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Indien er sprake is dissertation van meerdere ondernemers, zoals bij een V.O.F., vul dan voor elke ondernemer dit hoofdstuk in. Joyce Dubliners Essays? De gevraagde gegevens zijn namelijk bedoeld voor alle ondernemers. Themes Essay? Met onze whitepaper helpen we je welke bedrijfsvorm (rechtsvorm) je zou moeten kiezen. Hier vermeld je je privégegevens, zoals je adres, naam, burgerlijke staat, enzovoort. Denk er ook aan dat je deze gegevens voor alle ondernemers aanlevert. 1.2.
Persoonlijke motieven en doelstellingen. Hierin beschrijf je waarom je een onderneming wilt beginnen. Joyce? Vertel iets over hamlet jezelf en je achtergrond als een soort persoonlijk CV waarin je benadrukt waarom je zo geschikt bent om een bedrijf op te starten én om dit bedrijf succesvol te laten verlopen. Ook al heb je de beste opleidingen en werkervaring, je zal nog steeds gemotiveerd moeten zijn. Schrijf op wat je motivatie is joyce araby essays om met dit bedrijf van start te gaan en welke doelstellingen je jezelf hebt gesteld. Probeer voor jezelf na te gaan waarom dit bedrijf starten zo interessant voor je is. University Of Chicago? Wat zijn jouw sterke en zwakke punten? Probeer hier vooral eerlijk in dubliners te zijn. Edward? Dit is joyce dubliners araby met name voor jezelf van belang. Hamlet Themes? Als je weet wat je zwakke punten zijn, kun je daar rekening mee houden.
Op welke gebieden heb je coaching en begeleiding nodig? Om (meer) inzicht te krijgen in joyce dubliners araby essays je sterke en zwakke punten kun je een ondernemerstest invullen. Hamlet Essay? De uitkomst van de ondernemerstest laat zien hoe je scoort op je ondernemerscompetenties. Voor elke product of dubliners araby dienst is of water resources essay er een markt. Joyce Araby Essays? Althans, heb je dat onderzocht? Welk product of dienst ga je tegen welke prijs en op welke locatie aan wie verkopen? Hoe kun je het beste je product of edward dienst op de markt zetten, wie zijn jouw klanten en hoe ga ik eraan verdienen? Als je dit lastig vindt kan onze e-learning verkoopplan schrijven je daarbij helpen.
Hier zet je alle algemene gegevens van de onderneming op een rijtje. Joyce Dubliners Araby Essays? Een duidelijke organisatie is een belangrijke voorwaarde om succesvol te kunnen ondernemen. Ben je al wel of of chicago supplement essays nog niet ingeschreven bij de Kamer van Koophandel? Heb je de benodigde verzekeringen en Algemene Voorwaarden geregeld? Voor welke rechtsvorm kies je, waar ga je je vestigen en wie doet de administratie? Dit is de kern van je ondernemingsplan.
Hier leg je kort maar krachtig uit wat je wilt gaan doen en waarom. Probeer jezelf te verkopen. Joyce Araby Essays? Maak anderen enthousiast. Hoe heeft de markt zich in hamlet het algemeen ontwikkeld en wat is joyce dubliners araby de toekomstverwachting? Geldt de uitkomst hiervan ook voor dat deel van de markt waar je je op wil richten? Je markt bestaat uit de verzameling van gegevens over of chicago supplement essays bestaande afnemers, potentiële afnemers en alle aanbieders van het product of dienst of araby vervangende product of diensten. Of Water Resources Essay? Zijn er weinig aanbieders en geen vervangende product of diensten, dan zit je natuurlijk goed. Zijn er veel aanbieders en zijn er ook nog eens allerlei vervangende producten of diensten, dan heb je het als starter beslist moeilijk. Joyce? Voor een starter is on thesis het van belang dat je jouw markt kent. Hier geef je aan hoe de markt zich ontwikkelt, zowel op landelijk niveau als op lokaal niveau. Verschuift de behoefte van de potentiële afnemers of joyce juist niet?
Wat gebeurt er met het aantal concurrenten en hoe ontwikkelt de prijs van het product of on thesis dienst zich? Het is dubliners araby belangrijk om uw doelgroep zo nauwkeurig mogelijk te omschrijven. Wie zijn je (potentiële) klanten? Wat zijn belangrijke kenmerken van deze klanten? Naarmate je jouw klanten beter kent, ben je ook beter in staat ze te bereiken en te bedienen. Je moet weten of on thesis er meer aanbieders zijn van jouw product of joyce essays dienst.
Denk daarbij ook aan concurrentie die een alternatief aanbieden. Wat zijn de sterke en zwakke punten van de concurrentie? Weet welke prijs ze vragen en welke kwaliteit ze bieden. Richten ze zich op dezelfde klantengroep? Hoe zorg je ervoor om hiertussen op te vallen? Wat zijn de sterke en zwakke punten van je eigen onderneming en wat zijn de kansen en bedreigingen die zich in essay on responsibility de markt voordoen of joyce dubliners essays gaan voordoen? Met de marketingmix geef je je bedrijf een duidelijk eigen gezicht. On Thesis? De marketingmix maakt je bedrijf herkenbaar voor de buitenwereld. Araby Essays? De marketingmix bestaat uit de vijf P’s: Product of dienst staat voor meer dan alleen een product of dienst.
Wat is on thesis de toegevoegde waarde voor de klant? Welk probleem lost het op? Denk ook aan verpakking, garantievoorwaarden, uitstraling en merk. Dubliners Essays? Wat zijn de belangrijkste kenmerken van je product of edward dissertation dienst? De prijs zegt iets over het product of dienst dat je levert, maar ook over dubliners araby het deel van de markt waar je je op richt. Met een hoge prijs trek je een andere doelgroep dan met een stuntprijs. Conservation Of Water? Welke prijsstrategie ga je hanteren? Leg je de nadruk op service of ben je een prijsvechter?
Hoe liggen de prijzen bij concurrenten? Hier maakt je duidelijk waar je je bedrijf vestigt. Dubliners Araby Essays? Ga je huren of kopen? Start je vanuit huis of kies je voor een bedrijfspand? Beschrijf ook hoe je bedrijfskolom eruit ziet. Writing Exercises? Hoe verloopt de distributie van leverancier tot klant? Waar ga je de producten of diensten verkopen? Wie zijn de leveranciers?
Zijn er samenwerkingsverbanden? Promotie maken kan op allerlei manieren en via verschillende kanalen. Beurzen, nieuwsbrieven of joyce araby essays internet zijn mogelijke promotiekanalen. Wanneer ga je wat precies doen? Promotie hoeft zeker niet duur te zijn. Writing Creativity Exercises? Er zijn vele mogelijkheden: advertentie plaatsen, billboards, promotiefoldertjes, mondelinge promotie bij feestjes en verenigingen, mond tot mond reclame, gerichte promotiefolder, telefonisch contact, winkelinrichting, kortingsbonnen, persbericht, eigen website, webadvertising, sponsoring, beurzen (bezoeken of joyce dubliners essays eigen stand), etc. Alles begint met wie je wilt bereiken en wie jou moet begrijpen. Kun je het werk alleen aan, of hamlet themes het nodig personeel aan te trekken? Personeel aannemen moet zorgvuldig gebeuren. Joyce? Het belang van de uitstraling van het personeel naar buiten toe is van groot belang en wordt regelmatig onderschat. Hoe kom je aan jouw personeel?
Heb je behoefte aan hoog- of thorndike laaggekwalificeerd? Wordt het personeel zelf opgeleid? Welke normen en waarden worden er gehanteerd? Een missie is joyce araby waarvoor we staan, een visie is exercises waarvoor we gaan. De missie heeft te maken met waarden en identiteit. Een visie geeft aan: hoe gaan wij de wereld van morgen beïnvloeden zodat wij succes hebben? Het is noodzakelijk om kort en bondig je missie en je visie te kunnen beschrijven.
Grote lappen tekst met onderbouwing kunnen in het plan zelf terug komen. Dubliners Araby Essays? Wel moeten ze duidelijk zijn. Writing Exercises? Dat kun je vrij gemakkelijk doen via de SMART theorie. Joyce Araby Essays? SMART staat voor: Specifiek, Meetbaar, Attractief, Realistisch en Tijdgebonden. Conservation Resources? Als aan deze voorwaarden wordt voldaan kan via het ondernemingsplan zelf nagegaan worden of joyce dubliners essays deze missie en doelstellingen uiteindelijk met alle aanwezige achtergrond informatie werkelijk mogelijk zijn. Wie zijn we, wat zijn onze waarden, hoe willen we met onze klanten en medewerkers omgaan? Probeer ook zo reëel mogelijk in te schatten hoe groot de omzet is essay on responsibility of youth die je verwacht te gaan halen. Waar wil je over 5 tot 10 jaar staan met je onderneming? Wat ga je doen om te zorgen dat je succes hebt en houdt? Het financieel plan is in joyce essays feite het vertalen van de aannames uit het ondernemingsplan naar financiën/geld. On Responsibility Of Youth? Je kunt onze gratis template financieel plan daarvoor gebruiken.
Het financiële hoofdstuk bestaat uit de volgende onderdelen: Waar komt mijn kapitaal vandaan en waar is het geïnvesteerd? Ben ik - winstgevend? Kan ik op tijd voldoen aan mijn financiële verplichtingen? Een bedrijf starten kost geld.
Sommige investeringen zijn noodzakelijk om te kunnen starten, andere kunnen misschien beter nog even wachten. In de investeringsbegroting zet je op een rij wat je minimaal nodig hebt om te kunnen starten. De investeringsbegroting is essays onderverdeeld in hamlet essay vaste activa en vlottende activa. Joyce Dubliners? Vaste activa, zoals een computer, machines, inventaris, en een bedrijfsauto, zijn bedrijfsmiddelen die langer dan een jaar in themes essay je bedrijf aanwezig zijn. Dubliners Araby? Deze middelen maken het mogelijk dat je de activiteiten kunt uitvoeren. Zij ondersteunen het bedrijfsproces. Bedrijfsmiddelen die korter dan een jaar in exercises je bedrijf aanwezig zijn, zoals voorraden, vorderingen, voorfinanciering BTW en debiteuren, zijn vlottende activa. Joyce Dubliners? Deze middelen zijn onderdeel van je bedrijfsproces. Aanloop- en openingskosten zijn kosten die je maakt voordat je kunt starten en/of omzet kunt maken. On Responsibility? Voorbeelden: notariskosten, inschrijving Kamer van Koophandel, levensonderhoud eerste periode, marktonderzoek, advieskosten, visitekaartjes en briefpapier. Onderbouw de bedragen met offertes.
Vraag offertes op bij meerdere leveranciers om zo tot een juiste keuze te komen. Joyce Dubliners Araby Essays? Houd rekening met onvoorziene kosten. In uw financieringsbegroting staat hoe je de benodigde investeringen gaat financieren. Dit kan door middel van eigen vermogen of of youth met vreemd vermogen. Het deel van de investeringen dat je zelf financiert heet eigen vermogen. Joyce Araby? Dit kan in writing vorm van geld zijn dat je hebt gespaard of araby bedrijfsmiddelen (auto, voorraad, computer) die je eerder hebt aangeschaft. Het kan ook zijn dat een familielid of kennis je geld wil lenen. Er is conservation essay een regeling die het voor particulieren, zoals familie of kennissen, fiscaal aantrekkelijk maakt geld aan startende ondernemers te lenen. Dubliners Essays? Deze regeling biedt zo'n particuliere geldgever namelijk interessante fiscale voordelen.
Zogenaamde `achtergestelde´ leningen of edward durfkapitaal wordt door een kredietverstrekker vaak gezien als eigen vermogen. Dubliners? Andere voorbeelden van partijen die kunnen financieren en hun bedrag achter zouden willen stellen, zijn de huurbaas, of conservation of water resources essay de vorige eigenaar van de zaak die je hebt overgenomen. Vreemd vermogen is geld dat zakelijke financiers (bijvoorbeeld banken en leveranciers) je willen lenen. Joyce Essays? Er is conservation resources essay onderscheid tussen schulden met een looptijd van langer dan een jaar en korter dan een jaar. In feite zijn de langlopende leningen bedoeld om de vaste activa te financieren. Araby? Hypothecaire leningen hebben als doel een bedrijfspand te financieren, met een (middellange) banklening (of lease) kun je een machine of university essays inventaris aanschaffen.
Dat betekent automatisch dat de vlottende activa met kort vreemd vermogen moet worden gefinancierd. Joyce Dubliners Araby? Dit zijn voornamelijk het rekening-courantkrediet (of werkkapitaal) en crediteuren (leverancierskrediet). In feite kan zelfs de belastingdienst je financieren, maar daar kun je beter maar niet te veel op leunen. Een balans is writing creativity een overzicht van de bezittingen, de schulden en het eigen vermogen van je onderneming op een bepaald moment. Anders gezegd: op een balans staat wat je hebt (activa, de linkerzijde van de balans), in de vorm van geld, goederen, enz., en hoe die gefinancierd zijn (passiva, de rechterzijde van de balans): met eigen vermogen of met vreemd vermogen (leningen). Araby? Dus een balans is een momentopname van bezittingen en van de manier waarop deze zijn betaald. De solvabiliteit is of chicago supplement de verhouding van uw eigen vermogen ten opzichte van het totaal benodigde vermogen. Joyce Dubliners Araby? Dit geeft aan in university of chicago essays hoeverre uw onderneming de schulden op lange termijn kan voldoen. In je verkoopprognose moet je de omzet op een juiste en reële manier inschatten. Dubliners Araby? Het maken van een verkoopprognose is on responsibility of youth niet eenvoudig, maar wel noodzakelijk. Araby? Daarmee kun je namelijk inschatten wat je gaat verdienen en of dat voldoende is conservation resources om alle verplichtingen te kunnen voldoen.
Uiteindelijk bepaalt de omzet, minus de inkoopkosten en overige kosten je winst of araby verlies. De berekening is simpel. Thorndike? Het aantal verkochte producten per maand wordt vermenigvuldigd met de prijs die voor het product vraagt. Joyce Dubliners Araby Essays? Als dienstverlener kun je het aantal uren invullen, wanneer je een vergoeding op uurbasis vraagt. De omzet moet je exclusief BTW opgeven. On Thesis? Je moet wel aangeven welk BTW tarief op jouw product of dienst van toepassing is. (21%, 6% of joyce araby 0%).
De belastingdienst geeft hier meer informatie over. Omzet wordt gemaakt op het moment dat de factuur naar de klant/opdrachtgever wordt gestuurd. University Supplement Essays? Dat wil in joyce essays de meeste gevallen niet zeggen dat het geld direct wordt bijgeschreven op je rekening. On Responsibility? Betalen je klanten direct (contact of PIN) zoals in dubliners araby essays de detailhandel, of university moet je weken op je geld wachten. Joyce? Deze periode noemen we de debiteurentermijn. Conservation Resources Essay? Onderaan de verkoopprognose moet je invullen wanneer welk deel van je klanten gaat betalen. Zorg ervoor dat je prognose kan worden onderbouwd met cijfers uit de branchegegevens, je concurrentieanalyse en marketingmix.
Houd rekening met seizoensinvloeden. Joyce Dubliners? Ga je direct in thorndike dissertation je eerste maand omzet maken, of is dubliners er sprake van een aanloopperiode? Is het geplande aantal uren daadwerkelijk declarabel? Houd rekening met bijvoorbeeld reistijd, acquisitie, ziekte, administratie. Is deze omzet haalbaar (reëel), gezien vanuit de geplande investeringen en personeelscapaciteit?
Om geld te kunnen verdienen aan producten die je verkoopt, moet je die producten eerst zelf inkopen. Of Chicago Supplement? Het verschil tussen wat je verkoopt en de prijs die je zelf hebt betaald om die producten in te kopen is je brutowinst. Er bestaat dus een direct verband tussen inkoop en verkoop. De inkoopprijs van alle verkochte artikelen hoort tot de inkoopwaarde van de omzet. De formule om de inkoopwaarde van de omzet te bepalen is als volgt: Beginvoorraad + Jaarinkopen Eindvoorraad. Alle producten die je al wel hebt ingekocht, maar nog niet hebt verkocht, heb je op voorraad en worden daarom niet tot de inkoopwaarde van de omzet gerekend. Bedrijven die niet handelen in essays producten, maar hun kennis en tijd ‘verkopen’ aan de klant, hebben te maken met diensten. Themes? Diensten hebben meestal geen inkoopprijs (of slechts zeer gering). Joyce Dubliners? Bij diensten kun je stellen dat de brutowinst (bijna) gelijk is edward aan de behaalde omzet. Er zijn meerdere factoren die de inkoopwaarde van de omzet kunnen bepalen.
Denk bijvoorbeeld aan het inhuren van andere bedrijven (‘diensten van derden’). Dubliners Araby? Deze worden meestal ook rechtstreeks van de behaalde omzet afgehaald. Conservation Essay? Andere voorbeelden zijn provisies die je betaald aan tussenpersonen of agenten, het huren van materiaal die je nodig hebt om een dienst te kunnen verlenen. Joyce Araby Essays? Dit zijn zogenaamde directe kosten. Edward Thorndike? Heeft een bedrijf te maken met een werkplaats, dan worden veel van de bewerkkosten of ‘maak’ kosten ook rechtstreeks verrekend met de behaalde omzet. Joyce Araby? Eigenlijk alles met een rechtstreeks verband met de behaalde omzet! Om de inkoopprognose correct in on responsibility te vullen, moet je invullen wanneer je daadwerkelijk voorraad moet gaan inkopen. Dubliners? Afhankelijk van het product, de branche en de vraag zal de frequentie verschillen.
Is het nodig dat je elke dag inkoopt (bijv. Writing Exercises? verse levensmiddelen), of kun slechts één keer per joyce araby essays, kwartaal je inkopen doen (bijv. Essay Of Youth? kleding)? Kun je inschatten hoe lang je product gemiddeld op voorraad ligt? En welke deel van je voorraad is joyce dubliners essays niet meer te verkopen na verloop van tijd (incourante voorraad)? In je exploitatiebegroting schat je in essay on responsibility of je bedrijf rendabel is. Door de omzet en kosten in dubliners araby essays een overzicht te plaatsen, kun je in edward thorndike dissertation een oogopslag zien of joyce dubliners essays je bedrijf winst of verlies maakt. Edward Thorndike? In de exploitatiebegroting staan de bedragen exclusief BTW vermeld. Uitgangspunt voor de exploitatiebegroting is essays de verkoopprognose (zie 3.3). Hamlet? Door de inkoopwaarde van de omzet af te trekken wordt de brutowinst zichtbaar.
De inkoopwaarde van de omzet wordt berekend aan de hand van de ingevulde inkoopprognose (zie 3.4). Door de brutowinst te verminderen met alle wederkerend bedrijfskosten, zoals huisvestings-, vervoers-, promotie- en personeelskosten, houd jij je netto bedrijfsresultaat over. Dubliners? Dit bepaalt of hamlet themes je bedrijfsactiviteit op zichzelf rendabel is. Onder de bedrijfskosten vallen ook de afschrijvingen. Afschrijvingen zijn wel kosten, maar geen uitgaven. Afschrijvingen geven de je gelegenheid reserves op te bouwen om te kunnen (her)investeringen in araby essays de vaste activa van je bedrijf. University Of Chicago? Je geeft het geld pas uit op het moment dat je moet gaan investeren. Je geeft je ook extra ruimte om je aflosverplichting te voldoen. Voordat jij je winst uit onderneming kan bepalen, moet je opgeven hoeveel vergoeding je aan de financiers, die je bedrijfsactiviteit mede mogelijk hebben gemaakt , jaarlijks moet betalen. Joyce Dubliners Essays? Dit wordt ook wel rente genoemd. Als je winst hebt gemaakt, moet je daarover belasting betalen.
Hoeveel dat is, hangt af van het winstbedrag en aftrekposten die je als zelfstandige mag opvoeren. Voor deze aftrekposten gelden wel diverse voorwaarden. Conservation? Kijk daarom goed op de site van de belastingdienst. De nettowinst is joyce dubliners araby essays de basis voor uw inkomen uit een eenmanszaak of university supplement VOF. Joyce? In een BV staat de ondernemer als bestuurder/directeur van de BV op de loonlijst en ontvangt een salaris.
Het salaris is edward een kostenpost voor de BV. De omzet moet hoog genoeg zijn om ook het salaris van de directeur te betalen. Joyce Araby? We bieden je gratis een eenvoudige template voor exploitatiebegroting. Aannames moeten gebaseerd zijn op goed doordachte veronderstellingen Omzet op basis van marktonderzoek en niet op alleen basis van aantal x prijs Check de samenhang met het Marketingplan Omzet moet met gewenst personeelsbestand en kapitaal vervaardigd kunnen worden. Kun je elke maand alle rekeningen betalen? Door het maken van een liquiditeitsbegroting bepaal je of er iedere maand voldoende geld op je rekening staat.
Inkomsten en uitgaven kunnen gedurende een jaar sterk wisselen. Themes? Bijvoorbeeld door seizoensinvloeden, een vakantieperiode, belastingaanslag of dubliners araby essays door klanten die laat betalen. Met een liquiditeitsbegroting maak je inzichtelijk op welk moment extra financiën nodig zijn. Vrijwel alle bedrijfskosten die zijn opgenomen in conservation of water resources essay de exploitatiebegroting komen ook terug in de liquiditeitsbegroting. Afschrijvingen vormen hierop de belangrijkste uitzondering. Joyce Araby? De liquiditeitsbegroting toont hoe de kosten over essay on responsibility of youth het jaar worden verdeeld en aan in joyce araby essays welke maand de kosten daadwerkelijk betaald moeten worden.
Zeker in thorndike een groeiende ondernemingen zullen met de omzet ook de kosten maandelijks variëren (en toenemen). Naast de bedrijfskosten, worden ook de (maandelijkse) privéopnamen, inclusief inkomstenbelasting, en aflossingen staan niet in araby essays de liquiditeitsbegroting opgenomen. Writing Creativity Exercises? Via onze site kun je nu eenvoudig een sjabloon liquiditeitsbegroting downloaden. Op de exploitatiebegroting zijn alle bedragen exclusief BTW. Joyce Dubliners Araby? In de liquiditeitsbegroting reken je de BTW ontvangsten en uitgaven mee. Uit de exploitatiebegroting kun je opmaken of on responsibility je voldoende omzet genereert om de bedrijfs- en financieringskosten te dekken. Joyce Dubliners? De cashflow berekent vervolgens of essay on responsibility of youth jij je privéopnamen wel uit de onderneming kan halen en of er daarnaast genoeg overblijft om leningen af te lossen, herinvesteringen te voldoen of joyce dubliners reserves op te bouwen. Grofweg is de cashflow gelijk aan de nettowinst plus afschrijvingen van een onderneming. De cashflow is of chicago supplement essays positief als er jaarlijks meer geld binnenkomt dan dat er uit gaat. Joyce Dubliners Essays? De cashflow is edward negatief als er per jaar meer geld wordt uitgegeven dan er binnenkomt. Een positieve cashflow wil niet direct zeggen dat je onderneming liquide is, dat er het hele jaar door voldoende geld op je rekening staat.
Dat moet blijken uit de liquiditeitsbegroting. Voordat je met je bedrijf begint, moet je weten hoeveel je maandelijks nodig om privé van rond te komen. Dubliners Araby Essays? Breng al je (huishoud)verplichtingen in conservation of water kaart. Vermeld ook alle inkomsten die je huishouding ontvangt, zoals het loon (inclusief vakantie geld en dertiende maand) van jezelf en/of je partner, uitkeringen, pensioenen en eventueel kinderbijslag. Het verschil tussen de privéverplichtingen en -inkomsten bepaalt het bedrag dat je maandelijks uit je onderneming moet halen om van te leven. Houd je zakelijke betalingsverkeer gescheiden van je privé-inkomsten en -uitgaven door het openen van een aparte rekeningen. Een afschrijving is joyce dubliners araby het in de boekhouding tot uitdrukking brengen van de waardedaling van een bedrijfsmiddel over edward een bepaalde periode.
Doordat je machines gebruikt zullen ze slijten. Ook zal de waarde van je gebouw of joyce araby essays vrachtwagens in de loop van de jaren afnemen. De waardevermindering van deze kapitaalgoederen wordt ook wel afschrijving of exercises afschrijvingskosten genoemd. Er wordt steeds afschrijving toegepast om de slijtage door het gebruik tot uitdrukking te brengen. Joyce Dubliners Araby Essays? Deze afschrijving vormt een kostenpost in edward thorndike dissertation de Winst- en Verliesrekening en leidt dus tot een lager resultaat. Bekijk de mogelijkheden van Qredits. Ondernemingsplan template downloaden. Als je een onderneming wilt beginnen, is het verstandig eerst een ondernemingsplan te maken. Joyce Dubliners Essays? Qredits wil je hier graag mee op weg helpen. E-learning Ondernemingsplan Schrijven.
Deze e-learning laat jou nadenken over je onderneming. Je krijgt volop inspiratie en voorbeelden. Writing Creativity Exercises? Na afloop download je een kant en klaar plan. Vind je het moeilijk om je eigen ondernemingsplan op te stellen? Twijfel je of het goed is? Een coach helpt je bij het structureren van je ideeen. Qredits helpt ondernemers bij het succesvol starten van en investeren in joyce hun bedrijf.
We bieden coaching, kennis in on thesis de Qredits Academy voor ondernemers en we verstrekken bedrijfskredieten tot ˆ 250.000. Qredits verstrekt de microkredieten mede dankzij twee programma’s van de Europese Unie: het EaSI, een Europees programma voor werkgelegenheid en sociale innovatie, en COSME, een programma dat de concurrentiepositie van midden- en kleinbedrijf verbetert. Essays? Lees meer.
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Dubliners By James Joyce English …
43 Resume Tips That Will Help You Get Hired. When you haven’t updated your resume in dubliners, a while, it can be hard to know where to start. What experiences and accomplishments should you include for on responsibility, the jobs you’ve got your eye on? What new resume rules and joyce araby essays trends should you be following? And seriously, one page or two? Well, search no more: We’ve compiled all the resume advice you need into one place. Read on for tips and edward thorndike dissertation tricks that’ll make sure you craft a winning resume—and help you land a job. Your resume should not have every work experience you’ve ever had listed on joyce araby essays it. Think of your resume not as a comprehensive list of your career history, but as a marketing document selling you as the edward perfect person for the job.
For each resume you send out, you’ll want to highlight only the accomplishments and skills that are most relevant to the job at hand (even if that means you don’t include all of your experience). Job search expert Lily Zhang explains more about what it means to tailor your resume here . Joyce Essays! 2. Of Chicago Supplement Essays! But Keep a Master List of joyce dubliners araby, All Jobs. Since you’ll want to be swapping different information in and out depending on the job you’re applying to, keep a resume master list on your computer where you keep any information you’ve ever included on writing exercises a resume: old positions, bullet points tailored for different applications, special projects that only sometimes make sense to essays, include. Then, when you’re crafting each resume, it’s just a matter of cutting and pasting relevant information together. Think of this as your brag file . Edward! 3. Araby Essays! Put the essay on responsibility Best Stuff “Above the Fold” In marketing speak, “above the fold” refers to what you see on the front half of dubliners, a folded newspaper (or, in the digital age, before you scroll down on of water resources essay a website), but basically it’s your first impression of a document. In resume speak, it means you should make sure your best experiences and accomplishments are visible on the top third of your resume. Araby! This top section is what the hiring manager is going to see first—and what will serve as a hook for writing, someone to keep on reading.
So focus on essays putting your best, most relevant experiences first—and then check out hamlet essay, these five other marketing tricks to get your resume noticed . According to joyce araby, Zhang , the only occasion when an thorndike objective section makes sense is when you’re making a huge career change and joyce need to explain from the conservation essay get-go why your experience doesn’t match up with the position you’re applying to. In every other case? Consider whether a summary statement would be right for you —or just nix it altogether to save space and focus on joyce dubliners araby essays making the on thesis rest of your resume stellar. Joyce Dubliners Araby Essays! There are lots of different ways to organize the information on your resume, but the good old reverse chronological (where your most recent experience is listed first) is still your best bet. Unless it’s absolutely necessary in your situation, skip the skills-based resume—hiring managers might wonder what you’re hiding. The two- (or more!) page resume is a hotly debated topic , but the bottom line is this—you want the information here to be concise, and making yourself keep it to of chicago supplement essays, one page is a good way to force yourself to do this. If you truly have enough relevant and important experience, training, and joyce dubliners araby essays credentials to creativity exercises, showcase on more than one page of your resume, then go for dubliners essays, it. But if you can tell the same story in less space? Do. University Supplement Essays! If you’re struggling, check out these tips for cutting your content down , or work with a designer to see how you can organize your resume to fit more in less space. Essays! Can’t figure out how to tell your whole story on one page, or want to be able to include some visual examples of your work?
Instead of trying to have your resume cover everything, cover the most important details on that document, and then include a link to your personal website , where you can dive more into what makes you the themes essay ideal candidate. We’ll talk about getting creative in order to stand out in dubliners, a minute. But the most basic principle of good resume formatting and design? Keep it simple. Use a basic but modern font, like Helvetica, Arial, or Century Gothic. Make your resume easy on hiring managers’ eyes by using a font size between 10 and 12 and leaving a healthy amount of white space on the page. You can use a different font or typeface for your name, your resume headers, and the companies for which you’ve worked, but keep it simple and keep it consistent. Your main focus here should be on readability for the hiring manager. That being said, you should feel free to… Really want your resume stand out from the sea of Times New Roman? Yes, creative resumes—like infographics, videos, or presentations—or resumes with icons or graphics can set you apart, but you should use them thoughtfully.
If you’re applying through an edward dissertation ATS, keep to the standard formatting without any bells and whistles so the computer can read it effectively. If you’re applying to a more traditional company, don’t get too crazy, but feel free to joyce araby, add some tasteful design elements or a little color to make it pop. Essay On Responsibility! No matter what, don’t do it unless you’re willing to put in joyce, the time, creativity, and design work to university, make it awesome. 10. Make Your Contact Info Prominent. Dubliners Essays! You don’t need to include your address on your resume anymore (really!), but you do need to make sure to include a phone number and professional email address (not your work address!) as well as other places the hiring manager can find you on the web, like your LinkedIn profile and Twitter handle. (Implicit in this is that you keep these social media profiles suitable for prospective employers.) You’ve heard before that hiring managers don’t spend a lot of time on each individual resume. So help them get as much information as possible, in as little time as possible. These 12 small formatting changes will make a huge difference. Know that design skills aren’t your strong suit but want your resume to look stunning? There’s no shame in edward, getting help, so consider working with a professional resume designer.
This is arguably the joyce most important document of on thesis, your job search, so it’s worth getting it exactly right! 13. Keep it Recent, Keep it Relevant. As a rule, you should only joyce, show the most recent 10-15 years of your career history and conservation of water resources only include the joyce experience relevant to the positions to essay, which you are applying. And remember to allocate real estate on your resume according to importance. If there’s a choice between including one more college internship or going into more detail about your current role, always choose the latter (unless a previous job was more relevant to the one you’re applying to). 14.
No Relevant Experience? No Worries! Don’t panic if you don’t have any experience that fits the bill. Instead, Zhang explains , focus your resume on dubliners araby your relevant and transferrable skills along with any related side or academic projects, and then make sure to pair it with a strong cover letter telling the narrative of why you’re ideal for the job. No matter how long you’ve been in a job, or how much you’ve accomplished there, you shouldn’t have more than five or six bullets in a given section. No matter how good your bullets are, the recruiter just isn’t going to university supplement, get through them. Check out dubliners, these tips for writing impressive bullet points . You may be tempted to throw in tons of industry jargon so you sound like you know what you’re talking about, but ultimately you want your resume to be understandable to the average person.
Remember that the first person who sees your resume might be a recruiter, an conservation resources essay assistant, or even a high-level executive—and you want to be sure that it is readable, relevant, and interesting to all of them. Essays! Use as many facts, figures, and numbers as you can in your bullet points. How many people were impacted by your work? By what percentage did you exceed your goals? By quantifying your accomplishments, you really allow the hiring manager to picture the level of work or responsibility you needed to university of chicago essays, achieve them. Even if you don’t actually work with numbers, here are some secrets to adding more to araby, your resume . People hire performers, so you want to essay, show that you didn’t just do stuff, but that you got stuff done! As you look at your bullet points, think about how you can take each statement one step further and add in joyce dubliners essays, what the benefit was to your boss or your company.
By doing this, you clearly communicate not only what you’re capable of, but also the direct benefit the employer will receive by hiring you. If you’re not sure how to explain your impact, check out these tips for turning your duties into accomplishments . Describing soft skills on themes a resume often starts to joyce dubliners essays, sound like a list of meaningless buzzwords, fast. But being a “strong leader” or an “effective communicator” are important characteristics you want to get across. On Responsibility Of Youth! Think about how you can demonstrate these attributes in your bullet points without actually saying them. Zhang demonstrates here how you can show five different qualities with the same bullet point—try it yourself until you get the result you’re going for! 20. Don’t Neglect Non-Traditional Work.
There’s no law that says you can only put full-time or paid work on your resume. So, if you’ve participated in a major volunteer role, worked part-time, were hired as a temporary or contract worker , freelanced, or blogged? Absolutely list these things as their own “jobs” within your career chronology. If every bullet in your resume starts with “Responsible for,” readers will get bored very quickly. Dubliners Araby! Use our handy list of better verbs to on responsibility of youth, mix it up ! Use keywords in joyce dubliners, your resume: Scan the job description, see what words are used most often, and make sure you’ve included them in edward dissertation, your bullet points. Not only is this a self-check that you’re targeting your resume to the job, it’ll make sure you get noticed in applicant tracking systems. Joyce Dubliners Araby! Stuck on which words to essays, include? Dump the joyce essays job description into a tool like TagCrowd , which will analyze and spit out the most used keywords. What words shouldn’t you include?
Detail-oriented, team player, and hard worker—among other vague terms that recruiters say are chronically overused . We bet there’s a better way to describe how awesome you are. 24. Hamlet Themes Essay! Experience First, Education Second. Joyce! Unless you’re a recent graduate, put your education after your experience. Chances are, your last couple of jobs are more important and relevant to you getting the of water resources essay job than where you went to joyce araby essays, college. 25. Also Keep it Reverse Chronological.
Usually, you should lay down your educational background by listing the most recent or advanced degree first, working in reverse chronological order. But if older coursework is more specific to the job, list that first to grab the reviewer’s attention. Don’t list your graduation dates. The reviewer cares more about whether or not you have the on responsibility of youth degree than when you earned it. If you graduated from college with high honors, absolutely make note of it. While you don’t need to list your GPA, don’t be afraid to showcase that summa cum laude status or the fact that you were in the honors college at joyce dubliners essays your university. 28. Include Continuing or Online Education. Don’t be afraid to edward thorndike dissertation, include continuing education, professional development coursework, or online courses in your education section, especially if it feels a little light. Kelli Orrela explains , “Online courses are a more-than-accepted norm nowadays, and your participation in them can actually show your determination and motivation to get the skills you need for your career.” Be sure to dubliners, add a section that lists out all the relevant skills you have for a position, including tech skills like HTML and Adobe Creative Suite and creativity exercises any industry-related certifications. Just make sure to araby, skip including skills that everyone is expected to edward thorndike dissertation, have, like using email or Microsoft Word.
Doing so will actually make you seem less technologically savvy. If you have lots of skills related to a position—say, foreign language, software, and joyce araby essays leadership skills—try breaking out one of those sections and listing it on its own. Below your “Skills” section, add another section titled “Language Skills” or “Software Skills,” and edward dissertation detail your experience there. Again—we’re going for skimmability here, folks! Feel free to include an “Interests” section on your resume, but only dubliners araby, add those that are relevant to the job. Are you a guitar player with your eye on a music company? Definitely include it. University Of Chicago Supplement! But including your scrapbooking hobby for a tech job at a healthcare company? Don’t even think about it. 32.
Beware of Interests That Could Be Controversial. Maybe you help raise money for dubliners araby essays, your church on essay the reg. Or perhaps you have a penchant for canvassing during political campaigns. Yes, these experiences show a good amount of araby essays, work ethic—but they could also be discriminated against by someone who disagrees with the cause. Zhang explains here how to of chicago supplement essays, weigh the decision of whether to include them or not. Dubliners Essays! Do include awards and accolades you’ve received, even if they’re company-specific awards. Resources! Just state what you earned them for, e.g., “Earned Gold Award for having the company’s top sales record four quarters in a row.” What about personal achievements—like running a marathon—that aren’t totally relevant but show you’re a driven, hard worker? Zhang shares the proper ways to dubliners araby essays, include them. Gaps and Other Sticky Resume Situations.
If you stayed at a (non-temporary) job for only a matter of months, consider eliminating it from your resume. According to The New York Times ’ career coach , leaving a particularly short-lived job or two off your work history shouldn’t hurt, as long as you’re honest about your experience if asked in essay on responsibility of youth, an interview. If you have gaps of a few months in joyce dubliners, your work history, don’t list the usual start and end dates for on thesis, each position. Use years only (2010-2012), or just the number of years or months you worked at your earlier positions. If you’ve job-hopped frequently, include a reason for leaving next to each position, with a succinct explanation like “company closed,” “layoff due to downsizing,” or “relocated to new city.” By addressing the gaps, you’ll proactively illustrate the reason for your sporadic job movement and make it less of an issue. Re-entering the dubliners araby essays workforce after a long hiatus? This is the perfect opportunity for a summary statement at conservation resources the top, outlining your best skills and accomplishments.
Then, get into your career chronology, without hesitating to include part-time or volunteer work. See more tips from Jenny Foss for killing it on your comeback resume. Essays! Don’t try to creatively fill in gaps on your resume. For example, if you took time out of the themes essay workforce to joyce essays, raise kids, don’t list your parenting experience on your resume, a la “adeptly managed the on thesis growing pile of laundry” (we’ve seen it). While parenting is as demanding and araby intense a job as any out university of chicago essays, there, most corporate decision makers aren’t going to take this section of your resume seriously. 39. Ditch “References Available Upon Request” If a hiring manager is interested in you, he or she will ask you for references—and will assume that you have them. There’s no need to address the obvious (and doing so might even make you look a little presumptuous!). It should go without saying, but make sure your resume is free and clear of typos.
And don’t rely on spell check and grammar check alone—ask family or friends to take a look at it for dubliners essays, you (or get some tips from an edward dissertation editor on how to perfect your own work ). If emailing your resume, make sure to always send a PDF rather than a .doc. That way all of araby, your careful formatting won’t accidentally get messed up when the hiring manager opens it on his or her computer. Dissertation! To make sure it won’t look wonky when you send it off, Google’s head of essays, HR Laszlo Bock suggests, “Look at it in both Google Docs and Word, and then attach it to an email and open it as a preview.” Ready to save your resume and on thesis send it off? Save it as “Jane Smith Resume” instead of “Resume.” It’s one less step the dubliners araby essays hiring manager has to take. Carve out some time every quarter or so to pull up your resume and make some updates. Have you taken on new responsibilities? Learned new skills? Add them in. Of Chicago Essays! When your resume is updated on joyce essays a regular basis, you’re ready to pounce when opportunity presents itself. And, even if you’re not job searching, there are plenty of good reasons to keep this document in on thesis, tip-top shape.
Photo courtesy of joyce araby, Hero Images / Getty Images . Erin Greenawald is a freelance writer, editor, and content strategist who is university of chicago, passionate about elevating the standard of writing on joyce araby the web. Erin previously helped build The Muse’s beloved daily publication and led the company’s branded content team. If you’re an individual or company looking for help making your content better—or you just want to go out to tea—get in touch at eringreenawald.com. Hmmm, seems you#39;ve already signed up for this class. While you#39;re here, you may as well check out on thesis, all the amazing companies that are hiring like crazy right now.
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common decency essay If women, of all the joyce araby subordinate groups in a society dominated by rich white males, were closest to home (indeed, in the home), the most interior, then the Indians were the conservation essay most foreign, the most exterior. Women, because they were so near and dubliners essays so needed, were dealt with more by patronization than by force. The Indian, not needed-indeed, an of water obstacle-could be dealt with by sheer force, except that sometimes the language of paternalism preceded the burning of villages. And so, Indian Removal, as it has been politely called, cleared the joyce dubliners land for white occupancy between the Appalachians and the Mississippi, cleared it for cotton in the South and grain in the North, for conservation essay expansion, immigration, canals, railroads, new cities, and the building of a huge continental empire clear across to the Pacific Ocean.
The cost in human life cannot be accurately measured, in suffering not even roughly measured. Most of the history books given to children pass quickly over it. Statistics tell the story. We find these in essays, Michael Rogin's Fathers and Children : In 1790, there were 3,900,000 Americans, and most of them lived within 50 miles of the Atlantic Ocean. By 1830, there were 13 million Americans, and by 1840, 4,500,000 had crossed the hamlet themes Appalachian Mountains into joyce, the Mississippi Valley-that huge expanse of land crisscrossed by rivers flowing into the Mississippi from east and west. In 1820, 120,000 Indians lived east of the Mississippi. By 1844, fewer than 30,000 were left. Most of them had been forced to migrate westward. But the word force cannot convey what happened. In the Revolutionary War, almost every important Indian nation fought on the side of the British. The British signed for peace and essay went home; the Indians were already home, and so they continued fighting the Americans on the frontier, in joyce dubliners araby, a set of desperate holding operations.
Washington's war- enfeebled militia could not drive them back. After scouting forces were demolished one after the other, he tried to follow a policy of conciliation. His Secretary of War, Henry Knox, said: The Indians being the prior occupants, possess the hamlet essay right of the soil. His Secretary of State, Thomas Jefferson, said in 1791 that where Indians lived within state boundaries they should not be interfered with, and that the government should remove white settlers who tried to encroach on them. But as whites continued to move westward, the pressure on the national government increased. By the time Jefferson became President, in 1800, there were 700,000 white settlers west of the mountains. They moved into Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, in the North; into Alabama and Mississippi in the South.
These whites outnumbered the joyce araby essays Indians about eight to one. Jefferson now committed the federal government to promote future removal of the Creek and the Cherokee from Georgia. Aggressive activity against the Indians mounted in the Indiana territory under Governor William Henry Harrison. When Jefferson doubled the size of the nation by purchasing the Louisiana territory from France in 1803-thus extending the conservation of water resources essay western frontier from the Appalachians across the Mississippi to the Rocky Mountains-he thought the Indians could move there. He proposed to Congress that Indians should be encouraged to settle down on smaller tracts and do farming; also, they should be encouraged to trade with whites, to incur debts, and then to dubliners araby pay off these debts with tracts of land. .. . Two measures are deemed expedient. First to encourage them to abandon hunting. Writing Creativity Exercises! - Secondly, To Multiply trading houses among them . leading them thus to araby essays agriculture, to manufactures, and civilization.
Jefferson's talk of agriculture . . . manufactures . . . civilization is crucial. Dissertation! Indian removal was necessary for the opening of the vast American lands to agriculture, to commerce, to markets, to money, to the development of the modern capitalist economy. Joyce Dubliners! Land was indispensable for all this, and after the Revolution, huge sections of of water resources essay, land were bought up by rich speculators, including George Washington and Patrick Henry. In North Carolina, rich tracts of land belonging to dubliners araby the Chickasaw Indians were put on sale, although the Chickasaws were among the few Indian tribes fighting on the side of the Revolution, and a treaty had been signed with them guaranteeing their land. John Donelson, a state surveyor, ended up with 20,000 acres of land near what is now Chattanooga. His son-in-law made twenty-two trips out of Nashville in 1795 for land deals. This was Andrew Jackson. Jackson was a land speculator, merchant, slave trader, and the most aggressive enemy of the Indians in early American history. He became a hero of the conservation of water War of 1812, which was not (as usually depicted in American textbooks) just a war against England for survival, but a war for araby the expansion of the new nation, into Florida, into Canada, into university of chicago supplement, Indian territory.
Tecumseh, a Shawnee chief and noted orator, tried to unite the Indians against joyce araby essays, the white invasion: The way, and the only essay of youth, way, to check and to stop this evil, is for all the Redmen to unite in claiming a common and equal right in the land, as it was at first and should be yet; for it was never divided, but belongs to all for the use of each. That no part has a right to sell, even to each other, much less to joyce dubliners araby strangers-those who want all and will not do with less. Angered when fellow Indians were induced to cede a great tract of land to the United States government, Tecumseh organized in 1811 an Indian gathering of five thousand, on the bank of the Tallapoosa River in Alabama, and told them: Let the white race perish. They seize your land; they corrupt your women, they trample on thorndike dissertation the ashes of your dead! Back whence they came, upon a trail of joyce, blood, they must be driven. The Creeks, who occupied most of Georgia, Alabama, and dissertation Mississippi, were divided among themselves. Some were willing to adopt the civilization of the white man in order to live in peace. Others, insisting on araby essays their land and their culture, were called Red Sticks.
The Red Sticks in 1813 massacred 250 people at edward, Fort Mims, whereupon Jackson's troops burned down a Creek village, killing men, women, children. Jackson established the tactic of promising rewards in land and plunder: . .. if either party, cherokees, friendly creeks, or whites, takes property of the Red Sticks, the property belongs to those who take it. Not all his enlisted men were enthusiastic for the fighting. There were mutinies; the men were hungry, their enlistment terms were up, they were tired of fighting and wanted to go home. Jackson wrote to his wife about the once brave and patriotic volunteers .. . sunk . to joyce dubliners araby essays mere whining, complaining, seditioners and mutineers.. .. When a seventeen-year-old soldier who had refused to clean up his food, and threatened his officer with a gun, was sentenced to death by a court-martial, Jackson turned down a plea for commutation of supplement essays, sentence and ordered the execution to proceed. He then walked out of joyce araby, earshot of the firing squad. Jackson became a national hero when in 1814 he fought the Battle of Horseshoe Bend against a thousand Creeks and killed eight hundred of them, with few casualties on his side. His white troops had failed in a frontal attack on the Creeks, but the Cherokees with him, promised governmental friendship if they joined the war, swam the river, came up behind the Creeks, and won the battle for Jackson. When the war ended, Jackson and friends of his began buying up the hamlet themes seized Creek lands. He got himself appointed treaty commissioner and dictated a treaty which took away half the land of the joyce Creek nation.
Rogin says it was the largest single Indian cession of southern American land. Conservation Of Water Resources! It took land from Creeks who had fought with Jackson as well as those who had fought against him, and when Big Warrior, a chief of the friendly Creeks, protested, Jackson said: Listen.. . Joyce Dubliners Araby Essays! . The United States would have been justified by the Great Spirit, had they taken all the land of the on thesis nation.. .. Listen-the truth is, the great body of the Creek chiefs and joyce dubliners araby essays warriors did not respect the university supplement power of the United States-They thought we were an insignificant nation-that we would be overpowered by the British. . They were fat with eating beef- they wanted flogging. .. . We bleed our enemies in such eases to dubliners essays give them their senses. As Rogin puts it: Jackson had conquered 'the cream of the Creek country,' and it would guarantee southwestern prosperity. He had supplied the expanding cotton kingdom with a vast and valuable acreage. Jackson's 1814 treaty with the Creeks started something new and important. On Thesis! It granted Indians individual ownership of land, thus splitting Indian from Indian, breaking up communal landholding, bribing some with land, leaving others out-introducing the competition and conniving that marked the spirit of Western capitalism. It fitted well the joyce dubliners old Jeffersonian idea of how to handle the Indians, by bringing them into civilization. From 1814 to 1824, in a series of treaties with the southern Indians, whites took over three-fourths of Alabama and conservation essay Florida, one-third of dubliners essays, Tennessee, one-fifth of Georgia and Mississippi, and parts of Kentucky and North Carolina. Jackson played a key role in those treaties, and, according to of water resources essay Rogin, His friends and relatives received many of the patronage appointments-as Indian agents, traders, treaty commissioners, surveyors and land agents. Jackson himself described how the treaties were obtained: . we addressed ourselves feelingly to the predominant and araby essays governing passion of essay on responsibility of youth, all Indian tribes, i.e., their avarice or fear.
He encouraged white squatters to move into Indian lands, then told the Indians the government could not remove the whites and so they had better cede the lands or be wiped out. He also, Rogin says, practiced extensive bribery. These treaties, these land grabs, laid the dubliners araby basis for the cotton kingdom, the slave plantations. Every time a treaty was signed, pushing the Creeks from one area to the next, promising them security there, whites would move into the new area and the Creeks would feel compelled to sign another treaty, giving up more land in return for exercises security elsewhere. Jackson's work had brought the white settlements to the border of Florida, owned by joyce araby essays Spain. Here were the villages of the Seminole Indians, joined by some Red Stick refugees, and encouraged by British agents in their resistance to the Americans. Settlers moved into Indian lands. Indians attacked. Atrocities took place on both sides. When certain villages refused to surrender people accused of murdering whites, Jackson ordered the villages destroyed.
Another Seminole provocation: escaped black slaves took refuge in Seminole villages. Some Seminoles bought or captured black slaves, but their form of slavery was more like African slavery than cotton plantation slavery. The slaves often lived in supplement, their own villages, their children often became free, there was much intermarriage between Indians and blacks, and soon there were mixed Indian-black villages-all of which aroused southern slaveowners who saw this as a lure to their own slaves seeking freedom. Jackson began raids into Florida, arguing it was a sanctuary for escaped slaves and for marauding Indians. Florida, he said, was essential to the defense of the United States. It was that classic modern preface to a war of conquest. Thus began the Seminole War of 1818, leading to the American acquisition of Florida. It appears on classroom maps politely as Florida Purchase, 1819-but it came from Andrew Jackson's military campaign across the dubliners essays Florida border, burning Seminole villages, seizing Spanish forts, until Spain was persuaded to sell. He acted, he said, by the immutable laws of self-defense.
Jackson then became governor of the Florida Territory. Edward Thorndike! He was able now to give good business advice to friends and relatives. To a nephew, he suggested holding on to property in Pensacola. To a friend, a surgeon-general in the army, he suggested buying as many slaves as possible, because the price would soon rise. Leaving his military post, he also gave advice to officers on how to deal with the high rate of desertion. (Poor whites-even if willing to give their lives at first-may have discovered the rewards of battle going to the rich.) Jackson suggested whipping for the first two attempts, and the third time, execution. The leading books on the Jacksonian period, written by respected historians ( The Age of Jackson by Arthur Schlesinger; The Jacksonian Persuasion by Marvin Meyers), do not mention Jackson's Indian policy, but there is dubliners araby essays, much talk in them of tariffs, banking, political parties, political rhetoric. If you look through high school textbooks and elementary school textbooks in American history you will find Jackson the frontiersman, soldier, democrat, man of the people-not Jackson the of water essay slaveholder, land speculator, executioner of dissident soldiers, exterminator of Indians. This is joyce dubliners araby, not simply hindsight (the word used for thinking back differently on the past).
After Jackson was elected President in 1828 (following John Quincy Adams, who had followed Monroe, who had followed Madison, who had followed Jefferson), the Indian Removal bill came before Congress and was called, at the time, the leading measure of the Jackson administration and the greatest question that ever came before Congress except for matters of peace and war. By this time the two political parties were the Democrats and Whigs, who disagreed on banks and writing tariffs, but not on issues crucial for the white poor, the blacks, the Indians-although some white working people saw Jackson as their hero, because he opposed the rich man's Bank. Under Jackson, and the man he chose to succeed him, Martin Van Buren, seventy thousand Indians east of the Mississippi were forced westward. Joyce Dubliners! In the North, there weren't that many, and the Iroquois Confederation in New York stayed. But the Sac and Fox Indians of Illinois were removed, after the Black Hawk War (in which Abraham Lincoln was an officer, although he was not in combat). When Chief Black Hawk was defeated and captured in 1832, he made a surrender speech:
I fought hard. But your guns were well aimed. The bullets flew like birds in essay on responsibility, the air, and joyce essays whizzed by our cars like the wind through the trees in creativity exercises, the winter. My warriors fell around me.. . . The sun rose dim on us in the morning, and at night it sunk in a dark cloud, and looked like a ball of fire. That was the last sun that shone on Black Hawk. . Dubliners Araby Essays! He is now a prisoner to the white men.. .. He has done nothing for which an Indian ought to be ashamed.
He has fought for his countrymen, the squaws and creativity papooses, against white men, who came year after year, to cheat them and joyce araby take away their lands. University Supplement Essays! You know the cause of our making war. It is known to all white men. They ought to be ashamed of it. Indians are not deceitful.
The white men speak bad of the Indian and look at him spitefully. But the Indian does not tell lies. Indians do not steal. An Indian who is as bad as the joyce araby white men could not live in edward dissertation, our nation; he would be put to death, and dubliners araby eaten up by on responsibility of youth the wolves. The white men are bad schoolmasters; they carry false books, and deal in false actions; they smile in joyce araby, the face of the poor Indian to cheat him; they shake them by the hand to gain their confidence, to make them drunk, to deceive them, and ruin our wives. Themes Essay! We told them to leave us alone, and keep away from us; they followed on, and beset our paths, and they coiled themselves among us, like the snake. Joyce Araby! They poisoned us by their touch. We were not safe. We lived in danger.
We were becoming like them, hypocrites and liars, adulterous lazy drones, all talkers and no workers. .. . The white men do not scalp the head; but they do worse-they poison the heart.. . On Thesis! . Farewell, my nation! . Dubliners Araby! .. Hamlet Themes Essay! Farewell to Black Hawk. Black Hawk's bitterness may have come in part from the way he was captured. Without enough support to hold out against the white troops, with his men starving, hunted, pursued across the Mississippi, Black Hawk raised the white flag. The American commander later explained: As we neared them they raised a white flag and endeavored to decoy us, but we were a little too old for them. Joyce Araby Essays! The soldiers fired, killing women and essay on responsibility children as well as warriors. Black Hawk fled; he was pursued and captured by Sioux in the hire of the army.
A government agent told the Sac and Fox Indians: Our Great Father .. . Joyce Araby! will forbear no longer. He has tried to reclaim them, and they grow worse. He is resolved to hamlet themes sweep them from the face of the earth. Dubliners Araby! . If they cannot be made good they must be killed. The removal of the Indians was explained by Lewis Cass-Secretary of War, governor of the Michigan territory, minister to France, presidential candidate: A principle of progressive improvement seems almost inherent in human nature. . .. We are all striving in themes, the career of life to dubliners araby acquire riches of honor, or power, or some other object, whose possession is to realize the day dreams of our imaginations; and the aggregate of these efforts constitutes the essay on responsibility advance of society. Dubliners Araby! But there is little of this in the constitution of our savages. Cass-pompous, pretentious, honored (Harvard gave him an honorary doctor of laws degree in 1836, at the height of Indian removal)- claimed to be an expert on the Indians. But he demonstrated again and again, in of water resources essay, Richard Drinnon's words ( Violence in the American Experience: Winning the West ), a quite marvelous ignorance of Indian life. As governor of the Michigan Territory, Cass took millions of acres from the Indians by treaty: We must frequently promote their interest against their inclination.
His article in the North American Review in araby essays, 1830 made the case for Indian Removal. We must not regret, he said, the progress of civilization and of water resources improvement, the triumph of industry and art, by which these regions have been reclaimed, and over which freedom, religion, and joyce araby essays science are extending their sway. He wished that all this could have been done with a smaller sacrifice; that the aboriginal population had accommodated themselves to the inevitable change of their condition. . But such a wish is vain. A barbarous people, depending for subsistence upon the scanty and precarious supplies furnished by the chase, cannot live in contact with a civilized community. Drinnon comments on this (writing in 1969): Here were all the necessary grounds for burning villages and uprooting natives, Cherokee and Seminole, and later Cheyenne, Philippine, and Vietnamese. If the Indians would only move to new lands across the Mississippi, Cass promised in 1825 at a treaty council with Shawnees and Cherokees, The United States will never ask for your land there. This I promise you in the name of your great father, the President. That country he assigns to his red people, to be held by them and their children's children forever. The editor of the writing creativity exercises North American Review , for whom Cass wrote this article, told him that his project only araby, defers the fate of the Indians. In half a century their condition beyond the Mississippi will be just what it is now on this side.
Their extinction is inevitable. As Drinnon notes, Cass did not dispute this, yet published his article as it was. Everything in the Indian heritage spoke out against leaving their land. A council of Creeks, offered money for their land, said: We would not receive money for land in which our fathers and friends are buried. An old Choctaw chief said, responding, years before, to President Monroe's talk of removal: I am sorry I cannot comply with the request of my father. . Writing Exercises! . . We wish to remain here, where we have grown up as the herbs of the woods; and do not wish to be transplanted into another soil. A Seminole chief had said to John Quincy Adams: Here our navel strings were first cut and the blood from them sunk into dubliners, the earth, and made the country dear to us. Not all the Indians responded to the white officials' common designation of them as children and the President as father. It was reported that when Tecumseh met with William Henry Harrison, Indian fighter and future President, the hamlet themes interpreter said: Your father requests you to take a chair. Tecumseh replied: My father! The sun is my father, and joyce dubliners araby essays the earth is my mother; I will repose upon university supplement her bosom. As soon as Jackson was elected President, Georgia, Alabama, and Mississippi began to pass laws to extend the states' rule over the Indians in their territory.
These laws did away with the tribe as a legal unit, outlawed tribal meetings, took away the chiefs' powers, made the Indians subject to militia duty and state taxes, but denied them the right to vote, to bring suits, or to dubliners araby essays testify in court. Indian territory was divided up, to be distributed by state lottery. Whites were encouraged to settle on Indian land. However, federal treaties and federal laws gave Congress, not the states, authority over of chicago essays the tribes. The Indian Trade and Intercourse Act, passed by Congress in 1802, said there could be no land cessions except by treaty with a tribe, and said federal law would operate in Indian territory.
Jackson ignored this, and supported state action. It was a neat illustration of the uses of the federal system: depending on dubliners the situation, blame could be put on the states, or on something even more elusive, the mysterious Law before which all men, sympathetic as they were to the Indian, must bow. As Secretary of on thesis, War John Eaton explained to joyce dubliners araby essays the Creeks of Alabama (Alabama itself was an Indian name, meaning Here we may rest): It is not your Great Father who does this; but the laws of the Country, which he and every one of university of chicago supplement, his people is bound to regard. The proper tactic had now been found. The Indians would not be forced to go West. But if they chose to stay they would have to abide by state laws, which destroyed their tribal and personal rights and joyce dubliners essays made them subject to endless harassment and invasion by essays white settlers coveting their land. If they left, however, the federal government would give them financial support and promise them lands beyond the dubliners araby Mississippi. Jackson's instructions to an army major sent to talk to the Choctaws and Cherokees put it this way: Say to my reel Choctaw children, and my Chickasaw children to essays listen-my white children of Mississippi have extended their law over their country. .. . Where they now are, say to them, their father cannot prevent them from being subject to the laws of the joyce dubliners essays state of Mississippi. . .. The general government will be obliged to sustain the States in the exercise of their right. Say to writing creativity the chiefs and warriors that I am their friend, that I wish to act as their friend but they must, by removing from the limits of the dubliners essays States of Mississippi and Alabama and by being settled on the lands I offer them, put it in my power to be such-There, beyond the limits of any State, in possession of on thesis, land of joyce, their own, which they shall possess as long as Grass grows or water runs.
I am and will protect them and be their friend and father. That phrase as long as Grass grows or water runs was to be recalled with bitterness by university of chicago supplement generations of Indians. (An Indian GI, veteran of Vietnam, testifying publicly in 1970 not only about the horror of the war but about his own maltreatment as an Indian, repeated that phrase and began to dubliners essays weep.) As Jackson took office in themes, 1829, gold was discovered in Cherokee territory in Georgia. Thousands of whites invaded, destroyed Indian property, staked out claims. Joyce Essays! Jackson ordered federal troops to remove them, but also ordered Indians as well as whites to stop mining. Then he removed the troops, the essay on responsibility whites returned, and Jackson said he could not interfere with Georgia's authority.
The white invaders seized land and stock, forced Indians to sign leases, beat up Indians who protested, sold alcohol to weaken resistance, killed frame which Indians needed for food. But to put all the blame on dubliners essays white mobs, Rogin says, would be to ignore the essential roles played by planter interests and government policy decisions. Food shortages, whiskey, and military attacks began a process of tribal disintegration. Violence by Indians upon other Indians increased. Treaties made under pressure and by deception broke up Creek, Choctaw, and Chickasaw tribal lands into individual holdings, making each person a prey to contractors, speculators, and politicians. The Chickasaws sold their land individually at good prices and went west without much suffering. The Creeks and Choctaws remained on their individual plots, but great numbers of them were defrauded by land companies. According to one Georgia bank president, a stockholder in a land company, Stealing is the order of the on thesis day. Indians complained to Washington, and Lewis Cass replied: Our citizens were disposed to buy and the Indians to sell. Joyce Dubliners Essays! . .. Of Water! The subsequent disposition which shall he made of these payments seems to joyce dubliners araby essays be utterly beyond the reach of the Government.. . . The improvident habits of the Indian cannot be controlled by regulations.
If they waste it, as waste it they too often will, it is deeply to on thesis be regretted yet still it is only exercising a right conferred upon them by joyce dubliners essays the treaty. The Creeks, defrauded of their land, short of money and food, refused to go West. Starving Creeks began raiding white farms, while Georgia militia and settlers attacked Indian settlements. Thus began the Second Creek War. One Alabama newspaper sympathetic to the Indians wrote: The war with the Creeks is all humbug. It is a base and diabolical scheme, devised by interested men, to keep an ignorant race of people from maintaining their just rights, and to deprive them of the small remaining pittance placed under their control. A Creek man more than a hundred years old, named Speckled Snake, reacted to conservation Andrew Jackson's policy of dubliners, removal: Brothers! I have listened to many talks from our great white father. When he first came over the wide waters, he was but a little man . very little. His legs were cramped by sitting long in his big boat, and conservation resources essay he begged for a little land to light his fire on. Joyce Dubliners Essays! . But when the white man had warmed himself before the writing Indians' fire and filled himself with their hominy, he became very large.
With a step he bestrode the mountains, and dubliners araby essays his feet covered the of water essay plains and the valleys. His hand grasped the eastern and the western sea, and his head rested on the moon. Then he became our Great Father. Joyce Dubliners Araby! He loved his red children, and he said, Get a little further, lest I tread on thee. Brothers!
I have listened to a great many talks from our great father. But they always began and ended in this-Get a little further; you are too near me. Dale Van Every, in his book The Disinherited , sums up what removal meant to the Indian: In the edward dissertation long record of essays, man's inhumanity exile has wrung moans of anguish from many different peoples. Upon no people could it ever have fallen with a more shattering impact than upon the eastern Indians. The Indian was peculiarly susceptible to every sensory attribute of every natural feature of his surroundings. He lived in the open.
He knew every marsh, glade, hill top, rock, spring, creek, as only the hunter can know them. He had never fully grasped the principle establishing private ownership of land as any more rational than private ownership of air but he loved the land with a deeper emotion than could any proprietor. He felt himself as much a part of it as the rocks and trees, the of chicago animals and birds. His homeland was holy ground, sanctified for him as the resting place of the bones of his ancestors and the natural shrine of dubliners araby, his religion. He conceived its waterfalls and ridges, its clouds and mists, its glens and meadows, to be inhabited by edward dissertation the myriad of spirits with whom he held daily communion. It was from this rain-washed land of forests, streams and lakes, to dubliners araby which he was held by the traditions of his forebears and his own spiritual aspirations, that he was to be driven to the arid, treeless plains of the far west, a desolate region then universally known as the Great American Desert. According to Van Every, just before Jackson became President, in the 1820s, after the tumult of the War of 1812 and on thesis the Creek War, the southern Indians and the whites had settled down, often very close to one another, and were living in peace in a natural environment which seemed to araby essays have enough for all of them. They began to see common problems.
Friendships developed. White men were allowed to visit the edward thorndike dissertation Indian communities and joyce essays Indians often were guests in white homes. Frontier figures like Davy Crockett and Sam Houston came out of this setting, and both-unlike Jackson-became lifelong friends of the Indian. The forces that led to conservation essay removal did not come, Van Every insists, from the essays poor white frontiersmen who were neighbors of the on thesis Indians. They came from industrialization and commerce, the growth of populations, of railroads and cities, the araby rise in on thesis, value of dubliners essays, land, and the greed of businessmen. Party managers and land speculators manipulated the growing excitement. . . . Press and pulpit whipped up the frenzy. Out of on responsibility, that frenzy the Indians were to dubliners essays end up dead or exiled, the land speculators richer, the politicians more powerful. As for the poor white frontiersman, he played the on thesis part of a pawn, pushed into the first violent encounters, but soon dispensable. There had been three voluntary Cherokee migrations westward, into the beautiful wooded country of Arkansas, but there the Indians found themselves almost immediately surrounded and penetrated by white settlers, hunters, trappers.
These West Cherokees now had to move farther west, this time to arid land, land too barren for white settlers. The federal government, signing a treaty with them in 1828, announced the joyce new territory as a permanent home . On Thesis! which shall under the most solemn guarantee of the United States and remain theirs forever.. . . It was still another lie, and the plight of the western Cherokees became known to araby essays the three-fourths of the Cherokees who were still in the East, being pressured by on thesis the white man to move on. With 17,000 Cherokees surrounded by joyce dubliners araby 900,000 whites in writing creativity exercises, Georgia, Alabama, and Tennessee, the Cherokees decided that survival required adaptation to the white man's world. They became farmers, blacksmiths, carpenters, masons, owners of property. Joyce Essays! A census of 1826 showed 22,000 cattle, 7,600 horses, 46,000 swine, 726 looms, 2,488 spinning wheels, 172 wagons, 2,943 plows, 10 saw mills, 31 grist mills, 62 blacksmith shops, 8 cotton machines, 18 schools. The Cherokees' language-heavily poetic, metaphorical, beautifully expressive, supplemented by essay dance, drama, and ritual-had always been a language of dubliners araby essays, voice and gesture. Now their chief, Sequoyah, invented a written language, which thousands learned. The Cherokees' newly established Legislative Council voted money for a printing press, which on of water February 21, 1828, began publishing a newspaper, the Cherokee Phoenix , printed in both English and Seqnoyah's Cherokee.
Before this, the Cherokees had, like Indian tribes in general, done without formal government. As Van Every puts it: The foundation principle of Indian government had always been the rejection of government. The freedom of the individual was regarded by practically all Indians north of Mexico as a canon infinitely more precious than the individual's duty to his community or nation. This anarchistic attitude ruled all behavior, beginning with the smallest social unit, the family.
The Indian parent was constitutionally reluctant to discipline his children.' Their every exhibition of self-will was accepted as a favorable indication of the development of maturing character.. . There was an occasional assembling of joyce dubliners essays, a council, with a very loose and changing membership, whose decisions were not enforced except by the influence of public opinion. A Moravian minister who lived among them described Indian society: Thus has been maintained for university ages, without convulsions and without civil discords, this traditional government, of which the world, perhaps, does not offer another example; a government in dubliners araby essays, which there are no positive laws, but only long established habits and customs, no code of jurisprudence, but the experience of former times, no magistrates, but advisers, to whom the people nevertheless, pay a willing and implicit obedience, in which age confers rank, wisdom gives power, and moral goodness secures title to universal respect. Now, surrounded by white society, all this began to change. The Cherokees even started to dissertation emulate the slave society around them: they owned more than a thousand slaves. They were beginning; to resemble that civilization the white men spoke about, making what Van Every calls a stupendous effort to win the good will of Americans.
They even welcomed missionaries and Christianity. None of this made them more desirable than the land they lived on. Jackson's 1829 message to Congress made his position clear: I informed the Indians inhabiting parts of joyce dubliners, Georgia and Alabama that their attempt to establish an hamlet essay independent government would not be countenanced by the Executive of the joyce dubliners araby essays United States, and on thesis advised them to essays emigrate beyond the Mississippi or submit to the laws of those States. Congress moved quickly to pass a removal bill. There were defenders of the Indians. Writing! Perhaps the most eloquent was Senator Theodore Frelinghuysen of joyce dubliners araby, New Jersey, who told the Senate, debating removal: We have crowded the tribes upon a few miserable acres on our southern frontier; it is all that is on thesis, left to essays them of essay, their once boundless forest; and still, like the horse-leech, our insatiated cupidity cries, give! give! . Sir . Do the obligations of justice change with the dubliners essays color of the skin?
The North was in general against the removal bill. The South was for it. Dissertation! It passed the joyce essays House 102 to 97. It passed the Senate narrowly. It did not mention force, but provided for helping the Indians to conservation of water essay move. What it implied was that if they did not, they were without protection, without funds, and at the mercy of the states. Now the pressures began on the tribes, one by joyce dubliners essays one.
The Choctaws did not want to leave, but fifty of their delegates were offered secret bribes of money and land, and the Treaty of Dancing Rabbit Creek was signed: Choctaw land east of the Mississippi was ceded to the United States in return for writing creativity financial help in leaving, compensation for joyce essays property left behind, food for the first year in writing creativity exercises, their new homes, and a guarantee they would never again be required to move. For twenty thousand Choctaws in Mississippi, though most of them hated the treaty, the pressure now became irresistible. Whites, including liquor dealers and swindlers, came swarming onto their lands. The state passed a law making it a crime for Choctaws to try to joyce araby persuade one another on hamlet themes essay the matter of removal. In late 1831, thirteen thousand Choctaws began the long journey west to a land and climate totally different from what they knew.
Marshaled by essays guards, hustled by agents, harried by contractors, they were being herded on the way to an unknown and unwelcome destination like a flock of sick sheep. Of Chicago! They went on ox wagons, on horses, on foot, then to be ferried across the Mississippi River. The army was supposed to organize their trek, but it turned over its job to private contractors who charged the government as much as possible, gave the Indians as little as possible. Everything was disorganized. Food disappeared. Hunger came. Van Every again: The long somber columns of groaning ox wagons, driven herds and straggling crowds on joyce araby essays foot inched on westward through swamps and forests, across rivers and over hills, in their crawling struggle from the lush lowlands of the Gulf to university of chicago essays the arid plains of the west. In a kind of death spasm one of the last vestiges of the original Indian world was being dismembered and essays its collapsing remnants jammed bodily into on thesis, an alien new world. The first winter migration was one of the coldest on record, and people began to die of pneumonia.
In the dubliners summer, a major cholera epidemic hit Mississippi, and Choctaws died by of chicago supplement the hundreds. The seven thousand Choctaws left behind now refused to go, choosing subjugation over death. Many of their descendants still live in Mississippi. As for the Cherokees, they faced a set of laws passed by Georgia: their lands were taken, their government abolished, all meetings prohibited. Cherokees advising others not to migrate were to be imprisoned. Cherokees could not testify in court against joyce araby essays, any white. Cherokees could not dig for the gold recently discovered on their land. A delegation of university essays, them, protesting to the federal government, received this reply from Jackson's new Secretary of War, Eaton: If you will go to the setting sun there you will be happy; there you can remain in peace and joyce dubliners araby quietness; so long as the waters run and the oaks grow that country shall be guaranteed to you and writing creativity no white man shall be permitted to joyce dubliners araby essays settle near you. The Cherokee nation addressed a memorial to the nation, a public plea for justice. They reviewed their history:
After the peace of 1783, the Cherokees were an independent people, absolutely so, as much as any people on earth. They had been allies to Great Britain. . . . The United States never subjugated the Cherokees; on the contrary, our fathers remained in possession of their country and with arms in their hands. . In 1791, the of water resources treaty of Holston was made. The Cherokees acknowledged themselves to dubliners be under the protection of the United States, and of no other sovereign. A cession of land was also made to the United States. On the other hand, the on thesis United States . stipulated that white men should not hunt on these lands, not even enter the country, without, a passport; and gave a solemn guarantee of dubliners araby essays, all Cherokee lands not ceded. . ..
They discussed removal: We are aware that some persons suppose it will be for our advantage to remove beyond the Mississippi. We think otherwise. Our people universally think otherwise. . .. We wish to remain on university essays the land of our fathers. We have a perfect and original right to joyce dubliners araby remain without interruption or molestation. The treaties with us, and laws of the United States made in pursuance of treaties, guarantee our residence and our privileges, and secure us against of chicago essays, intruders- Our only joyce dubliners essays, request is, that these treaties may be fulfilled, and these laws executed.. . . Now they went beyond history, beyond law: We entreat those to whom the essay foregoing paragraphs are addressed, to remember the araby essays great law of love. Do to others as ye would that others should do to you. .. . On Thesis! We pray them to remember that, for joyce dubliners araby essays the sake of on thesis, principle, their forefathers were compelled to leave, therefore driven from the araby old world, and that the winds of persecution wafted them over the great waters and conservation of water resources essay landed them on essays the shores of the new world, when the Indian was the sole lord and conservation of water essay proprietor of these extensive domains-Let them remember in what way they were received by joyce araby the savage of America, when power was in creativity exercises, his hand, and his ferocity could not be restrained by dubliners araby essays any human arm. We urge them to bear in mind, that those who would not ask of them a cup of cold water, and supplement essays a spot of earth . are the dubliners araby essays descendants of these, whose origin, as inhabitants of North America, history and tradition are alike insufficient to reveal. Let them bring to remembrance all these facts, and they cannot, and we are sure, they will not fail to remember, and sympathize with us in these our trials and sufferings. Jackson's response to this, in his second Annual Message to Congress 111 December 1830, was to point to the fact that the Choctaws and of youth Chickasaws had already agreed to removal, and that a speedy removal of the rest would offer many advantages to everyone.
For whites it will place a dense and civilized population in joyce dubliners araby, large tracts of country now occupied by a few savage hunters. University Supplement Essays! For Indians, it will perhaps cause them, gradually, under the protection of the Government and through the joyce essays influence of good counsels, to cast off their savage habits and become an interesting, civilized, and Christian community. He reiterated a familiar theme. Toward the aborigines of the country no one can indulge a more friendly feeling than myself. Writing! . . . However: The waves of population and dubliners araby civilization are rolling to the westward, and we now propose to acquire the countries occupied by the red men of the essay on responsibility of youth South and West by a fair exchange. . .. Georgia passed a law making it a crime for joyce dubliners araby essays a white person to stay in Indian territory without taking an on thesis oath to the state of Georgia. When the white missionaries in the Cherokee territory declared their sympathies openly for the Cherokees to stay, Georgia militia entered the territory in the spring of 1831 and arrested three of the missionaries, including Samuel Worcester. Joyce Dubliners Essays! They were released when they claimed protection as federal employees (Worcester was a federal postmaster).
Immediately the Jackson administration took away Worcester's job, and the militia moved in again that summer, arresting ten missionaries as well as the white printer of the Cherokee Phoenix . Essay! They were beaten, chained, and forced to march 35 miles a day to the county jail. A jury tried them, found them guilty. Nine were released when they agreed to swear allegiance to Georgia's laws, but Samuel Worcester and Elizur Butler, who refused to joyce essays grant legitimacy to the laws repressing the Cherokees, were sentenced to four years at hard labor. This was appealed to the Supreme Court, and in Worcester v. Georgia , John Marshall, for the majority, declared that the Georgia law on which Worcester was jailed violated the treaty with the Cherokees, which by the Constitution was binding on the states. He ordered Worcester freed. Georgia ignored him, and President Jackson refused to enforce the court order. Georgia now put Cherokee land on sale and moved militia in to crush any sign of Cherokee resistance. Hamlet Essay! The Cherokees followed a policy of nonviolence, though their property was being taken, their homes were being burned, their schools were closed, their women mistreated, and liquor was being sold in their churches to joyce dubliners essays render them even more helpless. The same year Jackson was declaring states' rights for Georgia on on thesis the Cherokee question in 1832, he was attacking South Carolina's right to nullify a federal tariff. His easy reelection in dubliners araby essays, 1832 (687,000 to 530,000 for his opponent Henry Clay) suggested that his anti-Indian policies were in keeping with popular sentiment, at least among those white males who could vote (perhaps 2 million of the total population of 13 million). Jackson now moved to university essays speed up Indian removal.
Most of the Choctaws and some of the Cherokees were gone, but there were still 22,000 Creeks in Alabama, 18,000 Cherokees in Georgia, and 5,000 Seminoles in Florida. The Creeks had been fighting for their land ever since the joyce araby years of Columbus, against edward thorndike, Spaniards, English, French, and Americans. But by 1832 they had been reduced to essays a small area in Alabama, while the population of Alabama, growing fast, was now over 300,000. On the basis of extravagant promises from the federal government, Creek delegates in Washington signed the Treaty of Washington, agreeing to removal beyond the Mississippi. They gave up 5 million acres, with the provision that 2 million of these would go to individual Creeks, who could either sell or remain in Alabama with federal protection. Van Every writes of this treaty:
The interminable history of diplomatic relations between Indians and white men had before 1832 recorded no single instance of a treaty which had not been presently broken by the white parties to it . however solemnly embellished with such terms as permanent, forever, for all time, so long as the sun shall rise. . Creativity! .. But no agreement between white men and Indians had ever been so soon abrogated as the 1832 Treaty of Washington. Dubliners Essays! Within days the promises made in it on behalf of the United States had been broken. A white invasion of Creek lands began-looters, land seekers, defrauders, whiskey sellers, thugs- driving thousands of Creeks from their homes into the swamps and forests. The federal government did nothing. Instead it negotiated a new treaty providing for prompt emigration west, managed by of youth the Creeks themselves, financed by the national government. An army colonel, dubious that this would work, wrote: They fear starvation on joyce dubliners essays the route; and can it be otherwise, when many of them are nearly starving now, without the embarrassment of a long journey on their hands. You cannot have an idea of the deterioration which these Indians have undergone during the last two or three years, from a general state of comparative plenty to that of unqualified wretchedness and university of chicago essays want. The free egress into the nation by araby the whites; encroachments upon their lands, even upon their cultivated fields; abuses of their person; hosts of traders, who, like locusts, have devoured their substance and inundated their homes with whiskey, have destroyed what little disposition to cultivation the Indians may once have had.. .. They are brow beat, and cowed, and imposed upon, and creativity exercises depressed with the feeling that they have no adequate protection in the United States, and no capacity of self-protection in themselves. Northern political sympathizers with the Indian seemed to be fading away, preoccupied with other issues.
Daniel Webster was making a rousing speech in the Senate for the authority of law . the power of the general government, but he was not referring to Alabama, Georgia, and the Indians- he was talking about South Carolina's nullification of the joyce araby essays tariff. Despite the hardships, the Creeks refused to budge, but by 1836, both state and federal officials decided they must go. Using as a pretext some attacks by desperate Creeks on white settlers, it was declared that the Creek nation, by making war, had forfeited its treaty rights. The army would now force it to essay migrate west. Fewer than a hundred Creeks had been involved in the war, but a thousand had fled into the woods, afraid of white reprisals. An army of eleven thousand was sent after them.
The Creeks did not resist, no shots were fired, they surrendered. Joyce Dubliners Araby! Those Creeks presumed by the army to be rebels or sympathizers were assembled, the men manacled and chained together to march westward under military guard, their women and children trailing after them. Creek communities were invaded by military detachments, the inhabitants driven to assembly points and hamlet themes marched westward in batches of two or three thousand. No talk of compensating them for land or property left behind. Private contracts were made for the march, the same kind that had failed for joyce araby the Choctaws. Again, delays and lack of food, shelter, clothing, blankets, medical attention. Again, old, rotting steamboats and ferries, crowded beyond capacity, taking them across the Mississippi. By midwinter the hamlet themes essay interminable, stumbling procession of more than 15,000 Creeks stretched from border to border across Arkansas.
Starvation and sickness began to cause large numbers of deaths. Dubliners Essays! The passage of the exiles could be distinguished from afar by the howling of trailing wolf packs and the circling flocks of buzzards, Van Every writes. Eight hundred Creek men had volunteered to help the United States army fight the Seminoles in of water resources essay, Florida in return for a promise that their families could remain in Alabama, protected by dubliners araby the federal government until the men returned. The promise was not kept. The Creek families were attacked by land-hungry white marauders-robbed, driven from their homes, women raped. Then the army, claiming it was for their safety, removed them from Creek country to a concentration camp on hamlet themes essay Mobile Bay. Hundreds died there from lack of food and from sickness. When the warriors returned from the Seminole War, they and their families were hustled west. Joyce Dubliners! Moving through New Orleans, they encountered a yellow fever plague. They crossed the Mississippi-611 Indians crowded onto the aged steamer Monmouth . It went down in the Mississippi River and 311 people died, four of them the children of the university of chicago essays Indian commander of the Creek volunteers in Florida.
A New Orleans newspaper wrote: The fearful responsibility for this vast sacrifice of human life rests on the contractors .. . The avaricious disposition to increase the profits on the speculation first induced the chartering of rotten, old, and unseaworthy boats, because they were of a class to dubliners araby essays be procured cheaply; and conservation of water resources then to make those increased profits still larger, the Indians were packed upon those crazy vessels in such crowds that not the slightest regard seems to have been paid to joyce essays their safety, comfort, or even decency. The Choctaws and Chickasaws had quickly agreed to migrate. The Creeks were stubborn and essay of youth had to be forced. The Cherokees were practicing a nonviolent resistance.
One tribe-the Seminoles- decided to dubliners essays fight. With Florida now belonging to the United States, Seminole territory was open to American land- grabbers. On Thesis! They moved down into dubliners araby, north Florida from St. Augustine to Pensacola, and down the fertile coastal strip. In 1823, the creativity Treaty of Camp Moultrie was signed by a few Seminoles who got large personal landholdings in north Florida and joyce dubliners agreed that all the Seminoles would leave northern Florida and every coastal area and essay on responsibility of youth move into the interior. This meant withdrawing into joyce dubliners araby essays, the swamps of essay on responsibility, central Florida, where they could not grow food, where even wild game could not survive. The pressure to move west, out of Florida, mounted, and in 1834 Seminole leaders were assembled and joyce dubliners araby essays the U.S. Writing Creativity! Indian agent told them they must move west. Here were some of the replies of the Seminoles at that meeting:
We were all made by dubliners araby the same Great Father, and are all alike His Children. We all came from the same Mother, and were suckled at themes, the same breast. Therefore, we are brothers, and as brothers, should treat together in an amicable way. The Indian agent managed to araby get fifteen chiefs and subchiefs to sign a removal treaty, the on responsibility U.S. Essays! Senate promptly ratified it, and the War Department began making preparations for the migration. Violence between whites and Seminoles now erupted. A young Seminole chief, Osceola, who had been imprisoned and chained by the Indian agent Thompson, and whose wife had been delivered into writing creativity exercises, slavery, became a leader of the growing resistance. When Thompson ordered the Seminoles, in December 1835, to assemble for the journey, no one came. Joyce Araby! Instead, the Seminoles began a series of guerrilla attacks on essay white coastal settlements, all along the Florida perimeter, striking in surprise and in succession from the interior. They murdered white families, captured slaves, destroyed property.
Osceola himself, in joyce dubliners araby essays, a lightning stroke, shot down Thompson and an army lieutenant. That same day, December 28, 1835, a column of 110 soldiers was attacked by Seminoles, and all but three soldiers were killed. One of the survivors later told the story: It was 8 o'clock. Suddenly I heard a rifle shot .. . followed by a musket shot. I had not time to think of the of water meaning of these shots, before a volley, as if from a thousand rifles, was poured in upon us from the front, and all along our left flank. I could only see their heads and arms, peering out from the long grass, far and near, and from behind the pine trees.. . . It was the joyce araby essays classic Indian tactic against a foe with superior firearms. On Thesis! General George Washington had once given parting advice to joyce dubliners araby one of his officers: General St.
Clair, in three words, beware of surprise. . again and again, General, beware of supplement, surprise. Congress now appropriated money for a war against the Seminoles. In the Senate, Henry Clay of Kentucky opposed the war; he was an enemy of Jackson, a critic of Indian removal. But his Whig colleague Daniel Webster displayed that unity across party lines which became standard in American wars: The view taken by the gentleman from Kentucky was undoubtedly the dubliners essays true one. Conservation Resources! But the war rages, the enemy is in force, and the accounts of their ravages are disastrous. The executive government has asked for joyce dubliners the means of suppressing these hostilities, and it was entirely proper that the bill should pass.
General Winfield Scott took charge, but his columns of troops, marching impressively into Seminole territory, found no one. They became tired of the mud, the essays swamps, the joyce dubliners araby essays heat, the sickness, the essay hunger-the classic fatigue of a civilized army fighting people on their own land. No one wanted to face Seminoles in the Florida swamps. In 1836, 103 commissioned officers resigned from the regular army, leaving only joyce araby, forty-six. In the spring of of chicago supplement essays, 1837, Major General Jesup moved into the war with an army of ten thousand, but the Seminoles just faded into the swamps, coming out from time to time to strike at isolated forces. The war went on joyce for years. The army enlisted other Indians to fight the Seminoles.
But that didn't work either. Van Every says: The adaptation of the Seminole to his environment was to be matched only by the crane or the alligator. It was an eight-year war. It cost $20 million and 1,500 American lives. Finally, in the 1840s, the Seminoles began to writing get tired. They were a tiny group against a huge nation with great resources. They asked for joyce araby truces. But when they went forward under truce flags, they were arrested, again and again. In 1837, Osceola, under a flag of truce, had been seized and put in university essays, irons, then died of illness in prison. The war petered out. Meanwhile the Cherokees had not fought back with arms, but had resisted in their own way.
And so the government began to dubliners essays play Cherokee against Cherokee, the old game. The pressures built up on on thesis the Cherokee community-their newspaper suppressed, their government dissolved, the missionaries in jail, their land parceled among whites by dubliners essays the land lottery. In 1834, seven hundred Cherokees, weary of the on thesis struggle, agreed to go west; eighty-one died en route, including forty-five children-mostly from measles and cholera. Dubliners Essays! Those who lived arrived at their destination across the Mississippi in the midst of a cholera epidemic and half of them died within a year. The Cherokees were summoned to sign the thorndike dissertation removal treaty in New Echota, Georgia, in joyce dubliners, 1836, but fewer than five hundred of the seventeen thousand Cherokees appeared. The treaty was signed anyway. The Senate, including northerners who had once spoken for university supplement the Indian, ratified it, yielding, as Senator Edward Everett of Massachusetts said, to the force of circumstances . . . the hard necessity. Now the Georgia whites stepped up their attacks to speed the removal. The government did not move immediately against the Cherokees.
In April 1838, Ralph Waldo Emerson addressed an open letter to President Van Buren, referring with indignation to the removal treaty with the Cherokees (signed behind the backs of an overwhelming-majority of them) and joyce essays asked what had happened to the sense of justice in America: The soul of man, the justice, the mercy that is the heart's heart in all men, from Maine to Georgia, does abhor this business . a crime is projected that confounds our understandings by its magnitude, a crime that really deprives us as well as the Cherokees of a country for how could we call the conspiracy that should crush these poor Indians our government, or the land that was cursed by their parting and dying imprecations our country any more? You, sir, will bring down that renowned chair in which you sit into themes, infamy if your seal is set to this instrument of perfidy; and the name of this nation, hitherto the sweet omen of religion and liberty, will stink to the world. Thirteen days before Emerson sent this letter, Martin Van Buren had ordered Major General Winfield Scott into Cherokee territory to use whatever military force was required to move the dubliners araby essays Cherokees west. Five regiments of regulars and four thousand militia and volunteers began pouring into Cherokee country. General Scott addressed the resources essay Indians:
Cherokees-the President of the United States has sent me with a powerful army, to cause you, in obedience to the treaty of 1834, to join mat part of your people who are already established in dubliners araby, prosperity on the other side of the Mississippi.. . . The full moon of May is already on the wane, and before another shall have passed every Cherokee man, woman, and child . .. must be in motion to university supplement join their brethren in the far West.. . . My troops already occupy many positions in dubliners, the country that you are about to abandon, and thousands and thousands are approaching from every quarter, to tender resistance and escape alike hopeless.. .. Chiefs, head men, and warriors-Will you then, by resistance, compel us to writing creativity resort to arms? God forbid. Joyce Araby! Or will you, by flight, seek to hide yourselves in mountains and forests, and thus oblige us to hunt you down? Some Cherokees had apparently given up on nonviolence: three chiefs who signed the Removal Treaty were found dead. But the of chicago supplement seventeen thousand Cherokees were soon rounded up and crowded into joyce dubliners essays, stockades.
On October 1, 1838, the first detachment set out in what was to on thesis be known as the Trail of Tears. As they moved westward, they began to die-of sickness, of drought, of the heat, of exposure. There were 645 wagons, and dubliners essays people marching alongside. Survivors, years later, told of halting at the edge of the Mississippi in the middle of winter, the river running full of conservation of water, ice, hundreds of sick and dying penned up in wagons or stretched upon joyce dubliners essays the ground. Grant Foreman, the leading authority on Indian removal, estimates that during confinement in the stockade or on the march westward four thousand Cherokees died. In December 1838, President Van Buren spoke to conservation resources essay Congress:
It affords sincere pleasure to apprise the Congress of the entire removal of the Cherokee Nation of Indians to their new homes west of the Mississippi. The measures authorized by Congress at dubliners, its last session have had the happiest effects.
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