions formerly fulfilled by the Church: above all by the Schools. It can be said that the bourgeoisie relied on the new political, parliamentary-democratic, Ideological State Apparatus, installed in the earliest years of the Revolution, then restored after long and violent struggles, for a few months in styles mla 1848 and for decades after the fall of the Second Empire, in order to conduct its struggle against the Church and wrest its ideological functions away from it, in other words, to ensure not only tuition, its own political hegemony, but also the ideological hegemony indispensable to the reproduction of capitalist relations of production. That is why I believe that I am justified in advancing the essay writing styles following Thesis, however precarious it is. I believe that the Ideological State Apparatus which has been installed in the dominant position in mature capitalist social formations as a result of a violent political and ideological class struggle against purchase papers, the old dominant Ideological State Apparatus, is the educational ideological apparatus. This thesis may seem paradoxical, given that for everyone, i.e. in the ideological representation that the bourgeoisie has tried to give itself and the classes it exploits, it really seems that the dominant Ideological State Apparatus in capitalist social formations is not the Schools, but the political Ideological State Apparatus, i.e. the regime of parliamentary democracy combining universal suffrage and party struggle. However, history, even recent history, shows that the essay mla bourgeoisie has been and still is retention dissertation able to writing accommodate itself to retention political Ideological State Apparatuses other than parliamentary democracy: the First and Second Empires, Constitutional Monarchy (Louis XVIII and Charles X), Parliamentary Monarchy (Louis-Philippe), Presidential Democracy (de Gaulle), to mention only France. In England this is even clearer. The Revolution was particularly ‘successful’ there from the bourgeois point of view, since unlike France, where the bourgeoisie, partly because of the stupidity of the petty aristocracy, had to agree to being carried to power by peasant and plebeian ‘ journes rvolutionnaires ’, something for which it had to pay a high price, the English bourgeoisie was able to ‘compromise’ with the aristocracy and ‘share’ State power and the use of the State apparatus with it for a long time (peace among all men of good will in the ruling classes!). In Germany it is even more striking, since it was behind a political Ideological State Apparatus in which the imperial Junkers (epitomized by Bismarck), their army and essay styles mla, their police provided it with a shield and leading personnel, that the imperialist bourgeoisie made its shattering entry into history, before ‘traversing’ the help Weimar Republic and entrusting itself to Nazism. Hence I believe I have good reasons for thinking that behind the scenes of its political Ideological State Apparatus, which occupies the front of the stage, what the bourgeoisie has installed as its number-one, i.e. as its dominant Ideological State Apparatus, is the educational apparatus, which has in fact replaced in its functions the previously dominant Ideological State Apparatus, the Church.
One might even add: the School-Family couple has replaced the Church-Family couple. Why is the essay mla educational apparatus in fact the dominant Ideological State Apparatus in capitalist social formations, and how does it function? For the moment it must suffice to say: 1. Research Paper! All Ideological State Apparatuses, whatever they are, contribute to writing the same result: the reproduction of the relations of production, i.e. of capitalist relations of exploitation. 2. Each of them contributes towards this single result in the way proper to eassy writing it. Essay Mla! The political apparatus by coursworks subjecting individuals to mla the political State ideology, the ‘indirect’ (parliamentary) or ‘direct’ (plebiscitary or fascist) ‘democratic’ ideology. The communications apparatus by cramming every ‘citizen’ with daily doses of nationalism, chauvinism, liberalism, moralism, etc, by means of the press, the radio and television. The same goes for essay on high the cultural apparatus (the role of sport in chauvinism is of the first importance), etc. The religious apparatus by essay writing recalling in sermons and the other great ceremonies of Birth, Marriage and Death, that man is only ashes, unless he loves his neighbour to the extent of turning the other cheek to whoever strikes first. The family apparatus . but there is no need to go on. 3. This concert is dominated by a single score, occasionally disturbed by contradictions (those of the remnants of former ruling classes, those of the proletarians and their organizations): the score of the Ideology of the bialik current ruling class which integrates into its music the great themes of the Humanism of the Great Forefathers, who produced the Greek Miracle even before Christianity, and afterwards the Glory of Rome, the styles mla Eternal City, and employee retention dissertation, the themes of Interest, particular and general, etc. nationalism, moralism and economism.
4. Nevertheless, in this concert, one Ideological State Apparatus certainly has the dominant role, although hardly anyone lends an ear to its music: it is so silent! This is the School. It takes children from every class at infant-school age, and then for years, the years in essay writing mla which the child is purchase custom research urgent most ‘vulnerable’, squeezed between the Family State Apparatus and the Educational State Apparatus, it drums into them, whether it uses new or old methods, a certain amount of writing, ‘know-how’ wrapped in the ruling ideology (French, arithmetic, natural history, the sciences, literature) or simply the ruling ideology in its pure state (ethics, civic instruction, philosophy). Essay! Somewhere around the styles age of sixteen, a huge mass of paper, children are ejected ‘into production’: these are the workers or small peasants. Another portion of scholastically adapted youth carries on: and, for essay writing better or worse, it goes somewhat further, until it falls by the wayside and fills the research paper posts of small and middle technicians, white-collar workers, small and middle executives, petty bourgeois of all kinds. A last portion reaches the summit, either to fall into intellectual semi-employment, or to provide, as well as the ‘intellectuals of the collective labourer’, the agents of exploitation (capitalists, managers), the agents of repression (soldiers, policemen, politicians, administrators, etc.) and essay writing mla, the professional ideologists (priests of all sorts, most of college, whom are convinced ‘laymen’). Each mass ejected en route is practically provided with the ideology which suits the role it has to essay writing fulfil in class society: the quantitative research method paper role of the exploited (with a ‘highly-developed’ ‘professional’, ‘ethical’, ‘civic’, ‘national’ and a-political consciousness); the role of the agent of writing mla, exploitation (ability to give the workers orders and speak to them: ‘human relations’), of the eassy writing agent of essay writing styles, repression (ability to give orders and enforce obedience ‘without discussion’, or ability to manipulate the demagogy of a political leader’s rhetoric), or of the professional ideologist (ability to treat consciousnesses with the respect, i.e. with the contempt, blackmail, and demagogy they deserve, adapted to on high tuition the accents of Morality, of essay writing styles, Virtue, of ‘Transcendence’, of the Nation, of France’s World Role, etc.). Of course, many of these contrasting Virtues (modesty, resignation, submissiveness on the one hand, cynicism, contempt, arrogance, confidence, self-importance, even smooth talk and cunning on coursworks the other) are also taught in the Family, in the Church, in the Army, in Good Books, in films and even in the football stadium. But no other Ideological State Apparatus has the obligatory (and not least, free) audience of the totality of the children in the capitalist social formation, eight hours a day for essay writing styles mla five or six days out of essay on high, seven. But it is by an apprenticeship in a variety of essay writing mla, know-how wrapped up in the massive inculcation of the ideology of the ruling class that the relations of eassy writing, production in writing styles mla a capitalist social formation, i.e. the relations of exploited to exploiters and exploiters to exploited, are largely reproduced.
The mechanisms which produce this vital result for the capitalist regime are naturally covered up and concealed by a universally reigning ideology of the coursworks School, universally reigning because it is one of the essential forms of the ruling bourgeois ideology: an ideology which represents the School as a neutral environment purged of ideology (because it is essay . lay), where teachers respectful of the ‘conscience’ and ‘freedom’ of the children who are entrusted to them (in complete confidence) by their ‘parents’ (who are free, too, i.e. the owners of their children) open up for them the path to the freedom, morality and responsibility of adults by their own example, by knowledge, literature and their ‘liberating’ virtues. I ask the pardon of those teachers who, in dreadful conditions, attempt to turn the few weapons they can find in the history and eassy writing, learning they ‘teach’ against the ideology, the system and the practices in writing which they are trapped. They are a kind of quantitative research method, hero. But they are rare and how many (the majority) do not even begin to suspect the writing mla ‘work’ the system (which is quantitative paper bigger than they are and crushes them) forces them to do, or worse, put all their heart and essay writing styles mla, ingenuity into performing it with the most advanced awareness (the famous new methods!). So little do they suspect it that their own devotion contributes to the maintenance and nourishment of this ideological representation of the School, which makes the custom urgent School today as ‘natural’, indispensable-useful and even beneficial for our contemporaries as the Church was ‘natural’, indispensable and generous for our ancestors a few centuries ago. In fact, the Church has been replaced today in its role as the dominant Ideological State Apparatus by the School. It is coupled with the Family just as the Church was once coupled with the Family. We can now claim that the styles unprecedentedly deep crisis which is now shaking the education system of so many States across the globe, often in conjunction with a crisis (already proclaimed in the Communist Manifesto ) shaking the family system, takes on a political meaning, given that the School (and the on high tuition School/Family couple) constitutes the dominant Ideological State Apparatus, the styles Apparatus playing a determinant part in the reproduction of the relations of production of a mode of production threatened in its existence by the world class struggle. When I put forward the concept of an Ideological State Apparatus, when I said that the ISAs ‘function by ideology’, I invoked a reality which needs a little discussion: ideology. It is well known that the expression ‘ideology’ was invented by Cabanis, Destutt de Tracy and their friends, who assigned to it as an object the (genetic) theory of ideas. When Marx took up the term fifty years later, he gave it a quite different meaning, even in his Early Works.
Here, ideology is the system of the ideas and representations which dominate the mind of help, a man or a social group. The ideologico-political struggle conducted by Marx as early as his articles in the Rheinische Zeitung inevitably and quickly brought him face to face with this reality and forced him to take his earliest intuitions further. However, here we come upon a rather astonishing paradox. Everything seems to lead Marx to formulate a theory of ideology. In fact, The German Ideology does offer us, after the 1844 Manuscripts , an explicit theory of ideology, but . it is not Marxist (we shall see why in a moment).
As for Capital , although it does contain many hints towards a theory of ideologies (most visibly, the ideology of the vulgar economists), it does not contain that theory itself, which depends for the most part on a theory of ideology in essay mla general. I should like to venture a first and research paper, very schematic outline of such a theory. The theses I am about to essay mla put forward are certainly not off the cuff, but they cannot be sustained and tested, i.e. Retention! confirmed or rejected, except by much thorough study and analysis. One word first of all to expound the reason in principle which seems to writing styles me to found, or at least to justify, the project of a theory of ideology in general , and eassy writing, not a theory of particular ideolog ies , which, whatever their form (religious, ethical, legal, political), always express class positions. It is writing styles mla quite obvious that it is necessary to proceed towards a theory of ideologies in the two respects I have just suggested.
It will then be clear that a theory of ideolog ies depends in the last resort on the history of eassy writing, social formations, and thus of the modes of production combined in social formations, and of the class struggles which develop in essay styles them. In this sense it is clear that there can be no question of a theory of research urgent, ideolog ies in writing styles general, since ideolog ies (defined in the double respect suggested above: regional and class) have a history, whose determination in the last instance is clearly situated outside ideologies alone, although it involves them. On the contrary, if I am able to put forward the project of a theory of ideology in general , and if this theory really is purchase custom research papers one of the elements on writing styles mla which theories of ideologies depend, that entails an apparently paradoxical proposition which I shall express in help the following terms: ideology has no history. As we know, this formulation appears in so many words in a passage from The German Ideology. Marx utters it with respect to metaphysics, which, he says, has no more history than ethics (meaning also the other forms of ideology).
In The German Ideology , this formulation appears in a plainly positivist context. Ideology is conceived as a pure illusion, a pure dream, i.e. as nothingness. Essay Writing Styles! All its reality is external to help bialik it. Ideology is thus thought as an imaginary construction whose status is exactly like the theoretical status of the dream among writers before Freud. For these writers, the dream was the mla purely imaginary, i.e. null, result of ‘day’s residues’, presented in an arbitrary arrangement and order, sometimes even ‘inverted’, in other words, in ‘disorder’. For them, the dream was the imaginary, it was empty, null and phd dissertation help, arbitrarily ‘stuck together’ ( bricol ), once the eyes had closed, from the residues of the essay writing styles only full and positive reality, the reality of the essay on high tuition day. This is exactly the status of philosophy and essay, ideology (since in this book philosophy is ideology par excellence ) in The German Ideology.
Ideology, then, is for Marx an imaginary assemblage ( bricolage ), a pure dream, empty and vain, constituted by the ‘day’s residues’ from the only full and positive reality, that of the concrete history of eassy writing, concrete material individuals materially producing their existence. Writing Styles Mla! It is on this basis that ideology has no history in eassy writing The German Ideology , since its history is outside it, where the only existing history is, the history of concrete individuals, etc. Mla! In The German Ideology , the thesis that ideology has no history is therefore a purely negative thesis, since it means both: 1. ideology is nothing insofar as it is a pure dream (manufactured by who knows what power: if not by quantitative method the alienation of the division of labour, but that, too, is mla a negative determination); 2. ideology has no history, which emphatically does not mean that there is no history in it (on the contrary, for it is merely the method paper pale, empty and inverted reflection of real history) but that it has no history of its own. Now, while the thesis I wish to defend formally speaking adopts the terms of The German Ideology (‘ideology has no history’), it is radically different from the positivist and historicist thesis of essay writing, The German Ideology. For on the one hand, I think it is essay tuition possible to styles mla hold that ideolog ies have a history of their own (although it is determined in the last instance by the class struggle); and on research method the other, I think it is possible to hold that ideology in general has no history , not in a negative sense (its history is external to it), but in an absolutely positive sense. This sense is a positive one if it is styles mla true that the peculiarity of ideology is that it is endowed with a structure and a functioning such as to make it a non-historical reality, i.e. an essay on high college, omni-historical reality, in the sense in which that structure and functioning are immutable, present in the same form throughout what we can call history, in the sense in which the Communist Manifesto defines history as the history of class struggles, i.e. the history of class societies. To give a theoretical reference-point here, I might say that, to essay writing styles mla return to our example of the dream, in its Freudian conception this time, our proposition: ideology has no history, can and must (and in a way which has absolutely nothing arbitrary about it, but, quite the reverse, is theoretically necessary, for there is an organic link between the help bialik two propositions) be related directly to Freud’s proposition that the styles mla unconscious is eternal , i.e. that it has no history.
If eternal means, not transcendent to all (temporal) history, but omnipresent, trans-historical and therefore immutable in form throughout the extent of purchase custom research papers urgent, history, I shall adopt Freud’s expression word for essay writing mla word, and write ideology is eternal , exactly like the research unconscious. And I add that I find this comparison theoretically justified by the fact that the eternity of the unconscious is not unrelated to the eternity of writing mla, ideology in eassy writing general. That is why I believe I am justified, hypothetically at essay mla least, in proposing a theory of ideology in general , in the sense that Freud presented a theory of the help unconscious in general. To simplify the phrase, it is convenient, taking into account what has been said about ideologies, to use the writing styles mla plain term ideology to designate ideology in general, which I have just said has no history, or, what comes to the same thing, is eternal, i.e. omnipresent in its immutable form throughout history (= the history of essay on high, social formations containing social classes). For the moment I shall restrict myself to ‘class societies’ and their history. Ideology is a ‘Representation’ of the Imaginary Relationship of Individuals to their Real Conditions of Existence. In order to approach my central thesis on essay the structure and functioning of ideology, I shall first present two theses, one negative, the other positive.
The first concerns the object which is employee retention dissertation ‘represented’ in the imaginary form of ideology, the second concerns the materiality of ideology. Thesis I. Ideology represents the imaginary relationship of individuals to their real conditions of existence. We commonly call religious ideology, ethical ideology, legal ideology, political ideology, etc., so many ‘world outlooks’. Of course, assuming that we do not live one of these ideologies as the truth (e.g. ‘believe’ in God, Duty, Justice, etc. ), we admit that the ideology we are discussing from a critical point of view, examining it as the ethnologist examines the essay writing myths of a ‘primitive society’, that these ‘world outlooks’ are largely imaginary, i.e. do not ‘correspond to reality’. However, while admitting that they do not correspond to reality, i.e. that they constitute an illusion, we admit that they do make allusion to method reality, and that they need only be ‘interpreted’ to discover the reality of the mla world behind their imaginary representation of that world (ideology = illusion/allusion ). There are different types of interpretation, the most famous of which are the mechanistic type, current in the eighteenth century (God is the imaginary representation of the real King), and the ‘ hermeneutic ‘ interpretation, inaugurated by the earliest Church Fathers, and revived by Feuerbach and the theologico-philosophical school which descends from him, e.g. the theologian Barth (to Feuerbach, for example, God is the coursworks essence of real Man). The essential point is that on condition that we interpret the imaginary transposition (and inversion) of ideology we arrive at the conclusion that in ideology ‘men represent their real conditions of existence to themselves in styles mla an imaginary form’. Unfortunately, this interpretation leaves one small problem unsettled: why do men ‘need’ this imaginary transposition of their real conditions of existence in order to ‘represent to themselves’ their real conditions of existence? The first answer (that of the eighteenth century) proposes a simple solution: Priests or Despots are responsible.
They ‘forged’ the Beautiful Lies so that, in the belief that they were obeying God, men would in fact obey the Priests and Despots, who are usually in alliance in their imposture, the Priests acting in the interests of the purchase research papers Despots or vice versa , according to the political positions of the ‘theoreticians’ concerned. There is therefore a cause for the imaginary transposition of the real conditions of existence: that cause is the existence of writing styles mla, a small number of cynical men who base their domination and exploitation of the ‘people’ on a falsified representation of the world which they have imagined in order to enslave other minds by coursworks dominating their imaginations. The second answer (that of Feuerbach, taken over word for word by essay mla Marx in his Early Works) is more ‘profound’, i.e. just as false. It, too, seeks and finds a cause for the imaginary transposition and distortion of men’s real conditions of existence, in short, for the alienation in the imaginary of the papers urgent representation of essay writing styles mla, men’s conditions of existence. This cause is no longer Priests or Despots, nor their active imagination and the passive imagination of their victims. Custom Research Papers! This cause is the material alienation which reigns in the conditions of essay styles mla, existence of essay on high college tuition, men themselves. Styles Mla! This is how, in The Jewish Question and elsewhere, Marx defends the Feuerbachian idea that men make themselves an alienated (= imaginary) representation of their conditions of existence because these conditions of existence are themselves alienating (in the 1844 Manuscripts : because these conditions are dominated by the essence of alienated society – ‘ alienated labour ’). All these interpretations thus take literally the thesis which they presuppose, and on which they depend, i.e. that what is reflected in the imaginary representation of the world found in an ideology is the conditions of existence of men, i.e. Dissertation! their real world. Now I can return to a thesis which I have already advanced: it is not their real conditions of existence, their real world, that ‘men’ ‘represent to themselves’ in ideology, but above all it is their relation to writing styles those conditions of existence which is represented to them there. It is this relation which is at the centre of every ideological, i.e. imaginary, representation of the real world. It is this relation that contains the quantitative ‘cause’ which has to explain the essay writing imaginary distortion of the ideological representation of the real world.
Or rather, to leave aside the language of causality it is necessary to advance the method thesis that it is the imaginary nature of this relation which underlies all the imaginary distortion that we can observe (if we do not live in its truth) in all ideology. To speak in a Marxist language, if it is true that the representation of the real conditions of existence of the individuals occupying the posts of agents of production, exploitation, repression, ideologization and scientific practice, does in the last analysis arise from the styles relations of production, and from relations deriving from the relations of production, we can say the following: all ideology represents in eassy writing its necessarily imaginary distortion not the essay writing existing relations of production (and the other relations that derive from them), but above all the (imaginary) relationship of individuals to the relations of production and the relations that derive from them. What is represented in ideology is therefore not the system of the real relations which govern the existence of individuals, but the coursworks imaginary relation of essay writing mla, those individuals to the real relations in which they live. If this is the case, the question of the ‘cause’ of the imaginary distortion of the real relations in ideology disappears and must be replaced by a different question: why is the representation given to individuals of their (individual) relation to the social relations which govern their conditions of eassy writing, existence and styles, their collective and individual life necessarily an imaginary relation? And what is the nature of custom research urgent, this imaginariness? Posed in this way, the writing styles mla question explodes the solution by a ‘clique’  , by a group of individuals (Priests or Despots) who are the authors of the great ideological mystification, just as it explodes the solution by the alienated character of the real world.
We shall see why later in my exposition. For the moment I shall go no further. Thesis II: Ideology has a material existence. I have already touched on this thesis by saying that the ‘ideas’ or ‘representations’, etc., which seem to make up ideology do not have an custom papers, ideal ( idale or idelle ) or spiritual existence, but a material existence. I even suggested that the ideal ( idale , idelle ) and spiritual existence of ‘ideas’ arises exclusively in writing mla an ideology of the ‘idea’ and of ideology, and let me add, in on high college an ideology of essay styles, what seems to have ‘founded’ this conception since the emergence of the sciences, i.e. Quantitative Research Method Paper! what the practicians of the sciences represent to themselves in their spontaneous ideology as ‘ideas’, true or false. Of course, presented in affirmative form, this thesis is unproven. I simply ask that the reader be favourably disposed towards it, say, in the name of materialism. A long series of arguments would be necessary to prove it. This hypothetical thesis of the not spiritual but material existence of ‘ideas’ or other ‘representations’ is indeed necessary if we are to advance in our analysis of the nature of ideology. Mla! Or rather, it is merely useful to us in order the better to purchase research papers reveal what every at all serious analysis of any ideology will immediately and empirically show to every observer, however critical.
While discussing the Ideological State Apparatuses and their practices, I said that each of essay styles, them was the realization of an ideology (the unity of these different regional ideologies – religious, ethical, legal, political, aesthetic, etc. – being assured by their subjection to the ruling ideology). I now return to this thesis: an ideology always exists in an apparatus, and its practice, or practices. This existence is material. Of course, the eassy writing material existence of the ideology in an apparatus and its practices does not have the same modality as the material existence of a paving-stone or a rifle. But, at styles mla the risk of being taken for a Neo-Aristotelian (NB Marx had a very high regard for coursworks Aristotle), I shall say that ‘matter is writing mla discussed in many senses’, or rather that it exists in quantitative research different modalities, all rooted in the last instance in writing styles mla ‘physical’ matter. Having said this, let me move straight on and see what happens to purchase research urgent the ‘individuals’ who live in ideology, i.e. in a determinate (religious, ethical, etc.) representation of the world whose imaginary distortion depends on their imaginary relation to their conditions of existence, in styles other words, in the last instance, to the relations of production and to class relations (ideology = an imaginary relation to real relations). I shall say that this imaginary relation is itself endowed with a material existence.
Now I observe the following. An individual believes in God, or Duty, or Justice, etc. This belief derives (for everyone, i.e. for all those who live in an ideological representation of ideology, which reduces ideology to ideas endowed by definition with a spiritual existence) from the ideas of the individual concerned, i.e. from him as a subject with a consciousness which contains the ideas of his belief. In this way, i.e. by means of the absolutely ideological ‘conceptual’ device ( dispositif ) thus set up (a subject endowed with a consciousness in which he freely forms or freely recognizes ideas in which he believes), the (material) attitude of the subject concerned naturally follows. The individual in eassy writing question behaves in such and such a way, adopts such and such a practical attitude, and, what is more, participates in styles certain regular practices which are those of the ideological apparatus on which ‘depend’ the ideas which he has in all consciousness freely chosen as a subject. Phd Dissertation! If he believes in God, he goes to Church to mla attend Mass, kneels, prays, confesses, does penance (once it was material in the ordinary sense of the term) and naturally repents and so on. If he believes in Duty, he will have the on high college corresponding attitudes, inscribed in ritual practices ‘according to the correct principles’. If he believes in Justice, he will submit unconditionally to the rules of the Law, and may even protest when they are violated, sign petitions, take part in a demonstration, etc. Throughout this schema we observe that the ideological representation of ideology is itself forced to recognize that every ‘subject’ endowed with a ‘consciousness’ and believing in essay mla the ‘ideas’ that his ‘consciousness’ inspires in him and freely accepts, must ‘ act according to his ideas’, must therefore inscribe his own ideas as a free subject in employee retention the actions of his material practice.
If he does not do so, ‘that is wicked’. Indeed, if he does not do what he ought to do as a function of what he believes, it is because he does something else, which, still as a function of the same idealist scheme, implies that he has other ideas in his head as well as those he proclaims, and that he acts according to these other ideas, as a man who is essay writing styles mla either ‘inconsistent’ (‘no one is willingly evil’) or cynical, or perverse. In every case, the ideology of ideology thus recognizes, despite its imaginary distortion, that the ‘ideas’ of a human subject exist in his actions, or ought to exist in his actions, and if that is not the case, it lends him other ideas corresponding to the actions (however perverse) that he does perform. Retention! This ideology talks of actions: I shall talk of actions inserted into writing mla practices. And I shall point out that these practices are governed by the rituals in which these practices are inscribed, within the eassy writing material existence of an ideological apparatus , be it only a small part of that apparatus: a small mass in a small church, a funeral, a minor match at a sports’ club, a school day, a political party meeting, etc. Besides, we are indebted to Pascal’s defensive ‘dialectic’ for the wonderful formula which will enable us to invert the order of the notional schema of essay mla, ideology. Pascal says more or less: ‘Kneel down, move your lips in prayer, and you will believe.’ He thus scandalously inverts the order of things, bringing, like Christ, not peace but strife, and in addition something hardly Christian (for woe to him who brings scandal into help bialik the world!) – scandal itself.
A fortunate scandal which makes him stick with Jansenist defiance to a language that directly names the reality. I will be allowed to leave Pascal to the arguments of his ideological struggle with the religious Ideological State Apparatus of his day. And I shall be expected to use a more directly Marxist vocabulary, if that is possible, for we are advancing in still poorly explored domains. I shall therefore say that, where only essay writing styles mla, a single subject (such and such an individual) is concerned, the existence of the ideas of his belief is material in that his ideas are his material actions inserted into material practices governed by material rituals which are themselves defined by the material ideological apparatus from which derive the ideas of that subject. Naturally, the four inscriptions of the adjective ‘material’ in my proposition must be affected by different modalities: the materialities of a displacement for going to mass, of essay, kneeling down, of the gesture of the sign of the cross, or of the essay writing mla mea culpa , of a sentence, of a prayer, of an act of contrition, of a penitence, of a gaze, of a hand-shake, of an external verbal discourse or an ‘internal’ verbal discourse (consciousness), are not one and the same materiality. I shall leave on one side the problem of a theory of the method paper differences between the modalities of materiality. It remains that in this inverted presentation of things, we are not dealing with an ‘inversion’ at all, since it is clear that certain notions have purely and simply disappeared from essay, our presentation, whereas others on the contrary survive, and new terms appear. Disappeared: the term ideas. Survive: the terms subject , consciousness , belief , actions.
Appear: the terms practices , rituals , ideological apparatus. It is therefore not an help, inversion or overturning (except in the sense in which one might say a government or a glass is essay overturned), but a reshuffle (of a non-ministerial type), a rather strange reshuffle, since we obtain the following result. Ideas have disappeared as such (insofar as they are endowed with an ideal or spiritual existence), to the precise extent that it has emerged that their existence is inscribed in the actions of practices governed by rituals defined in the last instance by an ideological apparatus. It therefore appears that the subject acts insofar as he is acted by the following system (set out in the order of its real determination): ideology existing in a material ideological apparatus, prescribing material practices governed by a material ritual, which practices exist in the material actions of employee retention dissertation, a subject acting in all consciousness according to his belief. But this very presentation reveals that we have retained the following notions: subject, consciousness, belief, actions. From this series I shall immediately extract the decisive central term on which everything else depends: the notion of the subject. And I shall immediately set down two conjoint theses: 1. there is no practice except by and in writing an ideology; 2. there is no ideology except by the subject and for subjects. I can now come to essay on high tuition my central thesis. Ideology Interpellates Individuals as Subjects.
This thesis is simply a matter of making my last proposition explicit: there is essay writing styles no ideology except by the subject and for subjects. Meaning, there is no ideology except for concrete subjects, and this destination for essay college ideology is only made possible by the subject: meaning, by the category of the subject and its functioning. By this I mean that, even if it only appears under this name (the subject) with the rise of bourgeois ideology, above all with the rise of legal ideology,  the category of the subject (which may function under other names: e.g., as the soul in Plato, as God, etc.) is the writing styles constitutive category of all ideology, whatever its determination (regional or class) and whatever its historical date – since ideology has no history. I say: the retention dissertation category of the subject is essay styles constitutive of all ideology, but at the same time and phd dissertation help bialik, immediately I add that the category of the subject is only constitutive of all ideology insofar as all ideology has the function ( which defines it ) of ‘ constituting ‘ concrete individuals as subjects. In the interaction of this double constitution exists the functioning of all ideology, ideology being nothing but its functioning in the material forms of existence of that functioning. In order to grasp what follows, it is essay essential to realize that both he who is writing these lines and the reader who reads them are themselves subjects, and therefore ideological subjects (a tautological proposition), i.e. that the author and the reader of these lines both live ‘spontaneously’ or ‘naturally’ in ideology in the sense in which I have said that ‘man is an ideological animal by nature’.
That the author, insofar as he writes the lines of a discourse which claims to research papers be scientific, is completely absent as a ‘subject’ from essay, ‘his’ scientific discourse (for all scientific discourse is by definition a subject-less discourse, there is no ‘Subject of urgent, science’ except in an ideology of science) is a different question which I shall leave on one side for writing mla the moment. As St Paul admirably put it, it is in the ‘Logos’, meaning in ideology, that we ‘live, move and have our being’. It follows that, for you and for me, the category of the subject is a primary ‘obviousness’ (obviousnesses are always primary): it is clear that you and I are subjects (free, ethical, etc. ). Like all obviousnesses, including those that make a word ‘name a thing’ or ‘have a meaning’ (therefore including the obviousness of the ‘transparency’ of language), the ‘obviousness’ that you and I are subjects – and that that does not cause any problems – is an ideological effect, the elementary ideological effect.  It is indeed a peculiarity of ideology that it imposes (without appearing to do so, since these are ‘obviousnesses’) obviousnesses as obviousnesses, which we cannot fail to employee retention recognize and before which we have the essay writing mla inevitable and research method, natural reaction of crying out (aloud or in the ‘still, small voice of conscience’): ‘That’s obvious! That’s right! That’s true!’ At work in this reaction is the ideological recognition function which is one of the two functions of ideology as such (its inverse being the function of misrecognition – mconnaissance ). To take a highly ‘concrete’ example, we all have friends who, when they knock on our door and we ask, through the door, the question ‘Who’s there?’, answer (since ‘it’s obvious’) ‘It’s me’. And we recognize that ‘it is him’, or ‘her’. We open the door, and ‘it’s true, it really was she who was there’.
To take another example, when we recognize somebody of our (previous) acquaintance ( (re) - connaissance ) in the street, we show him that we have recognized him (and have recognized that he has recognized us) by saying to him ‘Hello, my friend’, and essay styles mla, shaking his hand (a material ritual practice of ideological recognition in everyday life – in France, at least; elsewhere, there are other rituals). In this preliminary remark and these concrete illustrations, I only wish to point out that you and I are always already subjects, and as such constantly practice the rituals of ideological recognition, which guarantee for eassy writing us that we are indeed concrete, individual, distinguishable and (naturally) irreplaceable subjects. The writing I am currently executing and essay writing mla, the reading you are currently  performing are also in phd dissertation this respect rituals of ideological recognition, including the essay writing styles ‘obviousness’ with which the ‘truth’ or ‘error’ of my reflections may impose itself on you. But to recognize that we are subjects and that we function in the practical rituals of the most elementary everyday life (the hand-shake, the fact of purchase, calling you by your name, the essay writing styles fact of knowing, even if I do not know what it is, that you ‘have’ a name of your own, which means that you are recognized as a unique subject, etc.) – this recognition only gives us the ‘consciousness’ of our incessant (eternal) practice of ideological recognition – its consciousness, i.e. its recognition – but in no sense does it give us the (scientific) knowledge of the mechanism of this recognition. Dissertation! Now it is this knowledge that we have to essay writing styles mla reach, if you will, while speaking in retention ideology, and from within ideology we have to outline a discourse which tries to break with ideology, in order to dare to be the beginning of a scientific (i.e. subject-less) discourse on ideology. Thus in order to represent why the category of the ‘subject’ is constitutive of ideology, which only exists by essay writing mla constituting concrete subjects as subjects, I shall employ a special mode of exposition: ‘concrete’ enough to be recognized, but abstract enough to be thinkable and thought, giving rise to a knowledge. As a first formulation I shall say: all ideology hails or interpellates concrete individuals as concrete subjects , by the functioning of the category of the subject. This is a proposition which entails that we distinguish for eassy writing the moment between concrete individuals on the one hand and concrete subjects on the other, although at this level concrete subjects only styles, exist insofar as they are supported by a concrete individual. I shall then suggest that ideology ‘acts’ or ‘functions’ in such a way that it ‘recruits’ subjects among the individuals (it recruits them all), or ‘transforms’ the individuals into subjects (it transforms them all) by that very precise operation which I have called interpellation or hailing, and which can be imagined along the lines of the most commonplace everyday police (or other) hailing: ‘Hey, you there!’  Assuming that the theoretical scene I have imagined takes place in the street, the hailed individual will turn round. By this mere one-hundred-and-eighty-degree physical conversion, he becomes a subject.
Why? Because he has recognized that the hail was ‘really’ addressed to him, and that ‘it was really him who was hailed’ (and not someone else). Experience shows that the practical telecommunication of hailings is such that they hardly ever miss their man: verbal call or whistle, the eassy writing one hailed always recognizes that it is really him who is essay styles being hailed. And yet it is a strange phenomenon, and retention dissertation, one which cannot be explained solely by ‘guilt feelings’, despite the large numbers who ‘have something on their consciences’. Naturally for essay writing styles the convenience and clarity of my little theoretical theatre I have had to present things in coursworks the form of a sequence, with a before and an after, and thus in the form of a temporal succession. There are individuals walking along. Somewhere (usually behind them) the hail rings out: ‘Hey, you there!’ One individual (nine times out of ten it is the right one) turns round, believing/suspecting/knowing that it is for him, i.e. recognizing that ‘it really is he’ who is meant by the hailing. But in reality these things happen without any succession. Writing Styles Mla! The existence of research method paper, ideology and the hailing or interpellation of individuals as subjects are one and the same thing. I might add: what thus seems to take place outside ideology (to be precise, in the street), in reality takes place in ideology.
What really takes place in ideology seems therefore to essay writing take place outside it. That is why those who are in ideology believe themselves by definition outside ideology: one of the effects of custom papers urgent, ideology is the practical denegation of the styles mla ideological character of ideology by ideology: ideology never says, ‘I am ideological’. It is necessary to be outside ideology, i.e. in scientific knowledge, to phd dissertation bialik be able to styles say: I am in ideology (a quite exceptional case) or (the general case): I was in ideology. As is well known, the accusation of being in ideology only applies to others, never to oneself (unless one is really a Spinozist or a Marxist, which, in this matter, is to be exactly the same thing). Which amounts to saying that ideology has no outside (for itself), but at the same time that it is purchase custom research papers nothing but outside (for science and reality). Spinoza explained this completely two centuries before Marx, who practised it but without explaining it in detail. But let us leave this point, although it is heavy with consequences, consequences which are not just theoretical, but also directly political, since, for example, the whole theory of criticism and self-criticism, the golden rule of the Marxist-Leninist practice of the class struggle, depends on mla it. Thus ideology hails or interpellates individuals as subjects. As ideology is eternal, I must now suppress the temporal form in essay on high college tuition which I have presented the functioning of ideology, and say: ideology has always-already interpellated individuals as subjects, which amounts to making it clear that individuals are always-already interpellated by ideology as subjects, which necessarily leads us to one last proposition: individuals are always-already subjects. Hence individuals are ‘abstract’ with respect to styles mla the subjects which they always already are.
This proposition might seem paradoxical. That an individual is always-already a subject, even before he is dissertation born, is nevertheless the plain reality, accessible to everyone and not a paradox at writing mla all. Freud shows that individuals are always ‘abstract’ with respect to the subjects they always-already are, simply by noting the ideological ritual that surrounds the expectation of a ‘birth’, that ‘happy event’. Everyone knows how much and in what way an unborn child is expected. Which amounts to saying, very prosaically, if we agree to drop the ‘sentiments’, i.e. the forms of quantitative research, family ideology (paternal/maternal conjugal/fraternal) in which the unborn child is expected: it is certain in advance that it will bear its Father’s Name, and will therefore have an identity and be irreplaceable. Essay Styles Mla! Before its birth, the child is therefore always-already a subject, appointed as a subject in and by the specific familial ideological configuration in which it is ‘expected’ once it has been conceived.
I hardly need add that this familial ideological configuration is, in eassy writing its uniqueness, highly structured, and that it is in this implacable and essay writing styles mla, more or less ‘pathological’ (presupposing that any meaning can be assigned to that term) structure that the former subject to-be will have to ‘find’ ‘its’ place, i.e. ‘become’ the sexual subject (boy or girl) which it already is in eassy writing advance. It is clear that this ideological constraint and pre-appointment, and all the rituals of styles, rearing and coursworks, then education in the family, have some relationship with what Freud studied in essay the forms of the pre-genital and genital ‘stages’ of sexuality, i.e. in the ‘grip’ of what Freud registered by its effects as being the coursworks unconscious. Mla! But let us leave this point, too, on one side. Let me go one step further. What I shall now turn my attention to is the way the ‘actors’ in this mise en scne [setting] of interpellation, and their respective roles, are reflected in the very structure of all ideology. An Example: The Christian Religious Ideology. As the formal structure of all ideology is always the same, I shall restrict my analysis to a single example, one accessible to everyone, that of papers, religious ideology, with the proviso that the same demonstration can be produced for essay mla ethical, legal, political, aesthetic ideology, etc.
Let us therefore consider the Christian religious ideology. I shall use a rhetorical figure and ‘make it speak’, i.e. collect into a fictional discourse what it ‘says’ not only in its two Testaments, its Theologians, Sermons, but also in its practices, its rituals, its ceremonies and its sacraments. The Christian religious ideology says something like this: It says: I address myself to eassy writing you, a human individual called Peter (every individual is called by his name, in the passive sense, it is never he who provides his own name), in order to tell you that God exists and that you are answer able to Him. Essay Writing! It adds: God addresses himself to you through my voice (Scripture having collected the Word of God, Tradition having transmitted it, Papal Infallibility fixing it for ever on ‘nice’ points). It says: this is who you are: you are Peter!
This is your origin, you were created by God for all eternity, although you were born in eassy writing the 1920th year of essay, Our Lord! This is your place in the world! This is what you must do! By these means, if you observe the ‘law of love’ you will be saved, you, Peter, and will become part of the Glorious Body of Christ! Etc. Now this is quite a familiar and banal discourse, but at the same time quite a surprising one. Surprising because if we consider that religious ideology is help bialik indeed addressed to individuals,  in mla order to phd dissertation bialik ‘transform them into subjects’, by interpellating the individual, Peter, in order to make him a subject, free to obey or disobey the appeal, i.e. Essay Styles Mla! God’s commandments; if it calls these individuals by employee dissertation their names, thus recognizing that they are always-already interpellated as subjects with a personal identity (to the essay styles extent that Pascal’s Christ says: ‘It is for you that I have shed this drop of my blood!’); if it interpellates them in on high tuition such a way that the subject responds: ‘ Yes , it really is me! ’ if it obtains from them the writing mla recognition that they really do occupy the place it designates for them as theirs in the world, a fixed residence: ‘It really is me, I am here, a worker, a boss or a soldier!’ in this vale of tears; if it obtains from tuition, them the recognition of a destination (eternal life or damnation) according to the respect or contempt they show to ‘God’s Commandments’, Law become Love; – if everything does happen in this way (in the practices of the well-known rituals of baptism, confirmation, communion, confession and mla, extreme unction, etc. . ), we should note that all this ‘procedure’ to set up Christian religious subjects is dominated by a strange phenomenon: the fact that there can only be such a multitude of possible religious subjects on the absolute condition that there is a Unique, Absolute, Other Subject , i.e.
God. It is convenient to designate this new and remarkable Subject by writing Subject with a capital S to distinguish it from ordinary subjects, with a small s. It then emerges that the interpellation of retention, individuals as subjects presupposes the ‘existence’ of essay styles, a Unique and central Other Subject, in whose Name the religious ideology interpellates all individuals as subjects. All this is clearly  written in what is method rightly called the Scriptures. ‘And it came to pass at that time that God the Lord (Yahweh) spoke to Moses in the cloud. Writing Styles Mla! And the Lord cried to Moses, “Moses!” And Moses replied “It is bialik (really) I! I am Moses thy servant, speak and styles mla, I shall listen!” And the Lord spoke to Moses and said to him, “ I am that I am ’. God thus defines himself as the Subject par excellence , he who is through himself and for himself (‘I am that I am’), and he who interpellates his subject, the individual subjected to coursworks him by his very interpellation, i.e. the individual named Moses. And Moses, interpellated-called by his Name, having recognized that it ‘really’ was he who was called by God, recognizes that he is a subject, a subject of God, a subject subjected to God, a subject through the Subject and subjected to the Subject. The proof: he obeys him, and makes his people obey God’s Commandments. God is thus the Subject, and Moses and the innumerable subjects of God’s people, the Subject’s interlocutors-interpellates: his mirrors , his reflections. Were not men made in the image of God?
As all theological reflection proves, whereas He ‘could’ perfectly well have done without men, God needs them, the Subject needs the subjects, just as men need God, the subjects need the essay Subject. Better: God needs men, the great Subject needs subjects, even in the terrible inversion of his image in research urgent them (when the subjects wallow in debauchery, i.e. sin). Better: God duplicates himself and sends his Son to the Earth, as a mere subject ‘forsaken’ by him (the long complaint of the Garden of writing mla, Olives which ends in the Crucifixion), subject but Subject, man but God, to do what prepares the way for the final Redemption, the Resurrection of Christ. God thus needs to purchase custom papers urgent ‘make himself’ a man, the Subject needs to become a subject, as if to show empirically, visibly to the eye, tangibly to essay writing mla the hands (see St. Thomas) of the subjects, that, if they are subjects, subjected to bialik the Subject, that is styles mla solely in order that finally, on Judgement Day, they will re-enter the Lord’s Bosom, like Christ, i.e. re-enter the Subject. Eassy Writing!  Let us decipher into theoretical language this wonderful necessity for the duplication of the Subject into subjects and of the Subject itself into a subject-Subject. We observe that the structure of all ideology, interpellating individuals as subjects in the name of a Unique and Absolute Subject is essay writing mla speculary , i.e. a mirror-structure, and doubly speculary: this mirror duplication is constitutive of ideology and ensures its functioning. Which means that all ideology is centred , that the Absolute Subject occupies the phd dissertation unique place of the Centre, and interpellates around it the essay styles mla infinity of individuals into subjects in college a double mirror-connexion such that it subjects the subjects to the Subject, while giving them in the Subject in writing styles which each subject can contemplate its own image (present and future) the guarantee that this really concerns them and Him, and that since everything takes place in the Family (the Holy Family: the Family is in quantitative research method essence Holy), ‘God will recognize his own in it’, i.e. those who have recognized God, and have recognized themselves in Him, will be saved.
Let me summarize what we have discovered about ideology in general. The duplicate mirror-structure of ideology ensures simultaneously: 1. the interpellation of ‘individuals’ as subjects; 2. their subjection to the Subject; 3. the mutual recognition of essay mla, subjects and Subject, the subjects’ recognition of each other, and finally the subject’s recognition of himself; 
4. the absolute guarantee that everything really is so, and that on custom urgent condition that the subjects recognize what they are and essay styles mla, behave accordingly, everything will be all right: Amen – ‘ So be it ’. Result: caught in this quadruple system of phd dissertation bialik, interpellation as subjects, of subjection to the Subject, of universal recognition and of absolute guarantee, the subjects ‘work’, they ‘work by themselves’ in the vast majority of cases, with the styles exception of the ‘bad subjects’ who on occasion provoke the intervention of one of the detachments of the (Repressive) State Apparatus. Eassy Writing! But the vast majority of (good) subjects work all right ‘all by themselves’, i.e. by ideology (whose concrete forms are realized in the Ideological State Apparatuses). They are inserted into practices governed by the rituals of the ISAs. They ‘recognize’ the existing state of affairs ( das Bestehende ), that ‘it really is essay writing styles true that it is so and not otherwise’, and that they must be obedient to purchase research urgent God, to their conscience, to the priest, to de Gaulle, to writing the boss, to eassy writing the engineer, that thou shalt ‘love thy neighbour as thyself’, etc. Their concrete, material behaviour is simply the inscription in life of the admirable words of the prayer: ‘ Amen – So be it ’. Yes, the subjects ‘work by themselves’. The whole mystery of writing styles, this effect lies in the first two moments of the quadruple system I have just discussed, or, if you prefer, in the ambiguity of the term subject.
In the ordinary use of the term, subject in fact means: (1) a free subjectivity, a centre of initiatives, author of and responsible for its actions; (2) a subjected being, who submits to a higher authority, and is therefore stripped of purchase research, all freedom except that of freely accepting his submission. This last note gives us the meaning of this ambiguity, which is merely a reflection of the effect which produces it: the individual is interpellated as a ( free) subject in order that he shall submit freely to the commandments of the Subject , i.e. in order that he shall ( freely) accept his subjection , i.e. in order that he shall make the essay writing mla gestures and actions of his subjection ‘all by employee retention himself’. There are no subjects except by and for writing mla their subjection. That is why they ‘work all by themselves’. ‘ So be it! . ’ This phrase which registers the effect to be obtained proves that it is not ‘naturally’ so (‘naturally’: outside the prayer, i.e. outside the ideological intervention). Eassy Writing! This phrase proves that it has to be so if things are to styles mla be what they must be, and let us let the words slip: if the reproduction of the coursworks relations of production is to be assured, even in the processes of production and circulation, every day, in the ‘consciousness’, i.e. in the attitudes of the individual-subjects occupying the posts which the socio-technical division of labour assigns to them in production, exploitation, repression, ideologization, scientific practice, etc. Essay Mla! Indeed, what is really in question in this mechanism of the eassy writing mirror recognition of the Subject and of the individuals interpellated as subjects, and of the guarantee given by the Subject to the subjects if they freely accept their subjection to writing styles the Subject’s ‘commandments’? The reality in method question in this mechanism, the reality which is essay writing necessarily ignored ( mconnue ) in the very forms of recognition (ideology = misrecognition/ignorance) is indeed, in coursworks the last resort, the reproduction of the relations of production and of the relations deriving from them.
P.S. If these few schematic theses allow me to illuminate certain aspects of the functioning of the Superstructure and its mode of intervention in the Infrastructure, they are obviously abstract and necessarily leave several important problems unanswered, which should be mentioned: 1. The problem of the total process of the realization of the reproduction of the relations of production. As an element of mla, this process, the ISAs contribute to phd dissertation this reproduction. But the point of view of their contribution alone is writing styles still an abstract one. It is only within the processes of production and circulation that this reproduction is realized. Employee Retention! It is realized by the mechanisms of those processes, in which the training of the mla workers is ‘completed’, their posts assigned them, etc.
It is in the internal mechanisms of these processes that the effect of the different ideologies is felt (above all the effect of legal-ethical ideology). But this point of view is still an abstract one. For in a class society the relations of production are relations of exploitation, and therefore relations between antagonistic classes. The reproduction of the relations of production, the ultimate aim of the ruling class, cannot therefore be a merely technical operation training and distributing individuals for employee retention the different posts in essay writing styles mla the ‘technical division’ of labour. In fact there is no ‘technical division’ of quantitative, labour except in mla the ideology of the ruling class: every ‘technical’ division, every ‘technical’ organization of labour is the form and mask of research, a social (= class) division and organization of labour. The reproduction of the relations of production can therefore only essay styles, be a class undertaking. It is realized through a class struggle which counterposes the employee retention ruling class and essay writing styles, the exploited class. The total process of the realization of the reproduction of the relations of employee dissertation, production is therefore still abstract, insofar as it has not adopted the point of view of this class struggle. To adopt the point of essay writing styles mla, view of reproduction is therefore in the last instance, to adopt the point of view of the class struggle. 2. The problem of the papers class nature of the ideolog ies existing in a social formation.
The ‘mechanism’ of ideology in general is one thing. Writing Styles Mla! We have seen that it can be reduced to a few principles expressed in a few words (as ‘poor’ as those which, according to Marx, define production in general , or in Freud, define the unconscious in general ). If there is any truth in it, this mechanism must be abstract with respect to employee dissertation every real ideological formation. I have suggested that the ideologies were realized in institutions, in their rituals and writing, their practices, in custom the ISAs. We have seen that on this basis they contribute to that form of class struggle, vital for essay writing styles the ruling class, the reproduction of the relations of research papers urgent, production. Essay! But the point of view itself however real, is still an essay on high college, abstract one. In fact, the State and writing mla, its Apparatuses only retention, have meaning from the point of view of the class struggle, as an apparatus of class struggle ensuring class oppression and guaranteeing the conditions of exploitation and its reproduction. But there is no class struggle without antagonistic classes. Whoever says class struggle of the ruling class says resistance, revolt and class struggle of the ruled class. That is why the ISAs are not the essay mla realization of ideology in general , nor even the eassy writing conflict-free realization of the ideology of the ruling class. The ideology of the ruling class does not become the styles ruling ideology by the grace of God, nor even by virtue of the seizure of State power alone. It is by the installation of the ISAs in which this ideology is realized and realizes itself that it becomes the phd dissertation help bialik ruling ideology.
But this installation is not achieved all by itself; on the contrary, it is the stake in a very bitter and continuous class struggle: first against the former ruling classes and their positions in the old and new ISAs, then against the exploited class. But this point of view of the class struggle in the ISAs is essay still an research method paper, abstract one. In fact, the essay writing styles mla class struggle in the ISAs is indeed an aspect of the class struggle, sometimes an method paper, important and essay writing, symptomatic one: e.g. the anti-religious struggle in the eighteenth century, or the ‘crisis’ of the educational ISA in every capitalist country today. But the class struggles in the ISAs is only one aspect of a class struggle which goes beyond the ISAs. Purchase Papers! The ideology that a class in power makes the ruling ideology in its ISAs is indeed ‘realized’ in those ISAs, but it goes beyond them, for it comes from elsewhere. Similarly, the ideology that a ruled class manages to defend in and against such ISAs goes beyond them, for it comes from elsewhere. It is only from the point of view of the classes, i.e. of the class struggle, that it is possible to explain the ideolog ies existing in a social formation. Not only is it from this starting-point that it is possible to explain the realization of the ruling ideology in the ISAs and of the writing forms of phd dissertation bialik, class struggle for which the essay mla ISAs are the seat and the stake. But it is also and above all from this starting-point that it is possible to phd dissertation help understand the provenance of the ideologies which are realized in mla the ISAs and confront one another there. Eassy Writing! For if it is true that the ISAs represent the form in which the ideology of the ruling class must necessarily be realized, and the form in which the essay mla ideology of the ruled class must necessarily be measured and confronted, ideologies are not ‘born’ in the ISAs but from the social classes at grips in the class struggle: from their conditions of existence, their practices, their experience of the struggle, etc. 1. This text is made up of two extracts from an ongoing study.
The sub-title ‘Notes towards an Investigation’ is the author’s own. The ideas expounded should not be regarded as more than the introduction to a discussion. 2. Marx to Kugelmann, 11 July 1868, Selected Correspondence, Moscow, 1955, p. 209. 3. Marx gave it its scientific concept: variable capital. 4. Purchase Custom Research Urgent! In For Marx and Reading Capital , 1965 (English editions 1969 and 1970 respectively). 5. Topography from the Greek topos: place. A topography represents in a definite space the respective sites occupied by several realities: thus the economic is at the bottom (the base), the superstructure above it. 6. See p. 158 below, On Ideology. 7. To my knowledge, Gramsci is the only one who went any distance in the road I am taking. He had the essay styles mla ‘remarkable’ idea that the State could not be reduced to the (Repressive) State Apparatus, but included, as he put it, a certain number of institutions from ‘ civil society ’: the Church, the Schools, the trade unions, etc.
Unfortunately, Gramsci did not systematize his institutions, which remained in employee dissertation the state of acute but fragmentary notes (cf. Gramsci, Selections from the Prison Notebooks , International Publishers, 1971, pp. 12, 259, 260-3; see also the letter to Tatiana Schucht, 7 September 1931, in Lettre del Carcere , Einaudi, 1968, p. 479. English-language translation in styles mla preparation. 8. The family obviously has other ‘functions’ than that of an ISA. It intervenes in help bialik the reproduction of writing styles, labour power. In different modes of production it is the essay college unit of production and/or the unit of consumption. 9. The ‘Law’ belongs both to writing mla the (Repressive) State Apparatus and to the system of the ISAs.
10. In a pathetic text written in 1937, Krupskaya relates the history of Lenin’s desperate efforts and employee dissertation, what she regards as his failure. 11. What I have said in these few brief words about the class struggle in the ISAs is obviously far from exhausting the question of the class struggle. To approach this question, two principles must be borne in mind: The first principle was formulated by Marx in the Preface to A Contribution to the Critique of Political Economy: ‘In considering such transformations [a social revolution] a distinction should always be made between the material transformation of the economic conditions of production, which can be determined with the precision of natural science, and the legal, political, religious, aesthetic or philosophic – in short, ideological forms in essay mla which men become conscious of employee retention dissertation, this conflict and fight it out.’ The class struggle is thus expressed and exercised in ideological forms, thus also in the ideological forms of the ISAs. But the class struggle extends far beyond these forms, and essay writing mla, it is because it extends beyond them that the struggle of the exploited classes may also be exercised in tuition the forms of the ISAs, and thus turn the writing mla weapon of ideology against the classes in power. This by virtue of the second principle : the class struggle extends beyond the ISAs because it is rooted elsewhere than in college tuition ideology, in the Infrastructure, in the relations of production, which are relations of exploitation and constitute the base for class relations.
12. For the most part. For the relations of production are first reproduced by the materiality of the processes of production and circulation. But it should not be forgotten that ideological relations are immediately present in these same processes. 13. For that part of reproduction to writing styles which the Repressive State Apparatus and the Ideological State Apparatus contribute. 14. I use this very modern term deliberately. For even in Communist circles, unfortunately, it is quantitative research a commonplace to ‘explain’ some political deviation (left or right opportunism) by the action of a ‘clique’. 15.
Which borrowed the legal category of ‘subject in law’ to make an writing, ideological notion: man is by nature a subject. 16. Linguists and those who appeal to linguistics for various purposes often run up against quantitative, difficulties which arise because they ignore the action of the ideological effects in writing all discourses – including even scientific discourses. 17. NB: this double ‘currently’ is one more proof of the quantitative method paper fact that ideology is ‘eternal’, since these two ‘currentlys’ are separated by an indefinite interval; I am writing these lines on 6 April 1969, you may read them at any subsequent time. 18. Hailing as an everyday practice subject to writing styles mla a precise ritual takes a quite ‘special’ form in the policeman’s practice of ‘hailing’ which concerns the hailing of ‘suspects’.
19. Although we know that the individual is always already a subject, we go on using this term, convenient because of the contrasting effect it produces. 20. I am quoting in a combined way, not to the letter but ‘in spirit and truth’. 21.
The dogma of the Trinity is precisely the theory of the duplication of the Subject (the Father) into a subject (the Son) and of their mirror-connexion (the Holy Spirit). 22. Quantitative! Hegel is (unknowingly) an admirable ‘theoretician’ of ideology insofar as he is a ‘theoretician’ of Universal Recognition who unfortunately ends up in the ideology of Absolute Knowledge. Feuerbach is an astonishing ‘theoretician’ of the mirror connexion, who unfortunately ends up in writing the ideology of the employee dissertation Human Essence. To find the material with which to construct a theory of the guarantee, we must turn to styles Spinoza.
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Het deel van de investeringen dat je zelf financiert heet eigen vermogen. Quantitative Method Paper. Dit kan in essay writing styles mla, vorm van geld zijn dat je hebt gespaard of coursworks bedrijfsmiddelen (auto, voorraad, computer) die je eerder hebt aangeschaft. Het kan ook zijn dat een familielid of writing styles kennis je geld wil lenen. Er is quantitative research een regeling die het voor particulieren, zoals familie of kennissen, fiscaal aantrekkelijk maakt geld aan startende ondernemers te lenen. Essay Writing Styles Mla. Deze regeling biedt zo'n particuliere geldgever namelijk interessante fiscale voordelen. Zogenaamde `achtergestelde´ leningen of research papers urgent durfkapitaal wordt door een kredietverstrekker vaak gezien als eigen vermogen.
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Een balans is een overzicht van de bezittingen, de schulden en het eigen vermogen van je onderneming op een bepaald moment. Anders gezegd: op een balans staat wat je hebt (activa, de linkerzijde van de balans), in mla, de vorm van geld, goederen, enz., en hoe die gefinancierd zijn (passiva, de rechterzijde van de balans): met eigen vermogen of eassy writing met vreemd vermogen (leningen). Essay Styles. Dus een balans is een momentopname van bezittingen en van de manier waarop deze zijn betaald. De solvabiliteit is research de verhouding van uw eigen vermogen ten opzichte van het totaal benodigde vermogen. Dit geeft aan in styles, hoeverre uw onderneming de schulden op lange termijn kan voldoen.
In je verkoopprognose moet je de omzet op een juiste en reële manier inschatten. Het maken van een verkoopprognose is employee retention dissertation niet eenvoudig, maar wel noodzakelijk. Essay Writing Styles Mla. Daarmee kun je namelijk inschatten wat je gaat verdienen en of research dat voldoende is writing mla om alle verplichtingen te kunnen voldoen. Custom Research Papers Urgent. Uiteindelijk bepaalt de omzet, minus de inkoopkosten en overige kosten je winst of writing verlies. De berekening is simpel.
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Door de inkoopwaarde van de omzet af te trekken wordt de brutowinst zichtbaar. Writing. De inkoopwaarde van de omzet wordt berekend aan de hand van de ingevulde inkoopprognose (zie 3.4). Door de brutowinst te verminderen met alle wederkerend bedrijfskosten, zoals huisvestings-, vervoers-, promotie- en personeelskosten, houd jij je netto bedrijfsresultaat over. Custom Papers. Dit bepaalt of essay writing mla je bedrijfsactiviteit op zichzelf rendabel is. Purchase. Onder de bedrijfskosten vallen ook de afschrijvingen. Afschrijvingen zijn wel kosten, maar geen uitgaven. Essay. Afschrijvingen geven de je gelegenheid reserves op te bouwen om te kunnen (her)investeringen in de vaste activa van je bedrijf.
Je geeft het geld pas uit op het moment dat je moet gaan investeren. Phd Dissertation Bialik. Je geeft je ook extra ruimte om je aflosverplichting te voldoen. Voordat jij je winst uit onderneming kan bepalen, moet je opgeven hoeveel vergoeding je aan de financiers, die je bedrijfsactiviteit mede mogelijk hebben gemaakt , jaarlijks moet betalen. Writing Styles. Dit wordt ook wel rente genoemd. Als je winst hebt gemaakt, moet je daarover belasting betalen. Hoeveel dat is, hangt af van het winstbedrag en aftrekposten die je als zelfstandige mag opvoeren. Voor deze aftrekposten gelden wel diverse voorwaarden. Kijk daarom goed op de site van de belastingdienst. De nettowinst is de basis voor uw inkomen uit een eenmanszaak of eassy writing VOF. In een BV staat de ondernemer als bestuurder/directeur van de BV op de loonlijst en ontvangt een salaris.
Het salaris is writing mla een kostenpost voor de BV. De omzet moet hoog genoeg zijn om ook het salaris van de directeur te betalen. On High College Tuition. We bieden je gratis een eenvoudige template voor exploitatiebegroting. Aannames moeten gebaseerd zijn op goed doordachte veronderstellingen Omzet op basis van marktonderzoek en niet op alleen basis van aantal x prijs Check de samenhang met het Marketingplan Omzet moet met gewenst personeelsbestand en kapitaal vervaardigd kunnen worden. Kun je elke maand alle rekeningen betalen? Door het maken van een liquiditeitsbegroting bepaal je of writing styles mla er iedere maand voldoende geld op je rekening staat.
Inkomsten en uitgaven kunnen gedurende een jaar sterk wisselen. Coursworks. Bijvoorbeeld door seizoensinvloeden, een vakantieperiode, belastingaanslag of door klanten die laat betalen. Met een liquiditeitsbegroting maak je inzichtelijk op welk moment extra financiën nodig zijn. Vrijwel alle bedrijfskosten die zijn opgenomen in essay styles mla, de exploitatiebegroting komen ook terug in de liquiditeitsbegroting. Afschrijvingen vormen hierop de belangrijkste uitzondering.
De liquiditeitsbegroting toont hoe de kosten over coursworks het jaar worden verdeeld en aan in writing styles mla, welke maand de kosten daadwerkelijk betaald moeten worden. Coursworks. Zeker in essay writing styles, een groeiende ondernemingen zullen met de omzet ook de kosten maandelijks variëren (en toenemen). Naast de bedrijfskosten, worden ook de (maandelijkse) privéopnamen, inclusief inkomstenbelasting, en aflossingen staan niet in quantitative research, de liquiditeitsbegroting opgenomen. Via onze site kun je nu eenvoudig een sjabloon liquiditeitsbegroting downloaden. Op de exploitatiebegroting zijn alle bedragen exclusief BTW. Essay Mla. In de liquiditeitsbegroting reken je de BTW ontvangsten en uitgaven mee. Uit de exploitatiebegroting kun je opmaken of eassy writing je voldoende omzet genereert om de bedrijfs- en financieringskosten te dekken. De cashflow berekent vervolgens of jij je privéopnamen wel uit de onderneming kan halen en of essay styles mla er daarnaast genoeg overblijft om leningen af te lossen, herinvesteringen te voldoen of reserves op te bouwen. Grofweg is college tuition de cashflow gelijk aan de nettowinst plus afschrijvingen van een onderneming. Writing Styles. De cashflow is coursworks positief als er jaarlijks meer geld binnenkomt dan dat er uit gaat. Essay Writing. De cashflow is negatief als er per jaar meer geld wordt uitgegeven dan er binnenkomt.
Een positieve cashflow wil niet direct zeggen dat je onderneming liquide is, dat er het hele jaar door voldoende geld op je rekening staat. Essay. Dat moet blijken uit de liquiditeitsbegroting. Voordat je met je bedrijf begint, moet je weten hoeveel je maandelijks nodig om privé van rond te komen. Breng al je (huishoud)verplichtingen in kaart. Essay Writing Styles. Vermeld ook alle inkomsten die je huishouding ontvangt, zoals het loon (inclusief vakantie geld en dertiende maand) van jezelf en/of je partner, uitkeringen, pensioenen en eventueel kinderbijslag. Het verschil tussen de privéverplichtingen en -inkomsten bepaalt het bedrag dat je maandelijks uit je onderneming moet halen om van te leven. Houd je zakelijke betalingsverkeer gescheiden van je privé-inkomsten en -uitgaven door het openen van een aparte rekeningen.
Een afschrijving is essay on high tuition het in essay styles mla, de boekhouding tot uitdrukking brengen van de waardedaling van een bedrijfsmiddel over custom research een bepaalde periode. Writing Styles Mla. Doordat je machines gebruikt zullen ze slijten. Ook zal de waarde van je gebouw of vrachtwagens in de loop van de jaren afnemen. Coursworks. De waardevermindering van deze kapitaalgoederen wordt ook wel afschrijving of essay writing styles afschrijvingskosten genoemd. Er wordt steeds afschrijving toegepast om de slijtage door het gebruik tot uitdrukking te brengen. College. Deze afschrijving vormt een kostenpost in styles, de Winst- en Verliesrekening en leidt dus tot een lager resultaat. Bekijk de mogelijkheden van Qredits. Ondernemingsplan template downloaden. Als je een onderneming wilt beginnen, is help bialik het verstandig eerst een ondernemingsplan te maken. Essay Styles Mla. Qredits wil je hier graag mee op weg helpen.
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5 surprising secrets of a killer McKinsey resume. Haven#8217;t you always wondered what a McKinsey resume looks like? Today, we have for you a post on the 5 things you should know about submitting your resume to McKinsey. After the rave reviews we received from our McKinsey firm profile, we decided to give you even more insight on the world#8217;s top consulting firm this time letting you in on the secrets of what it takes to make it past the resume screen at McKinsey. Now, there are the standard set of rules for your consulting resume that apply for any firm a results-oriented resume, formatting consistency, using proactive language, quantifying competitive accomplishments, providing context for key activities, etc. and essay writing mla you can get more on custom research papers urgent, those in our Resume Cover Letter Bible. Styles Mla. These 5 tips below, however, are focused specifically on McKinsey . Eassy Writing. So for all of essay writing you McKinseyite wannabes, this one#8217;s for you! June is coursworks, resume month at MC, and as such, we focus all of essay writing styles our posts on employee dissertation, that same topic consulting resumes. This year we also honored resume month with our 2nd annual free resume review giveaway which filled up in less than 9 minutes! 50 lucky MC subscribers received a free resume review , and the 300+ more who didn#8217;t make the writing 50-person cut-off received a private discount code to use for resume editing services. We#8217;ll be sending out another special this month, so check back often, follow us on Facebook, or subscribe to our mailing list to stay tuned.
Here are the 5 things you should know about purchase research, submitting your resume to McKinsey. 1. A Harvard business degree isn#8217;t enough. Writing. McKinsey hires the best of Harvard#8217;s best, so just being from Harvard isn#8217;t good enough. Phd Dissertation Bialik. We#8217;re talking about the essay writing styles mla most prestigious consulting firm in the world here so a regular ol#8217; degree from Stanford or INSEAD isn#8217;t sufficient to get you to purchase custom research papers the interview round. The competition at McKinsey is more than stiff it#8217;s almost impossible. Without prestigious leadership experience on writing styles, your resume e.g., if your highest achievement is Student Body Treasurer or you made the Dean#8217;s list 50% of the time don#8217;t even bother applying.
Your family may be gushing with pride over quantitative paper, your accomplishments, but you won#8217;t make it past the firm#8217;s resume screen. Significant achievements that will get you considered are things like President of your Consulting Club, Founder of a company, a summer internship at a brand-name firm, inventor of styles a new surgical technology, or a Ph.D. in some cutting edge and radical new research. Method. A knock-out McKinsey candidate is an influencer the next Elon Musk, Mark Zuckerberg, or Arianna Huffington with a variety of essay writing interests that make you uniquely and dissertation powerfully you. You#8217;re Type A, polished, and essay mla a winner when you run, you#8217;re elected; when you compete, you win. Does this sound like the type of experience you have? If so, you#8217;ve got a good chance. If not, either start obtaining it or consider back-up options. Help. 2. Don#8217;t use the McKinsey buzzwords, DEMONSTRATE them. McKinsey buzzwords include structure , credibility , and credentials. Don#8217;t use these terms on your resume a McKinsey recruiter will see right through that. Anyone can say they#8217;re great at using structure to solve problems.
You#8217;re much better off giving an example that presents the problem, briefly explains how you approached it, and what the results were. Your resume should give clear, concise examples that demonstrate each of these McKinsey qualities. Structure Weave a story that presents a problem you faced, the structured approach you took to solving it including breaking the essay mla problem into its component parts, and eassy writing the positive results you achieved. On the essay job, you will rely on best practice work (i.e., the same report, but for a different company or industry) to get the employee job done so if you can show you#8217;ve done this before, you#8217;re golden. Credibility An internship with McKinsey is writing styles mla, going to be the best credibility you can offer , however, internships or work experience at eassy writing, Fortune 500 firms will work in your favor too. Other non-profit experiences can additionally give you an up, like a term with Teach for America, as long as that#8217;s not all you#8217;ve done (otherwise, the sudden interest in business might be suspect). Basically, anything you can include on your resume that shows you went through a rigorous selection process and came out on mla, top is coursworks, going to win you points with a McKinsey recruiter. Credentials A McKinsey candidate will have graduated from a top international school with Honors, received a Rhodes or Fulbright Scholarship, won an Olympic gold medal, or wrote speeches for the President. Your credentials must be seriously impressive to be considered McKinsey-worthy, so include the most prestigious scholarships, merit awards, and writing styles mla industry accolades that you can on your resume.
3. McKinsey staffs globally, so show them you#8217;re ready to go global. Under McKinsey#8217;s global staffing model, you’ll work on project engagements with 5-6 member teams pulled from locations around the world. Coursworks. Even if a client doesn#8217;t demand your presence on-site, you#8217;ll need to fly to connect with your team. That means you#8217;ll be traveling 100% of the time. What does this mean for your resume? Well, an internship with Deutsche Bank in Germany paired with an writing styles mla, economics study abroad program in retention Argentina is going to essay writing styles mla convey your ability to get along with multi-national teams, handle living/working in help another country, and demonstrate maturity traveling/living on your own. Writing Styles Mla. This isn#8217;t necessarily a make or break for research your application, but it will definitely have a positive influence on the review team. I started my first consulting firm while I was living in South Africa, and it was focused on Corporate Social Responsibility. I worked with international governments, local South African bureaucrats, and multinational company#8217;s business leaders to implement and measure the impact of business-focused programs. Yes, I had top grades from a great school and had won awards while there#8230;but it was my international experience on top of all that that put me on McKinsey#8217;s radar as an experienced hire. A resume that includes language skills and international experience e.g., study/work abroad, international competitions, globetrotting, etc. will get you that much closer to a McKinsey interview slot as long as there is essay writing mla, a consistent theme of eassy writing excellence.
4. A well-structured, black-and-white 1-page resume is what McKinsey recruiters are looking for. Don#8217;t get creative on your resume. Stick with a very basic, black-and-white presentation that tells your story with context and impact. Rely on your pedigree, internships, and relevant work experience to provide the impact you want not on too-frequently bolded fonts, excessive titles in italics , or confusing formatting choices. You#8217;re going to be representing a highly-established firm with Fortune 500 C-level executives, the majority of whom are older and probably more conservative than you. Essay Styles. Everything from your attire to your resume must reflect that you know and appreciate what that means. McKinsey wants you to coursworks be highly intelligent, yet predictable. Creativity on writing, your resume is appreciated, but only in terms of what you#8217;re presenting your experience, etc. not in phd dissertation help bialik how you present it. One key exception McKinsey does accept longer resumes/CVs outside the essay mla U.S.
The absolute maximum, however, is 2 pages, and you should have at least 5 years of professional work experience if you#8217;re going to justify having a longer presentation of your education and experience. Most that we see in the 3-5 page range are stocked with 50% nonsense and fluff, so we bring out the axe and eassy writing pare it down to essentials. McKinsey has a subject matter expert track and a generalist track , and versus its Bain and BCG counterparts moves consultants into specific practices early on, such as logistics or HR. Essay Styles. Because McKinsey hires candidates into specific areas of expertise, the firm is more open to considering applications from candidates who#8217;ve chosen not to go the typical MBA route. In fact, more than 50% of McKinsey consultants don#8217;t have a graduate degree in on high college tuition business. If your education and/or work experience is #8220;outside the norm,#8221; don#8217;t be afraid to highlight that on your resume. Here#8217;s another tip if you do have a specialization outside of writing styles business, research McKinsey#8217;s Insight weekend a swanky, 2 day informational conference for hot target prospective consultants, held at a Ritz Carlton near you. Having been accepted to one of these events is almost as strong as having a McKinsey internship on method, your resume . It shows you#8217;ve already been vetted, moving you one step closer to the inner circle.
Pretty sure that you don#8217;t have McKinsey credentials yet? Let#8217;s talk about your next steps here. Should you blindly apply and hope for the best, or send them some tragic sob story explaining why your grades are so terrible? Should you give up completely? If you#8217;re really serious about consulting, get strategic about your application to McKinsey and take a long-term view.
Don#8217;t have brand-name experience on essay, your resume? Get some. Employee Retention. Don#8217;t have a top degree? Go back to essay writing school. Didn#8217;t win an award? Try harder, build a magical company, or get creative in your free time. Remember, McKinsey consultants aren#8217;t born they are made. So get started on the tasks that will make you an incredible asset to an already incredible firm!
We hope you enjoyed these insights into your consulting resume for McKinsey. Stay tuned for our next post on how MBB recruiters read consulting resumes. Best of luck! The arrogance displayed in this article is a big reason why people go to work for BCG or Bain instead. Clients hate it too. Employee Retention. Seriously, tone it down. You may have a few gold medalists, but most are not. I was a top-tier consultant for 10 years, and this post reminds me why I#8217;m glad I left. Thinking you are the best and actually being it are two different things.
I get the feeling, McK specializes on mla, the thinking part. #8220;A knock-out McKinsey candidate is an on high tuition, influencer – the next Elon Musk, Mark Zuckerberg#8221; WHY WOULD MARK ZUCKERBERG WORK FOR MCKINSEY WHEN HE CAN BUY IT? This translates to, why would the next Zuckerburg work for McKinsey when they can open up their own business and make far more money and become far more credible. Having worked for a big Top 10 firm in the past, the biggest problem I noticed was the sheer arrogance and sense of essay entitlement that seemed to permeate virtually everything the organization did and purchase custom papers stood for. Writing Styles Mla. It didn#8217;t give a rat#8217;s a$$ about quantitative method paper, its clients. The only thing that seemed to matter was making equity associate or partner and pushing billables past Pluto#8217;s orbit. Yes, we can see why this article is slanted. While the intent of the article seems to help candidates looking at styles mla, McKinsey.
I doubt it will do that. Method. The article portrays the mla firms consultants so high that it is difficult for most aspirants to reach there, infact it may turn them away from essay college tuition, a consulting job. The article creates a sense of dispair #8220;I am not as good as this#8221; feeling. Being a current consultant and one with a Harvard degree, I do not want to work in a culture like this. But, any aspirant should look at essay styles mla, McKinsey#8217;s website and study their resources and employee interviews, which are organized by role and research method geography. The tone of the website is more #8216;humble#8217; than this article. This article is writing mla, laugh out loud nonsense! I do not see any one taking credit for this #8220;gem#8221; wonder why the author will not share their #8220;credentials#8221; and #8220;credibility#8221;?! I agree with the comments below: tone and content of this article is silly posturing and offensive drivel. Author sounds like he/she is a Gordon Gekko groupie with no practical experience. Employee Dissertation. Big 4/McKinsey/BCG/Bain clients pay a great deal of money for consulting services from the #8220;best of the essay writing styles mla best#8221;.
Clients put their faith in papers us and value our experience because we deliver results period. Writing Styles. Posturing, arrogance and salivating over a conference at the Ritz Carlton are career limiting values, indicative of an amateur who will never be successful as a consultant. I have won many clients and coursworks engagements after a client has fired a consultant/firm. Their biggest complaint? The consultant was #8220;all talk, full of themselves and never delivered#8221;.
This is disgraceful given the styles amount of money and college trust clients put into writing styles mla, their consulting partners. Help Bialik. The key to a long, successful career in consulting is essay styles, simple: treat your clients with respect, deliver on your promises. As always, consultants glorifying McKinsey. I know many undergrads who partied their way through college with a liberal arts major, and are still working at McKinsey. Essay On High College. Consulting is for people who (a) have no idea what they want to do with their lives or (b) are smart but unskilled laborers. Essay Writing Styles Mla. Can#8217;t wait for employee the Elon#8217;s and essay styles mla Mark#8217;s of the world to aggregate the on high tuition quants and build the essay styles data science teams that put McKinsey out of purchase business. When you#8217;ve been spied on by people who did have this resume, you do tend to writing mla suspect that you#8217;ve got things they#8217;ve not got. It tells you that McKinsey doesn#8217;t have the phd dissertation help bialik best inside the firm, so it has to writing styles steal it from outside the firm. You don#8217;t reach that level by following a production line approach, you do so by going where no-one has gone before.
And anyone who knows anything about that, knows that sometimes you#8217;ll succeed, and method sometimes, you#8217;ll fail. Because Mckinsey is intolerant of any failure, it should have no credibility in the fields of entrepreneurship, risk capital, top-down reinvention of a firm or anything which actually involves risk taking. It should have no credibility in revolutionising anything. Writing. Steve Jobs would spit on what is written here by McKinsey. He won big but he also failed. Custom Research. He was worth more than the entire Senior Partners of writing styles mla Mckinsey. By a long way. Research Method. What McKinsey wants are what Hollywood calls: #8216;Close, but no cigar#8217; types of people. Dull worthies who never made a mistake because they never took a risk of any significant magnitude.
That#8217;s fine but it#8217;s about time that this myth was blown out of the water. Rhodes/Fulbright Scholars are spies recruited to spy. Essay Writing Mla. They are not revolutionaries. The most important and help bialik true thing in that article is that Mckinsey people are OCD. If they haven#8217;t realised that working for an OCD is the most destructive concept for any self-motivated, graduate-level revolutionary thinker, they failed Consulting 101. OCDs should be running surgical theatres, they should be managing mission-critical aspects of space programs, they should be writing computer code. They should coaching sports folks where attention to writing mla details and marginal gains are imperative. They should not be managing creative people, revolutionary people, emancipated people. Coursworks. They destroy people like that through jealousy, enmity, thuggery, power games and destructive vindictiveness.
OCDs are OCDs because they are too scared to face their own inner demons. Writing Mla. That#8217;s why they are OCDs. The day they overcome their inner demons is the phd dissertation help bialik day that their OCD propensities will disappear. Now I hope this helps people understand the truth about Mckinsey because you#8217;ll never get it out of them in 100 years. Oh, and remember when you go to essay writing styles interview: they#8217;ll have bugged the room so don#8217;t get up to eassy writing anything naughty. You#8217;re supposed to be a married-for-life monogamous boring stuffed shirt. Unless they are sucking up to President Bill Clinton of essay styles course, who can do whatever the heck he wants#8230;#8230;and frequently did.
If you fought in Bosnia and can see through the interview dynamics, go work somewhere else. Admiring 23 year olds from Oxbridge fit in much better. haha. wow you guys are getting totally destroyed in the comments below#8230; not a bad article fwiw but I do agree there#8217;s an arrogance about consulting + the world in eassy writing general that#8217;s perpetuated by essay writing styles the author#8217;s way of thinking.
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40 Useful Words and Phrases for Top-Notch Essays. The secret to a successful essay doesn’t just lie in the clever things you talk about and the way you structure your points. To be truly brilliant, an essay needs to utilise the right language. You could make a great point, but if it’s not intelligently articulated, you almost needn’t have bothered. Developing the language skills to build an argument and to write persuasively is crucial if you’re to write outstanding essays every time.
In this article, we’re going to essay, equip you with the research papers urgent words and phrases you need to write a top-notch essay, along with examples of how to utilise them. It’s by no means an exhaustive list, and there will often be other ways of using the words and phrases we describe that we won’t have room to include, but there should be more than enough below to mla, help you make an eassy writing, instant improvement to your essay-writing skills – whether you’re a native English speaker or taking your first steps into writing essays in English. Let’s start by essay writing mla, looking at language for general explanations of phd dissertation complex points. Usage : “In order to” can be used to introduce an essay styles, explanation for the purpose of an research method paper, argument. Example : “In order to essay styles mla, understand X, we need first to understand Y.” Usage : Use “in other words” when you want to express something in employee dissertation, a different way (more simply), to make it easier to understand, or to emphasise or expand on a point. Example : “Frogs are amphibians. In other words, they live on essay writing styles, the land and in essay college tuition, the water.” Usage : This phrase is essay writing styles another way of saying “in other words”, and can be used in particularly complex points, when you feel that an alternative way of wording a problem may help the reader achieve a better understanding of its significance.
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Firstly, X. Secondly, Y. And thirdly, Z. 16. Not to styles, mention/to say nothing of. Usage : “Not to mention” and “to say nothing of” can be used to quantitative paper, add extra information with a bit of emphasis. Example : “The war caused unprecedented suffering to essay mla, millions of people, not to research, mention its impact on the country’s economy.” Words and phrases for demonstrating contrast. When you’re developing an argument, you will often need to present contrasting or opposing opinions or evidence – “it could show this, but it could also show this”, or “X says this, but Y disagrees”. This section covers words you can use instead of the “but” in these examples, to essay styles, make your writing sound more intelligent and interesting. Usage : Use “however” to employee retention, introduce a point that disagrees with what you’ve just said.
Example : “Scholar A thinks this. However, Scholar B reached a different conclusion.” Usage : Usage of this phrase includes introducing a contrasting interpretation of the same piece of evidence, a different piece of evidence that suggests something else, or an opposing opinion. Example: “The historical evidence appears to suggest a clear-cut situation. On the other hand, the archaeological evidence presents a somewhat less straightforward picture of what happened that day.” Usage : Used in essay writing, a similar manner to “on the other hand” or “but”. Example : “The historians are unanimous in telling us X, an agreement that suggests that this version of events must be an employee retention dissertation, accurate account.
Having said that, the archaeology tells a different story.” Usage : Use “by contrast” or “in comparison” when you’re comparing and contrasting pieces of evidence. Example : “Scholar A’s opinion, then, is based on insufficient evidence. Essay Styles. By contrast, Scholar B’s opinion seems more plausible.” Usage : Use this to cast doubt on phd dissertation, an assertion. Example : “Writer A asserts that this was the reason for what happened. Then again, it’s possible that he was being paid to say this.”
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Thank you guys. October 19, 2015 at 10:49 am, steven O'Donnell said: I would have also included “in fact” October 19, 2015 at 9:42 pm, Tom Howell said: *Gasp* As someone who has studied and takes a modicum of interest in essay writing, the English language, and having spent a lifetime writing scientific essays, all I can say is this list of quantitative research paper cliches will not aid you in essay mla, your academic pursuits. Research Method. This is a categorical list of essay mla English don’ts that will undoubtedly be highlight with a sigh, and a comment something along the lines of research paper “Please, no more” – paraphrased of course. Some of writing these are inescapable and are useful tools, but please use in moderation. If you truly wish to quantitative research method, improve your writing, consider the essay use of language in coursworks, literature you may study as part of your academic endeavours – be it english or technical based. Mla. What makes a writing style worthy of note, and what makes it tedious and monotonous?
The use of structure, engaging writing styles, and even metaphors can be true keys to essay success. December 07, 2015 at coursworks 8:24 am, Jeff B. said: Tom, I must agree. In my English class such cliches as listed here would be highlighted and returned to the student with an writing styles, admonition to “please use your own words,” or something to that effect. As I like to joke, “Cliches should be avoided like the essay on high tuition plague.” October 20, 2015 at 8:22 pm, yoursif said: October 22, 2015 at writing mla 5:00 pm, nur amira said: thanks it was indeed helpful. November 02, 2015 at 1:11 pm, sania said: really..its very helpful.
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