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A Roadmap for Making Business Strategy Actionable. Essays Finn? Businesses need a framework for guiding the thesis statement about learning mobilization of an organization around its strategic plan. A #8220;roadmap#8221; enables everyone in the business to clearly understand each action and what decisions need to be made, who needs to make them and when. European businesses are often faced with the challenge of deploying centrally developed business strategies in a uniform manner, while at the same time accommodating local customer, market and regulatory differences. It is risky to assume that interpretations and adjustments across diverse European business geographies will simply happen. Likewise, it is unwise to critical on huck finn believe that a well-defined business strategy will implement itself. No matter how well conceived by senior management, business strategy becomes virtually worthless when others in the organization misinterpret it, block it or simply do not know how to act on it. Essay Analysis? Business leaders and practitioners need a framework for guiding the mobilization of an organization around its strategic plan. Such a roadmap enables business leaders and members to clearly understand each element for rolling out a strategy. It details what decisions need to on huck finn be made, who needs to make them and persuasive intro, when. This approach is translated into a project plan, specifying the nature of work in each of the associated phases of construction.
As shown in essays on huck Figure 1, the five phases of the roadmap are: illustrate, translate, indicate, dedicate and operate. This approach to making strategy actionable assumes that a business is pursuing a strategy that is appropriate and timely. Methods used to develop a business strategy are broad, complex and scaling walls ice essay, well beyond the scope of this article. But regardless of the business#8217;s level of maturity or the approach with which it executes its strategy, the on huck roadmap is designed to illustrate the elements which a business needs to consider when making strategy actionable. It is not necessarily designed to be prescriptive in emerson analysis terms of the precise sequence in essays which these elements are addressed. Emerson Friendship Essay? It does, however, acknowledge the inter-dependencies of the elements and can serve as a framework for developing a plan for critical essays, executing strategy. As the emerson friendship essay business evolves in the necessary capabilities and systems, the roadmap can be more thoroughly integrated into the existing planning cycles. Critical Essays On Huck? How is value really delivered to customers? In almost any business, products and services for customers are produced not by departments, but by processes which tend to cross functional lines.
These are referred to as value delivery or core processes. Core processes have all the elements of the business processes (suppliers, inputs, boundaries, outputs and customers), but are far more significant in scope. They tend to be the way the customers identify with the company. Their effectiveness is directly tied to the extent they can satisfy customer needs and achieve the objectives of the business. Scaling Walls Ice Essay? Process capabilities and competencies are the key leverage points for achieving business strategies.
It also is important to critical essays on huck finn remember that core business processes allow the various elements of an organization to link its activities to the delivery of value to the market. Then, if businesses define themselves in the market based on their core processes, where is it that the rest of the organization can make a difference? The answer lies in support, or enabling processes. These are the critical business activities that are required for an organization to operate, sustain and continually improve. Smithson Spiral? Enabling processes provide their service to core processes, or internal customers. In this way, they provide the critical on huck finn inputs, information and buying, resources that #8220;enable#8221; the core processes to deliver value to external customers. If poorly performed, enabling processes can #8220;disable#8221; the core processes from being successful. Finn? Examples of enabling processes include recruiting, skills development, marketing, performance management and compensation, information technology, and administrative support services. Just as external customers have demands of thesis statement about learning disabilities products and services, enabling processes are expected to critical on huck meet internal customer critical-to-quality factors (CTQs). They must have measurement systems to evaluate and continuously improve their ability to scaling meet core process requirements.
Defining and on huck finn, agreeing on the strategy of friendship a business is the responsibility of essays finn senior leadership. It is about making choices regarding what processes will be developed to deliver what products and services to what customers. Letter Puritan? Equally important, the top tiers of leadership must translate strategic objectives into operational terms. They must communicate the strategy in a manner that is critical on huck finn, meaningful to every member of the organization, for these are the people who must execute the strategy. This requires a business to your consider its operations in the context of on huck a whole processes that are designed and linked to one another. Going well beyond a continuous improvement plan to eliminate inefficiencies, this deals with the very identity of the business. One key to building accountability for the strategy is to be able to define the financial impact of each element of the strategy. Thesis Statement About? In other words, if a business is to attempt a sustained 10 percent increase in revenue during the next three years, what is important is that the 10 percent annual growth in critical on huck sales be translated into a net income figure. The #8220;how#8221; of the increase is what the strategy is all about.
The #8220;by#8221; what means is car essay, what the strategy translation is all about. Essays On Huck Finn? It is critical that leadership define the strategy to this level of detail prior to attempting to communicate it to the business. The message must be crafted and communicated in a manner that each stakeholder perceives it to be relevant to him or her. If this cannot be done, it is a good indication that the strategy has not been sufficiently defined or thought out. It can be beneficial to include trusted members from different areas of the learning business to help in the translation process. This insures a cogent message delivered in a consistent way.
Also key to critical finn translating strategy is to identify and emerson analysis, develop the areas of current operations that have the most significant impact on the business#8217;s ability to achieve its strategic objectives. Randomly chosen operational improvement efforts may result in increased efficiencies and elimination of cost and non-value-adding activities, but they may have little or no strategic impact. True strategy is the action of differentiating a business through what it does as much as how it does it. Differentiation is achieved by performing value delivery processes in critical essays on huck a unique and complementary fashion. Competitive advantage is sustained by maintaining operational excellence across all value delivery processes. Once operations are prioritized according to strategy, a business can assess the current levels of performance relative to the levels desired. This enables companies to identify the critical cause-and-effect relationships between process actions and desired results. Only then can improvement opportunities be selected based on their ability to leverage competitive advantage. One key to building accountability for the strategy is to be able to define the financial impact of each element of the strategy. In order for the strategy to be made actionable, measurement systems and data must be developed to show the link between process performance and the business and customer objectives. The first exercise is to understand the quantification of the strategy.
If the strategy is achieved, what will the essay jetty business processes be able to deliver? How will they perform relative to what they now deliver, relative to competitors and relative to the desired process goals? Most strategic goals are stated in terms of lagging indicators revenue, operating costs as a percentage of on huck finn revenue, market share, new sales, even share price. But there are an infinite number of ways to robert spiral effect those measures some that may be in direct conflict with the desired direction of the critical essays business. These lagging indicators are used to persuasive essay intro define, establish and communicate the strategy of the critical essays business. The challenge, however, is to scaling and crushing direct and coordinate every member of the business into activities that have a cause-and-effect relationship with the desired outcomes of the business. Before anything can be made actionable, one must make sure that it can be measured and quantified. Describing how each particular element of the strategy will be manifest is an effective way to force more clarity into the strategic planning process. If the leadership of the business cannot describe what a particular aspect of the essays on huck finn strategy will look like when it is achieved, how could that translation be expected of the letter business? Understanding how the business improves on the delivery of value to its customers is only the first step of integrating improvement with strategy.
Management must have real-time information on how well the essays on huck finn processes are performing relative to the process performance levels required by the strategy. This can help a company identify what to measure, thus enabling process decisions and adjustments to robert smithson spiral jetty be based on leading performance indicators. Awareness of the strategy is critical on huck finn, not sufficient to ensure its achievement. Individual accountability must be established at all levels to ensure sufficient focus, motivation and reward. This includes operational and organization development performance indicators as well as more traditional financial and customer satisfaction measures. This step in the roadmap is designed to friendship essay create an organizational culture which fosters alignment with every organization department and critical essays finn, member. Leaders themselves demonstrate the smithson process and data-based decision-making behaviors that serve as models for the rest of the business. Activities in finn this phase include:
Engage and make accountable the personnel necessary to achieve, sustain and continuously improve process performance Allocate the right process indicators and analysis, measures to the appropriate personnel Design appropriate process performance reporting disciplines and procedures Develop and implement visual management systems Train and engage personnel and process management teams Link process performance to individual performance management systems. Executive leaders must first recognize that they are not just responsible for the output and costs of their respective functional areas. Each executive must both share accountability for the performance of the critical finn value delivery processes and ensure proper integration and coordination of the buying your car essay processes across the business. Process performance defines the essays extent that a business will win or lose in the marketplace. In the final phase of the roadmap, process management systems are integrated as a decision-making tool and discipline to continually adjust and direct the improvement efforts of the business. Not only does the approach compel organization-wide improvement that is linked to achieving strategic business priorities, but it fosters a high-involvement, high performance culture that can become self-sustaining without reliance on external consultants.
Process management systems can vary greatly in buying car essay terms of complexity and organizational scope. While the effort and resources required to develop variously sized systems can be significant, there are some fundamental aspects that are common to all process management system deployments. Essays On Huck Finn? It is walls ice essay, these fundamental components that can best be addressed using a standardized approach, or roadmap, to assure that the critical on huck finn right people are involved in answering the right questions at the right time. It also serves as a framework for the project plan that will effectively manage the many contributions by organization leadership and members. Some of the letter essay society activities associated with the operate phase of the roadmap include: Conduct process and process-based performance management systems per design Evaluate process performance and prioritize improvement opportunities Determine appropriate methodologies for addressing improvement opportunities Train, engage and dedicate appropriate personnel in process improvement efforts Assess changes in business environmental conditions (e.g. market, technological, regulatory) and reflect in process management system. Conclusion: Answers for the Right Questions. By having a framework for mobilizing an organization around its strategy, European business leadership can better direct resources to answer the right questions about how a strategy can be deployed in a consistent but flexible fashion across diverse market and cultural geographies.
About the finn Author: Victor Cascella is a Director with Grant Thornton#8217;s Global Public Sector, and is responsible for developing excellence in mission performance for the firm#8217;s Federal Government clients. As an expert in strategy and operations consulting, he works with executive-level leadership teams to translate business strategies into operational goals, and helps them develop measurement systems to improve strategic clarity and accountability for essay intro, performance. Cascella has worked in a wide range of industries, including government, pharmaceuticals, manufacturing, services and critical, financial. He is based in Washington, D.C., and persuasive, can be contacted at [email protected] If You Loved This Article, You Might Also Love. Stop this in-your-face notice Reserve your username Follow people you like, learn from. Extend your profile Gain reputation for your contributions No annoying captchas across site. Connect on Twitter. Find us around the web. Copyright iSixSigma 2000-2017. User Agreement.
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okeanos essay In Greek mythology, the Titans were a primeval race of powerful deities, descendants of critical essays on huck Gaia (Earth) and Uranus (Heaven), that ruled during the legendary Golden Age. Persuasive Essay Intro! They were immortal giants of incredible strength and critical on huck stamina and were also the first pantheon of Greco-Roman gods and goddesses. In the first generation of twelve Titans, the males were Oceanus, Hyperion, Coeus, Cronus, Crius and Iapetus and the females - the Titanesses - were Mnemosyne, Tethys, Theia, Phoebe, Rhea and Themis. The second generation of Titans consisted of Hyperion's children Eos, Helios, and Selene; Coeus's daughters Leto and Asteria; Iapetus's sons Atlas, Prometheus, Epimetheus, and Menoetius; Oceanus' daughter Metis; and Crius' sons Astraeus, Pallas, and Perses. The Titans later gave birth to other Titans, notably the children of Hyperion (Helios, Eos, and Selene), the daughters of Coeus (Leto and Asteria), and the sons of Iapetus - Prometheus, Epimetheus, Atlas, and Menoetius; all of these descendants in the second generation are also known as Titans. The Titans were overthrown by persuasive help a race of younger gods, the Olympians, in a ten-year war called the Titanomachy (War of the Titans) - a series of critical finn battles which were fought in Thessaly between the two camps of deities long before the scaling and crushing ice essay existence of finn mankind.
This Titanomachia is also known as the car essay Battle of the Titans, Battle of Gods, or just The Titan War. It represented a mythological paradigm shift that the Greeks may have borrowed from the Ancient Near East. The 12 Titans gods, also known as the elder gods. Their ruler was Cronus who was dethroned by his son Zeus. Most of the Titans fought with Cronus against Zeus and were punished by critical finn being banished to Tartarus.
Greeks of the Classical age knew of several poems about the war between the robert essay jetty gods. The dominant one, and the only one that has survived, was in essays the Theogony attributed to Hesiod. A lost epic Titanomachy attributed to your car essay, the blind Thracian bard Thamyris, himself a legendary figure, was mentioned in passing in an essay On Music that was once attributed to Plutarch. And the Titans played a prominent role in the poems attributed to Orpheus. Although only scraps of the Orphic narratives survive, they show interesting differences with the Hesiodic tradition.
These Greek myths of the critical essays on huck Titanomachy fall into a class of similar myths of a War in Heaven throughout Europe and the Near East, where one generation or group of gods by and large opposes the dominant one. Sometimes the Elder Gods are supplanted. Sometimes the rebels lose, and are either cast out of thesis about power entirely or incorporated into the pantheon. Critical Essays On Huck! Other examples might include the your car essay wars of the Aesir with the Vanir and critical essays on huck finn Jotuns in Scandinavian mythology, the Babylonian epic Enuma Elish, the robert smithson essay spiral Hittite Kingship in Heaven narrative, and the obscure generational conflict in Ugaritic fragments. The rebellion of Lucifer from Christianity could also fall under this category.
In Hesiod's Theogony the twelve Titans follow the Hundred-handers and critical finn Cyclopes as children of Ouranos, heaven, and Gaia, the Earth. Ouranos considers Cronus monsterous, and so imprisons him in the bowels of the Earth. Scarlet Letter Society! Cronus, aided by the Hundred-handers and Cyclopes, then sets upon his father, castrates him, and sets himself up as king of the gods, with Rhea as his wife and queen. Rhea bears a new generation of gods to Cronus, but in fear that they will overthrow him, he swallows them all one by one. On Huck! Only Zeus is saved: Rhea gives Cronus a stone in swaddling clothes in his place, and places him in scarlet letter essay society Crete to be guarded by the Kouretes. Once Zeus reaches adulthood, he subdues Cronus by force. Critical Essays! Using a potion concocted with the help of Gaia, his grandmother, forcibly cause Cronus to vomit up Zeus's siblings. A war between the younger and many of older gods commences, in which Zeus is aided by the Hundred-handers, Gigantes, and Cyclopes, who have once again been freed from Tartarus. Zeus wins after a long struggle, and persuasive intro casts many of the Titans down into Tartarus.
And yet the older gods leave their mark on the world. Some of them - like Mnemosyne, Gaia, Rhea, Hyperion, Themis and Metis - had not fought the Olympians, and become key players in the new administration. The Titans also leave behind a number of offspring, some of whom may also be counted as Titans, most notably the sons of critical essays on huck finn Iapetus - Prometheus, Epimetheus, Atlas, and Menoetius. Many ancient sources follow Hesiod closely, with minor variations: Apollodorus adds Dione as a thirteenth Titan. Surviving fragments of Orphic poetry in particular preserve some variations on the myth.In one Orphic text, Zeus does not simply set upon his father violently. Instead, Rhea spreads out a banquet for Cronus, so that he becomes drunk upon intro help, honey.
Zeus chains him and castrates him. Rather than being consigned to Tartarus, Cronus is dragged - still drunk - to critical, the cave of Night, where he continues to dream and prophesy throughout eternity. By and friendship large Neopagan views of Titans can be considered 'New Age'. Many of the ancient myths are often conveniently reinterpreted as metaphor or seen as man's account of the divine. As such rather or not most modern beliefs regarding the critical on huck finn Titans are grounded in actual mythology is often irrelevant to many Neopagans of today. In the United States Hellenistic Neopagan sects often have a special place for the Titan gods of ancient Greece, in particular Gaia, Cronus, Hecate, Hyperion, Theia, and Themis. It is sometimes argued that most of the scarlet letter puritan beliefs regarding these Titan gods are inspired by popular fiction and entertainment media and not by actual mythology. Oceanus or Okeanos refers to on huck, the ocean, which the essay Greeks and Romans regarded as a river circling the world. Strictly speaking, it was the ocean-stream at the Equator in which floated the habitable hemisphere In Greek mythology this world-ocean was personified as a Titan, a son of Uranus and Gaia. In ancient Greek beliefs this Titan is often depicted as having the upper body of a muscular man with a long beard and horns, and on huck the lower torso of a serpent.
Oceanus' consort is his sister Tethys, and from their union came the ocean nymphs, also known as the three-thousand Oceanids, and all the society rivers of the world. Some scholars believe he originally represented all bodies of salt water, including the Mediterranean Sea and the Atlantic Ocean, the two largest bodies known to critical essays on huck, the ancient Greeks. However, as geography became more accurate, Oceanus came to your first, represent the stranger, more unknown waters of the critical Atlantic Ocean (also called the Ocean Sea), while Poseidon ruled over emerson essay analysis, the Mediterranean. In most variations of the war between the Titans and the Olympians (Titanomachy), Oceanus, along with Prometheus, and Themis, did not take the side of his fellow Titans against the Olympians, but instead withdrew from the conflict. In most variations of critical essays finn this myth, Oceanus also refused to thesis disabilities, side with Cronus in the latter's revolt against their father, Uranus.
Hyperion was the Titan god of light, the father of the three shining gods of heaven - Eos the Light of Dawn and Day, Helios the Sun, and Selene the Moon. In the Homer's Iliad and Odyssey the sun god is called Helios Hyperion, 'Sun High-one'. But in the Odyssey, Hesiod's Theogony and the Homeric Hymn to Demeter the sun is once in each work called Hyperonides 'Son of Hyperion' and Hesiod certainly imagines Hyperion as a separate being in essays finn other places. Hyperion is often considered the 'God of friendship Observation' and is the brother of Theia the 'Goddess of Sight.' In later Greek literature Hyperion is always distinguished from critical essays on huck, Helios as a Titan, the son of Gaia 'Goddess Earth' and Uranus 'God Sky', and the father of and crushing ice essay Helios 'God Sun', Selene 'Goddess Moon' and critical essays on huck Eos 'Goddess Dawn' by his sister Theia 'Goddess Sight'. Hyperion plays virtually no role in Greek cult and little role in mythology, save in lists of the twelve Titans. Later Greeks intellectualized their myths. Of Hyperion we are told that he was the first to scarlet letter puritan, understand, by diligent attention and finn observation, the movement of both the sun and first car essay the moon and the other stars, and the seasons as well, in that they are caused by these bodies, and to critical essays on huck, make these facts known to others; and that for scarlet essay this reason he was called the father of these bodies, since he had begotten, so to speak, the speculation about them and their nature.
Modern interpretations of Hyperion by Neopagans, particularly Hellenistic sects in the United States, include the interpretation that he is the all seeing, and subsequently all knowing, god of observation. Others believe that Hyperion holds ultimate reign over critical essays on huck, the positions of the stars and the heavens, and can at times reveal celestial messages to careful observers. Hyperion is seen as impartial and unconcerned with mortals. Hyperion is believed to play a role in essay the final judgment of a mortal soul, particularly making observations about one's virtuous and ill deeds before Hades, and adding weight to the scales held by Themis.Some modern pagans burn oils and incense to Hyperion and pray for worldly knowledge, or in some cases extended sight. There are those who believe that extended sight is impossible to control, and that some things in the universe are beyond mortal comprehension and should remain unseen. Others claim that extended sight can include seeing into on huck finn Tartarus (hell) and scarlet letter essay puritan may result in on huck madness, thus some sects discourage active worship of about disabilities Hyperion. Most sects that include the worship of Hyperion also include the worship of Hecate, and more commonly Theia. Such sects typically encourage experimentation with the paranormal.
In Greek mythology, Coeus (also Koios) was the Titan of intelligence. was one of the Titans, the giant sons and daughters of Uranus (Heaven) and Gaia (Earth). His equivalent in Latin poetry - though he scarcely makes an appearance in Roman mythology he was Polus, the embodiment of the celestial axis around which the heavens revolve. Like most of the Titans he played no active part in on huck finn Greek religion - he appears only in lists of Titans - but was primarily important for his descendants. With his sister, shining Phoebe, Coeus fathered Leto and Asteria. Leto copulated with Zeus (the son of fellow Titans Cronus and thesis statement disabilities Rhea) and bore Artemis and Apollo.
Along with the essays on huck other Titans, Coeus was overthrown by thesis about Zeus and other Olympians. Critical Essays On Huck Finn! After the Titan War, he and all his brothers were banished into friendship essay Tartarus by Zeus. Koios (Coeus) was the Titan of the north, wisdom and farsight. He controlled the critical essays finn axis, and was released from Tartarus by Demeter's grief, changing the seasons. Coeus fled to the north from Zeus, and was regarded as the north star Polaris. Cronus horned), also spelled Cronos or Kronos, is often confused with Chronos/Khronos.
In Greek mythology, Cronus was the leader and the youngest of the first generation of Titans. His mother was Gaia, and his father was Uranus, whom Cronus envied. Uranus hid the youngest children of Gaia, the one-hundred armed giants (Hecatonchires) and the one-eyed giants, the Cyclopes, in about learning Tartarus so that they would not see the light, rejoicing in on huck this evil doing. This caused pain to friendship analysis, Gaia, so she created a great sickle and critical essays on huck finn gathered together Cronus and his brothers to ask them to obey her. Only Cronus was willing to do the letter puritan deed, so Gaia gave him the sickle and set him in ambush. Cronus ambushed his father and castrated him, casting the critical on huck severed member into the sea. From that which spilled from Uranus and fell upon the Earth came forth the Gigantes, Erinyes, and Meliae. From that which was cast into the sea came forth Aphrodite. For this, Uranus called his sons Titans, meaning strainers, for society they strained and did presumptuously a fearful deed, for which vengeance would come afterwards. Cronus was identified in antiquity with the God Saturn of critical on huck finn Roman mythology.
The period of his rule was said to be a golden age on Earth, honored by the Saturnalia feast. Beginning on December 17 of each year, during the festival known as the Saturnalia, the Golden Age was restored for seven days. All business stopped and executions and military operations were postponed. It was a period of goodwill, devoted to banquets and the exchange of emerson friendship essay visits and gifts. A special feature of the festival was the freedom given to essays on huck finn, slaves, who during this time had first place at the family table and were served by their masters. In an alternate version, a more benevolent Cronus overthrew the wicked serpentine Titan, Ophion. In doing so he released the world from bondage and for a time ruled it justly.
After dispatching Uranus, Cronus re-imprisoned the Hecatonchires, the Gigantes, and the Cyclopes and scarlet essay puritan set the critical on huck finn monster Campe to guard them. He and Rhea took the throne as King and Queen of the gods. This time was called the Golden Age, as the people of the time had no need for laws or rules; everyone did right, so there was no need. Cronus sired several children by Rhea: Demeter, Hera, Hades, Hestia, and Poseidon, but swallowed them all as soon as they were born, since he had learned from Gaia and Uranus that he was destined to be overcome by his own son as he had overthrown his own father. But when Zeus was about to be born, Rhea sought Uranus and Earth to devise a plan to save him, so that Cronus would get his retribution for his acts against Uranus and his own children. Rhea gave birth to Zeus in your car essay Crete, handing Cronus a stone wrapped in swaddling clothes (also known as the Omphalos Stone) which he promptly swallowed.
Then she hid Zeus in a cave on Mount Ida in Crete. According to varying versions of the story: 1. He was then raised by Gaia. 2. He was raised by a goat named Amalthea, while a company of Kouretes, soldiers, or smaller gods danced, shouted, and clapped their hands to make noise so that Cronus would not hear the baby's cries. 3. He was raised by a nymph named Adamanthea. Since Cronus ruled over the earth, the heavens, and the sea, she hid him by dangling him on finn a rope from a tree so he was suspended between earth, sea, and sky and thus, invisible to his father. Cronus was worshipped as a corn god, from his association with the Golden Age. He was a god of the intro help harvest, grain, nature, and agriculture.
He was usually depicted with a sickle, which he used to harvest crops as well as castrate his father. In Athens, on the twelfth day of every month (Hekatombaion), a festival called Kronia was held in honor of Cronus and to celebrate the harvest. Cronus as Saturn Time, Omega and Related. In Greek mythology, Crius (Kreios, the Ram) was one of the Titans in the list given in Hesiod's Theogony, a son of Uranus and Gaia. The least individualized among them, he was overthrown in finn the Titanomachy.
M.L. West has suggested how Hesiod filled out the complement of Titans from the core group, adding three figures from the archaic tradition of Delphi, Koios, Phoibe, whose name Apollo assumed with the oracle, and emerson analysis Themis. Among possible further interpolations among the Titans was Kreios, whose interest for Hesiod was as the father of Perses and grandfather of Hekate, for whom Hesiod is an enthusiastic evangelist. Consorting with Eurybia, daughter of Earth Gaia and Sea Pontus, he fathered Astraios and Pallas as well as Perses. The joining of Astraios with Eos, the Dawn, brought forth Eosphoros, the other Stars and essays on huck finn the Winds. Joined to fill out lists of Titans to form a total that made a match with the Twelve Olympians, Crius/Kreios was inexorably involved in the eleven-year-long war between the Olympian gods and Titans, the thesis statement Titanomachy, however without any specific part to play. When the war was lost, Crius/Kreios was banished along with the others to essays, the lower basement of Hades called Tartarus.
From his chthonic position in the Underworld, no classical association with Aries, the Ram of the zodiac, is ordinarily made. In Greek mythology Iapetus, or Iapetos, was a Titan, the son of Uranus and Gaia, and emerson essay analysis father (by an Oceanid named Clymene or Asia) of Atlas, Prometheus, Epimetheus, and Menoetius and critical essays on huck finn through Prometheus and Epimetheus and emerson essay Atlas an ancestor of the human race. Iapetus is the one Titan mentioned by Homer in the Iliad (8.47881) as being in Tartarus with Cronus. Iapetus' wife is critical essays, normally a daughter of Oceanus and Tethys named Clymene or Asia. But in Aeschylus's play Prometheus Bound, Prometheus is first car essay, son of the essays on huck goddess Themis with no father named (but still with at least Atlas as a brother). Since mostly the Titans indulge in marriage of brother and sister, it might be that Aeschylus is using an old tradition in which Themis is Iapetus' wife but that the Hesiodic tradition preferred that Themis and Mnemosyne be consorts of Zeus alone. But it would be been quite within Achaean practice for Zeus to have taken the wives of the Titans as his mistresses after throwing down their husbands.
Iapetus is sometimes equated by Creationists with Japheth, the scaling walls and crushing ice essay son of Noah, based on the similarity of their names, though scholars of Indo-European linguistics dispute such an equation vehemently.
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Mark Twain: Huckleberry Finn - …
The Implications of critical finn Attachment Theory for Military Wives: Effects During a Post-Deployment Period. Kristin A. Emerson Friendship Essay! Vincenzes, Laura Haddock, Gregory Hickman. Past research has indicated the negative and essays on huck finn, positive impacts of deployment on statement about disabilities, military wives. Furthermore, research has indicated the need to essays finn, further understand the different deployment stages, specifically the post-deployment period. The authors examined Bowlby’s and Ainsworth’s attachment theories, specifically separation anxiety occurrence as experienced by stay-behind wives during their husbands’ post-deployment period. Purposive/volunteer sampling was used to survey 57 military wives currently experiencing the post-deployment period. A linear regression analysis produced a significant positive relationship between duration of deployment and the wife’s psychological distress during the post-deployment period. As deployments increased in duration, specifically to longer than 6 months, the levels of psychological distress significantly increased. Implications for counselors and researchers are addressed. Keywords: post-deployment, attachment, military wives, separation anxiety, deployment.
Between 2001 and 2012, the U.S. Scaling Walls And Crushing! government sent 2.4 million soldiers to Iraq and Afghanistan (U.S. Department of Veteran Affairs, 2012). According to Demers (2008), deployments affected both the soldier and the stay-behind wife (over 56% of the soldiers reported being married according to finn, the Department of Defense, 2012). The couple’s relationship may play an intricate role in identifying effects that a deployment could have on a stay-behind wife. Specifically, stay-behind wives may have both positive and negative experiences in response to essay jetty, prolonged separation from their husbands (Barker Berry, 2009; Demers, 2008; Morse, 2006). This study focuses specifically on wives of male soldiers, and applies Bowlby’s and Ainsworth’s attachment theories (Ainsworth Bell, 1970; Bowlby, 1969) to critical, military wives’ post-deployment experiences. Bowlby (1969) asserted that an thesis about, accumulation of critical on huck early attachment experiences create expectations for future relationships. Over 40 years ago, Ainsworth and Bell (1970) identified three primary types of attachment: secure, avoidant and ambivalent.
More specifically, the researchers found that children with an ambivalent attachment style exhibited anxiety following separation when the letter society mother returned, going near the mother, but also exhibiting signs of anger by on huck pushing her away (Ainsworth Bell, 1970). In comparison, children with a secure attachment welcomed their mother’s return, and children with an smithson essay jetty, avoidant attachment showed little interest in their returning mother (Ainsworth Bell, 1970). Critical! Robertson and Bowlby (1952) also examined the and crushing ice essay idea of separation anxiety, identifying specific infant stages of critical essays finn attachment. The three phases an infant goes through when separated from their mother include protest, despair, and denial or detachment (Robertson Bowlby, 1952). The three separation anxiety phases may be applied to letter essay puritan society, attachment issues that military wives experience during and after their husbands’ out-of-country deployment (Basham, 2008; Riggs Riggs, 2011). The first phase, protest, occurs when a child is separated from his or her mother, with sadness and anxiety presenting as the most common initial emotional reactions. Essays Finn! The protest phase is linked to pre-deployment and deployment time periods, as wives often feel numb, angry and abandoned due to an upcoming or current separation from their husbands (Pincus, House, Christenson, Adler, 2001). Furthermore, wives also may experience sadness, loneliness and anxiety during this phase (SteelFisher, Zaslavsky, Blendon, 2008). The second phase of separation anxiety is despair, characterized by feelings of extreme sadness (Riggs Riggs, 2011; Robertson Bowlby, 1952).
A wife may often go through similar stages of grief and mourning when her husband is deployed (Pincus et al., 2001). Initially a wife may be in denial that her husband is gone, believing that she will be fine and that he is only away for a few days’ training (Pincus et al., 2001). Essay! As time passes, she may experience depression and withdrawal as she realizes that her husband will not return for a long time, if at all (Vormbrock, 1993). The nature of the military deployments to Iraq and Afghanistan are characterized by continual life-threatening experiences, coupled with the absence of any “safe” place (Demers, 2008). Constant media coverage spotlights the dangers of deployment to active combat zones and undoubtedly impacts a wife’s ability to trust that her husband will safely return (Demers, 2008). Wives have reported being in constant fear for their soldiers’ safety, which may result in feeling helpless throughout the deployment (Demers, 2008; Spera, 2009). Eventually, a wife may begin to accept that her husband is gone, and transfer her love to someone else, such as a child or different partner (Morse, 2006). The final phase of separation anxiety, denial or detachment, can occur during both the deployment period and the post-deployment period (Morse, 2006). Robertson and Bowlby (1952) postulated that this last phase serves as a defense mechanism, which wives utilize when their husbands abruptly rejoin their families (Pincus et al., 2001; Riggs Riggs, 2011).
Anxiety combined with excitement has been found to impact the on huck finn restabilization of the couple (Morse, 2006; Pincus et al., 2001). Friendship Analysis! Attempting to regain a physical and emotional connection with one another after a long, seemingly permanent separation has been found to be extremely stressful, resulting in struggles with communication, coparenting, returning to pre-deployment routines, and marital intimacy (Orthner Rose, 2005). Additional challenges during the post-deployment period may entail negotiating new roles and boundaries within the family system, household management, financial status, parental rejection and new social supports (Drummet, Coleman, Cable, 2003). If the critical essays on huck finn husband returns and essay, attempts to resume roles that existed prior to on huck finn, his deployment, it may diminish the stay-behind wife’s feelings of worth and accomplishment, since she successfully managed the various facets of scaling daily life in finn, her husband’s absence (Drummet et al., 2003), further straining the attachment between the couple. And Crushing Ice Essay! Although each endured the deployment simultaneously, the experiences were likely uniquely and vastly different from critical on huck finn one another (Pincus et al., 2001). This quantitative study examined how stay-behind wives experience separation anxiety, through examining the relationship between duration of emerson friendship essay deployment and psychological distress during post-deployment. The theoretical framework for this study focused on attachment between a husband and wife and how a couple cope with separation. Surveys of wives were conducted during the post-deployment period in an effort to capture data from the time that couples were reattaching. Essays On Huck Finn! For the purposes of this study, post-deployment is defined as the 12-month period after the husband has returned from thesis statement about disabilities deployment.
A nonexperimental, correlational design was chosen for this study. In order to gain access to a multitude of military wives, there was no specific inclusion criteria with regard to essays finn, the soldier’s branch in the military, rank, or if the husband was active duty, Reserves, or National Guard. In order to attempt to control for smithson spiral, the potential confounding variable of gender, this study included only stay-behind wives. On Huck Finn! Stay-behind wives may or may not have children. Finally, stay-behind wives must currently be in the post-deployment stage; therefore, the husbands must have returned from their deployment within the robert spiral jetty past 12 months (Vincenzes, 2013). The sampling method used for critical essays, this research was volunteer purposive sampling. Buying Your First! Inclusion criteria included the following: female, currently married and experiencing the post-deployment period (within the 12 months since her husband returned from the deployment), and a deployment that had lasted 6 or more months. Critical Essays On Huck Finn! Approximately 30 original e-mails were sent out to military advocacy groups, current military wives, the Army Wives Network, and a military advocacy group called Pennsylvania Americans showing Compassion, Assistance, and Reaching out with Empathy for analysis, Service members (PA C.A.R.E.S.). These individuals were asked to forward the initial e-mail soliciting military wives for critical on huck, the current study (Vincenzes, 2013). If individuals agreed to volunteer for the study, they immediately received a background questionnaire, which assessed the duration of deployment (independent variable).
Duration of deployment was operationalized as the thesis statement learning disabilities total number of months that the soldier was deployed, from the day he left until the essays on huck finn day he returned (Vincenzes, 2013). Furthermore, the participants took the robert smithson essay jetty Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS-21; Lovibond Lovibond, 1995), which was used to operationally define the dependent variable of psychological distress . The DASS-21 is a 21-item Likert scale survey and consists of critical on huck finn three subscales (Depression, Anxiety, and Stress). In addition to individual scores on thesis statement about learning, the subscales, the assessment provides an overall global psychological distress level, which was the score this particular study used. The reliability for this measure was high with a .93 internal consistency on the overall global scale (Henry Crawford, 2005). In addition, the DASS-21 illustrated good convergent and discriminant validity as compared to the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and Personal Disturbance Scale (Henry Crawford, 2005). Of the 145 participants who responded to the survey, 48.9% ( n = 68) met the criteria, but 14.7% (n = 10) had missing data. Thus, the final data sample contained 40% ( n = 58) of the participants who volunteered. The inclusive sample accurately depicted the essays on huck finn dispersion of active duty military (56.9% Army, 22.4% Air Force, 12.1% Navy, and 1.4% Marine Corps); however, fewer participants were associated with the National Guard (5.2%) and Reserves (1.7%) than expected. The age of the wives ranged from 21–47 ( M = 31.2, SD = 6.7), and smithson, 50% were 29 years old or younger.
The majority of the participants (93.1 %) had some years of college (only 6.9% had a high school diploma/GED or less). Furthermore, 29.3% had some college, but no degree; 20.7% had an associate degree, 31% had a bachelor’s degree, and 12.1% had a graduate degree. With regard to employment status, 53.4% of the critical on huck participants were not employed and 46.6% were employed. The number of years couples were married ranged from 1–20 ( M = 7.2, SD = 5) and 48.3% of the participants had been married 5 years or less. The number of children under 17 who lived in the household ranged from 0–4 ( M = 1.5, SD = 1.3) and 51.7% had either no children or one child. The length of deployments ranged from spiral 6–16 months ( M = 9.5, SD = 2.8).
Finally, the length of time since the husband returned from deployment ranged from essays on huck 0–12 months ( M = 6.0, SD = 4.2). The study’s null hypothesis stated that in the population under investigation, the proportion of essay jetty variance in post-deployment psychological distress level explained by the duration of deployment (as measured by critical the DASS-21) was zero. Linear regression analysis predicted psychological distress from the duration of husband’s deployment. Results from the analysis indicated that duration of deployment significantly predicted psychological distress: F (1, 57) = 5.384, p = .024, R=.296, Adj. R 2 = .071. Duration of persuasive deployment accounted for 8.8% of the variance in critical on huck, psychological distress and was positively related to psychological distress (? = .296, sr 2 =.088).
Based on these results, the null hypothesis, which stated that distress levels would be zero or not change following longer deployments, was rejected. Thus, as the help duration of deployment increases, the psychological distress levels for on huck, stay-behind wives also increases. This study confirmed prior research and extended existing literature regarding attachment theory as it relates to stay-behind military wives. For example, researchers have found that when husbands are deployed or away on military duties for several months, the wives not only demonstrate feelings of robert smithson spiral anger during the deployments, but that their feelings of anger persist even after their husbands return from critical essays on huck deployment and military duties (Pincus et al., 2001; Riggs Riggs, 2011; Zeff, Lewis, Hirsch, 1997). Indeed, the buying car essay findings from this current study supported prior research, as the essays on huck finn author found a positive relationship between deployments of increasing length and an increase in distress levels among stay-behind military wives. Although this study did not specifically evaluate wives’ anger, other researchers have found that high distress levels are correlated with the development of anger among military wives (Drummet et al., 2003). The results of this study illustrate that post-deployment is indeed very stressful for the wife, particularly when the husband was deployed for essay spiral jetty, 6 months or more. Since deployments lasting 6 or more months significantly predicted psychological distress for critical essays finn, the wives, it may be that as deployment length increases, stress levels also may increase, resulting in a wife emotionally withdrawing from her husband. First! The findings from this study support prior research that has identified the coping strategy of critical finn emotional withdrawal, which results from psychological distress and may enable the wife to continue her daily life, while also creating a new support system and and crushing, sense of emotional equilibrium (Pincus et al., 2001). Some stay-behind wives function well on a daily basis while their husbands are deployed; however, other stay-behind wives appear to struggle with their husbands’ deployment (Riggs Riggs, 2011). Such research supports the notion that wives who made secure attachments while growing up may be better able to cope with military separations (Riggs Riggs, 2011).
It should be noted, however, that only in critical on huck finn, the past several years have some deployments lasted up to and crushing, 15 or 16 months (Sheppard, Malatras, Israel, 2010). Critical Finn! The length of deployments, especially 6 or more months, may significantly alter the ability of emerson friendship essay analysis stay-behind wives to successfully cope, regardless of their attachment styles. Further research should examine the impact of lengthy deployments (e.g., 6 or more months) on stay-behind wives’ ability to cope as it relates to attachment style, as there may be a point of diminishing returns at which, regardless of one’s attachment to her parents growing up, the ability to cope disappears. Vormbrock (1993) predicted that as the duration of deployment increased, so too would distress levels during the couple’s reunion. This was hypothesized to be due to critical, the continual unavailability of the attachment figure. The current study supports Vormbrock’s theory in that participants’ reported distress levels during post-deployment were significantly higher ( p = .023) as deployment duration increased. Perhaps when the husband is gone for essay intro help, 6 months or more, the potential for the marriage to grow apart or detach may increase. Vormbrock (1993) found that wives can successfully focus on the brevity of their separation as a means of coping; however, as the deployments increase in length, it may affect wives’ ability to maintain the mentality that this separation is essays only temporary. Deployments that require the scarlet society couple to be apart for 6 or more months may result in the wife feeling that the separation is more permanent. The longer the husband is critical away, the more independent the wife may become by creating new schedules and ways of doing things (Morse, 2006; Pincus et al., 2001).
Although this research elaborated on the relationship of the persuasive essay help post-deployment period and finn, distress among stay-behind military wives, there are some limitations to the study. The first limitation may be a self-selection bias, which may have impacted the internal validity. More specifically, since participants were volunteers, some individuals may have extremely negative feelings toward the statement about learning military and may have opted not to participate. This could have inadvertently skewed the population sample, thus impacting the results. Indeed, researchers have discussed that volunteer samples may have biased tendencies as a motivation for their participation in a specific study (Frankfort-Nachmias Nachmias, 2008). In addition to self-selection bias, an critical essays finn, instrumentation threat could be present, as this survey relied on participants’ honesty. Another possible limitation is that this study was a regression study, which relies on the correlational nature of two variables. Perhaps there are extraneous variables that could be moderating or mediating the relationship of deployment length and distress level among stay-behind military wives. Conclusions and Implications. Despite existing limitations, this study supported research regarding military deployment as a significant concern for military families, as well as for scaling ice essay, military leaders who rely on essays, the husbands of these stay-behind wives to provide national security. As surveys within the last decade indicate that nearly 60% of American military members are married (Sierra Kemp, n.d.), the results of this study also offer further insight into the contextual factors that are part of a therapeutic treatment intervention.
Military couples are unique and a counselor’s awareness of needs particular to this group is essay help imperative for therapeutic success. The current research found a positive correlation between the duration of deployment and stay-behind wives’ psychological distress levels during post-deployment. This finding corroborates the research on separation anxiety for children, particularly when children illustrate signs of detachment from essays on huck their mother following a separation. Attachment figures may include other vital individuals in one’s life, especially for military couples. Since many military couples do not live close to immediate biological family members, the wife may solely depend on persuasive essay intro help, the husband to meet her emotional, physical and social needs, just as an infant child often relies on critical on huck finn, their mother to meet these same basic needs. With this in mind, the persuasive essay intro notion of separation anxiety may not be just applicable to young children but also adults, particularly military wives. Counselors may want to educate stay-behind wives on separation anxiety and on huck finn, assist them in processing their experiences, as well as recognize wives’ desire for a stable, secure relationship and assist them to robert essay jetty, this end. Furthermore, since deployments are unpredictable and out of the wives’ control, it may be helpful for counselors to assist the wives in gaining a greater sense of control throughout their daily lives. Just as counselors often recommend that children with separation anxiety have a consistent routine, as well as partake in positive social activities, it also may be helpful to encourage stay-behind wives to create predictable routines that include engaging in on huck finn, various social events with friends and/or other military wives. This study also has implications for further research regarding the human services industry (e.g., clergy, educators) who directly work with such military families.
One might assume that not all soldiers or their wives experience deployment the buying your first car essay same way, and thus counselors must be prepared to individualize interventions and compose treatment plans according to the needs of the individual as well as needs as a couple. Critical Essays Finn! For example, the post-deployment period may entail negotiating new roles and boundaries within the family system. Wives frequently experience the emotion of celebration for the return of their husbands, while also feeling confusion over what it will mean to share a home again after becoming more independent. Emerson Friendship Essay! This experience of finn boundary ambiguity can be very confusing for wives who recognize that their husbands are physically present, but who are still transitioning toward psychological acceptance that he is present. Role ambiguity may increase if the couple is essay analysis not comfortable communicating with each other regarding roles, responsibilities and needs. Simultaneously, a soldier may feel disconnected and unaware of how to reengage without interfering with the family’s new roles. On Huck Finn! Thus, helping professionals must be prepared to work with the couple on strengthening basic communication skills and thesis about learning, nurturing a climate that facilitates safe and transparent information exchange.
Future research could evaluate the experiences of deployed husbands in terms of understanding how the distress level of their stay-behind wives impacts their duties while deployed. Such research might have national security implications. In addition, future research could examine deployments of 6 months or more regarding the critical essays finn struggles, challenges, resiliency, social and psychological effects, educational outcomes, parenting styles, and attachment of the deployed husbands, the stay-behind wives, and their children. One particular variable that may moderate the letter essay puritan society relationship between duration of critical finn deployment and thesis about learning, psychological distress is the stay-behind wife’s social support system. Larsen and critical, Kia-Keating (2010) found that a social support system significantly aided resiliency for stay-behind wives who experienced a military deployment. Furthermore, a wife’s well-being was positively impacted by having a mentor who had previously experienced a deployment herself (Larsen Kia-Keating, 2010). This brings up an interesting perception of what social support may be necessary for a military wife. Whereas some social support indices examine tangible support (i.e., someone to help around the house), the robert essay stay-behind wife may need a social support that relies more on reducing emotional stress. Future research could qualitatively explore the social support construct further by finn interviewing stay-behind wives and identifying the indices of scarlet letter social support that they deem important in terms of reducing stress during the on huck post-deployment period.
Such a qualitative process could then lead to the quantitative development of a more valid measure of social support necessary to reduce stress for stay-behind military wives, and about learning, therefore indirectly for their deployed husbands. Perhaps such a study could examine whether social support serves as a moderating or mediating influence on the relationship between deployment length and psychological distress of critical essays finn stay-behind wives. Buying Your! Such research could have both positive and negative implications for essays, their families, the emerson friendship essay military, and society at finn, large, as American society depends greatly on its military for friendship essay analysis, national security. Ainsworth, M. Essays Finn! D. S., Bell, S. Thesis Statement About Learning Disabilities! M. (1970). Attachment, exploration, and separation: Illustrated by the behavior of one-year-olds in a strange situation.
Child Development , 41 , 49–67. Barker, L. H., Berry, K. Essays On Huck! D. And Crushing Ice Essay! (2009). Developmental issues impacting military families with young children during single and multiple deployments. Military Medicine , 174 , 1033–1040. Basham, K. (2008).
Homecoming as safe haven or the new front: Attachment and detachment in military couples. Critical Essays! Clinical Social Work Journal , 36 , 83–96. doi:10.1007/s10615-007-0138-9. Bowlby, J. (1969). Attachment and loss: Volume 1: Attachment . Scarlet Essay Society! New York, NY: Basic Books. Demers, A. Critical Essays On Huck Finn! (2008). The war at home: Consequences of loving a veteran of the Iraq and robert smithson essay, Afghanistan wars. Internet Journal of essays Mental Health , 6 , 1–12. doi:10.5580/5ac.
Drummet, A. R., Coleman, M., Cable, S. (2003). Your First! Military families under stress: Implications for family life education. Family Relations , 52 , 279–287. Frankfort-Nachmias, C., Nachmias, D. (2008). Research methods in the social sciences (7th ed.). On Huck! New York, NY: Worth. Henry, J. D., Crawford, J. R. (2005).
The short-form version of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS-21): Construct validity and letter, normative data in a large non-clinical sample. British Journal of Clinical Psychology , 44 , 227–239. doi:10.1348/014466505X29657. Larsen, J., Kia-Keating, M. (2010, August). Resilience based ecological model of military family coping during deployment. Poster session presented at the annual conference of the American Psychological Association, San Diego, CA. Lovibond, P. F., Lovibond, S. On Huck Finn! H. (1995). The structure of negative emotional states: Comparison of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS) with the Beck Depression and Anxiety Inventories. Behaviour Research and Therapy , 33 (3), 335–343. doi:10.1016/0005-7967(94)00075-U. Morse, J. (2006). New emotional cycles of deployment for service members and essay intro help, their families.
U.S. Essays On Huck Finn! Department of Defense: Deployment Health and Family Readiness Library. San Diego, CA. Retrieved from http://deploymenthealthlibrary.fhp.osd.mil/Product/RetrieveFile?prodId=241. Orthner, D. K., Rose, R. Essay Help! (2005).
SAF V survey report: Reunion adjustment among Army civilian spouses with returned soldiers . Retrieved from www.army.mil/fmwrc/docs/saf5reunionreport.pdf. Pincus, S. Essays On Huck! H., House, R., Christenson, J., Adler, L. E. (2001, April/June). The emotional cycle of deployment: A military family perspective. U.S. Army Medical Department Journal , 15–23. Retrieved from http://cdm15290.contentdm.oclc.org/cdm/ref/collection/p15290coll3/id/898. Renshaw, K. Scaling And Crushing Ice Essay! D., Rodrigues, C. S. Jones, D. H. Essays Finn! (2008). Persuasive Essay Intro Help! Psychological symptoms and marital satisfaction in spouses of operation Iraqi freedom veterans: Relationships with spouses’ perceptions of critical essays veterans’ experiences and thesis statement about learning, symptoms. Critical Essays On Huck Finn! Journal of Family Psychology, 22 , 586–594. Riggs, S. A., Riggs, D. S. (2011). Risk and resilience in scarlet puritan society, military families experiencing deployment: The role of the critical on huck family attachment network.
Journal of Family Psychology, 25 , 675–687. doi:10.1037/a0025286. Robertson, J., Bowlby, J. (1952). Responses of young children to separation from car essay their mothers. Courrier of the International Children’s Centre, Paris , II , 131–140. Sheppard, S. C., Malatras, J. W., Israel, A. C. (2010). On Huck! The impact of deployment on statement, U.S. military families. American Psychologist , 65 , 599–609. doi:10.1037/a0020332. Sierra, T. A. Kemp, H. (n.d.). Essays Finn! Strategies for working with military couples in scaling walls ice essay, hope focused couples approach . Retrieved from. Spera, C. (2009). Spouses’ ability to cope with deployment and critical essays on huck finn, adjust to Air Force family demands: Identi?cation of risk and protective factors.
Armed Forces Society , 35 , 286–306. doi:10.1177/0095327X08316150. SteelFisher, G. K., Zaslavsky, A. M., Blendon, R. Thesis Learning Disabilities! J. (2008). Critical Essays! Health-related impact of deployment extensions on spouses of active duty Army personnel. Military Medicine , 173 , 221–229. U.S.
Department of Veteran Affairs. (2012). Analysis of scaling walls and crushing ice essay VA health care utilization among Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF), Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF) and Operation New Dawn (OND) veterans . Essays Finn! Retrieved from www.publichealth.va.gov/docs/epidemiology/healthcare-utilization-report-fy2012-qtr1.pdf. Vincenzes, K. A. Friendship Essay! (2013). The impact of social support on the relationship between length of essays on huck deployment and psychological distress for scarlet puritan society, military wives during post-deployment . (Doctoral dissertation). Retrieved from ProQuest/UMI. (13775). Vormbrock, J. K. (1993). Attachment theory as applied to wartime and job-related marital separation.
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Critical Analysis of Huck Finn essays
A Modest Proposal, by Jonathan Swift. Best known for Gulliver#39;s Travels , an allegorical account of Lemuel Gulliver#39;s fanciful voyages, Jonathan Swift also published numerous essays and political pamphlets. The most sensational of these short works, #34;A Modest Proposal,#34; is generally considered to be the essays, most famous satirical essay in the English language. Persuasive Intro? But in fact there#39;s nothing straightforward about #34;A Modest Proposal.#34; As you read Swift#39;s proposal, originally published anonymously in essays on huck finn 1729, consider why it has been characterized as #34;a masterpiece of thesis about learning, ironic logic.#34; When you are done, you may want to try our Reading Quiz on #34;A Modest Proposal.#34; You may also find it worthwhile to compare Swift#39;s essay to two other classic proposals: #34;An Economical Project#34; by Benjamin Franklin and #34;Portrait of an Ideal World#34; by H.L. Mencken. For Preventing the Children of Poor People in Ireland from Being a Burden to Their Parents or Country, and for Making Them Beneficial to the Public.
1 It is a melancholy object to those who walk through this great town or travel in the country, when they see the streets, the roads, and cabin doors, crowded with beggars of the female sex, followed by three, four, or six children, all in critical essays finn rags and puritan society, importuning every passenger for an alms. These mothers, instead of being able to work for their honest livelihood, are forced to employ all their time in strolling to beg sustenance for critical on huck finn, their helpless infants: who as they grow up either turn thieves for want of work, or leave their dear native country to essay puritan society fight for critical finn, the Pretender in Spain, or sell themselves to friendship essay analysis the Barbadoes. 2 I think it is agreed by all parties that this prodigious number of children in the arms, or on the backs, or at the heels of their mothers, and frequently of their fathers, is in the present deplorable state of the kingdom a very great additional grievance; and, therefore, whoever could find out critical a fair, cheap, and easy method of making these children sound, useful members of the commonwealth, would deserve so well of the public as to persuasive intro help have his statue set up for a preserver of the nation. 3 But my intention is very far from being confined to provide only for the children of essays on huck finn, professed beggars; it is of a much greater extent, and shall take in the whole number of infants at essay help a certain age who are born of parents in effect as little able to support them as those who demand our charity in the streets. 4 As to my own part, having turned my thoughts for many years upon critical essays this important subject, and maturely weighed the several schemes of other projectors, I have always found them grossly mistaken in thesis statement learning disabilities the computation.
It is true, a child just dropped from finn its dam may be supported by her milk for a solar year, with little other nourishment; at most not above the value of 2s., which the mother may certainly get, or the value in scraps, by her lawful occupation of essay help, begging; and it is exactly at one year old that I propose to provide for them in such a manner as instead of being a charge upon on huck their parents or the parish, or wanting food and raiment for first, the rest of their lives, they shall on the contrary contribute to the feeding, and partly to on huck the clothing, of many thousands. 5 There is emerson analysis, likewise another great advantage in my scheme, that it will prevent those voluntary abortions, and that horrid practice of women murdering their bastard children, alas! too frequent among us! sacrificing the poor innocent babes I doubt more to critical on huck finn avoid the expense than the shame, which would move tears and pity in the most savage and inhuman breast. 6 The number of souls in this kingdom being usually reckoned one million and a half, of these I calculate there may be about two hundred thousand couple whose wives are breeders; from which number I subtract thirty thousand couples who are able to maintain their own children, although I apprehend there cannot be so many, under the present distresses of the kingdom; but this being granted, there will remain an hundred and intro help, seventy thousand breeders. I again subtract fifty thousand for those women who miscarry, or whose children die by accident or disease within the year. There only remains one hundred and twenty thousand children of poor parents annually born. The question therefore is, how this number shall be reared and provided for, which, as I have already said, under the present situation of affairs, is utterly impossible by critical essays on huck finn, all the methods hitherto proposed. For we can neither employ them in handicraft or agriculture; we neither build houses (I mean in persuasive the country) nor cultivate land: they can very seldom pick up a livelihood by stealing, till they arrive at six years old, except where they are of towardly parts, although I confess they learn the rudiments much earlier, during which time, they can however be properly looked upon only as probationers, as I have been informed by a principal gentleman in the county of Cavan, who protested to me that he never knew above one or two instances under the age of six, even in a part of the kingdom so renowned for the quickest proficiency in that art. 7 I am assured by our merchants, that a boy or a girl before twelve years old is no salable commodity; and even when they come to this age they will not yield above three pounds, or three pounds and finn, half-a-crown at most on the exchange; which cannot turn to account either to the parents or kingdom, the charge of nutriment and scarlet essay puritan, rags having been at least four times that value. 8 I shall now therefore humbly propose my own thoughts, which I hope will not be liable to essays the least objection. 9 I have been assured by a very knowing American of my acquaintance in London, that a young healthy child well nursed is at a year old a most delicious, nourishing, and statement disabilities, wholesome food, whether stewed, roasted, baked, or boiled; and I make no doubt that it will equally serve in a fricassee or a ragout.
Continued on page two. Critical On Huck? 10 I do therefore humbly offer it to public consideration that of the hundred and twenty thousand children already computed, twenty thousand may be reserved for analysis, breed, whereof only one-fourth part to be males; which is more than we allow to sheep, black cattle or swine; and critical on huck, my reason is, that these children are seldom the fruits of marriage, a circumstance not much regarded by our savages, therefore one male will be sufficient to serve four females. That the remaining hundred thousand may, at a year old, be offered in analysis the sale to the persons of critical on huck, quality and thesis statement, fortune through the kingdom; always advising the critical essays, mother to let them suck plentifully in the last month, so as to render them plump and fat for a good table. A child will make two dishes at an entertainment for friends; and when the family dines alone, the fore or hind quarter will make a reasonable dish, and your car essay, seasoned with a little pepper or salt will be very good boiled on the fourth day, especially in winter. 11 I have reckoned upon a medium that a child just born will weigh 12 pounds, and in a solar year, if tolerably nursed, increaseth to 28 pounds.
12 I grant this food will be somewhat dear, and therefore very proper for landlords, who, as they have already devoured most of the parents, seem to have the best title to the children. 13 Infant#39;s flesh will be in season throughout the year, but more plentiful in March, and a little before and after; for critical on huck, we are told by a grave author, an essay eminent French physician, that fish being a prolific diet, there are more children born in Roman Catholic countries about critical on huck finn, nine months after Lent than at robert smithson essay spiral jetty any other season; therefore, reckoning a year after Lent, the markets will be more glutted than usual, because the number of popish infants is at least three to critical one in this kingdom: and therefore it will have one other collateral advantage, by lessening the ice essay, number of papists among us. Critical Finn? 14 I have already computed the scarlet letter, charge of nursing a beggar#39;s child (in which list I reckon all cottagers, laborers, and four-fifths of the farmers) to be about two shillings per annum, rags included; and I believe no gentleman would repine to give ten shillings for the carcass of a good fat child, which, as I have said, will make four dishes of critical on huck, excellent nutritive meat, when he hath only some particular friend or his own family to dine with him. Thus the squire will learn to be a good landlord, and grow popular among his tenants; the mother will have eight shillings net profit, and be fit for work till she produces another child. 15 Those who are more thrifty (as I must confess the times require) may flay the carcass; the skin of buying first, which artificially dressed will make admirable gloves for ladies, and summer boots for fine gentlemen. 16 As to essays on huck our city of Dublin, shambles may be appointed for this purpose in the most convenient parts of it, and butchers we may be assured will not be wanting; although I rather recommend buying the children alive, and dressing them hot from the knife, as we do roasting pigs.
17 A very worthy person, a true lover of his country, and whose virtues I highly esteem, was lately pleased in discoursing on this matter to offer a refinement upon my scheme. He said that many gentlemen of this kingdom, having of late destroyed their deer, he conceived that the want of venison might be well supplied by the bodies of young lads and maidens, not exceeding fourteen years of age nor under twelve; so great a number of both sexes in every country being now ready to society starve for want of work and critical, service; and buying, these to be disposed of by essays finn, their parents, if alive, or otherwise by their nearest relations. But with due deference to so excellent a friend and so deserving a patriot, I cannot be altogether in his sentiments; for as to the males, my American acquaintance assured me, from frequent experience, that their flesh was generally tough and lean, like that of essay, our schoolboys by continual exercise, and their taste disagreeable; and to fatten them would not answer the charge. Then as to the females, it would, I think, with humble submission be a loss to the public, because they soon would become breeders themselves; and critical essays finn, besides, it is not improbable that some scrupulous people might be apt to censure such a practice (although indeed very unjustly), as a little bordering upon cruelty; which, I confess, hath always been with me the strongest objection against any project, however so well intended. 18 But in order to justify my friend, he confessed that this expedient was put into robert, his head by the famous Psalmanazar, a native of the island Formosa, who came from thence to London above twenty years ago, and in on huck finn conversation told my friend, that in intro his country when any young person happened to be put to death, the essays finn, executioner sold the carcass to persons of quality as a prime dainty; and that in his time the body of a plump girl of fifteen, who was crucified for an attempt to poison the emperor, was sold to his imperial majesty#39;s prime minister of state, and thesis about learning, other great mandarins of the court, in joints from the gibbet, at four hundred crowns.
Neither indeed can I deny, that if the same use were made of several plump young girls in this town, who without one single groat to their fortunes cannot stir abroad without a chair, and appear at playhouse and assemblies in foreign fineries which they never will pay for, the kingdom would not be the critical essays on huck finn, worse. 19 Some persons of persuasive help, a desponding spirit are in great concern about that vast number of poor people, who are aged, diseased, or maimed, and I have been desired to critical finn employ my thoughts what course may be taken to ease the smithson essay spiral, nation of so grievous an encumbrance. Critical Finn? But I am not in the least pain upon that matter, because it is very well known that they are every day dying and rotting by emerson friendship, cold and famine, and filth and vermin, as fast as can be reasonably expected. And as to critical essays on huck finn the young laborers, they are now in as hopeful a condition; they cannot get work, and persuasive, consequently pine away for want of on huck finn, nourishment, to a degree that if at scarlet essay society any time they are accidentally hired to common labor, they have not strength to critical finn perform it; and thus the country and themselves are happily delivered from the evils to come. Concluded on page three.
20 I have too long digressed, and therefore shall return to my subject. I think the advantages by persuasive essay intro help, the proposal which I have made are obvious and essays, many, as well as of the highest importance. For first, as I have already observed, it would greatly lessen the thesis statement learning, number of papists, with whom we are yearly overrun, being the principal breeders of the critical finn, nation as well as our most dangerous enemies; and who stay at home on purpose with a design to deliver the kingdom to the Pretender, hoping to take their advantage by buying your, the absence of critical essays on huck finn, so many good protestants, who have chosen rather to leave their country than stay at home and pay tithes against their conscience to an episcopal curate. 21 Secondly, The poorer tenants will have something valuable of their own, which by law may be made liable to distress and help to pay their landlord#39;s rent, their corn and cattle being already seized, and money a thing unknown. 22 Thirdly, Whereas the maintenance of an hundred thousand children, from two years old and upward, cannot be computed at less than ten shillings a-piece per annum, the nation#39;s stock will be thereby increased fifty thousand pounds per annum, beside the profit of learning disabilities, a new dish introduced to the tables of all gentlemen of fortune in the kingdom who have any refinement in taste. And the money will circulate among ourselves, the goods being entirely of our own growth and essays on huck finn, manufacture. 23 Fourthly, The constant breeders, beside the gain of spiral jetty, eight shillings sterling per on huck, annum by the sale of their children, will be rid of the robert smithson essay spiral jetty, charge of maintaining them after the essays on huck, first year. 24 Fifthly, This food would likewise bring great custom to taverns; where the vintners will certainly be so prudent as to procure the best receipts for dressing it to and crushing perfection, and consequently have their houses frequented by all the critical, fine gentlemen, who justly value themselves upon their knowledge in good eating: and a skilful cook, who understands how to oblige his guests, will contrive to make it as expensive as they please. Puritan Society? 25 Sixthly, This would be a great inducement to marriage, which all wise nations have either encouraged by rewards or enforced by critical essays on huck finn, laws and buying your first car essay, penalties.
It would increase the care and tenderness of mothers toward their children, when they were sure of critical essays, a settlement for life to the poor babes, provided in some sort by the public, to their annual profit instead of expense. We should see an honest emulation among the married women, which of scarlet society, them could bring the fattest child to the market. Men would become as fond of their wives during the time of their pregnancy as they are now of their mares in foal, their cows in calf, their sows when they are ready to farrow; nor offer to essays on huck beat or kick them (as is too frequent a practice) for fear of a miscarriage. 26 Many other advantages might be enumerated. For instance, the robert essay spiral, addition of critical, some thousand carcasses in our exportation of barreled beef, the propagation of scaling and crushing ice essay, swine#39;s flesh, and improvement in critical on huck finn the art of making good bacon, so much wanted among us by the great destruction of pigs, too frequent at our tables; which are no way comparable in taste or magnificence to a well-grown, fat, yearling child, which roasted whole will make a considerable figure at a lord mayor#39;s feast or any other public entertainment. But this and many others I omit, being studious of brevity. 27 Supposing that one thousand families in this city, would be constant customers for Infant#39;s Flesh, besides others who might have it at merry meetings, particularly at weddings and christenings, I compute that Dublin would take off annually about twenty thousand carcasses, and essay analysis, the rest of the critical essays on huck, Kingdom (where probably they will be sold somewhat cheaper) the remaining eighty thousand. 28 I can think of no one objection, that will possibly be raised against this proposal, unless it should be urged, that the number of letter essay puritan, people will be thereby much lessened in the Kingdom. This I freely own, and #39;twas indeed one principal design in offering it to the world. I desire the reader will observe, that I calculate my remedy for this one individual kingdom of Ireland, and for no other that ever was, is, or I think, ever can be upon Earth.
Therefore let no man talk to me of other expedients: of taxing our absentees at five shillings a pound: of using neither clothes, nor household furniture, except what is of our own growth and manufacture: of utterly rejecting the materials and instruments that promote foreign luxury: of critical, curing the expensiveness of pride, vanity, idleness, and gaming in your our women: of critical finn, introducing a vein of parsimony, prudence and temerance: of learning to love our country, wherein we differ even from robert smithson essay jetty Laplanders, and essays, the inhabitants of Topinamboo: of quitting our animosities, and thesis statement learning, factions, nor act any longer like the Jews, who were murdering one another at the very moment their city was taken: of being a little cautious not to sell our country and consciences for critical on huck finn, nothing: of teaching our landlords to have at least one degree of mercy towards their tenants. Lastly, of putting a spirit of honesty, industry, and scarlet puritan society, skill into our shop-keepers, who, if a resolution could now be taken to buy only our native goods, would immediately unite to cheat and exact upon us in the price, the measure and the goodness, nor could ever yet be brought to critical make one fair proposal of just dealing, though often and scaling walls ice essay, earnestly invited to it. On Huck Finn? 30 But as to emerson friendship my self, having been wearied out for many years with offering vain, idle, visionary thoughts, and at length despairing of success, I fortunately fell upon this proposal, which as it is wholly new, so it hath something solid and real, of no expense and little trouble, full in our own power, and whereby we can incur no danger in disobliging England. For this kind of critical essays finn, commodity will not bear exportation, the flesh being of too tender a consistence, to admit a long continuance in salt, although perhaps I could name a country, which would be glad to eat up our whole nation without it. Persuasive Essay Intro Help? 31 After all, I am not so violently bent upon my own opinion as to reject any offer proposed by wise men, which shall be found equally innocent, cheap, easy, and effectual. But before something of that kind shall be advanced in contradiction to my scheme, and offering a better, I desire the author or authors will be pleased maturely to critical finn consider two points. First, as things now stand, how they will be able to find food and raiment for an hundred thousand useless mouths and backs.
And secondly, there being a round million of creatures in human figure throughout this kingdom, whose whole subsistence put into a common stock would leave them in scarlet puritan debt two millions of pounds sterling, adding those who are beggars by profession to the bulk of farmers, cottagers, and laborers, with their wives and children who are beggars in effect: I desire those politicians who dislike my overture, and may perhaps be so bold as to attempt an answer, that they will first ask the parents of these mortals, whether they would not at this day think it a great happiness to have been sold for food, at a year old in finn the manner I prescribe, and thereby have avoided such a perpetual scene of letter essay society, misfortunes as they have since gone through by essays on huck finn, the oppression of landlords, the impossibility of paying rent without money or trade, the want of common sustenance, with neither house nor clothes to walls cover them from the inclemencies of the weather, and the most inevitable prospect of entailing the like or greater miseries upon their breed for essays on huck, ever. 32 I profess, in the sincerity of my heart, that I have not the emerson friendship essay, least personal interest in on huck finn endeavoring to promote this necessary work, having no other motive than the essay intro, public good of my country, by essays on huck, advancing our trade, providing for thesis statement about disabilities, infants, relieving the poor, and giving some pleasure to the rich. I have no children by essays on huck finn, which I can propose to get a single penny; the youngest being nine years old, and my wife past child-bearing.
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Essay on Marriage: Meaning, Functions and Forms. Here is your essay on marriage, it’s meaning, functions and critical, forms! Marriage and family sociologically signifies the stage of greater social advancement. It is indicative of man’s entry into the world of emotion and feeling, harmony and culture. Long before the emerson friendship, institution of marriage developed, man and woman may have lived together, procreated children and died unwept and unsung. Their sexual relations must have been like birds and animals of momentary duration. Image Courtesy : 2.bp.blogspot.com/–Zyo4IJENYk/TtuIdHcjm-I/AAAAAAAACwQ/Rg89UBiMU0A/s1600/lklk.jpg. Marriage as an institution developed over the time.
It may have been accepted as a measure of social discipline and as an expedient to eliminate social stress due to the sex rivalry. The growing sense and sensibility may have necessitated the acceptance of norms for formalising the critical finn, union between man and woman. Marriage is the most important institution of human society. It is buying your first car essay a universal phenomenon. It has been the backbone of human civilisation. Human beings have certain urges like hungers, thirst and sex. Society works out certain rules and critical, regulation for satisfaction of these urges. The rules and regulations, which deal with regulation of sex life of human beings, are dealt in the marriage institution. We can say that the Marriage is as old as the institution of family. Both these institutions are vital for the society. Family depends upon the Marriage.
Marriage regulates sex life of human beings. Marriage creates new social relationships and reciprocal rights between the spouses. It establishes the rights and the status of the children when they are born. Each society recognises certain procedures for walls and crushing, creating such relationship and rights. The society prescribes rules for prohibitions, preferences and prescriptions in deciding marriage. It is this institution through which a man sustains the continuity of his race and critical essays on huck, attains satisfaction in scaling walls and crushing a socially recognised manner.
Sociologists and anthropologists have given definitions of marriage. Some of the important definitions are given below. Edward Westermark. “Marriage is a relation of one or more men to one or more women which is recognised by custom or law and critical essays finn, involves certain rights and duties both in the case of the parties entering the union and in the case of the children born of it. As B. Malinowski defines, “Marriage is a contract for the production and maintenance of children”. According H.M. Johnson, “Marriage is a stable relationship in intro help which a man and a woman are socially permitted without loss of critical, standing in community, to have children”. Ira L. Reiss writes, “Marriage is a socially accepted union of individuals in husband and smithson spiral, wife roles, with the key function of legitimating of parenthood”. William Stephens, the anthropologist, says that marriage is: (1) A socially legitimate sexual union begun with. (2) A public announcement, undertaken with. (3) Some idea of performance and assumed with a more or less explicit.
(4) Marriage contract, which spells out reciprocal obligations between spouses and between spouses and their children. William J. Goode, the famous family sociologist has tried to critical essays finn combine the your first car essay, two objectives of marriage i.e. to regulate sex life and to recognize the newborn. It was perhaps for critical essays on huck, this reason that American sociologists came out with the statement that no child should be born without a father. Although different thinkers have tried to provide definition of marriage, but there is no universally acceptable definition of marriage. There seems to your be, however, a consensus that marriage involves several criteria that are found to exist cross-culturally and throughout time. Critical Essays On Huck. For example, Hindu marriage has three main objectives such as Dharma, Progeny and Sexual Pleasure. Individual happiness has been given the least importance. Letter Puritan Society. It is considered to be sacrament, a spiritual union between a man and a woman in the social status of critical essays on huck finn, husband and wife.
In Western countries, marriage is a contract. Personal happiness is intro given the utmost importance. People enter into matrimonial alliances for the sake of seeking personal happiness. If this happiness is-not forthcoming they will terminate the relationship. Marriage is thus cultural specific. The rules and regulations differ from one culture to another. Essays. We can, however, identify certain basic features of this institution.
(1) A heterosexual union, including at least one male and one female. (2) The legitimizing or granting of approval to the sexual relationship and the bearing of children without any loss of standing in the community or society. (3) A public affair rather than a private, personal matter. (4) A highly institutionalized and patterned mating arrangement. (5) Rules which determine who can marry whom. (6) New statuses to man and woman in statement learning disabilities the shape of husband and wife and father and essays, mother. (7) Development of personal intimate and affectionate relationships between the spouses and parent and children.
(8) A binding relationship that assumes some performance. The above discussion helps us to conclude that the boundaries of marriage are not always precise and clearly defined. It is, however, very important institution for the society as it helps in replacement of old and dying population. Marriage is an your first institutionalized relationship within the family system. It fulfills many functions attributed to the family in general. Family functions include basic personality formation, status ascriptions, socialization, tension management, and replacement of members, economic cooperation, reproduction, stabilization of adults, and critical finn, the like. Many of these functions, while not requiring marriage for their fulfillment, are enhanced by the marital system”. Intro Help. In fact, evidence suggests marriage to be of great significance for the well-being of the individual.
Researchers have shown that compared to the unmarried, married persons are generally happier, healthier, less depressed and critical essays finn, disturbed and less prone to premature deaths. Marriage, rather than becoming less important or unimportant, may be increasingly indispensable. The functions of marriage differ as the structure of marriage differs. Emerson. ‘For example, where marriage is specially an critical extension of the kin and extended family system, then procreation, passing on the family name and continuation of property become a basic function. Essay Analysis. Thus, to not have a child or more specifically, to not have a male child, is essays sufficient reason to replace the present wife or add a new wife. Where marriage is based on “free choice,” i.e. parents and kinsmen play no role in selecting the partner, individualistic forces are accorded greater significance. Thus in the United States, marriage has many functions and involves many positive as well as negative personal factors : establishment of a family of one’s own, children, companionship, happiness, love, economic security, elimination of loneliness etc.
The greater the extent to which the perceived needs of marriage are met, and the fewer the alternatives in car essay the replacement of the unmet needs, the critical essays on huck finn, greater the likelihood of marriage and essay, the continuation of that marriage. Essays. At a personal level, any perceived reason may explain marriage, but at a social level, all societies sanction certain reasons and renounce others. Societies evolved mannerism and method for selection of the spouses, according to their peculiar socio-economic and political conditions, and in accordance with their levels of cultural advancement. This explains on the one hand the origin of the various forms, of marriage and on the other the differences in the attitude of societies towards the institution of marriage. Some have accepted it as purely a contractual arrangement between weds, while others hold it as the puritan society, sacred union between man, and woman. Forms of marriage vary from society to society. Marriage can be broadly divided into two types, (1) monogamy and (2) polygamy. Monogamy is that form of critical finn, marriage in which at a given period of time one man has marital relations with one woman.
On the death of the spouse or one of the partners seek divorce then they can establish such relationship with other persons but at a given period of persuasive, time, one cannot have two or more wives or two or more husbands. This one to one relationship is the critical on huck, most modern civilized way of living. In most of the societies it is learning this form, which is critical essays finn found and recognized. It should be noted that on a societal basis, only about 20 per robert essay, cent of the societies are designated as strictly monogamous, that is, monogamy is the required form. When monogamy does not achieve stability, certain married persons end their relationship and remarry.
Thus, the second spouse, although not existing simultaneously with the first, is sometimes referred to as fitting into a pattern of sequential monogamy, serial monogamy or remarriage. Keeping in view the advantages of monogamy the world has granted recognition to monogamous form of marriage. The following are its advantages: 1. Better Adjustment: In this form of marriage men and women have to adjust with one partner only. In this way there is better adjustment between them. 2. Greater Intimacy: If the number of people in the family will be limited there will be more love and affection in the family. Because of which they will have friendly and deep relations. 3. Better Socialization of Children:
In the on huck finn, monogamy the children are looked after with earnest attention of persuasive intro help, parents. The development of modes of children will be done nicely. There will be no jealously between the parents for looking after their children. Family happiness is maintained under monogamy which is completely destroyed in other forms of marriage because of critical, jealousy and other reasons. Thus, in this form of marriage, family is buying first car essay defined as happy family. 5. Equal Status to Woman: In this form of marriage the status of woman in family is equal. Essays. If husband works she looks after the house or both of them work for strengthening the buying your first car essay, economic condition of the family. 6. Equalitarian way of Living:
It is on huck only under monogamous way of living that husband and wife can have equalitarian way of life. Under this system husband and wife not only share the familial role and obligations but also have joint decisions. The decision making process becomes a joint venture. 7. Population Control: Some sociologists have the buying, view that monogamy controls the population. Because of one wife children in the family will be limited. 8. Better Standard of Living: It also affects the standard of living within limited resources. One can manage easily to live a better life. It helps in the development of independent personality without much constraint and pressure.
9. Respect to old Parents: Old parents receive favouring care by their children but under polygamy their days are full of bitterness. 10. Law is in favour: Monogamy is essays finn legally sanctioned form of marriage while some are legally prohibited. 11. More Cooperation:
In such a family there is close union between the couple and the chances of intro, conflict are reduced and there is cooperation between husband and wife. It is essays finn more stable form of marriage. There is better division of property after the death of parents. Monogamy is a marriage between one husband and one wife. Thesis Learning. So if the essays finn, partner is not of choice then life loses its charm. Essay Jetty. They have to adjust between themselves but now-a-days divorce is the answer to their problem. According to Sumner and Keller, “Monogamy is monopoly.” Wherever there is monopoly, there is bound to be both ‘ins and outs’. Some inpatients can’t have kids or some barren cannot have kids. Critical On Huck Finn. If one of the partners has some problem couples cannot have children.
They have to suffer from childlessness. 4. Scaling Walls. Economic Factors: Marriage in monogamy does not play part of income. They have to depend upon essays on huck finn, their own occupation for living. If they are poor they will remain poor.
So monogamy effects the economic condition of man and woman. 5. Better status to Women: Monogamy provides better status to women in the society. They are counted equal to thesis men. Some people do not like this form of critical essays finn, marriage. When they do not get partner of their own choice they start sexual relations with other people. This also leads to the problem of prostitution.
Distinguished from scarlet letter essay puritan society, monogamy is polygamy. Polygamy refer to the marriage of several or many. Polygamy is the form of marriage in which one man marries two or more women or one woman marries two or more men or a number of men many a number of women. According to F.N. Critical Finn. Balasara, “The forms of marriage in which there is plurality of partners is called polygamy”.
Polygamy, like other forms of marriage is highly regulated and normatively controlled. It is emerson essay likely to be supported by the attitudes and values of essays on huck, both the sexes. Polygamy itself has many forms and walls, variations. Critical Essays On Huck Finn. Polygamy is of three types: (i) Polygyny, (ii) Polyandry and (iii) Group marriage. Let us now discuss forms of polygamy in details, Polygyny is a form of marriage in which a man has more than one .wife at a time. Emerson Friendship Analysis. In other words it is essays a form of marriage in which one man marries more than one woman at a given time. It is the prevalent form of marriage among the tribes, Polygyny also appears to be the privilege of the wealthy, in many African societies the rich usually have more than one wife. This type of marriage is found in Ghana, Nigeria, Kenya and Uganda. Disabilities. In India, polygyny persisted from the Vedic times until Hindu Marriage Act, 1955.
Now polygyny is visible among many tribes of India. Viewing polygyny cross-culturally, poiygynous families evidence specific organisational features: 1. In certain matters, sex particularly, co-wives have clearly defined equal rights. 2. Each wife is set up in a separate establishment. 3. The senior wife is critical on huck given special powers and privileges. It has been suggested that if co-wives are sisters, they usually live in the same house; if co-wives are not sister, they usually live in separate houses.
It is believed that sibling can better tolerate, suppress and live with a situation of sexual rivalry than can non-siblings. Polygyny may be of two types: (i) Sororal polygyny and (ii) Non-soraral polygyny. Sororal polygyny is one in which all the statement about learning, wives are sisters. Non-sororal polygyny means the marriage of critical essays on huck finn, one man with many women who are not sisters. 1. Disproportion of friendship, sexes in the Population: When in any tribe or society male members are less in number and females are more, then this type of marriage takes place.
2. Out-migration of male Population: To earn the livelihood male members migrate from one society to another. This way there is a decrease in the number of males than females and on huck finn, polygyny takes place. Hypergamy also gives rise to polygyny. Robert Smithson Essay. Under this system the parents of lower castes or classes want to improve their social status by marrying their daughters in the higher caste or classes. 4. Desire for male Child:
Among the primitive people importance was given to make children than females. Thus man was free to have as many marriages as he liked on the ground to get male children. In some societies number of wives represented greater authority and status. Particularly the leaders of primitive society increased number of wives in on huck order to prove their superiority. Persuasive Intro. A single marriage was considered a sign of poverty. So where marriage is taken as sign of prestige and prosperity the custom of polygyny is natural.
6. Economic Reason: Where the people of the essays finn, poor families were unable to find suitable husbands for their daughters they started marrying their daughters to rich married males. 7. Variety of Sex Relation: The desire for variety of sex relations is another cause of polygyny. The sexual instincts become dull by more familiarity. It is stimulated by novelty.
8. Enforced Celibacy: In uncivilized tribes men did not approach the women during the period of pregnancy and while she was feeding the essay intro, child. Thus long period of enforced celibacy gave birth to second marriage. In uncivilized society more children were needed for critical essays finn, agriculture, war and status recognition. Moreover, in thesis statement about disabilities some tribes the birth rate was low and death rate was high. In such tribes polygyny was followed to obtain more children. 10. Absence of children: According to Manu, if wife is unable to on huck have children, man is permitted to have more marriages.
He further says if a wife takes her husband then he should live with her one year and take another wife. 11. Religious Reasons: Polygyny was permitted in the past if wife was incapable of forming religious duties in her periodic sickness because religion was given significant place in social life. 12. Patriarchal Society: Polygyny is your car essay found only in the patriarchal society where more importance is given to critical essays finn males and male member is the head of the family. (1) Better status of children: In polygyny children enjoy better status. They are looked after well because there are many women in the family to care. (2) Rapid growth of Population:
In those societies where population is very less and birth rate is almost zero, for those societies polygyny is best suited, as it increases the population at faster rate. (3) Importance of Males: In polygyny males occupy higher status. More importance is given to scarlet essay puritan society husband by several wives. (4) Division of Work: In polygyny there are several wives. Therefore, there is a proper division of work at home.
(5) Variety of Sex Relations: Instead of going for extra marital relations husband stays at home because his desire for variety of sex relations is fulfilled within polygyny. (6) Continuity of Family: Polygyny came into existence mainly because of finn, inability of a wife to produce children. Polygyny provides continuity to the family tree. In absence of one wife other women in the family produce children. 1. Lower status of Women: In this form of marriage women have very low status; they are regarded as an object of pleasure for their husbands.
They generally do not have a right to take decisions about their welfare; they have to depend upon their husband for fulfillment of their basic needs. 2. Jealousy as stated by Shakespeare: “Woman thy name is jealousy”. When several wives have to share one husband, there is bound to be jealousy among co-wives. Jealousy leads to inefficiency in their work. They are not able to socialize their children in a proper manner in such atmosphere. 3. Low Economic Status:
Polygyny increases economic burden on the family because in many cases only husband is the bread winner and persuasive essay, whole of the family is dependent on him. 4. Population Growth: This type of marriage is critical essays finn harmful for friendship essay, developing society and poor nations because they have limited resources Further increase in population deteriorates progress and development of critical finn, that society. 5. Fragmentation of Property: In polygyny all the children born from different wives have share in father’s property.
Jealousy among mothers leads to property conflicts among children as a result property is divided and income per capita decreases. 6. Uncongenial Atmosphere: Polygyny does not promise congenial atmosphere for the proper growth and development of children. There is lack of affection among the members. As such families have large number of members. Scaling Walls And Crushing. They fail to provide proper attention to all of them. This gives rise to many immoral practices in the society. It is essays a form of marriage in which one woman has more than one husband at scaling and crushing ice essay a given time.
According to K.M. Kapadia, Polyandry is a form of union in which a woman has more than one husband at a time or in which brothers share a wife or wives in common. This type marriage is prevalent in few places such as tribes of Malaya and some tribes of India like Toda, Khasi and Kota etc. Polyandry is of two types: (i) Fraternal Polyandry and. (ii) Non-Fratemai Polyandry. (i) Fraternal Polyandry: In this form of polyandry one wife is regarded as the wife of all brothers.
All the brothers in a family share the finn, same woman as their wife. The children are treated as the offspring of the eldest brother, it is found in some Indian tribes like Toda and Khasis. This type of marriage was popular in Ceylon (Srilanka at present). (ii) Non-Fraternal Polyandry: In this type of polyandry one woman has more than one husband who is not brothers. They belong to different families. The wife cohabits with husbands in turn. In case of Fraternal Polyandry, the friendship analysis, wife lives in the family of her husbands, while in case of non-fraternal polyandry, the wife continues to stay in the family of critical essays on huck, her mother. Scarlet Puritan. This type of polyandry is found among Nayars of Kerala.
1. Critical Essays. Lesser number of Women: According to buying your first car essay Westermark, when the number of women is essays finn lesser than the number of males in a society, polyandry is found. For example, among Todas of Nilgiri. But according to Brifficult, polyandry can exist even when the number of women is not lesser e.g. in Tibet, Sikkim and Laddakh polyandry is found even though there is scaling and crushing ice essay not much disparity in critical essays finn the number of men and women. In some tribal societies female infanticide is present; as a result these female population is less than male population. Further males do not enjoy good status. Therefore, one female is married to friendship essay analysis a group of brothers and polyandry exists.
3. Finn. Matrilineal System: Just in contrast to above noted point, it has also been argued that polyandry exists in friendship essay matrilineal system where one woman can have relationship with more than one man and the children instead of getting the name of father are known by critical essays on huck finn mother’s name. Polyandry exists in such areas where there is scarcity of thesis statement about disabilities, natural resources. It is for this reason many men support one woman and her children. In societies where there is bridge price, polyandry exists.
Brothers pay for critical finn, one bride who becomes wife of thesis, all of them. 6. Division of Property: To check the division of ancestral property polyandry is favoured. When all the brothers have one wife then the question of division of property does not arise. 7. Production and labour: Polyandry not only avoids division of property but it also increases production in agriculture.
All the brothers work together because they have to essays on huck support only first car essay, one family. Thus production and critical essays finn, income increases, further there is no expenditure with regard to buying labour because all the husbands contribute their share of work. Polyandry exists in some societies mainly because of customs and critical finn, traditions of that particular society. Generally, polyandry is found in such areas which are situated far away from modern developed areas. (1) Checks Population Growth:
It checks population growth because all the male members of the family share one wife. Essay. As a result population does not increase at that rapid rate, the way in which it occurs in polygyny Therefore, it limits the size of the family. (2) Economic Standard: Polyandry helps to unhold the economic standard of the family. It strengthens the economic position of the family because all the members work for the improvement of the family. (3) Greater Security: With large number of males working after the family affairs, other members of the family especially women and critical essays on huck finn, children feel quite secure. Greater security among the members develop sense of we-feeling among the members of the family.
(4) Property is kept Intact: In polyandry family does not get divided. The property of the family is held jointly and thus it is kept intact. (5) Status of Women: In polyandry one woman is wife of large number of husbands. As a result she gets attention of all the members and thus enjoys a good status in the family. She feels quite secure because in the absence of one husband other males are there to fulfill her basic needs. When all the men have to share one woman, family quarrels and tensions are ought to be there. Husbands feel jealous of robert spiral, one another which adversely effect congenial atmosphere of the family. When children have large number of fathers they fail to select appropriate model for themselves. This adversely effects their personality configuration.
(3) Health of the Woman: It adversely effects health of a woman because she has to satisfy several husbands. It not only has negative effect on the physical health but also on essays mental health of the woman. According to biologists if the same woman cohabits with several men, it may lead to sterility, further lack of sex gratification give rise to extra-marital relationship of husbands. In matrilineal system where polyandry is found husbands do not enjoy high status. They do not give their name to the children. (6) Lack of Attachment: In many tribes where polyandry exists husbands do not live permanently with their families.
They are visiting husband who visit the family for a specific period. They do not get love and affection of their children because children feel unattached to their fathers. (7) Less Population: This form of marriage decreases population growth. In some tribal societies where polyandry continues to exist may get extinct after a gap of robert smithson essay jetty, few years. This is another outcome of essays on huck, this practice. Group marriage is that type of marriage in which a group of men marry a group of thesis statement about disabilities, women. Each man of male group is considered to be the husband of every woman of female group. Similarly, every woman is the wife of every man of male group.
Pair bonded or Multilateral marriage are the substitute term for group marriages. This form of marriage is found among some tribes of New Guinea and Africa. Essays On Huck Finn. In India group marriage is practised by the Toda Tribe of Nilgiri Hills. Your First. Except on an experimental basis it is an extremely rare occurrence and critical essays on huck finn, may never have existed as a viable form of robert smithson essay spiral jetty, marriage for any society in the world. The Oneida community of New York State has been frequently cited as an example of critical essays on huck, group marriage experiment. It involved economic and sexual sharing based on spiritual and essay spiral, religious principles.
Like most group marriage on record, its time span was limited. Rarely do they endure beyond one or two generations. Levirate and Sororate: In levirate the wife marries the essays finn, brother of the dead husband. If a man dies, his wife marries the brother of her dead husband. Marriage of the walls and crushing ice essay, widow with the critical essays on huck, dead husband’s elder brother is called Senior Levirate. But when she marries to the younger brother of the dead husband, it is called Junior Levirate. In Sororate the husband marries the sister of his wife. Smithson. Sororate is again divided into two types namely restricted Sororate and simultaneous Sororate. In restricted sororate, after the death of one’s wife, the essays finn, man marries the sister of his wife. In simultaneous sororate, the sister of smithson essay jetty, one’s wife automatically becomes his wife.
Concubinage is a state of living together as husband and finn, wife without being married. It is .cohabitation with one or more women who are distinct from wife or wives. Concubinage is sometimes recognised by various societies as an accepted institution. A concubine has a lower social status than that of a wife. The children of a concubine enjoy a lower status in the society.
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Free Information Technology essays. Nowadays people tend to read articles or news directly from gadgets such as Smartphone and critical essays finn, tablets. Wea??re already seeing some changes, even with semantics. For example, you publish a book, but you launch an smithson essay jetty e-book. E-books are more similar to the Internet than to traditional books. The lengths of e-books are changing. Critical? E-books can be shorter than print books, as seen with long-form journalism and e-shorts by Byliner, Atavist, Kobo, and Kindle Singles.
E-books can also be published as serials, allowing for the agile model of publishing. Readers now have the essay intro help chance to give input and help shape the content. The evolution of the E-Books make people change their reading habits. These habits lead to reduction of people visited the library. Library can be defined as a collection of critical essays finn sources of information and similar resources, made accessible to a defined community for reference or borrowing. It provides physical or digital access to material, and scarlet puritan society, may be a physical building or room, or a virtual space, or both.
In another words, people love to subscribe eBooks through gadgets than visit the library to find a books. In these situation library should play a role in increasing their information about people interest in the form of books and Journals. Finn? It is because more people nowadays tend to read E-Books or E-Journals than visiting the thesis statement library. Though e-readers are becoming more and more popular, theya??re not outdistancing print, and therea??s no indication that they will even in essays on huck finn, the future. Intro Help? In 2012, researcher found that of the adults questioned, only essays 5 percent of robert spiral them read exclusively e-books.
People of all ages prefer print books than E-books because of many reason. It will cover the pro critical finn, and cons of print books and E-books. There will be a justification made in these report. The purposes of buying your first this report are; i) To justify the statement a?˜..Libraries should provide more books rather than invest in new technology such as ebooks and finn, e-journals. ii) The pros and cons of E-Book and E-Journals.
With the advance of phones, tablets, and ereaders, ebooks have become a popular reading standard. Still, there’s something about the feel of an old-fashioned paper book. Ebooks can be read practically anywhere on anything, it really help when we in persuasive intro, work and have no time to critical essays on huck, open a book. Essay? On another hand, some researchers discovered that 62 percent of the respondents actually prefer printed books to e-books, even though theya??re technically the technological and digital generation. i) Paper books cannot be deleted and real experience. There are few opinion that agree, library should invest more in books because books is critical on huck finn more practical than ebooks.
One of them are; a??The ebook I was reading told me I was 84% finished with the book when the book ended. The remaining 16% was excerpts from the robert smithson essay spiral author’s other books, an author interview, and a discussion guide. Paper books are far superior when it comes to critical finn, letting you know your place in robert, a book, and that’s why I prefer booka?? In these case library should give more attention to providing a books than invest in technology. Critical Finn? Libraries should be responsible for keeping paper books as one day the internet may not exist. It is a known fact that paper books are the only reliable and safe source of information. Smithson Jetty? The best way to start and finish your book is reading the book itself. One day your gadget may lost all the critical essays on huck data because of persuasive intro technical problem such as virus and critical on huck, malware.
There is no guarantee that ebooks will kept forever in our phone. Leta??s take an about example, when A format their phone or laptop the data store in it will not exist and may deleted. Essays On Huck Finn? It will destruct the ebooks in their phone. Lending print books couldna??t be easiera?” just grab the book and pass it along; no set-up or hassle involved. There is society just something about print books that ebook cana??t compete with, the way the spine cracks the fist time ita??s open, the essays way the pages feel in your hands, the rich scent of statement learning paper, the on huck finn way they wear over time and walls, gain character. People will appreciate the books when they can touch, feel and critical essays on huck, read it.
The best part it we can hold a pen and write down anything that we thought about every passage we read. While ebooks are probably going to be around for quite a while, there is something really special about being able to hold something in your hands that your parents, grandparents, and other family members had when they were young. Walls And Crushing? Some people love to sit with their family and holding a book than holding a tablet. It is because they will more concentrate on the book their read. Seeing a shelf full of books and topics is inspiring and critical, stimulates the imagination. Keeping books in handphone and bookshelf is robert essay jetty much different.
When we keep books in bookshelf we can see the books in essays on huck finn, our house or any place. If we keep the books in our gadgets, it was like the books we read are never exist. The situation is we read and delete rather than read and keep it for our collection. It’s no secret that reading is good for you. Just six minutes of reading is enough to reduce stress by 68%, and numerous studies have shown that reading keeps your brain functioning effectively as you age. One study even found that elderly individuals who read regularly are 2.5 times less likely to intro help, develop Alzheimer’s than their peers. But not all forms of reading are created equal. ii) E-books are damaging our health. Ebooks will damaging our physical and mental health than we might think. When we read through smartphone, the light from the screen may destruct our sight and lead to eyes problem.
Researchers have been examining the critical essays finn differences between reading regular books and e-books for years. Many of the persuasive intro studies have shown that reading old-fashioned books has plenty of advantages over e-books, which can be gateways to critical essays, other electronic distractions, all of which screw with your sleep. This is why you should ditch the screen for printed pages. Using laptops or phones late at night to letter essay society, read doesn’t make way for essays finn, restful sleep. Reading helps you de-stress faster or just as fast as listening to music, taking a walk, or having a cup of tea or coffee, according to a 2009 study. When researchers measured heart rate and muscle tension, they found that people relaxed just six minutes into buying your first reading. Essays Finn? But reading on a device might cancel out this effect, and may even impact your stress levels negatively. Repeated use of mobile phones or laptops late at night has been linked to depression, higher levels of stress, and fatigue among young adults.
Constant use of technology not only disrupts our sleeping patterns and throws off our circadian rhythms, but it fosters a shorter attention span and fractured focus a?” online, we jump from meme to meme and link to link, checking Facebook intermittently. Social media and technological distractions also always seem to foster guilt and emerson, regret, and before we know it, three hours have passed and our brains feel like mush. People nowadays love to read something with visual than directly words by words. Thata??s why people will love to on huck, check facebook than open their books in their smartphone or tablets. Reading an old-fashioned paper book might seem out of style, wasteful, or impractical. But dona??t underestimate the simplicity of holding a physical book in your hands, flipping through the pages, and not having anything else to shift your focus to. Commit to the classic paper book and you’ll get the full, healthier experience. Reading in print helps with comprehension.
A 2014 study found that readers of a short mystery story on a Kindle were significantly worse at remembering the order of events than those who read the same story in paperback. Lead researcher Anne Mangen of Norway’s Stavanger University concluded that “the haptic and and crushing, tactile feedback of a Kindle does not provide the same support for mental reconstruction of a story as a print pocket book does.” iii) Survey about Prints books and E-books. Textbook makers, bookstore owners and college student surveys all say millennials still strongly prefer print for pleasure and essays on huck finn, learning, a bias that surprises reading experts given the same groupa??s proclivity to consume most other content digitally. Marlene England (Owner of a bookstores) said millennials regularly tell her they prefer print because ita??s a??easier to follow stories.a?? Pew studies show the letter essay society highest print readership rates are among those ages 18 to 29, and the same age group is finn still using public libraries in walls and crushing, large numbers. Don Kilburn, North American president for Pearson, the largest publisher in critical on huck finn, the world and the dominant player in education, said the thesis disabilities move to digital a??doesna??t look like a revolution right now. It looks like an evolution, and ita??s lumpy at best.a?? And it can be seen most prominently on college campuses, where students still lug backpacks stuffed with books, even as they increasingly take notes (or check Facebook) on critical finn, laptops during class. This is the report made by The Washington Post. This post shows that more people will choose prints book than E-books.
In order to justify this report, there is a survey has been conducted with 20 respondent. Friendship Analysis? It will ask about which the respondent prefer in critical on huck finn, finding information. The question will cover their choices about prints books or E-books. Survey about Print Books Vs E-books. 1. How many Books have you read in walls and crushing, the last year? a??11 or more Books. 2. Have you purchased an essays on huck E-book or a print book in the last 12 months? a??Ia??ve purchased only E-books. a??Ia??ve purchased only printed books. a??Ia??ve bought both e-books and letter essay puritan society, printed books. a??No Ia??havena??t purchased either.
3. Critical Essays On Huck Finn? Do you prefer to read E-Books or Print Books? a??Print books only. 4. Scarlet Letter Puritan Society? Do you agree with the following statement: a??Library should invest more in books publication than ebooks and e journals..a?? a??Neither agree or disagree.
Result of the critical essays on huck finn survey. 1. How many Books have you read in essay help, the last year? Among the essays 20 respondent the majority will read four to thesis statement learning disabilities, five books in a year. 2. Have you purchased an E-book or a print book in the last 12 months? These finding shows more people prefer to purchased both e-books and printed books. Printed books are more popular among the essays on huck finn reader. 3. Do you prefer to read E-Books or Print Books?
The third questions shows that most of the statement about learning disabilities respondent prefer print books than E-books. Many people wrote in their comments and had clear reasons for avoiding the screen like, a??Therea??s something about curling up with a good book in onea??s hands that cana??t be beata?? and a??I spend enough time on computers at work, need a breaka?? to a??I like the on huck finn feel of the pagesa??. Seems like the smell and feel of paper, curling up on a rainy afternoon with a mug of tea is better than seeing on essay, screen with brighting light that can distract our eyes. 4. Do you agree with the on huck finn following statement: a??Library should invest more in books publication than ebooks and letter society, e journals..a?? The last questions is on huck finn about the emerson friendship essay analysis main topic that need to justify with the survey. More respondents strongly agree that library should vary and invest in critical on huck finn, print books to essay intro, satisfied people needs in reading a print books. Finn? The result show that most of them strongly agree library should invest more on prints book than E-books.
We will forget how good to hold a books in real and appreciate the writing in walls ice essay, the print books. Library will play a main role in promoting a people to read a print books. Readers absorb less on Kindles and iPads than when they read on paper. A few years back, researcher wrote that it’s faster to read paper books than e-books, study shows. For a conclusion, it is better if we invest more on printed books because many people cana??t forget the smell of the books and also the critical sentimental value when we hold a book than smartphones. The survey will be the evidence that print books may allow for deeper reading and stronger understanding and memory than digital books. Nostalgia, comfort and your, convenience seem to be big reasons in favor for keeping the on huck finn physical book alive. Another study show that sixteen to 24-year-olds are known as the super-connected generation, obsessed with snapping selfies or downloading the latest mobile apps, so it comes as a surprise to learn that 62% prefer print books to ebooks. The two big reasons for preferring print are value for money and an emotional connection to physical books.
On questions of ebook pricing, 28% think that ebooks should be half their current price, while just 8% say that ebook pricing is scaling walls and crushing ice essay right. Critical Essays Finn? Sometimes books in digital form is expensive than books in printed form. People nowadays will consider much on the value of the things they buy. Your First? It is better to buy something that we can see and hold than in virtual form. Search our thousands of essays: If this essay isn't quite what you're looking for, why not order your own custom Information Technology essay, dissertation or piece of coursework that answers your exact question? There are UK writers just like me on critical, hand, waiting to help you. Each of us is qualified to statement, a high level in our area of expertise, and we can write you a fully researched, fully referenced complete original answer to your essay question. Just complete our simple order form and you could have your customised Information Technology work in your email box, in as little as 3 hours.
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