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Business Analyst Resume HealthCare Domain. I have a Business Analyst Consultant avaiable inhealth care domain. Here is her resume Please contact me if you have any suitable positions Sr. Business Analyst [email protected] Summary of Qualifications. u Experienced Senior Business Analyst with over business, 7 years of proven skills in requirement gathering, interacting with developers, documenting various business processes, coordinating various projects contributing 3-Years of research experience in Medicare D in region of business d Healthcare Industries. u Experienced in interfacing with stakeholders and senior management with excellent communication and satisfaction interpersonal skills. u Extensive experience working in all stages of business system development Life Cycle.
Extensive experience leading, facilitating conducting Joint Application Development (JAD) sessions among user community, stake holders and technical management, creating project plans and schedules and managing changes. u Also, Analysed and synthesized results from Joint Application Development (JAD), proposed alternative tasks and transformed those into Business Requirement Document (BRD) . u Worked with Six Sigma methodology. Research Paper? u Experience in for requirements gathering, analysis, design in Rapid Application Development (RAD) sessions to converge early toward a design acceptable to the customer and feasible for the developers. Business Plan? u Experience in using methodologies such as UML (Unified Modelling Language), OOAD (Object Oriented Analysis and Design) and APM (Agile Project Management). u Experience in Rational Unified Process ( RUP ), Rational Requisite Pro , Rational Clear Quest , and Microsoft Project . u Experience using Rational Rose and questions and answers MS Visio for business, business process modelling and designing data flow diagrams (DFD). u Experience in conducting GAP analysis , User Acceptance Testing (UAT) , SWOT analysis , Cost Benefit analysis , ROI Analysis and research paper write Requirement Traceability Matrix (RTM) u Preparing graphical depictions of use cases including State Diagrams , Activity Diagrams , Sequence Diagrams , Use Case Diagrams , Component-Based Diagrams , Collateral Diagrams , including the Business Workflow Chart. u Very good understanding of Relational Database , Object Oriented Programming , Data Modelling , Data Mapping and Data-warehousing. u Expertise in writing Requirements , Technical Specs , Test Plans and Test Cases. u Prepared Functional Specification Documents, AS-IS and plan d TO-BE workflows. Bolding On Resume? u Strong skills performing data analysis , impact analysis, risks analysis, writing test cases for User Acceptance Testing . Gathered Functional and Data Requirements , analysed workflows and created Use Cases , Requirement Specifications , Report Specifications , Data Requirements , Data Mappings and Data Flow Diagrams . u Experience in implementation of HIPAA 4010 and HIPAA 5010 changes in the existing claim processing integrated system. u Experience in Rational Rose HP Quality Center. D? u Experienced working in Medicare and Medicaid projects. u Knowledgeable for gap analysis in changing old MMIS and Involved in testing new MMIS . u Excellent knowledge of Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) transaction and code set rules such as EDI 837,270,271,276,277,834,835 . u Proficient in ICD-9-CM and ICD -10-CM coding and claims processing. u Experienced in all phases of the Software Development Life Cycle (SDLC), Rational unified process (RUP) and comparing poems SCRUM methodology. u Managed a Test Director environment for the test team. This includes additions to all forms in the TestDirector application (i.e . Defects , Test Plan, Test Lab and Requirements ) and provides server maintenance when needed. u Broad Knowledge in business plan d, reviewing Test Procedures , creating Test plans and detailed test plans for UAT, Test scenario, defining Test cases , both System Integration and executed many test cases Test Data reviewing and maintaining and executing detailed Test scripts for and contrasting, UAT , analyzing bugs, interacting with team members in fixing errors and User Acceptance Testing (UAT ) and also assisted in post –Production support. Worked on Black box and White box Testing. u Experience in business plan, leading eBusiness development. u Experience in Data Mining and analysis. Paper Spies? u Extensive expertise in business plan, databases like Oracle , SQL . u Thorough knowledge in Requirement analysis, Planning , Scheduling Tracking projects. u Worked extensively on B2B applications and B2C applications in transaction processing and E-commerce applications. u Concrete understanding of Business Requirement gathering , Business Process flow , Business Process Modelling and Analysis , design documentation. u Strong problem solving and research paper write analytical skills with in-depth understanding of system development methodologies, techniques and tools. u Work with the development team to provide an environment ready for testers and end-users. u Facilitated test plan/test case walk-thru#8217;s for the Business and Development teams to obtain feedback and/or approval sign-off. u Excellent organizational , interpersonal, communications, teamwork and leadership skills with proven skill to interact across multiple levels of organization. Business Plan? Technical Skills Summary. Web, VB Client/Server, Main Frame, Windows. SQL, JAVA, HTML, C++ , C. MS SQL, Oracle, MS Access.
Test Director, QualityCenter, Quick Test Pro (QTP), Win Runner, HP QualityCenter. Visio, Front Office, Rational Rose, Rational Requisite Pro, Software Modeler, Team Test, Doors, PROLOG, Clearcase, Clear quest, Win Runner, Load Runner, Web Sphere, Microsoft Office 2010 ( Project, Word , Excel PowerPoint, Access , Visio) HIPAA, SOX, ISO, Six Sigma, CMM, FACET. Blue Cross Blue Shield of Michigan; MI May 11- Present. Sr. Business Systems Analyst. Project: The BCBSM HIPPA EDI Project was about conversion from 4010 to 5010. BCBSM initiated three phases of testing to pass and validate the 4010 to 5010 conversion. The project was based on testing the thesis, 310 partners for plan, the BCBSM and working with 3 types of Trading Partners comprising validation of paper spies Professional, Institutional and d Dental 837 Transaction. Prior to the submission of on resume claims to the BCBSM the analyst monitors the 3 step of test process that software should pass.
Testing in plan d, validator, which is a self testing tool that checks Level 1-6 based on on resume requirements from the ANSI ASC X12N. Testing in Subsystem, the claims will process against our production stream while in a test environment returning the plan d, response files same as they be returned in Prod environment and Testing in End to questions and answers End Production files received “P” test files and go through 5010 Process .Conduct in depth pharmacy claims and data analyses to monitor Medicare Part D Pharmacy. Payers would be BCBSM, FEP, Blue Care Network, Medicare Advantage, Medicare A, B and business plan D, Medicaid, and Commercial (AETNA, HAP etc.) u Locate the 837 transactions and reports in the file that are in error and validate the data in the transactions. Dealt with the 837 and 835 ANSI X12 transaction understanding loops segments, elements and media magazines structure. u Experience with AGILE Tool and business d worked with Six Sigma methodology. u Worked in Irise. u Experienced with HIPAA – 4010/5010 standards. u Monitor Medicare Part D PBM contract including, but not limited to, rebate amounts, claim pricing and essay and contrasting poems benefits, formulary coverage/tiering application and contractual performance measures.
Performance measures include validation of claim adjudication accuracy from business d, both a pricing and benefit perspective. Participate in User Acceptance Testing to ensure system corrections are accurate. u Experience in Rational Rose HP Quality Centre. u Establish and conduct monitoring activities centered on key CMS audit findings and best practices including, but not limited to, formulary administration, point of write sale edits, coverage, and claim reject reports. u Experience in leading eBusiness development. Plan? u Provide internal departments with monitoring and thesis satisfaction audit support of Medicare Part D claims to ensure CMS compliance. Provide the necessary support to internal departments during CMS audits to document ongoing monitoring activities. u Participate in and/or lead cross departmental workgroups. u Extract pharmacy claims, benefit and eligibility data for studies. Gather any necessary enrollment, formulary, pricing, benefit and business plan d trend information from internal departments and the PBM. u Knowledge of pharmacy data (claims, fees, eligibility, benefits, formulary) and statistical analyses. u Experienced with EDI files 835, 270/271, 276/277 file formats. u Extensively participated in verification of EDI file formats against Standards. u Experienced with HIPAA – 4010/5010 standards. u Experienced with EDI files 834,835,270/271, 276/277 file formats. u Extensively participated in verification of EDI file formats against admission, Standards. Business? u Enhanced or developed new documentation of current business process flow and definition of future EDI business information flow. u General process improvement input by attending conference calls and partner visits. u Responsible for managing relationships with the business units as well as interacting with software vendors and consultants for development and support. u Analyzed trading partner specifications and admission essay questions and answers created EDI mapping guidelines. u Gathered accurate and relevant incident information and Documented problems for plan d, escalation. u Developed and coursework magazines maintained documentation of all technical and procedural changes affecting the Specialist’s area of responsibility. u EDI healthcare experience working with implementation guides, TR3s. u Hands on plan experience with the 837 and 835 ANSI X12 transaction understanding loops segments, elements and spies structure is a must. u Used Validator Self Testing Tool to accepts claims from the Trading Partner, further monitored errors from 4010 to 5010. u Expertise in EDDI: Environment Data Compression settings to see what is set for the Output Data, validating 999s and 835s. Plan D? u Worked on hand with Service Center Tool: this is used to update the records of clearing houses, vendors and submitters. u Worked with WTX mainframe for comparison of 4010 Reports with 5010 reports( 277CA) and transactions (277) and essay and contrasting poems reject reports. u Mapping 4010 and 5010 differences. u Ability to business plan read and interpret 997/999 acknowledgments. u Ability to on resume read and interpret 277CA Reports and Transactions acknowledgments. u Ability to read and interpret 835 responses. u Coordinated the setup of business plan d new trading partners , including planning, project management, testing, documentation, and implementation. Essay? Developed and maintained functional specifications for new / existing applications needed to maintain/enhance EDI processing and address the plan d, requirements of new trading partners. Participate in transaction analysis and gcse coursework mapping needs, system / interface analysis, and work with programmers to implement changes as needed. Ensure that regulatory transactions and security standards have been met. u Excellent Analytical skills verbal and business d written communication skills, individuals will be interacting with external trading partners and management. u Proficient with Microsoft Office.
Universal Health Care, Saint Petersburg, Florida Aug 09- March 11. Business Systems Analyst. Admission Essay Questions And Answers? Universal Health Care is a Medicare/Medicaid health insurance provider based in St. Petersburg, Florida. It provides managed care services for government sponsored health care programs, focusing on Medicare and Medicaid. It offer a variety of health insurance products to our Members, including Medicare Advantage plans in business, 13 States, Medicaid in the State of Florida, and a Long-Term Community Diversion program in Florida (designed to enable seniors to live a healthy and comfortable life in their homes). All of its subsidiaries operate under the umbrella of Universal Health Care and maintain the same high standards of quality health care and customer service. The project implemented HIPAA 4010 and HIPAA 5010 changes in essay and answers, the existing claim processing integrated system. Business? It also allowed the providers to automate tasks like Patient management, with Monitoring and audit support of Medicare Part D claims. Appointment scheduling and admission essay and answers recalls, Accounts receivable management and collections, Reporting, and Filing claims through EDI X12 format transaction sets in compliance with HIPAA standards. u Implemented an business integrated RUP solution with complete line of traceability for all the thesis satisfaction, artifacts of web development projects. u Worked with Six Sigma methodology. u Responsible for designing future state processes for HIPAA 5010 transaction processing EDI’s 837 and d 835. u Analyzed HIPAA 5010 related to 837,835, 834.
Transactions and performed gap analysis between HIPAA 4010 and 5010. u Knowledgeof ICD-9-CM and ICD -10-CM coding and claims processing. u Involved in the creation and maintenance of the Workflow plans and artifacts. u Prepared Business Process Models that includes modeling of all the activities of the business from the conceptual to research paper write procedural level. Followed top down, leveled technique for building Business Process Models. u Experience with AGILE Tool and methodology. u Worked in Irise. Business Plan D? u Serve as subject matter expert with respect to the annual benefit changes and rules associated with the spies, Medicare Part D program. u Knowledge of pharmacy data (claims, fees, eligibility, benefits, formulary) and statistical analyses. u Conducted SWOT Analysis for business plan, better market understanding and fool proof project implementation. u Experience in Rational Rose HP Quality Centre. u Documented Requirement Traceability Matrix(RTM) for requirement elicitation and linkup to deliverables. u Experience with Claims Platforms NASCO. u Worked with the and contrasting, individual sub-project managers to translate these into PRDs (Product Requirement Documents) for the development teams. u Worked with XML format and being able to read XML files and plan use XMP parsing tools. u Examined, analyzed and paper write model Test plans , Use Case Model cases Test procedures based on RUP methodology. u Experience in leading eBusiness development. u Designed and developed Quality Assurance standard and business processes to all levels of project team. u Performed Gap analysis for the modules in production, conducted feasibility study and performed impact analysis for proposed enhancements. u Verified the functional aspect as per research the Business Process and validated the interfaces with the other systems and data conversion from the existing system. u Involved in walkthroughs and business d meetings with development team to discuss related issues. u Used Rational Rose to visually determine the proper structure, key elements and optimal design for database and to aid efficient creation of tables, stored procedures. u Critically evaluated the research paper, information gathered from multiple sources during requirement gathering and analysis and responsible for business, tracking, tracing and managing requirements using Rational Requisite. u Experience in thesis, Data Mining and plan d analysis. u Used MS Project for various planning and budgeting activities. u Performed UAT and loggedtest results according to the test plans using TestDirector. Poems? u Wrote clear, concise detailed System Requirements Specification(SRS) documents and user documentation in accordance to guidelines and standards of plan d a level where developers can interpret, design and develop the application with minimum guidance. Paper? Technical Environment : Microsoft Office( MS Word, MS Excel, MS PowerPoint, MS Visio, MS Access), Rational Requisite, RUP, XML, VB.NET, Oracle, RUP, UML, SQL, Test Director. Molina Healthcare Inc ., Wilmington , California Dec 07 – July 09. Molina Healthcare has grown into one of the leaders in providing quality healthcare for financially vulnerable individuals and families. Currently, Molina Healthcare arranges for the delivery of healthcare services or offers health information management solutions for nearly 4.3 million individuals and families who receive their care through Medicaid , Medicare and other government funded programs in d, 16 states. The focus of the project was the replacement of 22 year old Medicaid Management information System (MMIS).
It included technical and professional services related to analysis and research write assessment of the d, current MMIS and poems EDI claims , documentation of business and technical requirements, preparation of business d cost analysis and implementation of new MMIS automation system. u Coordinated with the stakeholders and project key personnel to gather functional and non-functional requirements during JAD sessions. u Studied the existing business process and created AS-IS workflow to illustrate the existing system. u Recorded requirements in the Requirement Traceability Matrix (RTM) defining each technical requirement in detail from research paper spies, areas like: main hardware, application software, networks, servers, internet and plan d desktop configuration. u Propose strategies to implement HIPAA 4010 in the new MMIS system eventually move to HIPAA 5010. u Experience with AGILE Tool and methodology. u Worked in Irise. u Responsible for the full HIPAA compliance lifecycle from paper, gap analysis, mapping, implementation and testing for Medicaid Claims. u Responsible for gap analysis in changing old MMIS and Involved in business d, testing new MMIS. Also, accountable for Medicaid Claims Resolution/Reimbursement for peach state health plan using MMIS. u Assisting the project manager in creating the business case and project plan. u Served as a liaison between the internal and external business community (Claims, Billing, Membership, Capitation, Customer service, membership management, provider management, advanced Healthcare management, provider agreement management) and the project team. u Actively analyzed current business processes (Claims, Recipient eligibility and admission questions enrollment etc.) and worked with management to plan improve and implement enterprise solutions to paper ensure compliance. u Work with business representatives to understand data marts requirements and priorities and business plan d ensure that IT works is appropriately aligned. u Responsible for creating business work flows and on resume processes and creating management reports based on the analysis. u Experience with Claims Platforms NASCO. u Experience in Rational Rose HP Quality Centre. u Followed the UML based methods using Rational rose to create Use Cases, Activity Diagram, Sequence Diagram, Collaboration Diagram that include Functional and Non-Functional specifications to hand off to development teams. u Actively involved in updating internal processes (submit claims, check eligibility), updating data collection and data reporting. u Defects and bug testing by using Rational Clear-Quest, Configuration management and Version control with Clear-Case. Technical Environment: Microsoft Office(MS Word, MS Excel, MS PowerPoint, MS Visio, MS Access), RUP, MS Project, ANSI X12- EDI UML, Rational Requisite Pro, MS Word, Visio, SQL, MS Excel, Mercury Quality Center. CNA Insurance, Parsippany , New Jersey June 06 – Nov 07. Business? CNA Insurance with more than 40 years of experience in the healthcare industry, CNA is a trusted leader and one of the top five underwriters of healthcare insurance products and services for gcse, a wide spectrum of organizations. We offer extensive industry knowledge; valuable insight and core coverage’s tailored to meet the unique needs of healthcare providers. Involved in Claims Processing System , this project consisted of providing various reports to the management to d track how many claims are we processing and what are the efforts being done to contain claims cost. u Propose strategies to implement HIPAA 4010 in the new MMIS system eventually move to HIPAA 5010. u Involved in the creation of the Mockups and Use Cases for MACD quotes and Orders using MS Visio. u Documented business requirements, and communicated these requirements with the development team for thesis on life satisfaction, design and implementation of business solutions. u Worked with Business Analysis team to d prepare a detailed Business Requirement Document.
u Analyzed Business Requirements to develop Functional and detail Design Specifications of the application. u Conducted Requirement Gathering Sessions with the thesis on life satisfaction, stakeholders. u Interacted with the project team to help define the business plan d, Business and System Objectives, confirmation of scope, identify constraints and the measures of success for the system to be developed. u Conducted the on resume, JAD sessions, daily meetings, brainstorming sessions to solve the problems and plan enhance the on life satisfaction, workflow. u Assisted in building a Business analysis process model using Rational Rose and d Visio. u Gathered Functional Requirements from users and the management. Admission Questions? Coordinated all the requirements in team based environment. u Acted as liaison between the senior management and different teams with effective presentations. u Experience in business d, Rational Rose HP Quality Centre. And Contrasting? u Monitored change requests and documented requirements, integrating them with Use Clear Cases. u Incorporated stakeholder feedback throughout project lifecycle to ensure project quality and customer satisfaction. u Did Technical documentation for business plan, the project using tools like Visio, Word, etc. u Used MS Project for managing schedules, resources and collaboration. Technical Environment: Microsoft Office( MS Word, MS Excel, MS PowerPoint, MS Visio, MS Access),RUP, MS Project, Toad, Visio, Oracle, HTML, Test Director, Rational Rose, UML 2.0, MS Project. Comparing And Contrasting? Thomson Micromedex, Denver, CO Mar 05 – April 06. Thomson Micromedex is d a leader in providing software solutions for research paper, hospitals. Micromedex provides a comprehensive set of alerts, answers, protocols and plan interventions that directly address clinicians need for the latest information. Thomson is strongly positioned to essay comparing poems help support healthcare provider, hospital, and healthcare information system (HIS) vendor efforts to address #8216;meaningful use#8217; requirements for providers and hospitals as defined by plan d, the HITECH Act. I was involved in spies, the generation of an alert management system (Xpert Alerts), which generated alerts for users in the healthcare industry (Online and Mobile device users). u Gathered Business Requirements, analyzed data/workflows, and defined the business plan, scope. Paper Spies? u Developed prototype of a new mobile information processing application. Met with client groups to determine User Requirements and Goals, thus converting User Requirements into Business Requirements and User and Technical Requirement Specification. D? u Facilitated collection of Functional Requirements from system users, and prepared Business Requirement documents and have applied the RUP model throughout the entire development and testing process. u Involved in development of Business and Technical Requirements in preparation of Design and Functional Specifications for Business Needs and Processes. u Worked closely with Business users to determine the workflow of the paper write, product. u Performed walkthroughs of the prototype with end users to better understand user needs. u Followed a structured approach to organize requirements into logical groupings of essential business processes, business rules, and information needs, and ensured that critical requirements are not missed. u Followed the UML based methods using MS Visio to create Use Case Diagrams , State Chart Diagrams and Sequence Diagrams. u Prepared Logical Process and Data Models that contained set of diagrams and supporting documents containing the essential business elements, detailed definitions, and descriptions of the relationships between the plan d, data elements to analyze and document Business Data Requirements.
Coordinated work plan between project manager and client. u Worked closely with the offshore team to convey Technical and Functional specifications. Paper Spies? u Coordinated with the offshore UI designer to prepare the prototype for the application. Technical Environment: Microsoft Office, Tomcat, JBoss, Windows XP, Business Objects, Toad, Visio, Oracle, HTML. Magellan Health Services Inc., Lemoyne, PA Jan 04 – Jan 05. Business Plan D? Magellan Health Services, Inc. provides managed behavioral healthcare, radiology benefits management, specialty pharmaceutical management, and Medicaid administration products and services in the United States. And Contrasting Poems? The company provides services to business health plans, insurance companies, employers, labor unions, and various governmental agencies The company’s radiology benefits management services consist of on resume managing the delivery of diagnostic imaging services, which are provided under the contracts with managed care companies, health insurers and other health plans, Medicaid, and Medicare members. I was involved in updating an existing quoting and business plan d enrolling program based on the business requirements and also integrated eligibility check application so application can check before offering plans like Medicare. u Gathered Business Requirements, analyzed data/workflows , and defined the scope. u Met with client groups to determine User Requirements and Goals, thus converting User Requirements into Business Requirements and User and Technical Requirement Specification.
u Facilitated collection of Functional Requirements from system users, and prepared Business Requirement documents. u Responsible for essay and contrasting poems, claim adjudication like Medicare claims, professional claim , institutional claims . u Applied the RUP model throughout the entire development and testing process. u Involved in development of Business and plan Technical Requirements in preparation of Design and Functional Specifications for Business Needs and gcse magazines Processes. u Worked closely with Business users to determine the business plan d, workflow of the product. u Performed walkthroughs of the prototype with end users to better understand user needs. u Followed a structured approach to organize requirements into satisfaction logical groupings of essential business processes, business rules, and information needs, and business ensured that critical requirements are not missed. u Followed the UML based methods using MS Visio to create Use Case Diagrams , State Chart Diagrams and Sequence Diagrams. u Prepared Logical Process and Data Models that contained set of gcse media magazines diagrams and supporting documents containing the essential business elements, detailed definitions, and descriptions of the relationships between the business plan, data elements to analyze and document Business Data Requirements. Technical Environment: Microsoft Office, Windows XP, Toad, SQL, JBo, Business Objects,
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Marking Their Own Homework: The Pragmatic and Moral Legitimacy of Industry Self-Regulation. When is business plan industry self-regulation (ISR) a legitimate form of admission essay questions governance? In principle, ISR can serve the business interests of research paper write participating companies, regulators and other stakeholders. However, in practice, empirical evidence shows that ISR schemes often under-perform, leading to criticism that such schemes are tantamount to d firms marking their own homework. In response, this paper explains how current management theory on ISR has failed to research spies separate the pragmatic legitimacy of business d ISR based on self-interested calculations, from moral legitimacy based on normative approval. The paper traces three families of management theory on research paper ISR and uses these to map the pragmatic and business plan d, moral legitimacy of ISR schemes. It identifies tensions between the pragmatic and moral legitimacy of ISR schemes, which the paper spies current ISR literature does not address, and draws implications for the future theory and practice of ISR.
Industry self-regulation (ISR) is business d widely used in contemporary global governance to bolding provide public goods such as a cleaner natural environment, stable financial systems or ethical supply chains (Braithwaite 2008 ; Delmas and Young 2009 ). Defined as the voluntary association of firms to control their collective behaviour (King and Lenox 2000 ), ISR schemes have been used to regulate issues from food labelling to privacy, from business living wages to environmental accounting standards, and spies, from pollution to Internet pornography. Business D. Proponents have argued that ISR can achieve public policy objectives at paper spies, lower cost than government regulation because regulatory decisions are made by those with the best information and business d, expertise to make them (Coglianese and Mendelson 2010 ; Gunningham and Rees 1997 ). ISR can help improve social efficiency, that is, allocate resources to their best available uses across society (Maxwell et al. 2000 ). ISR can also incentivize firms to improve their social performance in areas such as the natural environment (Berchicci and King 2008 ), or labour standards in supply chains (Locke 2013 ; Lin-Hi and Blumberg 2016 ). Despite theoretical and practical enthusiasm for ISR, questions remain about its legitimacy. Mounting empirical evidence suggests that all too often industry-led schemes do not lead to on life satisfaction positive social benefits or fix the problems that they are designed to solve (King et al. 2012 ). Recent scandals on mislabelled horsemeat in food supply chains, privacy in the self-regulated newspaper industry, and the fatal collapse of the BSCI-certified Rana Plaza factory in Bangladesh have fed popular scepticism that ISR is tantamount to d firms “marking their own homework”. However, as many teachers know, when done well, asking students to mark their own homework can not only be efficient from the teacher’s point of questions and answers view, but also encourage students to learn from plan d each other and to reflect on their own performance. Marking their own homework may be a route to easy A grades, or may be a legitimate way to devolve responsibility, depending on the consequences, procedures and structures around the gcse media coursework magazines marking process. Current ISR theory cannot yet tell the difference.
This paper has been inspired by the apparent mismatch between the promise and performance of ISR schemes. It maps what we know about the legitimacy of ISR schemes from management theory, shows where previous research from different traditions has focused, and uses this to plan d explore blind spots, tensions and poems, future directions on the legitimacy of plan d ISR. Explaining how and why the evaluation of ISR schemes differs so much between theorists is a vital step towards improving the performance of ISR schemes in practice. Focusing on on life satisfaction the legitimacy of ISR also offers theoretical insight into broader legitimacy theory in contexts where powerful agents both design and subsequently participate in a governance scheme. Management research from within strategic, institutional and critical traditions, has each offered a wide range of plan assumptions and gcse, empirical explanations of ISR. However, evaluations of whether ISR schemes are legitimate have so far been lacking in this largely descriptive management theory. If legitimacy is considered at all, management theory usually focuses on pragmatic legitimacy , that is, on “the self-interested calculations of an organization’s immediate audiences” (Suchman 1995 : 578). Current management theory has paid less attention to moral legitimacy , that is, a normative evaluation of whether ISR participation is “the right thing to do” (Suchman 1995 : 579). This paper builds on Suchman’s ( 1995 ) framework and business plan, separates the pragmatic legitimacy of ISR based on self-interested calculations, from moral legitimacy based on normative approval.
While all three management theory traditions have emphasized pragmatic legitimacy, too little consideration has so far been given to moral legitimacy. The paper enriches theory on the moral legitimacy of ISR by mapping Suchman’s ( 1995 ) three bases for moral legitimacy—consequential, procedural and structural legitimacy—against management theory traditions. Mapping debates in this way is useful because previous studies within each of the management traditions have tended to implicitly assume which aspect of moral legitimacy is most important based on the worldview of the analyst, rather than the details of the empirical context. This paper draws all three theoretical strands together for comparing poems, the first time and provides a springboard to business plan d examine tensions and blind spots on the legitimacy of ISR. The paper concludes with elaborating directions for future research on ISR, legitimacy theory and ISR in practice. Management Theories of Industry Self-Regulation. Industry self-regulation is the voluntary association of and answers firms to control their collective behaviour (King and Lenox 2000 ). ISR is business d “a regulatory process whereby an industry-level, as opposed to bolding on resume a governmental- or firm-level, organization… sets and enforces rules and standards relating to the conduct of firms in business the industry” (Gupta and admission essay and answers, Lad 1983 : 417). Management scholars have theorized ISR participation from three main perspectives: strategic, institutional and critical perspectives, each of which is briefly introduced in this section. The different perspectives illustrate how various theorists have understood ISR schemes, which has implications for whether and business d, how the essay and contrasting schemes are seen as successful and legitimate.
Strategic Management Perspectives. First, within strategic management theory, ISR is described as a solution to at least one of business d two strategic problems: information asymmetry and common pool resources (King and Toffel 2009 ). Outsiders are unable to directly observe a firm’s social performance. Managers overcome this information asymmetry by participating in thesis satisfaction ISR schemes to plan d signal their firm’s social performance. ISR schemes in industries such as toy manufacturing (Lin-Hi and Blumberg 2016 ), cut flowers (Prado 2013 ), sustainable agriculture (Blackman and Rivera 2011 ) or coffee (Reinecke et al. 2012 ) enable firms to signal their social or environmental quality. Common pool resources, on the other hand, require firms to collaborate to protect a shared resource such as the industry’s reputation, access to physical assets or supply chain resilience (Prakash and Potoski 2006 ; Barnett and King 2008 ). Strategic perspectives emphasize that ISR schemes are often led by dominant firms that have the greatest interest in addressing the problem as with Nike or Walmart’s leadership in collective efforts to paper write eliminate sweatshop labour from supply chains (O’Rourke 2003 ; Locke et al. Business Plan. 2007 ). In contrast, institutional theory emphasizes the media role of business plan institutions in shaping collective actions on social or environmental issues (Ostrom 1990 ; Hoffman 1999 ). Paper Spies. Industries can self-regulate because of legal ambiguity, or because stakeholders demand social performance that is higher than current regulatory requirements (Edelman et al. Business. 1991 ; Gunningham and Rees 1997 ). For example, Zietsma and Lawrence’s ( 2010 ) study of the evolution of decisions on on resume harvesting practices in the British Columbia forest industry showed how managers actively participated in creating, maintaining and business d, disrupting industry collective actions.
ISR can also co-evolve with other institutions. For example, Lee ( 2009 ) showed how industry-led initiatives interacted with local and national policy content changes on certifying organic food. Institutional perspectives explain ISR as a way for managers to maintain conformance with regulative, cognitive and normative requirements in the institutional environment (Hoffman 1999 ; Matten and Moon 2008 ). A third tradition, critical management theory, explains ISR as “first and foremost about essay and contrasting, control” (Jermier et al. 2006 , p. 627). Critical theorists focus on the discourses around proposed solutions to social problems, and the roles that these discourses play in protecting corporate privilege and power (Banerjee 2008 ). Managers use ISR to maintain control over the rhetoric around social issues through generating and plan d, maintaining symbols such as certifications, logos, social reports and partnerships. Boiral ( 2013 ), for example, theorized sustainability reports certified to essay comparing the Global Reporting Initiative (GRI) A or A+ standard as “signs and business plan d, images employed to control social representations” (p. 1037). Critical theorists highlight the fundamentally political nature of ISR, emphasizing the power and relational position of those who can influence the rules of the game (Levy 2008 ; Moog et al. 2015 ). A political approach emphasizes the fundamental imbalance between the size and power of global firms and the capacity and/or willingness of governments to adequately regulate them, leading to the need for industry-led schemes to fill a governance gap (Vogel 2010 ). The Legitimacy of Industry Self-Regulation.
Management theorists from all three perspectives have provided rich description and empirical results on the drivers, forms and consequences of ISR. Essay Poems. However, amid accusations that firms and managers are marking their own homework, more research attention is d required on the legitimacy of ISR schemes. Legitimacy is a “generalized perception or assumption that the actions of an entity are desirable, proper, or appropriate within some socially constructed system of norms, values, beliefs and definitions” (Suchman 1995 : 574). Gcse Media Magazines. Focusing on legitimacy reveals the extent to which ISR schemes and their participants are conforming to social norms and expectations, including whether ISR is an appropriate response to social challenges. The concept of legitimacy originates in institutional theory, which suggests that managers adopt new practices to be perceived as socially acceptable and plan d, appropriate rather than basing their decisions on rational efficiency criteria (Meyer and gcse media coursework magazines, Rowan 1977 ). However, both strategic and critical management theory also use variants of plan d legitimacy. Strategic management theory tends to emphasize the extent to which the research write approval of various stakeholder groups influences firms’ social strategy (e.g. Darnall et al. 2009 ; Kassinis and Vafeas 2006 ). In contrast, the critical approach delves more deeply into the processes by which firms seek and earn legitimacy through their social disclosures and business plan, actions (e.g.
Crane 2000 ; Fineman and Clarke 1996 ). Numerous typologies of legitimacy have been proposed in the literature (see Bitektine 2011 for a review), but the most widely used is Suchman’s ( 1995 ) distinction between pragmatic and moral legitimacy. Pragmatic legitimacy is based on the self-interested calculations of an organization’s immediate audiences, whereas moral legitimacy is a broader normative evaluation of social appropriateness. Suchman’s original categorization also included cognitive legitimacy, based on essay poems taken-for-grantedness. Business D. However, cognitive legitimacy is less useful in evaluating ISR because of the lack of stable and shared assumptions about industry’s role in governance (Baur and Palazzo 2011 ). Cognitive legitimacy is deeper than, and follows, moral legitimacy (Elms and Phillips 2009 ). Since new forms of governance such as ISR are not yet sufficiently taken-for-granted to be able to evaluate cognitive legitimacy (Koppell 2008 ), this paper focuses on pragmatic and moral legitimacy. Others have applied Suchman’s distinction between pragmatic and gcse, moral legitimacy in related contexts such as implementing codes of business plan d ethics (Long and Driscoll 2008 ), social enterprise (Dart 2004 ), NGOs as partners of essay poems industry (Baur and Palazzo 2011 ), or of regulatory regimes (Black 2008 ). Some prior studies have also examined whether particular ISR schemes have pragmatic and moral legitimacy, as in the case of plan d Schepers’ ( 2010 ) and Cashore’s ( 2002 ) evaluations of the Forest Stewardship Council. However, so far the literature lacks a thorough analytic review of the pragmatic and moral legitimacy of ISR. Such an analysis is much needed because different management theories of ISR imply different bases for legitimacy, and gcse magazines, so provide different answers on when ISR is an appropriate form of plan governance. Coursework Magazines. The next section reviews the pragmatic legitimacy of ISR from each management theory tradition to provide a foundation for further analysis.
The Pragmatic Legitimacy of Industry Self-Regulation. Pragmatic legitimacy of industry self-regulation. Maintain the plan d ability to respond to social issues on media coursework magazines the firm’s own terms. Meeting stakeholder expectations flexibly and at business d, lower cost. (Majumdar and Marcus 2001 ; Coglianese and admission essay questions, Nash 2001 ) Maintaining agency to respond to institutional pressures. (Gunningham and Rees 1997 ; Hoffman 1999 ; Zietsma and Lawrence 2010 ) Exerting control over plan d, rhetoric and resources. (Raynolds et al.
2007 ; Gereffi et al. 2001 ; Moog et al. Research Write. 2015 ) Position firm to gain positive social evaluations from plan other stakeholders for social performance. Signalling quality or behaviour. (King et al. 2005 ; Aravind and Christmann 2011 ) Meeting stakeholder expectations. (Jiang and Bansal 2003 ; Boiral 2007 ) Demonstrating prestige and status. (Fuller and Tian 2006 ; Boiral 2013 ) Advantages increase with the number or esteem of bolding members in business plan d an ISR scheme. Reputation commons and and answers, club theory. (Barnett and King 2008 ; Prakash and Potoski 2006 ) Institutions shape collective actions.
(Ostrom 1990 ; Delmas and business, Montes-Sancho 2010 ) Authority of high-status actors to set norms. (Levy and Egan 2003 ; Renard 2005 ) Learn how to cope with social concerns where there is uncertainty about social issues firms face and how to deal with them. Learning as a competitively valuable capability. Mimetic isomorphism and shared norms. (Braithwaite 2008 ; Matten and Moon 2008 ; Haack et al. 2012 ) Diffusing shared rhetoric. (Green 2004 ; Christensen et al. Magazines. 2013 ) Works cited are illustrative only.
Where examples of strict industry self-regulation could not be found, examples are from the related contexts of self-regulation by individual firms or multi-stakeholder partnerships. The first set of benefits for d, ISR participants is to maintain the ability to respond to social issues on their own terms. For example, in 1999 companies collaborated through the US Better Business Bureau to introduce BBBOnline, a self-assessed and industry-monitored online privacy seal in an attempt to pre-empt and shape a new set of laws on Internet privacy introduced in the USA in 2001 (Haufler 2001 ). Admission Essay And Answers. Strategic management theory explains that firms may use ISR to strategically pre-empt costly sanctions or requirements from governments, NGOs, consumer groups or other stakeholders (Majumdar and plan, Marcus 2001 ; Fleckinger and Glachant 2011 ). Institutional theories describe ISR as a strategic response to institutional pressures, where managers try to retain agency within the constraints of actual or potential regulatory control (Oliver 1991 ; Hoffman 1999 ; Wijen 2014 ). A critical perspective focuses on how industry incumbents use their privileged economic and political position to maintain control not only of the governance but also of the paper write rhetoric around social issues (Jermier et al. 2006 ). Bartley ( 2005 ), for example, showed how the US apparel industry succeeded in replacing a discourse of plan d legal compliance with one based on compliance to voluntary industry codes in on life satisfaction response to rising stakeholder concerns about plan d, sweatshop labour. This enabled firms to maintain control over compliance through participating in the Fair Labor Association (FLA) to certify labour standards. Paper Spies. Thus, all three management theories recognize ISR as a way for firms to retain strategic control over business, aligning their own interests with other stakeholders, which is research crucial for business, gaining pragmatic legitimacy. Firms also gain private benefits from ISR through earning or maintaining a sound reputation on on life satisfaction social issues. Strategic perspectives emphasize that firms attempt to signal quality or behaviour through ISR participation to gain access to strategically valuable resources (Aravind and Christmann 2011 ; King et al. Business Plan. 2005 ). Institutional perspectives focus on the extent to which firms are seen to be behaving according to stakeholder expectations (Jiang and and contrasting, Bansal 2003 ; Delmas and Toffel 2008 ). Critical scholars emphasize status and business, the extent to which firms are seen to be performing social responsibility (Fuller and admission essay and answers, Tian 2006 ; Boiral 2013 ). All three perspectives suggest that ISR can provide pragmatic legitimacy through symbolic participation in ISR schemes. Network effects are present when the value to business plan the next incremental adopter depends on the number of others who have already adopted.
Evidence on research write ecolabels for green buildings, forestry and the apparel industry suggests that the higher the rate of adoption, the more an ISR scheme is recognized as a credible signal of environmental quality, and the higher the business plan benefit of adoption to the next incremental adopter (Bartley 2003 ; Chan et al. 2009 ). ISR schemes can also be seen as “green clubs” (Prakash and Potoski 2006 ) that protect an industry’s common reputation (King et al. 2002 ). Gcse Media. These schemes can help develop the collective reputation, resources, staff, networks and expertise that lower the cost to individual firms of plan participation and are particularly successful in “small worlds” such as forestry (Conroy 2007 ) or the Chinese toy manufacturing industry (Lin-Hi and Blumberg 2016 ) where all the major players know each other. Institutional perspectives emphasize that is it safer for firms in uncertain and contested social environments to adopt a recognized scheme than to media coursework be left outside (DiMaggio and Powell 1983 ). The higher the ratio of certified to business non-certified firms in a local ISR scheme, the more likely are new entrants to participate to gcse signal their similarity (Husted et al. 2016 ). A more critical perspective asks how ISR regimes gain the authority to govern particular social issues (Cashore 2002 ), highlighting the importance of high-status political actors in encouraging others to participate (Levy and d, Egan 2003 ). As Renard ( 2005 ) demonstrated in the context of fair trade labelling, networks can be vital to encouraging widespread participation in an ISR scheme, but can also further embed existing power structures within an industry. To the extent that ISR schemes offer safety in numbers, participation can help earn pragmatic legitimacy from an paper spies, organization’s immediate audiences. Finally, firms participate in ISR schemes as a way to learn in an uncertain environment. They can learn about business, their own organizational capacity to research paper address social issues and how to meet stakeholder expectations more effectively (Banerjee 1998 ). Participation in a scheme can facilitate the transfer of best practices and increase communication and information sharing between members through direct contact (Kraatz 1998 ; King and Lenox 2000 ). Schemes can encourage indirect learning as they attract boundary spanners such as consultancy firms and auditors who help spread credible information from business plan d one firm to another, lowering informational costs (Delmas 2002 ; Jahn et al. 2005 ). Admission Questions And Answers. Institutional theorists emphasize that managers also learn through observing others and conforming to shared local norms.
ISR schemes can serve as templates that are easily adopted by newcomers. Business. Through interacting within the scheme, managers are made more aware of social needs and information spreads more quickly (Marquis et al. 2007 ). On Life Satisfaction. Focusing on the rhetoric of ISR, critical theorists also ask how managers learn to business d talk about social issues and solutions (Green 2004 ). Even weak ISR can serve as “aspirational talk”, and bolding on resume, the beginnings of a learning process (Christensen et al. 2013 ), offering the possibility of aligning interests and gaining pragmatic legitimacy over time. Private Benefits and d, Pragmatic Legitimacy of ISR.
ISR schemes earn pragmatic legitimacy as participants persuade their stakeholders of the scheme’s usefulness. This section has outlined four private benefits revealed in prior ISR research that support interest alignment and pragmatic legitimacy of ISR. Although different management theory perspectives have analysed ISR based on widely divergent assumptions, each has touched upon the core private benefits of questions strategic control, reputation, network benefits and learning. Analysts in the strategic management tradition have tended to approach the benefits of participation from a narrow, enlightened self-interest perspective, and so have most clearly articulated the private benefits of ISR. In contrast, while critical management theories have mentioned the private benefits of ISR participation, this has normally been in the context of normative disapproval.
ISR participation may secure control over business, rhetoric and resources (Raynolds et al. 2007 ; Gereffi et al. 2001 ) or reinforce the media coursework authority of high-status actors to set norms (Renard 2005 ). However, while ISR schemes may offer private benefits and pragmatic legitimacy from the plan d organization’s most proximate audiences, schemes may still not be in the overall public interest (Vogel 2008 ). Paper Write. Indeed, whether ISR participation contributes to the broader public good is an under-explored question in management theory. Pragmatic legitimacy alone is not an business plan d, adequate basis for evaluating legitimacy since it only takes account of transactional interest alignment with immediate audiences. Since ISR schemes are socially embedded within a system of gcse media coursework magazines norms, their appropriateness needs to be evaluated in the broader frame of moral legitimacy.
The next section develops this by business applying Suchman’s ( 1995 ) typology of moral legitimacy to the ISR context to evaluate the moral legitimacy of ISR schemes. The Moral Legitimacy of Industry Self-Regulation. Moral legitimacy asks whether a particular action, practice, scheme or organization is “the right thing to spies do” (Suchman 1995 : 579). It differs fundamentally from pragmatic legitimacy because it focuses on the ethical foundations of an organization or activity (Mele and plan, Armengou 2015 ), and the reciprocal responsibility norms generated between an poems, organization and its stakeholders (Elms and Phillips 2009 ). Assessing moral legitimacy requires looking beyond pragmatic evaluations based on interest alignment, to a broader public perspective on the normative appropriateness of ISR. In his original review, Suchman identifies three alternative bases for d, moral legitimacy—consequential, procedural and structural.
Moral legitimacy can be evaluated according to what organizations accomplish (consequential), whether they exhibit socially accepted techniques and processes (procedural) and/or whether they look like the right organization for admission essay questions and answers, the job (structural). Moral legitimacy of industry self-regulation. Short-term, direct, measurable effects. (Rivera 2002 ; Blackman and plan d, Rivera 2011 ) Short-term behaviour change; longer-term field reconfiguration. (Hoffman 1999 ; Haack et al. Thesis On Life. 2012 ) Social, symbolic and material outcomes. Long-term and plan, diffuse effects. (Boiral 2013 ; Christensen et al.
2013 ) Credible performance signal. Monitoring and sanctions for non-compliance. (Lenox and Nash 2003 ; Darnall and Carmin 2005 ; Aravind Christmann 2011 ) Stakeholder disclosure and scrutiny, including regulators. Codification of norms. (Wijen 2014 ; Terlaak 2007 ; Short and Toffel 2010 ) Ambition of performance levels. Transparency and accountability. Relationship to state.
Fit with competitive and regulatory context. Demonstrates socially acceptable values and norms. Consistent with regulatory demands within field. (Locke, Rissing and Pal 2013 ; Lee 2009 ) Authoritative emblems and discourses. Nested within governance networks. (Cashore 2002 ; Gilbert and Rasche 2007 ) Consequential legitimacy focuses on the outcomes of ISR. Thesis On Life. This approach derives from a rationalist view that “organizations should be judged by business plan what they accomplish” (Suchman 1995 : 580). Surprisingly little academic research has focused on the material outcomes of ISR schemes (King et al.
2012 ), and existing evidence on research paper write the outcomes of ISR schemes is business d mixed at best. Famous examples of ISR schemes that are generally assumed to improve participating firms’ social or environmental performance over time include the chemical industry’s Responsible Care Program (King and essay comparing poems, Lenox 2000 ), the Equator Principles for business d, responsible project finance (Haack et al. 2012 ), the Forest Stewardship Council’s certification scheme (Moore et al. 2012 ) and ISO 14001 (Prakash and thesis on life satisfaction, Potoski 2006 ). However, each of these has also been questioned in terms of their effectiveness and consequential legitimacy (see, for example, Schepers 2010 ; Boiral 2007 ). Empirical studies show that the environmental performance of d participating firms in the US chemical industry’s Responsible Care, the ISO 14001 standard and sustainable agriculture certification is no better and in some cases is worse than that of non-participants (Russo and Harrison 2005 ; Blackman and Rivera 2011 ; Gamper-Rabindran and Finger 2013 ). The consequences of ISR schemes are notoriously difficult to questions define and measure. Indeed, one of the problems in evaluating ISR effectiveness is the plan different ideologically driven perspectives on gcse magazines ISR effectiveness from whose perspective, over what time period and as compared to business plan what (Gupta and Lad 1983 ). Past studies have assessed the consequences of ISR schemes by examining the extent to which schemes fulfil the functional or governance functions they were designed to serve (Hahn and Pinkse 2014 ; Wijen 2014 ), whether they encourage participation (Prado and Woodside 2015 ; Schuler and paper, Christmann 2011 ), whether they trigger pro-social behaviour change in participating firms (Terlaak 2007 ; Schuler and Christmann 2011 ), whether they improve allocative efficiency (Maxwell et al. 2000 ; Fleckinger and Glachant 2011 ) and ultimately whether they deliver material improvements in the social domains they are designed to address (Blackman and Rivera 2011 ; Darnall and Sides 2008 ; Aravind and Christmann 2011 ). Theorists have known that evaluating ISR effectiveness is controversial for a long time, but focusing on plan the different management perspectives brings shape to the debate. Bolding. Each management perspective tends to emphasize different aspects of consequential legitimacy, leading to arbitrary emphases on some measures and not others based on the worldview of the analyst, rather than the details of the phenomenon. Strategic perspectives on business ISR tend to essay evaluate the consequences of ISR by firm-level outcomes (see Table 2 ). This includes whether participation in ISR schemes generates private benefits to the firm such as the ability to business charge higher prices (Rivera 2002 ), or improves firm-level social or environmental performance (Blackman and Rivera 2011 ). Thesis. Given the focus on the firm level, strategic perspectives tend to emphasize short-term, direct and measurable effects of ISR participation. In contrast, institutional perspectives consider not only behaviour changes by business plan d individual social actors within a field (Terlaak 2007 ), but also the longer-term field reconfiguration as an ISR scheme becomes institutionalized (Hofman 1999 ; Haack et al.
2012 ). Critical perspectives examine longer-term and diffuse effects of ISR schemes, including how ISR alters symbolic representations of reality (Boiral 2013 ) and the overall governance within a policy domain (Renard 2005 ). Thus, consequential legitimacy has been a significant concern within each of the management theory perspectives, but in paper write fundamentally different, and sometimes incompatible, ways. Since it is so difficult to evaluate the consequences of ISR, for whom and business, when, an on life satisfaction, alternative is to business d instead rely on evaluating the design of the on resume schemes. Suchman’s procedural legitimacy reflects the extent to which organizations embrace socially accepted methods and processes. Plan D. In the absence of unambiguous evidence that an ISR scheme has positive outcomes, firms instead demonstrate “sound practices [which] may serve to demonstrate that the organization is making a good-faith effort to research paper spies achieve valued, albeit invisible, ends” (Suchman 1995 : 580). In the case of ISR, the business plan d procedural legitimacy of the scheme’s methods and processes is gcse coursework magazines usually demonstrated through stringency of ISR design. D. Schemes with strong monitoring, third-party auditing, government involvement and highly codified processes are usually assumed to essay and contrasting poems provide the most procedural legitimacy (Delmas and Terlaak 2001 ; Christmann and Taylor 2006 ; Darnall and Sides 2008 ; Short and Toffel 2010 ). However, stringent ISR design is neither uni-dimensional nor unambiguously clearly socially beneficial.
ISR regimes vary along any of several different procedural dimensions. For example, Kolk and Van Tulder ( 2002 ) noticed that codes of conduct on child labour from US companies were both more tightly formulated and more loosely monitored than codes from European companies. Despite some exceptions, the various and sometimes contradictory dimensions of stringency are not usually recognized in the literature. This has led to ISR theorists from different traditions focusing on different aspects of stringency, and to talking past each other. Business Plan D. Different management theory traditions tend to emphasize different dimensions of procedural legitimacy and downplay others, regardless of whether this is the most salient in any given circumstance. Research Write. Strategic perspectives usually prioritize monitoring and sanctions as a way to limit information asymmetry and business, free-riding (Lenox and Nash 2003 ; Darnall and Carmin 2005 ). In contrast, institutional perspectives emphasize codification and gcse, the flexibility provided by ambiguous norms in self-regulation (Edelman 1992 ; Wijen 2014 ), or interactions with the broader institutional context (Gunningham and Rees 1997 ; Lee 2009 ; Short and Toffel 2010 ). Plan. Critical perspectives often question the on life satisfaction ambition or transparency of plan d ISR schemes (Cashore 2002 ; Gilbert and Rasche 2007 ; Moog et al.
2015 ) and the potential for satisfaction, ISR to pre-empt stricter government regulation through altering power relations and diminishing the business d role of the state (Renard 2005 ; Jermier et al. 2006 ). Thus, each tradition has a distinctive, but usually implicit view on which aspects of procedural legitimacy are most useful in evaluating the bolding on resume moral legitimacy of business plan d ISR schemes, with no one tradition addressing all aspects of gcse coursework procedural legitimacy. Structural legitimacy asks whether an ISR scheme is “the right organization for the job” (Suchman 1995 : 581). Structural legitimacy is less about business plan, consequences and procedural actions, and more about the structural appearance of an paper, ISR scheme and its place within the d broader governance system. Structural legitimacy is based on displays that the organizational form is appropriate.
However, as Suchman put it, “this sense of rightness has more to do with emblems of organizational identity than with demonstrations of organizational competence” (p. 581). Of the three bases of moral legitimacy, structural legitimacy has been least explored in media coursework ISR management theory. However, as with the other forms of moral legitimacy, different traditions emphasize different aspects of structural legitimacy. From a strategic perspective, structural legitimacy is about the fit between a firm’s ISR strategy and its competitive and regulatory environment (Rivera 2002 ). In addition to such coercive fit, institutional approaches assess whether ISR schemes are consistent with the values and norms within a field.
Credentials such as ISO certificates can serve as “organizational degrees” (Boiral 2012 ), or useful objects to signal credibility (Delmas and Montes-Sancho 2011 ). A more constructivist view emphasizes how ISR schemes themselves serve as a way of narrating new standards for business plan d, social or environmental performance (Haack et al. 2012 ). Gcse Coursework. Critical perspectives claim that ISR schemes can serve as “organized exhibitions of authority” that demonstrate social appropriateness but without any real connection to improving firms’ social performance (Bowen 2014 ; Boiral 2013 ). Management Theories of ISR and business, Moral Legitimacy. The three management theory perspectives have evolved separately over the last two decades, resulting in parallel ISR literature talking past each other. Even when theorists from the different traditions examine the same ISR scheme, they can come to different conclusions about the scheme’s moral legitimacy by prioritizing a consequential, procedural or structural approach. For example, consider the moral legitimacy of the on resume American Chemistry Council’s Responsible Care Scheme, established back in 1988. Taking a strategic perspective, Gamper-Rabindran and Finger ( 2013 ) evaluated the business plan consequential legitimacy of the Responsible Care scheme by comparing and contrasting focusing on the environmental performance outcomes of participating compared with non-participating firms. D. They found that participating firms actually increased their toxicity-weighted pollution compared with statistically equivalent non-participating firms, questioning the scheme’s consequential legitimacy. Thesis On Life. Gunningham’s ( 1995 ) institutional perspective focused on Responsible Care’s codes of practice and business plan d, community engagement processes as adopted in Australia, arguing based on procedural legitimacy that it is “the most significant and far-reaching self-regulatory scheme ever adopted in Australia, or arguably, elsewhere” (p.
61). Research Spies. In contrast, critical perspectives emphasize symbolic importance of Responsible Care as a response to the 1984 disaster that killed some 2500 people at d, the Union Carbide subsidiary in gcse coursework Bhopal, India (Gereffi et al. 2001 ). The chemical industry needed to plan d take steps to regain public acceptance after Bhopal, and “a code of conduct, a certificate, even literally a ‘symbol’, was necessary to communicate those steps” (Matten 2003 : 224). Critical theorists explain this as an attempt by research the chemical industry to maintain the structural legitimacy of the prevailing regulatory system and Responsible Care within it. Table 2 summarizes how moral legitimacy is evident within each perspective. Each theoretical tradition holds different implicit assumptions about the bases for moral legitimacy, although individual authors within each perspective do not usually make this explicit.
Mapping the bases for moral legitimacy across different perspectives reveals blind spots in ISR research within each tradition so far. For example, within the strategic management perspective with its focus on the comparative analysis of different outcomes in different circumstances, there has been inadequate attention to plan evaluating the long-term, indirect and social consequences of ISR schemes (King et al. 2012 ). Spies. In contrast, while critical perspectives may raise valid concerns about the ambition or authority of non-state actors on social issues, they may also underplay the extent to which ISR schemes can lead to positive longer-term field reconfiguration (Haack et al. Business Plan D. 2012 ). Tensions Between Pragmatic and research paper, Moral Legitimacy. This paper has so far treated pragmatic and moral legitimacy separately.
However, the pragmatic legitimacy that can provide the business plan d basis for research, a social licence to plan operate is not the same as the more stable moral legitimacy based on ethical principles (Mele and Armengou 2015 ) and reciprocal responsibility (Elms and Phillips 2009 ). Each of the bases of pragmatic legitimacy outlined above—strategic control, reputation, network effects and learning—can interact with moral legitimacy. This section identifies tensions between pragmatic and moral legitimacy, and the management theory perspectives in which the tensions are based. This is useful to identify blind spots and to generate routes forward for future theory and practical evaluations of poems ISR. Strategic Control and Moral Legitimacy. Many ISR schemes offer participants options to decide whether to participate, and if so, how.
For example, ISR schemes may contain different levels of required performance so that participating firms can maximize their private benefits from d joining. Discretionary schemes can offer the thesis on life satisfaction strategic control needed for managers to respond to plan d stakeholder demands for social improvement, but to do so on research their own terms. However, pragmatic legitimacy based on strategic control can have a dark side. The strategic goal of ISR participation can be to limit the need to change behaviour, either in advance of regulation or later when the industry’s preferred approach may be subsequently adopted as a new regulatory standard (Ogus 1995 ; Fleckinger and Glachant 2011 ). The critical view also emphasizes regulatory capture and the potential for discretionary ISR schemes to manipulate or subvert stakeholder expectations without changes in firm behaviour (Banerjee 2008 ). Thus, while ISR schemes that offer strategic control can generate the flexibility needed to achieve pragmatic legitimacy, it can also threaten the consequential legitimacy of an ISR scheme. Take for example the US Green Building Council’s (USGBC) LEED standards, the leading green building standards in the USA. Business D. This points-based rating system certifies buildings as platinum, gold, silver or certified LEED green buildings. These may appear at research, first glance to be impartial endorsements of builders’ green performance. But a more critical look reveals that key industry players were heavily involved in the authorship of the schemes, which has largely displaced the more rigorous standards that were originally proposed (Parker 2009 ). The USGBC is often mistaken to be a government agency, but was originally a coalition of builders, consultants and property developers who realized that they needed to business plan d respond to stakeholder demands for greener buildings. They designed a flexible scheme that offered firms control over which technologies to implement to on life satisfaction earn a green building label and therefore meet the pragmatic legitimacy expectations of their immediate stakeholders. D. This flexibility encouraged builders to essay and contrasting poems strategically target the cheapest and least environmentally impactful building features, or to plan target the comparing poems lowest acceptable tier of LEED certification, which offers very little material improvement to the environment from the d building (Corbett and Muthulingam 2007 ).
The LEED standards illustrate a broader tension between pragmatic and moral legitimacy. ISR schemes can help participants maintain strategic control, but in order for this to be effective, participants’ interests must somehow dominate those of other stakeholders. Thus, strategic control may be incompatible with the co-created, reciprocal responsibility that Elms and Phillips ( 2009 ) identify as the foundation of moral legitimacy. Media Coursework. This raises the serious question of whether ISR schemes that offer strategic control can also have moral legitimacy. Seeking reputation is a pragmatic motivation for establishing product-level certification schemes such as organic food or fair trade product labels, as well as company-level reporting and disclosure schemes. However, evidence on certification schemes suggests that they are not widely effective in improving firms’ social or environmental performance (King et al. 2012 ). This lack of effectiveness is at least partly because ISR schemes designed to d confer reputation often emphasize persuasion to confer pragmatic legitimacy rather than the co-creation of norms and actions required for essay comparing, moral responsibility. The institutional perspective explains how managers may get caught up in larger structural pressures that require them to implement, measure, monitor and report on business plan d social performance (Bromley and Powell 2012 ). Managers may participate in ISR schemes because they have been swept up in ratings or rankings systems that evaluate their reputation (Chatterji and Toffel 2010 ). Signing up to an ISR scheme can help signal engagement with social or environmental issues. But certification schemes can also gloss over complexities in the behaviours and practices needed to generate better social outcomes (Wijen 2014 ). ISR schemes that provide reputation and pragmatic interest alignment can hide considerable ambiguity on how the scheme is research paper spies put into practice and whether it is the business plan d right organization for the job.
Consider the admission essay questions example of CarbonNeutral ® certification. Business Plan D. Achieving certification is intended to gcse media help firms stand out from their competition and provide a “clear sign” that they are leading the way on climate change (Carbon Neutral Company 2016 ), that is, to offer pragmatic reputational benefits. To join this ISR scheme, participating firms need to meet a set of highly codified criteria that are outlined in a “Carbon Neutral Protocol” (Carbon Neutral Company 2013 ). Prospective members must commit to five steps to achieve certification: definition, measurement, set target, reduce emissions and communicate. Business. Crucially, the “reduce emissions” stage differs from other definitions of carbon neutrality (Department of Energy and Climate Change 2009 ) because it allows all reductions to be made though offsetting and does not require individual firms to change their own internal emissions behaviours. Emphasizing the reputational benefits of joining an ISR scheme can lead to highlighting pragmatic and persuasive legitimacy rather than consequential actions.
Microsoft explained its adoption of the CarbonNeutral ® certificate because it found that it could not meet its previous 2009 commitment to reduce relative carbon emissions by 30% by research paper write 2012. Microsoft’s new cloud computing business model was driving gross carbon emissions up, so in order to plan protect its environmental reputation the gcse firm opted for the pragmatic legitimacy of achieving certification rather than the consequential legitimacy of actually reducing its own internal emissions (Microsoft 2012 ). Certification schemes such as this illustrate the tension in ISR between the pragmatic legitimacy gained through persuasion and the moral legitimacy of consequential changes in d behaviours and performance. Network Effects and Moral Legitimacy. Some ISR schemes offer economies in paper membership, or collective shelter from institutional pressures by following the example of business d dominant firms in the field. This is particularly common when firms’ reputations are interdependent (Prakash and Potoski 2006 ; Barnett and King 2008 ). On the plus side, ISR schemes designed to harness pragmatic legitimacy through network effects can lead to positive spillover and bolding, multiply positive impacts. For example, Reich et al. ( 2005 ) identified spillover effects from the voluntary adoption of a living wage, as other workers not directly covered by d the scheme also experienced some increase in their level of pay.
In the UK, Wills and Linneker ( 2012 ) showed how participating in the Living Wage Foundation’s voluntary living wage scheme led to spillover benefits in related social domains such as improvements in health and well-being, improved family life, reduced welfare benefit costs and local positive externalities from better paid residents. ISR schemes with network benefits, such as the Living Wage Foundation, can trigger social multiplier effects if they are actively connected with complementary institutions, increasing their outcome effectiveness even further (Pollin et al. 2002 ; Freeman 2005 ). Extensive cross-monitoring and dialogue can lead to research paper write networked legitimacy, where the ISR scheme draws together a nexus of interests and business, each participant gains its own pragmatic legitimacy (Mele and Schepers 2013 ). However, this positive interaction between network effects and on resume, consequential legitimacy crucially depends on whether participants do actually improve their social performance. Critical theorists describe how network effects can support shared discourses and industry-led schemes that consolidate the power of business large corporations without altering corporate behaviour (Banerjee 2008 ; Bowen 2014 ). Network benefits can promote the deliberately low standards of powerful incumbents (Raynolds et al. 2007 ). These firms may have strong incentives to embed low standards as acceptable norms of corporate behaviour (Dunlap and McCright 2011 ). Doing so may award ISR schemes pragmatic legitimacy from their immediate audiences, but threaten the development of responsible norms as a foundation for moral legitimacy. These challenges can be seen in comparing two ISRs in sustainable forestry: the FSC and SFI. Forestry companies face a shared reputational risk from environmental NGOs who cannot tell if their undifferentiated wood products are environmentally damaging (Bartley 2003 ; Winn et al. 2008 ). Both the essay and contrasting poems FSC and SFI are voluntary ISR programmes that were initiated at the industry level: by the US forestry industry in the case of plan SFI, and by socially concerned retailers in the case of FSC (Cashore 2002 ). In the early days of sustainable forestry certification, the US forestry industry actively resisted the FSC’s more ambitious standards, preferring instead to gcse start their own lighter touch, SFI scheme in order to attract more participants (Coglianese and Nash 2001 ; Meidinger 2006 ). The US forestry industry adopted the less ambitious SFI scheme, and business plan d, the more ambitious FSC scheme failed to take off in the USA as it did in Canada, the UK and other countries (Cashore 2002 ; Conroy 2007 ). The lower environmental standards required within SFI compared with FSC became entrenched as the SFI standard spread.
Worse, because forestry certification is paper interlinked with other schemes, such as for green buildings, this consequential legitimacy loss spilled over into business other US industries when the USGBC controversially decided to award LEED points for using SFI-certified wood in their buildings. In this example, responsibility norms were co-created by scheme participants and their surrounding stakeholders. However, the performance level for SFI was established at a lower performance level than for FSC. More generally, the moral legitimacy of ISR schemes with potent network effects crucially depends on the ethical foundations of the comparing emerging shared norms (Mele and business plan, Armengou 2015 ). Without firm ethical foundations, networked ISR schemes may be awarded pragmatic legitimacy by their immediate audiences, but lack deeper moral legitimacy. ISR schemes vary in research paper write their potential scope for learning opportunities and the extent to which these learning exchanges are actually realized (Coglianese and business plan d, Nash 2001 ). ISR can provide spaces for experimentation and innovative solutions to research social problems, leading to opportunities for business d, wider learning, conversation and interest alignment between participating firms and research, their immediate audiences.
ISR schemes designed for learning can improve both pragmatic and consequential legitimacy. For example, firms were more likely to change their waste management practices when managers said they joined EPA’s awareness-raising WasteWise programme to promote their relations with the EPA and to learn about waste (Delmas and Keller 2005 ). Similarly, Locke’s ( 2013 ) study of labour standards in apparel, electronics and metalworking supply chains showed the potential of learning through sharing best practices and business, capability-building in ISR to provide cleaner and safer workplaces for workers than other scheme designs. ISR on labour standards in global supply chains has helped managers incorporate and learn from the voices of traditionally excluded groups of research paper write workers such as women export workers (Pearson and Seyfang 2001 ) and has also stimulated learning among activists about what worked in affecting change in previous campaigns (Freeman 2005 ). However, as with network effects, the consequential legitimacy of ISR schemes designed for business plan, learning depends on bolding on resume what is learned and shared within the scheme. Outcomes depend on the performance of the leading firms and the expectations they share with later joiners.
The primary motivation to participate may be to learn how to plan avoid, deflect or pre-empt more ambitious regulatory requirements (Ogus 1995 ), or to co-opt or deflect stakeholder interests (Parker 2002 ; Raynolds et al. 2007 ). All four of the ISR schemes examined by Lenox and Nash ( 2003 ) in the chemical, textile and pulp and paper industries were designed with sharing mechanisms such as industry newsletters, annual conferences and member meetings. These were intended to help participants learn to manage the poems uncertainty surrounding new environmental demands. However, in most of the schemes, the performance bar was not sufficiently ambitious to offer learning to new members on business plan reducing pollution. Similarly, Lin-Hi and paper spies, Blumberg ( 2016 ) emphasized the learning potential from schemes such as the Business Social Compliance Initiative (BSCI), which focuses on learning and capacity building to improve working conditions in global supply chains. However, two of the plan d factories in the Rana Plaza building in Bangladesh that collapsed in 2013 were participants in the BSCI. Learning within the BSCI scheme did not extend to assessing the safety or regulatory compliance of the physical buildings, or to write empowering local workers to business plan act when they identified cracks in the building before the paper collapse (Gross 2013 ). Opportunities to learn about facility safety were lost because of weak performance standards in the scheme (Chao 2013 ). As with network effects above, the moral legitimacy of ISR depends not only on interactions and learning with stakeholders, but also on the ethical content of what is learned. Plan D. Moral legitimacy requires the learning to have firm ethical foundations (Mele and Armengou 2015 ). Paper Spies. However, these ethical foundations can become unmoored from the ISR scheme if participants do not place adequate emphasis on what and business, how they are learning from gcse media coursework magazines ISR schemes. This section addressed each of the bases of pragmatic legitimacy in turn and used past ISR research from all three management theory perspectives to explore potential tensions with moral legitimacy.
Focusing on tensions between pragmatic and moral responsibility offers several implications for ISR research. First, with respect to strategic control, the balance of evidence considered here seriously questions the consequential legitimacy of discretionary ISR schemes. Rather like students marking their own homework, it is tempting for managers to award themselves the business plan easy points but without truly engaging with fundamental changes in their activities. This is even the case in gcse coursework magazines performance-based ISR schemes such as the plan USGBC’s LEED building standards. Future research should pay more attention to the specific outcomes of flexible ISR schemes, particularly ISR schemes that offer choices on a range of performance standards. Second, the current ISR literature challenges the consequential legitimacy of certification schemes that offer reputational benefits. Certification-based ISR schemes often provide pragmatic legitimacy from gcse media coursework magazines firms’ immediate audiences as they reassure stakeholders that firms are taking their social obligations seriously. Within the broader social context, such emblems and credentials can offer structural legitimacy that an business plan d, industry-led scheme is the right form of organization to address a social challenge.
However, increased structural legitimacy from reputation-enhancing ISR schemes is often decoupled from the comparing and contrasting scheme’s outcomes. Thus, future research should further investigate the business d structural conditions of ISR schemes and their outcomes. Finally, for ISR schemes that offer network and essay questions and answers, learning effects, the pragmatic reasons to participate can multiply the positive outcomes of an ISR scheme. This is an under-explored area in empirical studies and offers new optimism that there may actually be learning and relational benefits in firms marking their own homework. Business. The current ISR literature is inconclusive about whether these network and gcse magazines, learning effects are positive or negative, since ISR outcomes depend on what is learned and shared within ISR. More research is needed on business plan d formally modelling learning effects and network spillover in ISR. A particularly exciting frontier for modelling might be when self-regulatory mechanisms interact, as in the case of the research SFI sustainable forest products scheme and business plan d, the USGBC’s LEED green building standards. On Resume. So far, serious empirical treatments of the consequential legitimacy of overlapping, networked ISR schemes is lacking from the academic literature.
The wide range of ISR schemes now operating provides an opportunity for plan d, future empirical research to explore these ideas both within and across industry sectors. In principle, ISR can provide flexible and research, innovative social improvements at lower cost than direct state regulation (Coglianese and Mendelson 2010 ; Gunningham and plan, Rees 1997 ). However, mixed empirical evidence and some high-profile ISR failures have fed scepticism that ISR allows firms to mark their own homework. Thesis. Although marking their own homework may not be unambiguously bad, current ISR theory cannot explain when or why this may be case, as it has not fully examined the business d legitimacy of paper write ISR. While legitimacy theory clearly separates the plan d pragmatic legitimacy of gaining a social licence to operate from a deeper, more stable moral legitimacy (Suchman 1995 ; Mele and Armengou 2015 ), ISR research has been slow to recognize this distinction. In response, this paper mapped what we know about the legitimacy of ISR from management theory, clearly separated pragmatic from moral legitimacy, and used this distinction to expose tensions and future directions on the legitimacy of ISR. This paper offers extensions to three strands within ISR theory. First, it provides integration across different theoretical perspectives within current management theory of bolding ISR. It derives an business d, integrated approach drawing on comparing and contrasting poems strategic, institutional and d, critical management perspectives. On Resume. Pulling these perspectives into a single analysis is a significant contribution because previous management scholarship has been fragmented and business plan d, context specific. Research. Strategic, institutional and d, critical management theories of ISR have evolved in parallel, as have scholarly communities that focus on particular content domains such as firms’ impacts on the natural environment, labour standards, ethical trading or diversity practices. This paper leverages and integrates across these parallel studies and offers the broader view needed to explore the biases, blind spots and boundary conditions of ISR.
Second, this paper moves beyond the largely descriptive analyses of ISR in the current literature to examine the normative legitimacy of ISR. The framework contributes to ISR management theory by moving beyond the write private benefits that provide pragmatic legitimacy to ISR schemes to examine the more ethical foundations and shared responsibility norms that underly moral responsibility. The framework derived in Table 2 can guide a comprehensive evaluation of plan d moral legitimacy based on the details of media coursework a particular ISR scheme, rather than implicitly assuming which aspect of business moral legitimacy is most important as has been so common in management theories of ISR. Moral legitimacy can be evaluated according to what organizations accomplish (consequential), whether they exhibit socially accepted techniques and processes (procedural) and/or whether they look like the right organization for the job (structural). Admission Questions. Focusing on different types of legitimacy gives different answers about the moral legitimacy of ISR schemes. Very stringent schemes can give procedural legitimacy, but this does not necessarily mean that they will have good outcomes (i.e. consequential legitimacy). Similarly, a well-functioning scheme with positive overall social benefits can lose legitimacy if it does not somehow signal appropriate emblems or credentials to maintain structural legitimacy. Plan. Previous research has been hampered by research write blinkered approaches from within particular management traditions. Business D. This paper offers an admission essay questions, integrative view of plan moral legitimacy of ISR based on the different bases of research paper moral legitimacy, rather than the implied theoretical worldview of the analyst. Finally, the business d paper contributes to a burgeoning literature on the pragmatic and moral legitimacy of other phenomena such as codes of ethics (Long and paper spies, Driscoll 2008 ), social enterprise (Dart 2004 ), NGOs as partners of industry (Baur and Palazzo 2011 ), regulatory regimes (Black 2008 ) or controversial projects (Mele and Armengou 2015 ). This literature recognizes that pragmatic legitimacy and moral legitimacy do not always go together. The extension made in this paper is to specifically examine three tensions between pragmatic and moral legitimacy in the ISR context.
First, ISR schemes that offer pragmatic legitimacy through strategic control may be incompatible with the co-created, reciprocal responsibility required for moral legitimacy. Participants in ISR schemes cannot simultaneously dominate and responsibly reciprocate with stakeholders, leading to serious questions about plan d, whether ISR schemes that offer strategic control can also have moral legitimacy. Second, ISR schemes that offer reputational benefits rely on gaining pragmatic legitimacy through persuasion, which can become decoupled from consequential changes in behaviours. Focusing on the exchange and transactional aspects of reputation can help gain pragmatic legitimacy, but disconnect schemes from deeper, reciprocal moral legitimacy. Third, the moral legitimacy of questions and answers ISR schemes with potent network or learning effects crucially depends on the ethical foundations of the scheme. Ethically weak ISR schemes will lack moral legitimacy regardless of business plan d how many firms join or how much participants share learning within the essay comparing and contrasting poems scheme. Focusing on ISR has opened up some new frontiers in research on the interactions between pragmatic and moral legitimacy. ISR is unusual in that firms play a dual role in influencing the design of ISR schemes and then deciding whether and how to participate. Business D. To the extent that firms can influence the design of ISR schemes, there is the potential for firms to deliberately design schemes to paper spies maximize pragmatic legitimacy. For example, ISR schemes could be designed to emphasize strategic control (as in performance-based ISR schemes such as LEED), or to emphasize reputation (as in business plan certification schemes). Magazines. These design choices can ultimately influence the business d moral legitimacy of the scheme in action.
It is possible that the tensions between pragmatic and moral legitimacy identified in this paper are a consequence of this dual role in ISR. This analysis challenges legitimacy theorists to assess whether these tensions between pragmatic and moral legitimacy are unique to essay poems circumstances where organizations both design and business plan, participate in governance schemes or are generalizable to other contexts beyond ISR. This paper was partly motivated by the mismatch between the promise and performance of thesis on life satisfaction ISR schemes, and d, a desire to better evaluate ISR schemes in practice. Table 2 generates a wide variety of normative considerations in assessing the appropriateness of ISR schemes that takes evaluation of ISR schemes far beyond simple cost–benefit logic. Scheme participants and stakeholders can use Table 2 to generate a systematic set of questions to evaluate the legitimacy of specific ISR schemes. From a consequential legitimacy point of view, questions focus on the outcomes of the bolding on resume scheme: what are the outcomes for business plan d, participating firms, non-participants and admission, other interested stakeholders?
What are the direct and business, indirect outcomes over the short and long term? Questions of procedural legitimacy include whether inclusion criteria are sufficiently ambitious to set new standards, whether the scheme is sufficiently codified to research paper write shape action and to business plan what extent non-compliant participants are sanctioned. Structural legitimacy questions ask about the extent to which the essay comparing authority of the ISR scheme is formally recognized within the relevant country or industry, whether the ISR scheme reflects acceptable values for d, its social context and whether and how the form of the ISR conveys that firms are performing their proper social function. Systematic questions beyond simple short-term cost–benefit analysis have the potential to identify and develop relatively more socially beneficial ISR schemes in the future, and ultimately to improve ISR schemes in essay practice. The primary limitation of this analysis is that it is based on an analytic review of past research from a sprawling range of traditions and substantive policy domains. A formal, systematic review could have been a useful way to generate a more comprehensive, unbiased and transparent literature review. However, a systematic review would also have had to be necessarily limited to particular policy domains or contexts or sets of journals (that is, theoretical tradition) to formally limit the scope of the review.
By adopting a more analytic approach, this analysis linked up insights on plan ISR that would not usually show up in a narrower key word search. It did not offer the replicable and media coursework, more structured findings of a systematic review, but instead served as a conversation starter based on an analytical overview of a wide span of literature. This paper is plan also limited in that it did not attempt to empirically explore, verify or test key insights. Bolding On Resume. Future research on the structural conditions of ISR schemes and their outcomes is particularly needed, and plan, is now increasingly possible because of the very large number of bolding schemes that could be compared. Business Plan D. For example, the International Trade Centre lists over 210 voluntary standards operating in over 200 countries, many of which would meet the definition of ISR used in this paper (see www.standardsmap.org ). Similarly, www.ecolabelindex.com lists over 450 ecolabels across 25 industry sectors.
Empirical researchers might collate existing evidence on the effectiveness of these standards or ecolabels and develop preliminary tests and categorizations on which ones have the satisfaction most learning or network potential, and d, how they rank on thesis the various dimensions of consequential, procedural or structural legitimacy. As data availability improves, empirical researchers will be able to conduct more complete systematic reviews and plan d, even meta-analyses of the legitimacy of ISR in the future. This paper examined the paper spies legitimacy of ISR in response to mixed empirical evidence and accusations that firms are using ISR schemes to “mark their own homework”. It explained how current management theory on business ISR has failed to separate pragmatic legitimacy of research paper ISR schemes based on private benefits, from moral legitimacy based on reciprocal responsibilities, a firm ethical foundation and normative approval. Plan D. Mapping the literature has revealed tensions between pragmatic and moral legitimacy, and research paper, generated implications for theory on ISR and on legitimacy. Future ISR research should examine the business plan d full range of paper write moral legitimacy questions about ISR. Only then can ISR achieve its full potential as a fully legitimate mode of governance in the contemporary economic system. The work was funded by the UK’s Economic and Social Research Council (ESRC: ES/K007440/1). Compliance with Ethical Standards. The author declares that they have no conflict of interest.
This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors. Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ ), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and business plan d, reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. Frances Bowen 1 Email author 1. Media Magazines. School of Business and Management Queen Mary University of London London UK. .RIS Papers Reference Manager RefWorks Zotero. .BIB BibTeX JabRef Mendeley. .RIS Papers Reference Manager RefWorks Zotero.
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Stormy Night Essays and Research Papers. Many themes exist in Night , Elie Wiesel’s nightmarish story of his Holocaust experience. From normal life in a small town to physical abuse in . concentration camps, Night chronicles the journey of business, Wiesel’s teenage years. Essay Comparing! Neither Wiesel nor any of the Jews in Sighet could have imagined the horrors that would befall them as their lived changed under the Nazi regime. The Jews all lived peaceful, civilized lives before German occupation. Eliezer Wiesel was concerned with mysticism and his father was “more. Auschwitz concentration camp , Elie Wiesel , Holocaust denial 2068 Words | 5 Pages. ? Night Study Questions with Answers Section 1, pages 1-31 1. Describe Moshe the Beadle.
He worked at the Hasidic synagogue. He was able . to plan d make himself seem insignificant, almost invisible. He was timid, with dreamy eyes, and did not speak much. 2. Describe Elie Wiesel’s father. Spies! What was his occupation? He was cultured and d unsentimental.
He had more concern for outsiders than for his own family. He and his wife were storekeepers. 3. Why was Moshe the Beadle important to Elie Wiesel? . Auschwitz concentration camp , Buchenwald concentration camp , Elie Wiesel 1717 Words | 5 Pages. ENC 1102 Module 2/ Final Draft Spring 2013 The Relationship between Father and Son In the book “ Night ”, Elie Wiesel displays loyalty and . solidarity within his relationship with his father even through the horrid obstacles he had to endure. Essay Questions And Answers! Wiesel demonstrated to us readers that his love for his father was a stronger force for survival than the selfish idea for self-preservation. He also demonstrated how having little faith can conquer and that a person should not lose faith no matter how hard. Auschwitz concentration camp , Buchenwald concentration camp , Elie Wiesel 998 Words | 3 Pages.
?In Night by business plan d Elie Wiesel, the protagonist Eliezer struggles through the Holocaust facing many challenges that are almost unbearable by comparing poems . overcoming his mind and hallucinating to business plan d believe it was all a nightmare. Throughout Eliezer’s journey through hell, he faces many hardships that are life changing. Night is a memoir about Elie Wiesel’s life in concentration camps during the on life satisfaction, holocaust. The year is 1941 when Elie, the deeply religious boy with a loving family consisting of three sisters and business parents. Auschwitz concentration camp , Elie Wiesel , Holocaust denial 1762 Words | 11 Pages. Dehumanization in Night Night by Elie Wiesel is a memoir that documents the research, story of a young Jewish boy named Eliezer who was . born in Sighet, Transylvania during World War II. Business D! The story begins in essay comparing poems, his hometown, where life is normal and business plan d calm before the storm. Thesis! It quickly transitions into Nazi occupation, persecution, segregation in the form of d, ghettos, and eventually deportation to camps. As the Jewish people arrive at the camp known as Auschwitz, they are separated and many are immediately executed. Adolf Hitler , Antisemitism , Auschwitz concentration camp 2628 Words | 6 Pages. Night - Positive/Negative Characters.
David Coulombe English 30-1 Renata Solski Essay Choice 2 December 30, 2010 Positive and Negative Characters. Bolding On Resume! The division of antagonist and . protagonist is quite obviously acknowledged in Night by Elie Wiesel. There are however, subcategories that exist in these two groups. To explain this Elie uses physical, mental, emotional and business plan d transitional descriptive techniques paired with the character’s unique traits to exhibit the real reason for each character’s appearance. Nazi’s can presumable. Auschwitz concentration camp , Dawn , Day 1522 Words | 5 Pages. Night by Elie Wiesel Part I: Literary Terms 1. Foreshadowing: • “ Night . No one Prayed, so that the night would . pass Quickly. The stars were only sparks of the fire which devoured us. Research Paper Spies! Should that fire die out business plan d, one day, there would be nothing left in the sky but dead stars, dead eyes.” (18) -Elie Wiesel’s quote explains how in the end, fire would be the ending to many people in the concentration camp. • “crammed into cattle trains by Hungarian police, they wept bitterly. We stood on the platform.
Auschwitz concentration camp , Elie Wiesel , Francois Mauriac 2026 Words | 6 Pages. Leslye Menjivar Morales April 9th, 2013 Merchant 2A Night Cause and Effect Essay The book called Night by paper Eliezer . Wiesel is the business plan d, true story of Wiesel’s experiences during the holocaust. Wiesel was born in the town of admission essay, Sighet, Transylvania; he was a teenager when he and his family were taken from their home in 1944, and moved to the Auschwitz concentration camp. Business D! This book is Eliezer terrifying record of his memories about thesis satisfaction how Jewish people were transferred to concentration camps. Eliezer. Auschwitz concentration camp , Elie Wiesel , Jews 848 Words | 3 Pages. Night By Elie Wiesel Introduction: Elizer Wiesel was born in the town call Sighet, Transylvania. “ Night ” is a novel that . shows the author’s experience with his father at a German nazi concentration camp. The novel takes place during the height of the plan, Holocaust and almost at bolding on resume, the end of World War Two. Night is a great book and I would recommend everybody to read it. It is sad and plan d hard to get through but it is worth it to read.
Overview: Eliezer Wiesel was a Jewish teenager who was living in. Auschwitz concentration camp , Buchenwald concentration camp , Elie Wiesel 1457 Words | 4 Pages. Dehumanization in Night by Elie Wiesel. Sharrett March 23, 2015 English 11- Night Essay Dehumanization is defined as the psychological process of gcse coursework, demonizing the plan d, enemy, making them . seem less than human and hence not worth of humane treatment. It also can lead to increased violence, human rights violations, war crimes, and admission essay questions and answers genocide. When there is severe hatred and aversion towards a different group, it can direct to classifying the rival as inhuman and business plan treating them with bestial punishment. In the book Night by Elie Wiesel, the Jews were victims. Antisemitism , Auschwitz concentration camp , Dawn 1012 Words | 3 Pages. Night by Elie Wiesel Essay Humans go through and encounter situations that can perhaps alter our actions and way of being. The Domino . Effect theory states that when one of the dominoes falls, it triggers the next one. but removing the key part will prevent the start of the chain reaction, revealing the truth about people, a situation is what triggers everything else which can make or break you and without the paper, key parts (the people or thing that helped you develop or to contract) it can prevent.
Auschwitz concentration camp , Elie Wiesel , Hasidic Judaism 1519 Words | 4 Pages. Night Test 1.) Exposition: The exposition of the story starts when Moshe the Beadle is introduced. Business D! Moshe the Beadle was . a Jew that lived in Sighet, Transylvania and he got captured by the Hungarian police. Essay Comparing! A few months later, Moshe the Beadle escapes the Hungarian police and returns to Sighet to warn everyone in the town of what had happened to plan him. When he tried to warn the on resume, townspeople, they did not believe him since all of the propaganda on the London radio were making them. Auschwitz concentration camp , Elie Wiesel , Hasidic Judaism 1628 Words | 4 Pages.
Eye Motif in Night by Elie Wiesel. tell how they are feeling by staring into his or her eyes. Our eyes never lie. Our eyes will often mirror our souls and display our true inner emotions. In . Elie Wiesel’s autobiographical narrative, Night , he uses the eye motif to d portray characters’ true souls. In some parts of the narrative, Night , Wiesel used eyes to write display the hope and positive emotion in characters. Business D! In the paper, beginning of the story, eyes were used as an indication of plan d, Moche the Beadle’s calmness in and answers, the following quote. “I loved. Auschwitz concentration camp , Elie Wiesel , Emotion 945 Words | 3 Pages.
Dark and stormy night It was a dark and stormy night when she came to find me. I was sitting at my . Business Plan! work desk, writing my daily report of the day's work when my ears caught a soft knocking at the front door, timid but distinct against the fury of the tempest. Who could it possibly be at gcse media, this hour and in this kind of night , I mused as I pushed back my chair irritably to business plan answer the door. Thesis On Life Satisfaction! As I was about to slip back the latch, a small, seldom heard voice in business, the back of my head, which only spoke in. 1115 Words | 3 Pages. Starry Night is a beautiful painting, representational in the type of art. Media Coursework! The size of the painting is 29 in. by d 36 ? in., and oil on canvas . were the materials used. Van Gogh is media coursework magazines, using an expressive quality and an emotionalism viewpoint. On the left side of the painting, there is a group of plan, black lines that curve in waves upward, coming to a point.
To the lower right, there is a small town that leads up to hills and then mountains. On Resume! The painting is set at night , and the sky is a wondrous swirl of bursting. Moon , Night , Night sky 982 Words | 3 Pages. A Separate Peace, Catcher in the Rye, and Night Essay. the Rye, and Night There are approximately seven billion people living on business the Earth. Each person is different. The journey of finding one’s . Paper Write! self is a path that one must take with little help from others and built from their own experiences, creating an identity that must be established by themselves and can only be taken away by business plan themselves as seen through the texts A Separate Peace by John Knowles, Catcher in the Rye by J.D. Salinger, and Night by Elie Wiesel.
In the coursework magazines, memoir Night written by business plan d Elie. A Separate Peace , American novelists , Elie Wiesel 1158 Words | 3 Pages. Our Vanishing Night Most city skies have become virtually empty of stars. Paper! By Verlyn Klinkenborg If humans were truly at plan d, home under the light of . the media coursework, moon and stars, we would go in darkness happily, the business plan d, midnight world as visible to us as it is to the vast number of nocturnal species on this planet. Instead, we are diurnal creatures, with eyes adapted to living in the sun's light. This is a basic evolutionary fact, even though most of us don't think of ourselves as diurnal beings any more than we think. Light , Light pollution , Lighting 1424 Words | 4 Pages. Throughout the the Nobel peace prize winning novel, Night by Elie Wiesel; The correlation between Elie and his father changes drastically . throughout the paper write, book. At the beginning Elie and his father are really close and have a good relationship but his father.Towards the end Elie and his father seem very detached.
The relationship of Elie and his father changes positively through the book. At the start of the business plan d, Night , Elie and paper spies his father are very close but his father shows no emotion at all. Elie Wiesel , God , Hasidic Judaism 664 Words | 2 Pages. TOPIC: Night by Elie Wiesel Study Guide Questions |NAME CLASS PERIOD DATE | | |Directions: Read Night by plan Elie Wiesel, . identify the type of question being asked, and on life satisfaction then answer the following questions. | |“RIGHT THERE” — The information you will need to answer the question is right there in the text. | |“THINK AND SEARCH” — The information that you will need to answer the question is in several places. Elie Wiesel , Judaism , Night 1420 Words | 12 Pages. Honors Eng II Study Guide for Test on Friday, 2/27/09 1. In what point of view was the book Night written? A. first person B. second . person C. third limited D. third omniscient 2. What did Elie Wiesel want to study at the beginning of the book? A. beadle B. geometry C. cabbala D. Russian 3. Who helped Elie with his studies? A. his father C. the Rabbi B. Plan D! Moshe the Beadle D. his mother 4. Which of the following was NOT a reason people didn’t believe Moshe’s.
Auschwitz concentration camp , Beadle , Buchenwald concentration camp 1875 Words | 9 Pages. Importance of Night Audit The night audit is the control process whereby the financial activity of poems, guest’ accounts is maintained . and d balanced. On Resume! This process tracks charges and payments (debits and credits) and the departmental receipts and charges on a daily basis. This section is the business plan d, team that assumes the role of reconciling a hotel’s daily activities and transactions. On Life! They compiles a series of reports and data into a report called the night audit report for management review as part of plan d, its control. Audit , Auditing , Auditor's report 1325 Words | 6 Pages.
cycle is when people wake up in bolding on resume, the morning naturally, and the owl, you should guess, is a loner night person. “These settings are genetically . Business Plan D! encoded and cannot be erased. Once an thesis owl, always an owl.” (Anne Fadiman, “ Night Owl”, 62). Business Plan! So how can the night and day difference be so big? When reading the story “ Night Owl’ by Anne Fadiman, she describes a contrast between morning people and the night people, and what type she is and bolding on resume how it affects her life. Reading this story, I see similarities. Chronotype , Circadian rhythm , Circadian rhythm sleep disorder 1096 Words | 3 Pages. Night Terrors Every night around 10:30 Billy Bolts out of bed and starts screaming uncontrollably. I often find him running . Business Plan D! around his room looking frantic. I try to hold him, but he just pushes me away. I don't understand what is research paper, happening. He looks terrified, and it frightens me (Mindell 257).
The above quote represents a classic episode of night terrors, or sleep terrors (the terms are interchangeable). Night terrors ? called incubus in adults and d pavor nocturnus in children (Durand. Night terror , Parasomnia , Parasomnias 2287 Words | 7 Pages. Twelfth Night Twelfth Night is gcse, a comedy of light and shade. Business! Its characters are not unreservedly happy and the events . are not unreservedly humorous. Discuss. As a comedy, Twelfth Night is research, obviously intending to business d not only entertain its audience but also point out problems in society. Essay Questions And Answers! It is imperative to entire merit of the business plan, play not to be realistic but to allow for empathy. Therefor to have a comedy of complete lightheartedness there would be no balance . Character , Comedy , Drama 2039 Words | 6 Pages. Imagine a certain part of town where during the day, it is a very peaceful and calm place to be. Research! However, night time is a different story. Business D! . The place is dark, spooky, filled with strange noises and the howling wind.
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On each of the six verses, the choir repeated. Austrian composers , Christmas , Christmas carol 1639 Words | 4 Pages. WHAT IS NIGHT MARKET Night markets or night bazaars are street market which operate at business d, night and . are generally dedicated to more leisurely strolling, shopping, and eating than more businesslike day markets. They are typically open-air markets. Night markets are commonly known as Pasar Malam by the locals, which literally means night market, pasar being related to bazaar in Persian or also the meaning market in Malay, and malam meaning night . Write! A pasar malam is a street market in Malaysia. Farmers' market , Market , Market square 1108 Words | 4 Pages. Required With the Common Household?The reasons are many and various why homeowners experience the need for a diploma of business, protection not afforded by a simple . door lock.
Typically, the spouse will work evenings or travels towards the extent which the admission questions, night time hrs discover the spouse and kids house on your own. A gun is business d, great, but so are definitely the bolding on resume, lawful liabilities. Most ladies acknowledge they may never pull a result in, as well as whenever they could, a shaking nervous hand would mail the. Canine tooth , Dog , Dog health 2724 Words | 7 Pages. The English Essay for business Breakfast Club. I could tell from the tone of her voice that she was getting upset – it was understandable though, Addie has been crushing on Sean ever since freshmen year, . when she first moved here to Little Point. A party with drinks and senior guys on a Friday night ? If this was proposed to me a year ago, on the same date, I would have happily obliged by putting on my tightest dress and media coursework magazines staying out until 3 in the morning. A year ago… everything was so different – I was so different. I guess that’s why I can barely. Night , Objection , Sky 1150 Words | 3 Pages. depicted in great detail in business plan d, the books Night and The Diary of a Young Girl.
These books tell the story of life the suppressed, Jewish citizens . in a totalitarian, fascist political system from the essay poems, first person point of business d, view. They talk of admission, life before and during the war and they tell stories of living in business, hiding and suffering in concentration camps. In these books the humanity of the satisfaction, oppressors are shown and the humanity of the oppressed are put to the test. Night by Elie Wiesel and The diary of business plan d, a young. Auschwitz concentration camp , Elie Wiesel , Judaism 2019 Words | 5 Pages. Safety of the on life, Ryerson Campus Area. that individual. Plan! Another factor that comes in to play is the time of day you are viewing the area, different opinions may be generated on an area if it were . daytime as opposed to night time. Personally I'm an 18 year old male and from my exploration I generally found the Ryerson area to be unsafe, especially during the night time.
Many factors came in to play for bolding on resume me to generate such an opinion such as lack of light in d, certain areas, narrow alley ways and paper write construction that can be dangerous to anyone. Area , Night , Point 2086 Words | 5 Pages. ‘ It was late at night when my phone began to ring. The moon had been up for business hours and I was just getting ready to hit the sack. Who could . possibly be calling me? I thought to myself as I picked up the call. Michael, what're you doing?
Of course, my older sister Jessie, the only person on this planet who actually refers to me by my real name. Not that I care, I find it to be more unique considering every other Michael I've known is not even a Michael at all, just Mike. Well I was getting. 2007 singles , Billboard Hot 100 number-one singles , Night 1901 Words | 5 Pages. interpret the painting as the colours are unevenly blended. VINCENT VAN GOGH STARRY NIGHT Starry night by Vincent van Gogh is media coursework, . one of the plan, most well-known paintings in research paper, today's modern society. Although being the only piece of d, work van Gogh sold throughout his artistic career starry night has risen to the peak of artistic achievements. Composition The first thing I notice when I look at starry night is the beautiful night sky, which takes up most of the background. Its whirling, curving lines seem to.
Blue , Color , Green 1605 Words | 7 Pages. Most human beings are awake during the day and paper sleep all night . Business Plan D! Owls live the opposite way. Owls are nocturnal. This means that they sleep all . day and and contrasting stay awake at night . Because owls are nocturnal, this means they must eat at night . But finding food in the dark is difficult. To help them, they have special eyes and ears. 2 Owls have very large eyes. These eyes absorb more light than normal.
Since there is little light during the night , it is helpful to be able to absorb more of business, it. Essay Comparing Poems! This helps. Bird , Circadian rhythm , Crepuscular 707 Words | 4 Pages. Robert Martin Deconstruction Essay “Human Beings at Night ” is a poem from of a collection of poems from Rainer Maria Rilke’s The Book of . Images that was published in 1902 and then rereleased in an English translated version by business plan d Edward Snow in 1991. The poem is essay and contrasting poems, written in a free verse form, for there is plan d, no particular organization or rhythmic structure in bolding, the format of the d, lines. The majority of the poem is written in the 2nd person point of view as the research, speaker directly addresses “you”, then later. Human , Linguistics , Martin Heidegger 1212 Words | 4 Pages.
Twelfth Night Essay While many will agree that Shakespeare’s Twelfth Night is business plan, critically acclaimed to be one of the most . entertaining and well-liked pieces that he has written, there tends to be a discrepancy over how the characters in the play are portrayed when it comes to the importance of gender roles. After reading James C Bulman’s article over the Globe’s more recent performance of Twelfth Night and Shakespeare’s original written version, I realized that there are many ways that this famous. Actor , Gender , Gender role 953 Words | 3 Pages. scrumptious meal I couldn’t help but gaze up into night sky and essay see the massive clusters of d, stars filling it with their radiance of light, just . adding more livelihood along with the moon to the night . “Staring into the night sky are you again, sweetheart” “Oh mother I was ju-….jus-….just admiring how bright the night could be despite it being all dark and all” “Oh it’s all right…… in fact when I was about essay and answers your age, I always was hypnotised by how beautiful the night could be. It was really very fascinating. Anxiety , Creatures Inc. , Debut albums 1322 Words | 4 Pages. The Death and Life of Charlie St. Cloud. and Life of Charlie St. Cloud I read “The Death and Life of Charlie St. Cloud,” by Ben Sherwood.
This book is about Charlie St. Cloud, a normal high . school junior whose life completely changes one night , and then takes you on the journey through the events that take place after that horrific night . This was a really good book that has been turned into a movie, and I would highly recommend reading the book. This paper is going to tell you in depth about the book and why I enjoyed it so much. . Black-and-white films , Dariush Mehrjui , Death 975 Words | 3 Pages. Routine: Shower and Agatha Undress. normal, but I realized the time was 6:05. It was the plan, new phone's annoying menu setup, I must have slipped my finger through the minute dial choosing the . wrong time settings. It also has the annoying habit of leaving applications open throughout the night and which is why the research paper, battery is business plan d, low. So I put it to charge while showering, instead of putting it on my back pocket like I usually do. Once in the shower I shaved, and I brushed my teeth. In routine I listened to admission essay questions the weather forecast on business plan d channel seven. Automobile , Bathroom , Bathtub 1443 Words | 4 Pages.
Suspence Story worth C Grade in GCSE Coursework - 'House Of Spirits' that drunken Halloween night had ended and I was black as a phantoms cape. I began to weep because of the isolation and confusion and knelt on . the ground with my arms in coursework, my head. Morning. I awoke to an alarm of birds fluttering above me. I must have passed back out that night but what am I still doing here? It was early morning and I was laid on piles of d, leaves and by research paper me I noticed a creek. I lay up, wiped my eyes and my mascara eyes were runny from the tears I wept the night before. Business! The forest was.
Billboard Hot Adult Contemporary Tracks number-one singles , Black Hills , Black people 1435 Words | 5 Pages. electricity comes to cocoa bottom and an unknown girl. palatial places ‘colours leaving the streets’ because its night ancient traditional art of henna contrasted with the on life, western look in business, the . shop wndows ‘I have new brown veins’ vivid imagery deftly means skillfully she feels the culture of the place she is in and the thesis on life satisfaction, culture surrounding her ‘I am clinging’ she has a sense of belonging and does not want to let go, sense of loss and miss. ‘now the furious streets are crushed’ night time, calmer not many characters as the girl is d, referred. American novels , Dirt road , English-language films 489 Words | 3 Pages. conclude Rich has deliberately done this to show that the woman is only happy with her relationship during the night time, as it is the only . time when her partner spends time and appreciates her and essay comparing poems what she does for their relationship. Rich has created a semantic field of plan, unkempt food and drink (‘the scraps…last night's cheese… tree sepulchral bottles…moldings’) to reveal the night time activities of the couple. Bolding On Resume! The verb ‘delineate’ is a lexical choice as Rich has deliberately chosen it to indicate. Alimony , Cohabitation , Common-law marriage 1285 Words | 4 Pages. A MOTHER'S LOVE once on a rainy night Shambhu Chitrakar, a famous story writer, was writing a story to be published by next week. He had . begun to plan write the paper write, story, when suddenly he heard a knock on the door Who is at the door? he asked, but there was no response. Plan D! Must be my dream, he said to himself 'knock knock'; he heard the knock on research paper spies the door again.
This time, without even asking who it was, he went and opened the door. At the business plan, door, he saw a lady dressed in white from research, top to bottom, her whole. 2004 albums , 2005 Cannes Film Festival , A Story 1179 Words | 3 Pages. ? Shakespeare’s Twelfth Night is a play completely focused on the notions of performance, disguise, and deception. The characters are all . acting in roles to meet their own goals, performing for the on-stage audience and deceiving everyone but the live audience off the d, stage.
The use of dramatic irony is prevalent in research spies, order to engage and involve the audience, making them part of the plan d, play. Dramatic irony is a literary device wherein the audience is aware of pivotal information that the paper, characters. Andrew Aguecheek , Comedy , Deception 1547 Words | 8 Pages. eyes symbolize her drunkenness, which worsens after each child she has that passes away, but this sentence tells us something else: it shows us that in . Plan! Zambia, people die often, that it is a usual occurrence. While Mum is drunk, Dad smokes day and night . Though both parents have faults, but Bobo does not necessarily follow their paths; she drinks and research spies smokes sometimes but never does as much as her parents do so. Bobo has a beautiful big sister to look up to and learn some valuable life skills.
She. Africa , Metaphor , Mother 1186 Words | 4 Pages. professionalism to be anything other than exemplary. Responsibility and accountability are important parts of being a soldier and business I have shown neither. . Something important that may help is to essay poems maintain habits as strict at home as I do on business duty. Having a night time routine is a good example of this. Research Paper! Shower, brush my teeth, get my uniforms ready for the next day; are but a few steps in business, establishing such a routine. Thesis Satisfaction! A good night’s sleep is essential to maintaining the proper level of alertness and makes you. Army , Circadian rhythm , Military 1099 Words | 3 Pages.
poll after poll, Americans support laws that restrict teenagers' activities during certain hours of the day and night . Youth curfews are also . logical. If youngsters are getting into trouble, it makes sense to get them off the d, streets. Yes because most crimes are usually committed at night .. teens can be used as an easier target for adult predators..less people to witness things at night Why Curfews Are a Good Thing Kids certainly need their freedom, but how much freedom? Some parents today are. Adolescence , Night , Police 1044 Words | 3 Pages. used as a subject for academic study and literary criticism. A close analysis of Twelfth Night , which is considered to paper be a reference to plan the . twelfth night of the Christmas celebration, shows how Shakespeare is able to manipulate the form, structure, and language of a play in order to contribute to the meaning of it, which in the case of coursework magazines, Twelfth Night is business d, that of deception. Also, Shakespeare uses Twelfth Night to examine the patterns of love and admission essay and answers courtship through the twisting of gender roles. I.
Courtship , Gender , Gender role 2017 Words | 6 Pages. The Writing Style of Elie Wiesel In the memoir Night , Elie Wiesel uses a distinct writing style to relate to his readers what emotions he . experienced and plan d how he changed while in essay, the concentration camps of Buna, during the business d, Holocaust. He uses techniques like irony, contrast, and an unrealistic way of describing what happens to spies accomplish this. By applying these techniques, Wiesel projects a tone of business, bitterness, confusion and grief into his story. Through his writing Wiesel gives us a window into. Auschwitz concentration camp , Buchenwald concentration camp , Death 891 Words | 3 Pages. ?William Shakespeare’s multidimensional comedy Twelfth Night dismantles and obliterates socially constructed limitations regarding biological . and assumed gender and thesis identity, thus emphasising that nothing is certain, rather, a matter of plan, perspective.
The reader to an emphatic extent becomes an integral part of the write, way language forms and shapes the reality of the play. Therefore, language instructs initial perceptions and the foundational reality of the reader but not final perceptions and ultimate. Female , Gender , Gender identity 1968 Words | 5 Pages. of their men that show up, also to be ready to plan d resist any attack that may be made. Gcse Coursework Magazines! All night and every night , every man has to . D! stand by, none is allowed to sleep or to be in the dug outs, during the day one man in every three has to paper spies be on duty, taking their turn in shifts of two hours. The mud and wet are awful, there was just about a foot of business d, water in the bottom of our trench and it rains all one day and night . Trench foot is essay questions and answers, a serious problem for us. It is business, a disease caused by admission and answers the feet being constantly. Cadaver , Foot , Fortification 1799 Words | 4 Pages. How does Shakespeare present the theme of deception in the first two acts of Twelfth night ? Shakespeare's Twelfth night , . Business! focuses mainly on the theme of comparing and contrasting poems, deception in both main plot and the sub-plot. Not only do the characters deceive each other, but many of business, them are also self-deceived and we, as the audience, begin to realise ourselves that we are sometimes deceived.
This creates great opportunities for Shakespeare to create humour and dramatic irony, which a Shakespearian audience would understand. Andrew Aguecheek , Comedy , Deception 1900 Words | 5 Pages. Icu Syndrome Nursing Responsibility. procedure can be done smoothly without any complication Insomnia 1. Adjust lighting to stimulate night and day as an essay and answers effect that helps . to orientate patient and allow patient to sleep well during night time 2. Reduce noise level by plan decreasing the volume on alarm and limiting volume of idle conversation to prevent noise disturbance in patient who need rest 3. Reduce procedure during night time and plan activities to allow patient to have 70-90 minutes of uninterrupted sleep. 4. Give.
Anxiety , Anxiety disorder , Bedsore 771 Words | 3 Pages. keep surviving. Mind you, this was the little rations he had the night before he was left behind, he saved it just in case they’d run out. With . him doing this, he gave himself the satisfaction, hopes to not only sustain the little amount of food he had but also the d, strength and paper write energy that he was going to need in case he would end up in the heat of battle. After traveling many miles on foot, Dodd crept through several fields during the day and night time so that he wouldn’t run into any Frenchmen. D! He was seen by.
Boy , British Army , French language 1471 Words | 3 Pages. GUST1301102045 Hellal Abdulwahab AlHellall - GUST1301102047 Gulf University For Science Technology The Kirsten’s Cookies Company is new . business established and bolding on resume located at the campus, with motivation toward fulfill to power-hungry learners at night time. The company would allow the learners to d order customized cookies baked fresh under request. Learners would have a large range of components to gather up from, such bake to demand idea strive towards making sure that cookie is to each student’s. Baking , Cookie , Marketing 591 Words | 6 Pages. when confronting death he chose to again be an gcse media magazines example of plan, his principled life and to essay comparing poems accept his fate. The themes of racism and prejudice, and d how one . reacts to this in life run through “The Handmaids Tale”, “The Autobiography of magazines, Malcolm X” and “ Night ”. Another theme common in these works are faith and indifference. Certainly if people took a stand in business, Gilead, women would not have been treated as a reproductive tool. Coursework! If people took a stand during the World War II, 6 million Jews might not have been.
Auschwitz concentration camp , Elie Wiesel , Night 1026 Words | 3 Pages. train car was ridiculously small for the amount of people in business, the cars. Elie witnessed a young boy in his train car kill his own father over a piece of bread. On Life! . Imagine going through this being at the age of 15. Elie arrived at plan d, Birkenau and paper spies spent the night there and then the next day was sent over to Auschwitz. Elie was given the number A-7713, which was tattooed on his arm upon plan d, arrival to the death camps. Elie and his family along with other people going into the concentration camps were told that they. Auschwitz concentration camp , Buchenwald concentration camp , Elie Wiesel 2204 Words | 6 Pages. In Tree At My Window, by Robert Frost. in his life, but Frost does not specify that his choice was the one that produced the best possible outcomes in his life.
Many of Frost's poems concern his . future and paper making decisions that will effect the rest of his life. The poem An Old Man's Night was first published at the same time as The Road Not Taken. Business! It was a time of great unsettlement, both mentally and physically for thesis satisfaction Frost. Frost was travelling from one city to business d another trying to establish his roots. His poetry was being received quite. Death , Life , Night 2301 Words | 6 Pages. out for research paper themselves. This relates to the books Night by Elie Wiesel and Maus by Art Spiegelman because the characters of both books have to . decide whether they are going to look out for d themselves or if they are going to try to on resume help out others. D! When a human being is paper, faced with a life or death situation, they typically become selfish in order to survive because human instinct kicks in business, and you only try to keep yourself alive as illustrated in Maus and Night . Being selfish can take many forms. One form.
Art Spiegelman , Auschwitz concentration camp , Dawn 2094 Words | 5 Pages. Survival in Night Night by admission essay and answers Elie Wiesel is business plan d, a memoir. Night is about Elie’s life in a World War 2 concentration camp . and how he survived. Write! Surviving through something like this takes a lot out of someone. Having a community to be by someone’s side throughout this challenge in life really helps a person. Having a family that a person knows will never give up on them or keeping the religion that they know that something will always be there to believe in or those leaders that give a single person the.
Auschwitz concentration camp , Dawn , Elie Wiesel 1125 Words | 3 Pages.
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A Modest Proposal Critical Essays. A Modest Proposal Jonathan Swift. This entry presents criticism of Swift's 1729 satire A Modest Proposal for Preventing the Children of the Poor People from Being a Burthen to Their Parents, or the Country, and for Making Them Beneficial to the Publick. See also Gulliver's Travels Criticism (1726). A Modest Proposal is considered one of the finest examples of satire in world literature. Written in the persona of business, a well-intentioned economist and published in the form of a popular pamphlet, the tract argues that the problem of poverty in essay comparing and contrasting, Ireland can best be remedied by selling the plan, children of the poor as food for research paper spies, the wealthy. This outlandish thesis is a manifestation of Swift's outrage at plan what he saw as the essay, scandalous economic and political policies of the d, Irish and English governments, and the author uses the research paper spies, assumed voice of the plan, economist, an abundance of detail, literalized metaphors, and other ironic and parodic techniques to essay and answers, devastating effect. At the same time Swift directs his satire at Protestant-Catholic divisions, contemporary economic theories, and other targets.
A Modest Proposal has long been judged an incomparable work of rhetorical brilliance, and it continues to garner new readers and additional critical attention to this day. Jonathan Swift was born in Dublin, Ireland, on November 30, 1667 to plan, Abigaile Erick Swift, seven months after the death of his father, Jonathan Swift, Sr. Swift graduated from Trinity College in Dublin in paper write, 1686. As he was born of English parents, Swift was anxious to distance himself from Ireland, and he moved to England in 1689—the first of many relocations between England and Ireland. While living at plan Moor Park in England, Swift served as a secretary to Sir William Temple, and it was there that he began his writing career. After receiving his Master of Arts degree from Oxford University in 1692, Swift was ordained into the Church of Ireland in 1694 and was stationed as prebendary of Kilroot, a poor town in northern Ireland. He disliked the experience, and two years later he returned to gcse magazines, Moor Park, where he remained until Temple's death in 1699.
Swift subsequently returned to Dublin, where he would remain until 1710, though he traveled often to London. Although he originally supported the Whigs, Swift was eventually won over by the Tories due to their support of the Church of Ireland's position regarding taxation. Swift served as the business d, Tory ministry's main political writer, culminating in 1710, when he was asked to take responsibility for directing the Tory journal The Examiner. In 1713 he was appointed dean of St. Patrick's Cathedral. One year later King George I succeeded the late Queen Anne, and the newly appointed Whig government took over. Swift was left with no opportunity for further political involvement, and therefore returned to Dublin, where, over the next two decades, he became increasingly engaged in the Irish political landscape and wrote the majority of his most influential political satire. Swift, a longtime sufferer of thesis satisfaction, aphasia and Meniere's syndrome, remained at St. Patrick's Cathedral until 1742, when he was placed under the care of a guardian.
He died in Dublin on October 19, 1745, and is buried in the middle aisle of St. Patrick's Cathedral. In A Modest Proposal Swift adopts the persona of a concerned economist who suggests that, in order to business plan d, better combat the poverty and overpopulation of Ireland, the children of the poor be sold as food to the wealthy. As a result, he argues, not only will the paper spies, population be reduced, but the income of the poor will increase significantly as they sell their children. Business Plan. In developing this outrageous thesis, Swift provides abundant detail, projecting the costs of on life, child rearing (which will be saved if the child is eaten), estimating the portion of the population affected, and even providing specific ideas regarding the number of servings a child might provide. Business D. He suggests that the meat of the children of Ireland would be considered a delicacy to both the English and to paper write, Irish landowners, and d would therefore be highly sought after for feasts and special occasions.
Throughout, Swift's satire relies on the persona of the on resume, economist, an ostensiblly well-meaning visionary whose sympathy for the poor leads him suggest a remedy of murderous cruelty. His arguments, rationally presented, support a profoundly irrational proposition, and their appalling callousness radically undermine their benevolent intent. Swift uses the absurd thesis of A Modest Proposal to attack contemporary English and Irish politics. He focuses on business plan d the metaphorical “devouring” of Ireland's resources by England's policies and by wealthy Irish landowners, literalizing the metaphor to media magazines, attack the positions of both parties. At its core, his suggestion is that the English and the wealthy landowners of Ireland are causing the poverty and misery of the population.
Swift's satire is by plan d turns oblique and direct; in one instance he suggests that, while the meat of children likely could not withstand preservation in salt for long sea voyages, he “could name a country which would be glad to eat up our whole nation without it.” His allusion to England (deriving from its close proximity) also directly assaults the English misuse of Ireland. Swift does not spare Ireland, however. At one point he presents a list of alternative solutions to Ireland's problems, none of which were ever attempted. In the process he emphasizes the number and extent of on resume, Ireland's social ills and the indifference and neglect with which they have been treated. At the same time, through the use of the adopted persona, Swift also satirizes those who propose solutions to political and economic issues without consideration of the plan, human cost involved. With devastating irony, Swift shows the inhumanity of schemes for alleviating the suffering of the poor that are solely based on rational principles. Somewhat surprisingly, A Modest Proposal received little sustained critical attention until the twentieth century.
Most early critics extolled the work but treated it only briefly, judging it to be in a unique class of thesis satisfaction, its own and therefore difficult to analyze. In the twentieth century scholars began to see the tract as more than a simple attack on particular conditions in Ireland, but as a penetrating interrogation of the political and economic theories that gave rise to those conditions. In his 1943 analysis of A Modest Proposal, George Wittkowski argued that the work's comedic parody obscured for earlier critics its examination of political affairs. Since then, sociopolitical interpretations of business plan, Swift's satire—such as those by research paper Oliver W. Ferguson, Robert Mahoney, and John Richardson—have vied with analyses of its brilliant deployment of plan, rhetorical strategies—including those of Samuel J. Rogal, Denis Donoghue, and Wayne C. Booth—to account for its enduring power. By consensus, however, A Modest Proposal, is deemed a masterpiece and a stunning example of the satirist's art. Write. Access our A Modest Proposal Study Guide for Free. Plan D. A Modest Proposal Homework Help Questions. Your original question contained two questions.
You are not allowed to ask multiple questions in enotes, so I have edited the second question and will focus on your first. Please remember to only. The purpose of Swift's satirical essay is to gcse media magazines, call attention to the problems that were being experienced by the people of Ireland. He wanted the plan d, English (who ruled Ireland) to realize what they. A Modest Proposal by bolding on resume Jonathan Swift is a satirical piece on how to deal with the poor’s problems. Basically, “Swift suggests that impoverished Irish might ease their economic troubles by.
The ethos, pathos and logos are persuasive appeals. Logos is the plan d, idea of a logical argument. I believe no Gentleman would repine to give Ten Shillings for the Carcass of a good fat Child. A Modest Proposal by Jonathan Swift is poems, a prime example of plan d, satire. Satire is questions, defined as the use of humor, irony, exaggeration or ridicule to expose and criticise people's stupidity and vices.
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People thought I was a bit of a wet blanket, but they did tone it down around me and plan d, I hope that thought twice before making. Classification of Facebook friends Facebook has been a hit with social-networking website users regardless their age, race, geographical settings to this extent. The existence of other social-networking websites has never been able to compete with Facebook. Facebook users have always logged on to the. Sarahlee Dias September 13, 2008 Criminal Justice Persuasive Essay Not many people know that jaywalking is one of the most common laws broken in the United States today.
Jaywalking is when someone commits the act of crossing the street without using the cross walk. Paper Spies. Jaywalking is so common that law. being a goody-goody as I got older. I started hanging out with a different crowd than the one I grew up with and knew for years. With these new friends I began skipping school, getting bad grades, and business, caring less for basketball; all of which were unusual for me. My young brain was telling me change. active child and essay comparing poems, participated in outdoor sports along with good exercise daily. One of the plan sports he enjoyed and participated in was boxing, until he lost his sight in one eye during a match. (Burns, James MacGregor. Three Roosevelts, The. Admission Questions And Answers. New York: Atlantic Monthly Press, 2001.) Although Roosevelt’s. Against All Gods, Six Polemics on Religion and business d, an Essay on Kindness.
oberon masters series A C Grayling AGAINST ALL GODS Six Polemics on Religion and an Essay on Kindness oberon books london First published in 2007 by Oberon Books Ltd 521 Caledonian Road, London N7 9RH Tel: 020 7607 3637 / Fax: 020 7607 3629 e-mail: [email protected] www.oberonbooks. 09/08/13 The Occasional Essay : Redefining Value As a writer sits and bolding, processes, they hold the strongest thing in their hand which is a pencil. A pencil allows a writer to express their true feelings towards a subject and d, struggle through a topic together. This pencil is research spies, our friend in this process. Contemplating. Title: Critique of the essay titled The Mall as Prison by David Guterson. manner of a walled city and exuding the ambience of a monstrous hallucination to explain how easy it would be for plan d, one to on resume get lost inside. It seems that this idea of d, getting lost in the shopping mall was a deliberate attempt by the mall owners to bolding keep customers inside for as long as possible. Guterson.
A Best Friend is. “Some people come into our lives and quickly go. Some stay for a while and leave footprints on our hearts. Plan. And we are never ever the admission and answers same” (Unknown). What is a “best friend ”? Almost everyone has one, and almost everyone is business d, one. Gcse. There’s something about plan d a best friend. you discovered that your weapon was not in your possession. You immediately informed your Section Leader and began searching the comparing and contrasting local area for your lost weapon. Under the direction of your Platoon Sergeant and Section Leader, and with the assistance of your fellow Soldiers, the plan d weapon was found in the. Hiro Nukaga 1/20/08 Mice and Men essay [[rewrite]] Pre-IB Freshman English Teschner People are obliged in poems, many ways. I am obliged to do my homework and carry out different tasks. D. I believe that almost everyone is obliged to something.
And I also believe that there are things that all people should. Essay It is commonly said that words influence people to do things which they never imagined to bolding on resume do. In the play “Julius Caesar,” Caesar’s best friend , Brutus, was persuaded about Caesar and he killed Caesar which he never imagined to do. Words are more powerful then sword and they are used as weapon. MBA6001 How Mattel’s Barbie Lost Unit VII Case Study. MBA6001 How Mattel’s Barbie Lost Unit VII Case Study Click Link Below To Buy: http://hwaid.com/shop/mba6001-how-mattels-barbie- lost -unit-vii-case-study/ Read the d case study, How Mattel’s Barbie Lost the research spies War against the Bratz Doll, on pages 361-362 in business, the course textbook, and compose a persuasive. Essay #1 Throughout most of my adult life I had always been intrigued and interested in Real Estate. Paper. I found myself at work playing on the internet on sites like Realtor.com looking searching for homes for no reason at plan d all. My family had always encouraged me to get my Real Estate license and become. Persuasive Essay on Social Networking: Con. PERSUASIVE ESSAY ON SOCIAL NETWORKING: CON In today’s society, billions of people across the world are accessing the internet multiple times a day.
Why wouldn’t they? Many people have the internet on their smart phones, and at the touch of a button can check their email, their Facebook, their bank. Give Me Liberty or Give Me Death - Essay. notion that these famous words did indeed come out of Patrick Henry’s mouth. Satisfaction. They argue that the sentiments so closely parallel other speeches and essays by plan Henry that no one else could have spoken them. Comparing. There are also references to business the phrase in documents that precede by many years the actual publishing. ?Running Man Analytical Essay How effectively does Bauer explore the resilience of the paper write human spirit in this novel? Despite experiencing trauma in our lives, we are all capable of bouncing back from adversity.
Bauer effectively explores the resilience to plan d do that through his characters in ‘The Running. Write an essay on television The role of television in modern life Outline: 1. Introduction 2. Bolding. Disadvantages i. Vulgar pleasure ii. No more family life iii. No more outdoor activities iv. Business Plan D. No more fairy tales v. Research Paper. makes us lazy and careless vi. Children neglect their studies vii.
Causes. against the business plan other men just to magazines humiliate them with his superior strength. During the course of the d story we learn about Gilgamesh’s travels with his friend Enkidu, who was sent by the gods in bolding, an attempt to d make Gilgamesh be a better leader and less of a tyrant towards his people. There are many instances. 05 Lost in the Kitchen an essay by Dave Barry Men are still basically scum when it comes to helping out in research spies, the kitchen. This is one of the two insights I had last Thanksgiving, the other one being that Thanksgiving night must be the slowest night of the year in business plan, terms of human sexual activity.
First. Anatomy Physiology Short Answer Essays. ? ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY SHORT ANSWER ESSAY Answers of Chapter 2 – Basic Chemistry 1.Because your entire body is made up of chemicals and chemical reactions underlie all body processes. A person needs this background to satisfaction understand body functions. 2.Matter is anything that occupies space. Sha Luo Essay for business d, Oscar Wao We are changing each and every day in our life as we grow older.
At youth, most of us are happy because we don’t know anything and there isn’t much to worry about. As we grow up, everything around us had changed, so does us. Admission. The way we think, the things we want, and the. Story of Lost Friends - Analysis of Ruskin Bond's Works. describing the influence of any two friends on the writer. Nostalgia is the keynote of Ruskin Bond’s poem. Lost in reminiscences, the poet traces the business plan d passage of time through the most memorable of his childhood years, spent in in the company of friends ( now lost to him.)From among those most dear to. Character Trait Essay- the Necklace. Character Trait Essay The Necklace In 'The Necklace' by Guy de Maupassant, Madame Mathlide Loisel is on resume, a dynamic character who starts of business, as a middle class lady and by the end she was deprived.
Some people are happy and proud of the life they were born into bolding on resume or the life they worked hard. The Justice System Has Lost Their Way. 1 The justice system has lost their true meaning Jessica Bodily Axia college of business plan, University of Phoenix Justice System 2 The justice system has lost their true meaning In my expository essay I am going to talk about questions why I think the justice system has lost their way. I am going to give. Hitler Youth Essay – Modern History Hypothesis: With the support of the d Hitler Youth, Adolf Hitler was trying to completely fulfil his dreams of “Lebensraum” as outlined in “Mein Kampf”.
Therefore the real purpose behind the Hitler youth was to make the German youth obedient, fit, physically strong. 02 The Day I Got Lost 1. In the day I got lost there was a man whose name was Professor Shlemiel. Professor Shlemiel is a very forgetful man; he is constantly misplacing and forgetting to essay comparing and contrasting pick up his belongings. On his birthday he forgets where he lives so he calls his friends but there all at his. Unit 6 Critical Analysis Essay Grade: _____/100 Directions: Compose a critical analysis essay that focuses on an essay's theme and how the literary elements contribute to the development of the d theme. Your critical analysis essay must focus on one of the following essays : How to Write with Style. English essay Alexandra Clancy. The concept of change can be expressed in research, various ways through different texts.
The novel About a boy by Nick Hornby written in 1998 describes a story that gave an indepth insight into 1990’s pop culture. About a boy is about a man-child named Will and a very mature. Critical Essay On Liz Brent’s Critical Essay on “What We Talk About When We Talk About Love” Critical Essay On Liz Brent’s Critical Essay on “What We Talk About When We Talk About Love” Liz Brent starts out by business plan saying that George Carver is research paper, known for his minimalist writing style. Meaning the dialogue in his stories is the business bulk of the content in his books, with minimal use of descriptions. Charlie Gordon Essay In the story “Flowers for Algernon” by Daniel Keyes, the main character, Charlie Gordon, is very dynamic. He has to undergo many changes throughout the story, some of them were advantageous, but some of them were unfortunate. Paper. Originally. Final Persuasive Essay You and your little brother live on the streets. Business. You have no parent, no home, and no money. Both of you are starving and would do anything to get your hands on some food.
All you want is a little nibble for essay poems, your baby brother so you can satisfy his growling stomach and business plan d, put. ? Descriptive Essays vs. Narrative Essays Many people have different preferences on what type of writing style they think is more superior to another, I believe descriptive writing to coursework magazines be more excellent writing style then narrative. I can tell you that there are a few similarities and a few differences. academic essay Below are 4 samples of good essays . Band 4 or 5. Band 6 essays will demonstrate a much better command of linguistic fluency and accuracy as well as show more mature and critical thinking skills. FYI: I'm sticking to business d my writing template so that the research paper write organisation of your essay is business plan, clearer.
people’s jobs are lost as a result of new technologies could be productive, but without a connection to a larger argument, this attempt at analysis accomplishes very little. Development and essay questions and answers, Support = 1 There are few attempts to develop the ideas in this response. Rather, the essay consists largely. Oliver Goldsmith’s essays reflect two significant literary transitions of the late eighteenth century. The larger or more general of these was the beginning of the gradual evolution of d, Romanticism from the Neoclassicism of the previous one hundred years. Oppressed by the heavy “rule of reason” and ideas. culture, religion etc. # Facebook is best for finding Old friends . When a friend goes away to any other place, we often don't get the chance to communicate with him or her. Paper. But now Facebook gives us the opportunity to business d communicate with our Old friend very easily without any cost. Bolding. # We can share our feelings. Brandon King 04-16-2013 Tue-Thur 9:25-10:40 Descriptive Essay My best friend Nick was thinking about moving out of his mom’s house and was looking for a nice cheap house. And I referred him to a few but they where just a little bit out of business plan d, his price range, but the next day he called me. ? SAMPLE ESSAY (MLA Style) cover page (may not be required by some instructors) What Limits to questions Freedom?
Freedom of Expression and the Brooklyn Museum’s “Sensation” Exhibit by Melissa Davis all text centered Prof. K.D. Smith Humanities 205 16 May 2009 85 03f-BGtW-AmEd 85-106. between the two texts, and they both depict very different versions of teenage life. My essay will reflect the changing characteristics of the antihero, and how the need for a teenage antihero is ever present. My essay will include reference to business the different values prized in contemporary antiheroes, in. ended? What emotion has had more plays, songs, and stories written about it than anything else? Love, that one emotion that makes enemies into spies friends and business, friends into enemies. Essay Comparing And Contrasting Poems. So many legends surround this emotion, from the goddess Athena and Helen of Troy to Shakespeare's Romeo and Juliet. Love comes.
Personal and plan d, Cultural Identity in Things Fall Apart and “I Lost My Talk” Thursday, January 17 Personal and essay and answers, Cultural Identity in business plan, Things Fall Apart and “I Lost My Talk” Identity can be explained as the state or fact of being a specific person or thing. [definition is good, but needs to be more specific] A specific person or thing can be defined by his/her. Grace Ren Mr. Kotlarcyck Mod 6-7/8 9 March 2012 The Animal Within: Naturalism in a Lost Lady History and bolding, literature have developed in d, a parallel manner, as organisms often co-evolve with each other. With the publication of Darwin’s groundbreaking work, the Origin of Species, a new group of people. Essays in on life satisfaction, Love is a novel about two young people, who meet on an airplane between London and Paris and rapidly fall in plan d, love. Gcse Magazines. The structure of the story isn’t unusual, but what lends the business book its interest is the extraordinary depth with which the emotions involved in research paper spies, the relationship are analysed. Love. Essay 1 Drunk driving should be prevented at all costs. There are multiple reasons why no one should get behind the wheel while being intoxicated. I strongly wish everyone would be more serious about drunk driving because of many reasons.
You are not only putting yourself in danger but you are also. Narrative Essay Vs. Business Plan. Descriptive Essay. Narrative Essays Are a Great Read Name ENG121 Professor June 16, 2014 Narrative Essays Are a Great Read Narrative essays and essay comparing, Descriptive essays can be similar but they are different in nature. The narrative essay “I Want a Wife” is more compelling than the descriptive essay “Homeless”. The Uneasy Alliance Between the Sacred and the Secular in Milton's Paradise Lost. In this essay I intend to evince John Milton’s conflation of the Biblical and the Classical in his magnum opus, Paradise Lost , and investigate his reasons for juxtaposing the sacred with the profane.
I will also be drawing ideas and argument from Thomas N. Business D. Corns and essay comparing and contrasting poems, his essay , The English Epic, in business plan d, order. The Friends of Facebook We have all become addicted to spies social media, whether it be Instagram, Twitter or Facebook almost everyone has an account on one or all three. What is it that draws us in? Is it the attention or satisfaction you feel when your profile picture reaches 200 likes or seeing the. Lee letters previously unavailable to business plan d scholars, but she also returns to familiar ones published and unpublished, as well as those penned by family, friends , comrades, even enemies, all with fresh eyes. Letters were extremely important to research paper Lee, particularly as he embarked on his long career in the army. argumantative essay about plan d social media. and the individuals who are married or have kids are regularly deciding to bolding on resume spend time checking their profiles instead of investing time with their friends and family. There is most likely there are sure social profits to these locales; numerous individuals say we require them to stay in contact with companions.
Lost Generation of All Quiet on plan d the Western Front. The Lost Generation of All Quiet on the Western Front Erich Maria Remarque wrote All Quiet on the Western Front in 1929. Remarque’s novel chronicles a group of coursework magazines, classmates who, at the urging of their schoolteacher, enlists in the German army during World War I, then known as The Great War. The.
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essay enotes I marked the quote: Was this music, or just background noise (1st sentance, second paragraph) because it is business, such an unusual and interisting question. This is the research write point in the essay where I'm really interisted in reading what this author has to say; I have never thought of plan d, this question myself, but yet it is such a fresh way of thinking about all that noise that exists in our lives. I marked this primarly because this is the kind of surprising question/idea that I would like to explore in a personal essay. I also appriciated how the spies author spends a couple paragraphs explaining the emotional strings attached to music and how this has affected different moments in history. I feel that by bringing these points up he adds some more depth and importance to d, the question (above) that he's trying to explore. If he had left these paragraphs out, I would have still read and liked the essay, but at essay, the end of it, I would have felt like, well, that's interisting, but why's it important? The quote, Secondhand music enters our minds, speaking a lanquage that we understand, even if we don't consciously listen is business d, interisting because this is such a good, yet creepy, conclusion that can be supported by thesis, what the business author has found about sound and its relation to admission essay, our emotions. Business? I feel like this is such a satisfying conclusion that has been well developed and on life built by the author; it offers a new idea about something that most of us ignore.
I think that this essay's theme has to do with the importance of really listening and noticing the business things that seep into our everyday lives. Seemingly unimportant or unnoticable things, like background noise, have the potential to disrupt or negativly shape life around us. I believe that the author wants his reader to begin noticing these small factors so that he can change them and improve his life--listen to what you hear--and, if necessary, go out and get a new refrigerator. What this music means as an accompaniment to a day in the office -- or a night in on life satisfaction bed, for business d, that matter -- is worth considering This quote underlines the idea that things affect you when you are not paying attention. Even if you have no idea that it is happening, tiny aspects of essay questions and answers, your life conspire to manipulate your emotions, mood, etc. I marked the beginning of the second page, where it talks about government censorship of music, because this also highlights the plan d power of the background, and how the background can be manipulated for control, etc. Also, this reminded me of Things Fall Apart , when many Africans only accepted Christianity after hearing gospel songs. The music acted on their emotions, and prompted them to convert when they ordinarily probably wouldn't have. Background noise is not just background noise. Secondhand music enters our minds, speaking a language that we understand, even if we don't consciously listen.
I thought that this quote basically summed up interesting idea that the essay presented. It makes you think about on resume things that you don't normally notice, and how maybe a good portion of what affects you day-to-day, is things that you don't even notice. She: Portrait of the Essay as a Warm Body by Cynthia Ozick. This piece is in plan d total contrast to how I normally precieve an essay. Essay And Contrasting Poems? Ozick states that the essay, is the movement of business, a free mind at play, yet I have never felt this way. The word essay makes me think of the struggle I normally face in comparing and contrasting poems finding quotes, and hammering out business sentances about media a book or a theme of a book--I usually associate essay-writing with writing that is assigned, not writing that flows from my imagination.
This piece, makes me feel more warmly to d, the word essay. I also noticed the media coursework quote, the essay does not allow us to plan, forget our usual sensations and opinions. It does something even more potent: it makes us deny them. This is questions and answers, a new idea that I had never connected to the essay either. The same is true for plan, the passage: the genuine essay may be the most self-centered. arena for human thought ever devised. While this piece makes me more excited to write an essay, it also confuses me. Admission Essay? I don't understand how these ideas can realate to business d, an analytical essay about an author or book--is this piece talking just about personal opinion essays? Both of these pieces re-shape how I normally think of essays. I usually associated essays with stiff writing that doesn't necessarily relate to a theme.
These two pieces have opened a new way in which essays can be creative and explore topics that truly interist me. I marked the beginning: An essay is a thing of the essay imagination. it is the plan d movement of satisfaction, a free mind at play. Also, . if there is an opinion, one need not trust it for the long run. These make me think about how it is to read an essay, and be completely absorbed by what is going on in someone else's mind. When this happens to me, I forget about my own opinions, and find myself just floating along with the author. Business Plan? For instance, the quotes from bolding Hazlitt and Emerson: they say completely different things, but as I read each of them I am not thinking about myself very clearly, so I understand and agree with both.
It is like a crazy trip as the business plan d authors mind meanders, slipping from one impression to another, from reality to memory to on life satisfaction, dreamscape and back again. To seize the hum and sit it down fo others to hear is the essayist's genius. The essayist is writes the things that everybody thinks sort of in the back of their minds. When reading essays helps in expanding your view of the business d world, because you may encounter ways of looking at things that would never have occurred to admission and answers, you. The essay is, as we say, personal. Business Plan? Personal thoughts are able to make me think about things from other people's vantage points. This helps me in formulating new ideas of my own, etc. Kirsten's three essay topic ideas: 1) My love of jelly filled doughnut--the taste, texture, and enjoyment that goes into savoring the occasional sweet--will tie to a theme regarding how people have begun growing dissassociated from on life satisfaction their food (eating bland diet food, food that may be healthy, but that offers no flavor), and business d how it's sometimes more important to gcse magazines, have something that you truly love every once and awhile. 2) Noticing how a week can pass and at the end of it, I can't remember what I've done or accomplished--relate to theme of how people can end up sleep walking through the day and d how this can result in wasting moments of your life.
3) My expierence here of trying to blend in compleatly--look swedish, act the same, and admission questions and answers not be noticed, like while I'm shopping, as an American--could relate to theme of our (?, maybe just my?) desire to shed an d, old identity in order to discover a new one. (I think that this is sort of similar to a question you assigined us to write a 2 paragraph answer to last year that asked about something like this. I also wasn't sure if this might be a better topic to write about when I return from Sweden because this is still a pretty new expierence and I don't know exactly how everything will turn out. What is your (class) opinion?) Kathryn's three essay topic ideas: 1) What it means to research write, accept change, and how little things affect your future and who you become as a person. Business Plan? Sometimes I am more than ready for things to change, but sometimes changes catch me off guard and I feel traumatized, like I am losing something ( some part of me). 2) In going with the basic idea of Secondhand Music, how light affects you. Like in our school, verses the full-spectrum lights the schools in Alaska has. How I feel like crap in the dressing rooms at admission and answers, Old Navy, but very flattered in Banana Republic. A sunny day verses a rainy one, etc.
3) How who we are is plan, essentially a collection of bolding on resume, memories. What it means to business plan, forget something, or to remember. How you change. Bailey's three essay topic ideas: 1. Thinking or picturing something going well will heighten the probability that it will go well. 2. Does the coursework idea of politicians bashing one another add a negative or positive mark upon their morals and business plan character. 3. The Number 23- How movies can impact peoples lives or shed light on certain ideas. After seeing the movie- we went insane trying to find links with the number 23.
What does Bernard's essay have to do with writing? (How do preconceived ideas affect what you write?) I think that Bernard's essay realates to writing in that when starting to write a piece, some idea of what you want to write about or what you believe would be a good theme must be present. This is like the pre-concieved idea that a scientist must have in order to begin an write, expierment. But it's important to allow your writing and the direction that the piece takes to go where it may. While writing, it might be okay to keep your pre-concieved idea in plan d mind, but the piece shouldn't be forced to fit into the idea that you originally thought of--like an expieremnt's data sholdn't have to be bent in media coursework magazines order to match the plan original hypothesis. For example, when I have written essays or personal opinions pieces in the past, I start out with an idea of what I want to say and what I think the theme should be--my pre-concieved idea. But as I start writing, the piece may not quite fit with what I had first thought would be written, so I had to allow the writing to just follow whatever shape it was taking and then reviese what I wanted the essay and contrasting piece to say or mean. Otherwise, the writing sounds forced. In order to begin writing, it is necessary to have some sort of inspiration or idea.
You cannot begin a piece without some preconceived ideas about what you want it to be. Once you begin, however, the elements may not fit together how you thought they would, and you have to make changes. Sometimes the whole idea of the piece may change. It is not possible to write when you are just trying to fulfill the idea that you had to start with. A writer must start out business d with an idea of what he is going to thesis, write about-pre-conceived idea, but then as he writes he must let the paper and business its ideas take shape and go in the direction where it needs to go, not necessarily what you want it to say. Don't force a paper to go somewhere-let it flow to where the ideas take it. The writer needs to learn from pieces he or she writes. S/he needs to correct past mistakes in bolding new pieces. Preconceived ideas are necessary in writing because the writer has to have an idea of what to write about, but, like Bernard said, the preconceived idea can be bad if the writer allows it to block his/her new understanding of other ideas. How must a writer approach an essay topic? I believe that a writer has to first notice something in the world that intrigues him--an observation or just an business plan d, interisting idea.
Then the writer needs to research paper, be able to think about why he is curious about this observation or idea, then evaluate how or why it might also be important or affect his readers' lives or they way they precieve the world around them. As I said above, the writer must have an idea that prompts him to write. Business Plan? He then must gather material; from his mind, data, etc. As he gathers material and begins, he must constantly re-evaluate his original idea, so that he can form a coherent piece of writing. First they must reflect upon thesis the idea.. Business Plan? Where is it going, what does it mean in greater perspective. First the thesis satisfaction writer needs to observe whatever s/he decided to plan, write about. Paper? Then s/he needs to business d, decide what specifically about the topic s/he will write. Why did we read The Telltale Heart? Well, besides its being a classic and a very well known story, I imagine that we read it because it relates to how pre concived ideas can disrupt, or in this case, ruin a person (see below). The Telltale Heart is an example of someone's absolute conviction that everything taking place in his mind is fact.
He does not really operate based on responses to what is media magazines, happening around him; he acts only on his personal ideas. To see how pre-conceived ideas can alter or change a person or push them to business plan, do something, see something or think something that may not be completely right. How does Poe's story relate to Bernard's essay? Both Bernard's essay and Poe's story are talking about pre concieved ideas. Bernard's essay describes how a pre concieved idea can turn the results of an and contrasting, expierment into something false. If a scientist observes an expierment with a pre-concieved idea of how it will result, he will inevidably bend what he sees to plan d, fit what he believes should happen.
Poe's story is similar in this idea. The narrator says: It is impossible to research, say how first the idea entered my brain; but once conceived, it haunted me day and d night. (p. 3) This idea that the old man's eye is evil is the narrator's pre concieved idea. Essay? Because he believes that something is true, everything else around him changes to fit what he believes, ultimatly leading him to business plan, murder the old man out of essay, insanity. In Bernard's essay, he argues that observation must be impartial, so that when reason is applied, everything will be taken into account. In The Telltale Heart , the main character does not observe what happens, and then draw logical conclusions.
He is completely convinced that his ideas about business d things are correct, despite evidence that may point to gcse media coursework, the contrary. This method of operation, which is business d, the opposite of what Bernard advocates, leads to satisfaction, his destruction. Both relate to the idea of preconceived ideas. Bernard's essay says how an experiment can be changed by plan d, preconceived ideas, maybe leading it into the wrong direction. Essay And Contrasting Poems? Pre-conceived ideas can make a person see only d, what they want to on life satisfaction, see or only truly see something that benefits them. In Poe's story, the narrator thinks that the old man's eye is evil (pre-conceived) which leads him to plan, killing the man. Comparing And Contrasting Poems? Because he believes the eye is business plan d, evil--nothing will cause him to change that already decided upon on resume idea.
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