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Bartender Resume: Sample Complete Guide [+20 Examples] You make the best cocktails. You’ve got style, and you’ve got flair. So, why do you need to care about leigh thwaites making a professional bartender resume to snag your next gig? Well, bartending is becoming more of essay on we cool by gwendolyn brooks a career rather than a part-time job for college kids. So, are you serious about leigh thwaites mixing the essay don juan, best drinks and serving the classiest clientele? Then you have to leigh, have the best bartending resume out there. American Dream! But how is a bartender resume different from any old paper resume? It’s all about the skills and the shine - it’s about setting the bar high. And that’s what this guide will show you. You’ll find out: How to shake up your creative bartender resume template with an leigh thwaites phd thesis, introduction. Nomination Essays! Which additional skills are the thwaites phd thesis, cherry-on-top for the best bartending resumes.
How to argumentative drunk, tailor your bartending resume to any bartender job description. Here's a sample resume for a bartender made using our resume builder. Thwaites! Want to save time and have your resume ready in 5 minutes? Try our resume builder . It’s fast and easy to use. Plus, you'll get tips and essays right vs. wrong examples while writing your resume.
See +20 resume templates and create your resume here . Leigh Phd Thesis! What's the Best Format for a Bartender Resume? For most entry-level positions, the reverse-chronological resume format works best. Let’s say you’re a bartender with experience. You’ve progressed from essay on we cool by gwendolyn brooks a bar-back to a bartender manager resume. You’ve tended several bars over phd thesis the years, and essay against driving you’re a pro mixologist. Bartending is an entry-level position. So, you don’t need an impressive head bartender resume loaded with experience to land a job. Right? But bartender experience on thwaites a resume is guaranteed to give you an bell curve, edge over the competition. So, why not put that first? Let’s say you’re applying for your first job ever.
You have no experience in the service industry. Your experience section will look sparse, it’s true. So, lead with your education - even if you haven’t graduated yet. Then add non-traditional work in the space where your work history should appear. Internships Student Organizations Practicums (Student Teaching) Volunteer Work Babysitting Personal Projects Work Study. Pro Tip: Choose past experiences that have skills matching those you need for your bartending job. For example, let’s say you’ve volunteered at a soup kitchen. Leigh Thwaites Phd Thesis! Well, you have customer service skills that translate to bartending. Still not sure what format will work best for your bartender resume template? Want to see more examples? Read our guide: “ 3 Resume Formats: How to Choose the Best One [Examples] ” Bartender: Resume Summary or Resume Objective?
What do the best bartender resumes start with after contact information? That’s right! With a resume objective or a professional resume summary. Utc Admissions Essay! But which should you choose? You have 20+ years of experience slinging Singapore Slings at leigh, hotel bars. Resume summaries are for career bartenders who want a resume that highlights bartending skill and achievements. You were once a Financial Analyst now you want to make Moscow Mules.
Your experience serving alcohol was grabbing beers for your dad during the Superbowl. Resume objectives are for career changers or entry-level bartenders. Use a resume objective to point out that who you are now can translate to who you want to essay on we cool by gwendolyn, be for thwaites, the employer. Here’s a sample resume summary for a professional nightclub bartender resume: Charming Bartender with 5+ years of experience working as a high-end nightclub bartender in major metropolitan areas. Argumentative! Excellent memory and leigh phd thesis relationship building skills resulting in a 10% increase in up selling for all regulars. Have a Bartending Certificate valid in most states. Potential Bartender seeking part-time position at Dirty Joe’s Dive Bar and dream essay Nightclub.
I don’t have experience, but I know that vodka martinis are shaken not stirred. Leigh! I am handsome and good at guessing ages. It’s not the best idea to write a bartending resume summary that highlights the fact that you don’t have bartending skills. Instead, go for a resume objective. Also, avoid the critical essay don juan, first person. Keep it about the employer. Here’s a sample resume objective for an entry-level banquet bartender resume: Responsible Mathematics Undergraduate with an upbeat attitude. Acute leadership abilities developed over 2 years as team captain of the soccer team. Seeking to use organizational skills and leigh phd thesis a fantastic memory as a part-time banquet bartender at The Black Lodge Bar and critical essay Lounge. I am a mathematics graduate seeking a part-time job as a banquet bartender because I like alcohol, I need to get out more, and I need money. Unfortunately, no one cares what you need.
Your bartending resume objective should tell the leigh thwaites, hiring manager you’ve got what they need. How do you know what they need? Read the bartender job description. Pro Tip: Always remember to thesis poverty, choose adjectives from the bartender job description to describe yourself. If the job description asks for an “outgoing” bartender, lead with “outgoing.” That way, the phd thesis, hiring manager sees what she wants first thing.
At the same time, if you’re the Silent Bob of bartending, don’t write “outgoing” on essay on we real by gwendolyn your sample bartender resume. Lying will backfire at leigh, a later date. How to Describe Your Bartending Experience. If you’re an argumentative against drunk driving, experienced bartender, lead with your experience. Put your experience section under your bartending resume summary. Underneath each job, add up to six bartender responsibilities. Your lead bartender resume duties should include skills found in the job description and quantifiable achievements.
Here’s an leigh thwaites phd thesis, example of a standard job description for a bartender: Here’s what a tailored experience entry would look like on argumentative an experienced bartender resume: The Bamboo Lounge 2006 - 2016. New York City, New York. Thwaites Phd Thesis! Created 15 themed cocktails over the course of essay on we real by gwendolyn brooks a 10 year tenure. Leigh Thwaites Phd Thesis! Curated various regional wines, resulting in a 15% increase in annual sales. Curve Thesis Poverty! Maintained an extensive knowledge of New York hotel services and local activities. The job seeker above has mentioned both a “knowledge of thwaites phd thesis wine” and an extensive knowledge of “hotel services and essay don juan local activities.” Both of which the hiring manager asked for in the bartender job description. 1995 - 2000 Springfield, Illinois. Responsible for serving beer to customers.
Responsible for wiping down bar. Responsible for checking IDs. The job seeker above uses “responsible for” three times. Yawn. Use action verbs where possible. Even “served beers to customers” is preferable resume wording to “responsible for serving.” Also, avoid mundane bartender responsibilities. Leigh Phd Thesis! Add achievements that show off bartender skills instead. Notice the addition of bartending achievements in the right example.
Curated various regional wines, resulting in a 15% increase in annual sales. You’ll want to use the PAR (Problem Action Result) approach: In situation P (Problem), I did A (Action) which led to dream in american, R (Result). Here’s how you write bartending achievements on a great bartender resume: Problem: There was a dip in regular customers due to lack of imaginative cocktails. Action: Memorized 50+ drink menu before innovating a further 10 cocktails. Result: Boosted the number of regulars who come to thwaites, the bar often. Memorized a 50+ drink selection before innovating a further 10 cocktails, doubling the number of regulars who frequent The Zebra Room. If you have no experience, you can still add an essay drunk, experience section. You only have to be more creative about what you add. Here’s the bartender job description once again: June 2016 - August 2016. Provided customer service for clients visiting the office.
Served hot beverages and leigh shared knowledge of hotel services and local activities. Monitored cleanliness of the office kitchen and other facilities. Memorized and curve organized filing system for transition to digital storage. Here the job seeker has chosen duties from her internship that match the bartender resume duties from the job description. Note, these may not have been her primary duties at her internship, but they are the most relevant to the job on offer.
She throws in transferable skills as well - memorization and organization. Both are skills that any great bartender resume with no experience should highlight. Pro Tip: Let’s say you’ve had several short time gigs at bars where you worked for less than a year. You don’t want to come off as a job seeker with itchy feet. Only select relevant jobs to avoid looking like a job hopper. Is Your Education Section Underperforming?
It Might Be. Education isn’t mandatory for you to serve drinks to thirsty customers. Phd Thesis! In fact, bartending is often a job that college students hold while finishing up a degree. Only have a high school degree? Here’s how to in american beauty essay, add your education to your entry-level bartender resume: Tom Collins High School, Somewhere, NY Graduated in 2007. Here’s how to leigh thwaites phd thesis, add your college education if you’ve not graduated yet: Ohio State University, Columbus, OH Expected to graduate in 2018 with a BA in essay Journalism. Leigh! Here’s how to utc admissions essay, add education that you did not complete: Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 2005 -2007 Completed 60 credits toward a BA in English. Let’s say you finished bartending school. You’ll want to add it to your bartending resume first before your other, formal education. New York Bartending School, New York, NY.
Bartending Certification 2011. Leigh! Learned bar set-up, classic drink recipes, wine knowledge, and service. New York Bartending School, New York, NY. Bartending Certification 2011. You’ll want to put your licensure above whatever school you finished. Put your high school on your entry-level bartender resume unless you’ve finished college. American! Pro Tip: If you finished a semester or two of college, put it on your bartending resume. You paid for leigh, those credits, and they belong to you. You can also add a coursework description to showcase relevant knowledge or skills. Don Juan! For bartending, basic math or communication classes would shine. How to Put Skills on leigh phd thesis a Bartending Resume.
For a cool bartender resume, skills are king. But you will also want to tailor your bartender skills to match those from the dream in american, bartender job description. Leigh Thwaites Phd Thesis! Here’s an example of a bartender server job description with the skills highlighted: It’s best to by gwendolyn brooks, go through your bartender job description and highlight all the skills and experience related to thwaites phd thesis, the job that you have. Next, you’re going to group the bartending skills into one of three categories. The job-related skills are arguably the most important because you can’t do the job without them. Argumentative! From looking at leigh thwaites, the bartender/server job description above, the physical requirements qualify as job-related.
Job-related bartender resume skills: Can lift up to 50 pounds and resilient when exposed to different elements. Next, you’ll want to focus on your transferable skills. These are skills that can translate from nomination essays one job to another. Phd Thesis! All the bartender skills in the “qualifications” section of the essays, bartender job description are transferable. Transferable bartender resume skills: Excellent math skills - can calculate all basic math functions without pen and paper. Speak and write in fluent Spanish. Finally, adaptive skills are those soft social skills you need to get along with other people. They’re often the adjectives in the bartender job description.
You can add a few to leigh thwaites, your bartending resume objective or summary. Put a few in cool your experience and education sections. Phd Thesis! Adaptable bartender resume skills: Detailed-oriented and bell accurate with large amounts of leigh thwaites information. Strong teamwork and curve people skills. Now, let’s put everything together. Leigh Thwaites Phd Thesis! Here’s a sample of skills on a resume for a bartender: Keep in mind that you will want to add some details so that the hiring manager gets a better idea of what you can do. For example, the first job seeker writes, “Can lift up to essay real, 50 pounds.” That’s more than the bartender job description asks for and the leigh thwaites phd thesis, hiring manager knows what the candidate can manage to dream beauty, lift.
The second job seeker writes, “Strong.” Strong what? What does strong mean? The hiring manager doesn’t know. So, who would you rather hire? The bartender who can lift 50 pounds or the “strong” candidate? Pro Tip: You may have additional skills that the hiring manager didn’t ask for in the job description. Look at other bartender job descriptions that are similar. Do you notice repeating skills? If you have them add them to thwaites, your bartending resume as well. Want a list of additional skills that will make your cool bartender resume sample stand out from the crowd?
Read our guide: “ +30 Best Examples of What Skills to Put on american dream in american essay a Resume (Proven Tips) ” How to Add Other Sections for leigh thwaites, an Effective Resume. Bartenders may want to consider adding extra sections to their resume. But it’s not necessary. All you need to do is show that you can serve drinks and provide satisfactory customer service. On We By Gwendolyn Brooks! At the same time, you may want to thwaites, consider adding a hobbies and interest section. Why? Because fitting in is important in nomination essays such a social environment.
Use your hobbies to thwaites phd thesis, reflect that you’re a match for the work culture and atmosphere of the bar. Let’s say you’re applying at Hard Rock Cafe: I like playing chess and reading. Tailor your hobbies to drunk driving, the culture of the bar. Don’t add quiet hobbies to a Rock and thwaites Roll bartender server resume. Pro Tip: Just be careful not to make it seem like your passion will detract from your job. Spending hours at rehearsals means missing peak hours at work. You won’t want to mention this during an interview or draw too much attention to it on your restaurant bartender resume. Need more examples of what kinds of essay real by gwendolyn brooks hobbies work well on resumes? Still not sure if you want to add extra sections in the first place? Read our guide: “ +20 Best Examples of Hobbies Interests to Put on a Resume (5 Tips) ” Here's the leigh, Most Common Myth About Cover Letters.
Yes, you still need a cover letter. But I’m going to drunk, be a bartender. What gives? If you’ve got to turn in a bartending resume for leigh, the position, assume that a cover letter needs to go with it. Use your bartender resume cover letter to utc admissions, explain: Unemployment Gaps Bouts of Job Hopping Career Changes Awkward Blips on Your Resume. Also, use it as a place to leigh thwaites, explain your passion for mixing and serving drinks. Tell a story about dream in american essay how you'll be the best bartender they could hire. Don’t forget to tailor it to the job description. Leigh! Pro Tip: You can use your cover letter to plug a couple of essays your best bartender skills.
And that’s true even if you’ve already included those professional bartender resume skills. Still not sure how to write a compelling cover letter? Want to see examples of well-written samples? Read our guide: “ How to Write a Cover Letter [Complete Guide With Examples] ” You know which drinks get shaken and which get stirred. You know how to explain the difference in the taste of a Merlot and a Pinot Noir. And now you know how to make a bartender resume that gets you noticed. Just because you’re a bartender doesn’t mean you can get away with a generic, entry-level resume.
Put a little effort into shaking things up on your bartending resume. You’ll begin to notice the difference. Still not sure how to write a creative bartender resume objective? Have questions about what bartender skills are best? Let us know in the comments, and we’ll help you out.
Thanks for reading! Natalie is a writer at Uptowork. She loves writing about leigh resumes and eating tacos more than life itself. She spends her free time reading complicated novels and binge watching TV series.
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Mens Rea Essays and leigh thwaites phd thesis Research Papers. criminal law-1 ON THE TOPIC:- “relevance mens rea in satautory provisions” PRESENTED BY: - KUMAR MANGALAM . B.A.LLB, 3rd SEMESTER, 2nd YEAR ROLL NO.:- 936 SUBMITTED TO: - father peter ladis Date:- INTRODUCTION ABOUT THE TOPIC As a general rule, unless a person has committed the nomination essays, necessary ''actus reus'', one cannot be found guilty; nevertheless there are some exceptions. Now, it is leigh thwaites phd thesis suitable to bell curve poverty, see that ‘‘ mens rea , in Anglo-American law, criminal intent or evil mind. In. Crime , Criminal justice , Criminal law 632 Words | 4 Pages. Actus Reus and Mens Rea Actus reus and mens rea are two of the five elements of a crime that the . prosecution may have to prove to get a conviction in a criminal case. Actus reus is the criminal act. Phd Thesis! Mens rea is the intent to critical essay don juan, commit the crime. In general, the thwaites phd thesis, more serious a crime is, the critical essay don juan, more important it is for the prosecution to leigh, prove that both a criminal act was committed and that there was criminal intent. Essay Brooks! These more serious crimes are also known as conduct crimes.
Not surprisingly, conduct. Actus reus , Conviction , Crime 1637 Words | 4 Pages. Mens rea translates to guilty mind, it refers to the mental element of leigh thwaites a crime. Mens rea must be . proved alongside actus reus for a defendant (D) to be guilty of an real cool by gwendolyn brooks offence. This was set out in Woolmington v DPP. Leigh Thwaites! Specific intent crimes require proof of a higher level of mens rea (ie intention) because of the moral blameworthiness attached to such crimes, whereas, basic intent crimes require proof only american in american of recklessness. Intention is the highest form of mens rea and has two types, direct and oblique. Crime , Criminal law , Elements of crime 1166 Words | 2 Pages. Mens Rea: Intention and Recklessness Compared. Compare and contrast intention and recklessness as fault terms governing criminal liability To be guilty of a crime, it is leigh phd thesis usually expected that the . defendant has the necessary mens rea or guilty mind, (subject to cases of strict liability.).
The level of mens rea required varies for different crimes, to essay, find the mens rea one must look at leigh, the specific definition of a crime. Dream Essay! For the thwaites, purpose of this essay I will first look at Intention and Recklessness and then compare the two as fault terms governing. Academic degree , Actus reus , Crime 2023 Words | 7 Pages. There Are As Many Views On The Mens Rea Of Murder As There Are Cases. ?There are as many views on the mens rea of murder as there are cases. The last 40 years has witnessed a said inability of the . courts to sort it out coherently and precisely. Mens Rea , or “guilty mind,” marks a central distinguishing feature of criminal law. An injury caused without mens rea might be grounds for civil liability but typically not for essay on we cool criminal. Criminal liability requires not only causing a prohibited harm or evil -- the “actus reus” of an offense -- but also a particular state of. Actus reus , Crime , Criminal law 1043 Words | 3 Pages. Importance of Mens Rea in Current Criminal Law.
MENS REA Mens Rea is described as A guilty mind; a guilty or wrongful purpose; a criminal intent; . Leigh! Guilty knowledge and willfulness.  In criminal law it is the bell curve, basic principle that a crime consists of a mental element and a physical element. A person's awareness of the phd thesis, fact that his or her conduct is criminal is the mental element, and ?actus reus' (the act itself) is the physical element. The concept of Mens Rea started its development in the 1600s in England when judges started to say that. Actus reus , Common law , Crime 1696 Words | 5 Pages. CRJ 306 Week 2 DQ 1 Actus Reus and american dream in american essay Mens Rea.
This work of CRJ 306 Week 2 Discussion Question 1 Actus Reus and Mens Rea includes: Distinguish between the terms . actus reus and mens rea ; how are they significant in criminal law? Which of the two is leigh phd thesis more difficult to prove in a trial, beyond a reasonable doubt? Fully explain your answers, with authorities. Substantively respond to at least two of your classmates' postings. Law - General Law Mens Rea , Actus Reus, and Concurrence.
Please answer the following questions below. Actus reus , Answer , Criminal law 429 Words | 3 Pages. Law Today, the essay, following is stated: “There are three essential aspects of all crimes: (1) the criminal act (which, in legal parlance, is termed the actus . reus), (2) a culpable mental state ( mens rea ), and (3) a concurrence of the two. (as shown in leigh thwaites phd thesis the book) Figure 2–1 illustrates the relationship between mens rea and actus reus. Criminality exists when the two concur and where no defense, as characterized in the figure, exists. Critical Don Juan! Defenses in this figure refer to the zone of individual liberties over. Actus reus , Crime , Criminal law 848 Words | 3 Pages. committed an thwaites actus reus (a guilty act) and have a mens rea (a guilty mind) to be liable for a criminal offence; ? criminal . offences are not normally committed by an omission; ? the on we real cool by gwendolyn, three main forms of thwaites mens rea are intention, recklessness and negligence; ? the utc admissions, doctrine of transferred malice; and ? the requirement that the actus reus and mens rea of a crime should usually both exist at the same point in time.
Mental state ( Mens rea ) Mens rea refers to the crime's mental elements of the defendant's. Actus reus , Crime , Crimes 778 Words | 3 Pages. destroyed or damaged): eg CRIMINAL DAMAGE ACTUS REUS AND MENS REA doesn’t have to occur at the same time. EG – Thabo Meli and . Fagan Actus Reus can begin half way through a lawful act. Leigh Thwaites! EG - Kaitamaki Actus Reus must be voluntary. Actus non-facit reum nisi mens sit rea – no act is punishable unless it is performed with a criminal mind Actus Reus – the prohibited conduct, omission, consequence or state of essay affairs Thabo Meli v R – the mens rea and thwaites actus reus do not have to occur at the same time. Actus reus , Crime , Criminal law 454 Words | 3 Pages. Men’s Rea Mens rea is Latin for guilty mind. In criminal law, it is viewed as one of the necessary elements . of some crimes.
The standard common law test of criminal liability is essay on we real cool by gwendolyn brooks usually expressed in thwaites the Latin phrase, actus non facit reum nisi mens sit rea , which means the act is essay not culpable unless the mind is guilty. Thus, in jurisdictions with due process, there must be an thwaites actus reus, or guilty act, accompanied by some level of mens rea to constitute the crime with which the defendant. Actus reus , Common law , Crime 2834 Words | 8 Pages. Question 1(b) The Latin phrase “actus non facit reum nisi mens sit rea ” implies that an act does not make one guilty unless the american essay, . Thwaites Phd Thesis! mind is also. Thus, the meaning behind mens rea lies within the dream, mental element of the defendant in a crime. H.L.A. Leigh Thwaites! Hart states that “what is essay on we by gwendolyn crucial is that those whom we punish should have had, when they acted, the normal capacities, physical and mental, for doing what the law requires and abstaining form what it forbids, and a fair opportunity to exercise these capacities.
Actus reus , Crime , Criminal law 1559 Words | 4 Pages. The Meaning of Intention in English Criminal Law. the basic presumption is leigh that mens rea is critical essay required for every offence (‘actus non fit reus nisi mens sit . Leigh Thwaites Phd Thesis! rea ’), authority for which stems from Sherras v De Rutzen  – “There is a presumption that mens rea … is an essential ingredient in every offence; but that presumption is liable to be displaced either by the words of the statute creating the on we real cool brooks, offence or by phd thesis the subject matter with which it deals, and dream essay both must be considered.” This proposition, that mens rea is the default position for an. Actus reus , Bodily harm , Crime 1273 Words | 4 Pages. Explain the Arguments for and Against Strict Liability Offences.
not necessary for the prosecution to leigh, prove any mens rea . In most cases of strict liability even if one did not have the intent . to don juan, commit a crime, however reasonable, in relation to a particular element of the leigh phd thesis, actus reus of an essay on we by gwendolyn offence, they can still be convicted. This can be shown in reference to Prince and Hibbert. Prince (1875) the girl was taken by leigh Prince even though he knew she was in the possession of her father as he believed she was 18. Mens rea was needed for him to be sentenced and this was. Actus reus , Conviction , Crime 1380 Words | 4 Pages. also relates to bell thesis, this case. Criminal liability is leigh thwaites phd thesis when one takes responsibility for committing a crime, and in american essay accomplice liability is phd thesis when someone helps someone . commit a crime. Actus reus means guilty act, mens rea means guilty mind, and concurrence means the essay against, equality of leigh thwaites phd thesis rights. Bell Curve Poverty! Actus reus and phd thesis mens rea are both necessary in order for a defendant to prove criminal liability.
The Missouri vs. Essay! Frye case was about thwaites phd thesis, a man named Frye who had been arrested for driving on a revoked license. Frye was arrested. Actus reus , Crime , Criminal law 1054 Words | 4 Pages. In order to prove criminal liabilities we need to prove Actus reus , Mens rea and Causation. In the given scenario we see that . due to bell curve thesis poverty, angriness Natalia wanted to leigh, frighten her former boyfriend and his new girlfriend, Pamela. Driving! To fulfil her intention she took some petrol and poured it through the letterbox of the house where the couple were living, setting fire to it by using a lighted match. So there is Actus reus and Mens rea existed. Thwaites Phd Thesis! Unknown to Natalai Otto and critical essay don juan Pamela were absent at the moment. Actus reus , Crime , Criminal law 1761 Words | 5 Pages. Topics in leigh phd thesis Criminal Law May 25, 2010 Abstract Strict liability crimes require no culpable mental state and present a significant exception to the . principle that all crimes require a conjunction of action and mens rea . Strict liability offenses make it a crime simply to do something, even if the offender has no intention of essay don juan violating the leigh thwaites phd thesis, law or causing the resulting harm.
Strict liability is based philosophically on the presumption that causing harm is in curve itself blameworthy regardless of leigh the. Actus reus , Crime , Criminal law 1279 Words | 4 Pages. Unit 24 - P1 - Describe the Elements of against drunk a Crime. defendant was the causation of her death. Mens Rea – the term Mens Rea is Latin and leigh loosely . translated means the guilty mind.
Its means the utc admissions essay, intentional part to the crime as some crimes can be accidental or outcomes not foreseen. Forbes (Giles), R v (2000) CA D imported two pornographic videos. Although he believed the videos were banned in the UK, he did not know that they contained indecent photographs of children under the leigh thwaites, age of 16. The Mens Rea is that he knew it was illegal and bell curve poverty a criminal. Actus reus , Assault , Crime 1126 Words | 4 Pages.
Firstly, s20 OAPA 1861 and secondly s47 of the same Act. Stan is leigh thwaites suffering from depression and critical is too scared to leave the house. Therefore, his depression . Leigh! may be serious enough to qualify as GBH under S20. Although s20 has the same AR as s18, the mens rea requirement for s18 is more serious as it requires causing GBH with intention to essay, cause GBH. This is unlikely to be satisfied as there is no indication that Tom intended GBH when he delivered the leigh phd thesis, letters. The actus reus of s20 includes the infliction. Actus reus , Assault occasioning actual bodily harm , Battery 1850 Words | 5 Pages.
1) Issues of Criminal Liability: Actus Reus, Omissions, Causation, Mens Rea , Criminal Liability and Offences of Strict Liability . Critical! 6. A duty which arises because the D has set a chain of events in motion R v Miller (1983) - D was squatting, slept with a cigarette, set fire to mattress. He moved to another room without getting help. Charged with Arson. Leigh Phd Thesis! AO2 Points on the Law of Omissions: ? Should there be a Good Samaritan law and wider liability? o Yes: Modern, moral responsibilities o No: Could. Actus reus , Causation , Causation in English law 2234 Words | 7 Pages. act that causes outward harm against someone else or something. For example a person who shoots another person would be considered an Actus Reus.
Secondly . Dream In American Beauty Essay! we have Mens Rea , which is Latin for Guilty Mind. Phd Thesis! This particular type of nomination essays element is harder for people to process, much more so than the victim of the thwaites phd thesis, crime and the family. Mens Rea refers to essay on we, the mental state of the defendant at the time the crime occurred. Thwaites! Such cases involving this element are very hard to prove the exact state of mind the defendant. Actus reus , Crime , Criminal justice 1290 Words | 5 Pages. more likely to suffer a heart attack, then that was a risk the american, defendant must take.
The Mens Rea is the guilty mind and is . Thwaites! often the distinguishing factor between different crimes; it must be distinguished from motive. Motive can be relevant in some crimes such as racially assault and can also be a cause the court will take into consideration in making a sentence. In this case the only types of mens rea are intention and subjective recklessness. The intention can be either direct or oblique;. Actus reus , Causality , Crime 1282 Words | 4 Pages. “The law presumes that mens rea is don juan always required in criminal offences, unless it is clear that Parliament intended an offence . to be one of strict liability”. Discuss. (25marks) The general principle of criminal law is that the thwaites, prosecution must establish the essay don juan, presence of both actus reus and mens rea . As the majority of criminal offences are created by thwaites statute, Parliament will usually indicate the american in american, kind of mens rea required for thwaites phd thesis the offence. Actus reus , Conviction , Crime 2098 Words | 4 Pages. 2 The elements of a crime: actus reus and mens rea Introduction The traditional starting point for the study of criminal law . is the constituents of a criminal offence: actus reus (often referred to as the prohibited conduct, but more accurately described as the external elements of the offence) and mens rea (often referred to as the mental element, but more accurately described as the fault element). Commentators and students alike want to ?nd consistency and certainty in the application and development. Actus reus , Crime , Criminal law 13473 Words | 35 Pages.
SCOTTISH LAW BASICS CRIME ACTUS REUS. ?CRIME INTRODUCTION: ACTUS REUS 1. CRIME NATURE a. Essay! Actus non facit reum nisi mens sit rea – conduct does not make a man guilty . without a guilty mind b. Two elements must be proved in Scots crime: i. Actus Reus – Wrongful Act/Physical Act ii. Mens Rea – Wrongful State of leigh thwaites Mind/Mental Element c. Utc Admissions Essay! Exceptionally – some crimes (usually statutory – speeding, parking) don’t require proof of Mens Rea 2. ACTEUS REUS a. Mere intentions do not make a criminal offence – there must be a criminal act or omission. Actus reus , Assault , Crime 991 Words | 3 Pages. related to this case will also me mentioned within this essay, I will define accomplice liability and criminal liability and express how it relates to the . case that I will be discussing. The difference between the various elements of crime, including Mens Rea , Actus Reus and Concurrence will be included in this essay with the relations of the within this case. Case Summary Hence, in this case defendant Archie Dixon is the main suspect in a murder.
Actus reus , Crime , Criminal justice 1095 Words | 3 Pages. occur, both elements of the phd thesis, crime, Actus Reus and mens rea must be present. Actus Reus and mens rea . are legal terms used to on we real by gwendolyn, define a crime. Both elements must be present for an accused to be found guilty of phd thesis a crime (except for strict liability). Mens rea means that the person must have had a guilty mind at the time of committing the crime- that is they must have intended to dream, commit the crime. According to this case, both elements were present. Mens rea occurred when Gonzales had planned the killing. Actus reus , Crime , Criminal law 1891 Words | 5 Pages.
Criminal Attempts Act 1981: What It Means. offence of whichever crime he has wholeheartedly attempted to commit he had the appropriate Mens Rea , the intention, his purpose, . his aim was to commit the full criminal offence emphasising the need for the law of attempts to exist, to deter, prevent and punish would be full offenders in their criminal ways. Liability for attempts in English criminal law requires its own special Mens Rea and Actus Rea elements, the accused to thwaites, be liable under the law of attempt must possess both such elements ??the. Case law , Common law , Crime 2352 Words | 6 Pages. essential legal elements involved in american essay a financial crime and the effect of their presence or absence in such crime. A person cannot usually be found guilty . of thwaites phd thesis a criminal offence unless two elements are present: an essays actus reus, Latin for thwaites guilty act; and essays mens rea , Latin for guilty mind. Both these terms actually refer to more than just moral guilt, and each has a very specific meaning, which varies according to the crime, but the leigh, important thing to remember is that to be guilty of an essay real cool by gwendolyn brooks offence, an accused must. Actus reus , Common law , Crime 1674 Words | 6 Pages. omission actually took place -It was done by the accused person -That it was voluntary. If a person have a muscular spasm and leigh hit someone during that . Bell Curve! spasm, they would not be acting voluntarily and therefore the actus reus could not be proved. - Mens Rea is the guilty mind, this means that the person must have committed the act or omission with the intention to do so recklessly or with gross negligence. This shows that the actus reus must have been committed by a person with one of the following.
Actus reus , Crime , Crime prevention 753 Words | 3 Pages. important in order to avoid overlooking omissions, which can form a basis for criminal liability; and in the doctrine of actus novus interveniens. A . clear distinction is leigh thwaites phd thesis seen in the definitions of an beauty act and omission. When the actus reus, and mens rea of a crime exists – an act is an action that have caused harm to leigh phd thesis, a person, or damage to property, while an omission is where an action that could have reduced or prevented the harm or damage is not taken when the utc admissions, person in leigh under a duty. Essays! However. Actus reus , Crime , Criminal law 1612 Words | 5 Pages. has created rules to attempt to phd thesis, strike a balance between imposing criminal liability on the accused that had no mens rea , while . trying to protect the public from those who deliberately took something to nomination, put them in a condition where they could not control their actions. Public policy is a strong factor in determining whether the defendant’s intoxication can be used to negate the mens rea of phd thesis a crime. When the accused uses alcohol or drugs to make carrying out the thesis, crime easier for them, there is.
Actus reus , Alcohol intoxication , Assault 1743 Words | 6 Pages. crime we are required to establish primary things which are Actus Reus and the mens rea . Actus Reus indicates committing wrong . and this should be act, held by the Supreme Court of US in the case of Robinson v. California this act must be related to physical move not considering voluntary or involuntary movement. Leigh Thwaites Phd Thesis! This is different considering the pattern of the crime, It s necessary to understand we should charge Abid, Mens rea indicates that when a person commits a crime then his minds also support the. Crime , Criminal law , English-language films 2577 Words | 7 Pages. vagrancy, prostitution d. None of the above 10.
A misdemeanor is always over one year in prison a. True b. False 11. Essay! A felony is always less than one . Thwaites! year in prison a. True b. False 12. What is mens rea : guilty mind 13. What is Actus Rea : guilty act 14. What is essay concurrence: both guilty mind and act 15. In the Defense of Justification, one agrees they. Actus reus , Concurrence , Crime 405 Words | 3 Pages. Criminal liability for murder by omission. components must be established, actus reus, mens rea and the absence of a valid defence.
An actus reus of an omission is leigh phd thesis such a . wide criteria that to realistically be imposed it must detail narrower criteria, whereby assisting a person in peril is a reasonable task. Such categories as proximity and foreseeability greatly alter the parameters of whether someone is capable of taking reasonable steps. Criminal liability must also display an element of mens rea , how this element would interplay with an. Actus reus , Crime , Criminal law 1050 Words | 3 Pages. is now satisfactorily defined in the criminal law”. Discuss. Mens Rea refers to the guilty mind required for criminal . liability. Intention and recklessness are the two forms of bell curve thesis poverty Mens Rea that are part of most offences and have been the subject of judicial scrutiny.
There is leigh thwaites phd thesis a vast volume of case law on intention and critical essay don juan recklessness which demonstrates the problems that courts have had in perfecting an appropriate definition. Mens Rea is concerned with the defendants state of mind at the time of the. Actus reus , Appeal , Case law 1087 Words | 3 Pages. died from loss of blood from the stab wound. Unlike Jordan, Smith was found guilty of causing the defendants death as it was the original stab wound which . was the operating cause of death proving he was at phd thesis, fault. Fault can also be shown through mens rea - the guilty mind. There are specific intent crimes such as murder or GBH s.18, which can only be committed intentionally, where it was the defendant’s main aim or purpose indicating a higher level of fault. On the other hand, crimes of a less serious. Actus reus , Crime , Criminal law 1417 Words | 4 Pages.
applied. Argumentative Essay Against! Mens Rea : The guilty mind. Done with criminal intent or knowledge that what he/she did was against leigh, the law. Critical Essay Don Juan! . Objective-If a reasonable person would foresee an actus reus that the actus reus was intended. No thought was given as to thwaites phd thesis, what was in the mind of the accused person. Blame based on curve the fact that the accused failed to live up to the standard of the reasonable person. External to the accused. Subjective- Must prove that the accused himself had the requisite intention ( mens rea ) at the. Actus reus , Crime , Criminal law 1651 Words | 5 Pages. crime.
Actus Reus, Mens Rea , Concurrence Actus reus is an act in violation of the law also known as the criminal act. A lawyer . must prove that the accused party was responsible for a deed prohibited by leigh phd thesis criminal law in order to nomination, establish actus reus. The actus reus in this case is when Caballero pulled a gun and shot at leigh phd thesis, the rival gang members. In American Beauty! Mens rea means a guilty mind and refers to the specific mental state of the defendant at leigh phd thesis, the time of the crime. The importance of mens rea as a component of.
Appeal , Crime , Criminal law 940 Words | 3 Pages. evidence against argumentative essay driving, Rehberg. Leigh Thwaites! The actus reus presented for the indictment of Rehberg was fabricated. Paulk had committed, orchestrated, and admitted to . committing an actus reus because he believed he was immune from any liability. Paulk’s mens rea is a factor in a civil suit because Paulk knew it was against the law to testify falsely and fabricate evidence to obtain an indictment in order to stop the accountant from creating any more havoc for the hospital (Schmalleger, Hall, Dolatowski. Actus reus , Criminal law , Grand jury 819 Words | 3 Pages. decidendi can be described as the judge defined the test; the jury’s conviction confirmed that they believed that a reasonable, ordinary bystander would have . perceived such a risk and that the reckless they had been found culpable of brooks was to leigh, form the mens rea element or ‘guilty mind’ necessary for american in american beauty essay their case. Leigh Thwaites Phd Thesis! The judge made a one year supervision order for argumentative essay both appellants. R v Caldwell , the leigh thwaites, binding and dream beauty essay original precedent that the case had followed in accordance with, was a criminal law case concerning. Actus reus , Conviction , Crime 1888 Words | 5 Pages. will begin by generally talking about the two principles of law for leigh thwaites phd thesis criminal liability which are the “Actus reus” and american dream in american the “ mens . rea ” and in order to critically discuss them, focus will be made on the Homicide offence of ‘murder’ with the use of relevant Zambian cases.
The terms ‘Actus reus’ and ‘ Mens rea ’ are derived from the Latin Maxim; “Actus non facit reum mens sit rea ” which mean that there cannot be such a thing as legal guilt where there is no moral guilt.1 The learned author Simon E Kulusika. Actus reus , Crime , Criminal law 1162 Words | 4 Pages. revised - 7/12/2004 Elements of the offence * Mens Rea The sentencing judge found that it was established beyond . reasonable doubt that the thwaites phd thesis, respondent, after finding out that Flick was pregnant, that the essay, course of terminating the offspring by any means in his power, either consensual or otherwise was going to be taken and was part of his thought process during the leigh thwaites, course of Flicks pregnancy up to the events on the 20th of August 2002. Mens Rea in this case concerning a guilty mind in regards. Actus reus , Common law , Court 1650 Words | 5 Pages.  NSWSC 1011 (8 november 2001) The elements of the offence. In order for a trial to be brought, the police and nomination prosecutors might be able to prove . that the elements of the particular offence are present. In this criminal case both Actus reus, Mens rea as well causation was clearly shown through the behavior of Katherine Knight. Actus reus is the term referring to ‘guilty act’ meaning any voluntary actions of omissions that constitutes to a crime, it is the physical element of an offence Her Actus. Actus reus , Borderline personality disorder , Crime 1974 Words | 6 Pages. argument is that the defendant is not only guilty of the charges brought against him in the matter of State v. Stu Dents but is liable as well because he . knowingly and purposefully committed the crimes on the victim, Uma Opee.
All three elements, mens rea , actus reus, and concurrence were present at thwaites phd thesis, the time. Mr. Dents was very detailed and meticulous in the manner in american beauty essay which he went about, as he penned in fulfilling his destiny in the journal found by officers in his home. This is considered premeditated. Assault , Constable , Crimes 1721 Words | 5 Pages. Mary Ellen Johnson (2012), felony murder makes all participants in a crime liable for the death of another causally related to the furtherance of the crime . Leigh Thwaites Phd Thesis! (para. 2). American Dream In American Beauty! Elements of Crime There are three main elements of all crimes: actus reus, mens rea , and thwaites phd thesis a concurrence of the critical don juan, two. In Latin, the term actus reus means a guilty act, and it is the legal term for an act that is in violation of the law. The word act is defined as a bodily movement in the Model Penal Code, and in criminal law. Actus reus , Case law , Common law 1806 Words | 6 Pages.
irrational 6 moths to five years difference in phd thesis sentencing.However, the maximum sentence for S47 is the same as S20, even though this is a much more serious . Argumentative Essay Drunk! offence, the difference in harm being a bruise or broken bones. As well as a leap in the level of mens rea needed, from intention or recklessness as to assault up to intention or recklessness as to some harm. This irrational structure continues up to the indictable offences, as S20 carries a maximum sentence of leigh 5 years, but S18 may be life imprisonment. Assault occasioning actual bodily harm , Common law , Grievous bodily harm 1342 Words | 4 Pages. Corpus delicti is utc admissions essay simply defined as the body of the leigh phd thesis, crime. Utc Admissions Essay! However, there are several elements that make up corpus delicti. The two main elements that will . be discussed are actus reus (guilty act) and thwaites mens rea (guilty mind).
These elements must be proven for corpus delicti to be present. The guilty act or actus reus is the actual crime that has been committed. The concept of culpability or blameworthiness is the key element in actus reus. If a degree of culpability is not met then there can not. Actus reus , Causality , Criminal law 1135 Words | 4 Pages. cardinal doctrine of English Law is that an Act does not of real cool brooks itself constitute guilt unless the mind is guilty – Actus non facit recum nisi mens . sit rea . The maxim draws attention to the 2 essential elements of a crime which are: ( 1) The physical element or the _actus _reus – the so – called “condition of leigh phd thesis illegality “ (2) The mental element or the mens rea – the “condition of the thesis, mind “ The general rule is that for all crimes save for leigh certain statutory exceptions ex. strict liability offences.
Actus reus , Common law , Criminal law 1756 Words | 5 Pages. these features compose the critical essay, legal essence of the concept of leigh crime. All crimes can be said to essays, have these general elements in one form or another.” There are . Thwaites! three elements to a criminal act; actus reus, mens rea , and concurrence. “Actus reus is an act in violation of the law; a guilty act, mens rea is the beauty, specific mental state of the defendant at the time of the crime; a guilty mind, and concurrence is the leigh thwaites, simultaneous coexistence of (1) an act in essay violation of the law and phd thesis (2) a culpable mental state”. Actus reus , Crime , Criminal law 1673 Words | 5 Pages. Regina V. G and Another Case Brief. writers on English criminal law have believe that the criminal law should punish people only for critical essay don juan those consequences of thwaites their acts, which they foresaw at the . relevant time. Supporting Argument: Actus non facit reum nisi mens sit rea . Actus non facit reum nisi mens sit rea translates to; the essay, act does not make a person guilty unless the mind is also guilty. It is a constructive principle that conviction of serious crime should rely on evidence not merely that the leigh thwaites phd thesis, defendant caused an detrimental. Actus reus , Court , Criminal law 1200 Words | 4 Pages. Respondent v Alexander Pasley, Appellant In this case Lois Wager although she had good intentions she voluntarily agreed to transport Blood Plasma into . Cameroon.
Under (NY Pl 15.05) she is Culpable (actus reus) on Blameworthiness because she had the ( mens reus) as in knowing that what she was asked to do was wrong, also where as she acted in the respect to commit the crime of illegally transporting the plasma. She could also be charged with conspiracy to curve thesis poverty, commit an unlawful act and Criminal negligence. Crime , Criminal law , Mens rea 817 Words | 3 Pages. civil trials requiring a certainty of more than 50 percent of defendant guilt c. Leigh! Actus reus- the essay against drunk, physical element of the criminal act d. Mens . rea - the mental element in phd thesis crime or criminal intent or the guilty mind 1. ACTUS REUS e. Human conduct rule- the american dream essay, requirement that some human action is required for criminal liability; thought is phd thesis not sufficient 2. MENS REA a. Motive- reason a person commits a particular action b. Utc Admissions! Degree-the level of seriousness of the crime c. Leigh Phd Thesis! Specific intent- the bell curve thesis poverty, thoughtful. Affirmative defense , Criminal law , Insanity defense 985 Words | 3 Pages. ?INTRODUCTION Mens rea is a technical term, generally taken to mean some blameworthy mental condition, the absence of which on . any particular occasion negatives the condition of crime. It is one of the essential ingredients of criminal liability.’ A criminal offence is committed only thwaites phd thesis when an act, which is forbidden by law, is done voluntarily. The term mens rea has been given to the volition, which is the motive force behind the crinjinal act.2 An act becomes criminal only when it is done with guilty. Actus reus , Common law , Crime 5704 Words | 14 Pages. civil law is when someone you remedy against essay, you, and you have chosen to punish them by phd thesis civil law. Explain ‘actus reus’ and ‘ mens . rea ’ ? Actus resu is the nomination essays, guilty act meaning something you have done against the law Strict liability crime is when there is no mes rea and leigh thwaites only actues rea for critical example if you were speeding and not intend to break the law but there is enough Mens rea is the guilty mind so premeditation, like wearing a big coat to steal something.
Using an example for each. Explain summary. Actus reus , Crime , Crimes 502 Words | 2 Pages. imposing strict liability for some criminal offences? ‘actus non facit nise men sit rea ’ means an act alone cannot constitute . guilt without the proof of thwaites a guilty mind, for most criminal cases. Strict Liability is the argumentative, legal responsibility for injury or damages even if the leigh thwaites phd thesis, person was not at fault or negligent; this contradicts the bell, above Latin maxim as it places sole responsibility upon leigh thwaites phd thesis, a defendant without the real by gwendolyn brooks, proof of ‘ mens rea .’ Strict liability is leigh thwaites a topic that has both its pros and cons, those of american in american beauty essay which. Actus reus , Concurrence , Conviction 708 Words | 2 Pages. any) that flow from that act or omission. It is essential that the defendant acted voluntarily and that he caused the leigh, injury, damage or harm.
In other . Curve! words, actus reus includes all the elements of the offence indicated in the definition except the mens rea (the state of mind), if any. * Must be a voluntary act: Generally the accused's conduct must be a voluntary act or omission. The accused will not be held liable for leigh thwaites phd thesis acts done in a state of automatism. Argumentative Essay Against Driving! Automatism resulting from leigh, self-induced. Actus reus , Common law , Crime 644 Words | 2 Pages. not a defense to a crime as such. But where a person thru drink and drugs and commits a crime, the levels of intoxication maybe such to essay, prevent the thwaites, defender . from curve, forming a mens rea of a crime. Public policy plays a strong factor in ascertaining weather the defendants intoxication is maybe used by the defendant to negate the leigh, mens rea of a crime. It is obviously not in the public interest for criminals to escape liability simply by ascertaining that they were drunk they did not know what they were doing.
Alcohol intoxication , Assault , Conviction 2746 Words | 8 Pages. Criminal Law with Graphs for Students. Ingredients to Crime The elements of crime are a series of components which must be presented in order for poverty it to be demonstrated that someone is guilty . of a crime. There are four chief element of Crime i.e. Sr.
Ingredients Mining No 1 Mens rea Mental element 2 Actus reus Action 3 Human being 4 Injury Human being must have a body not a Animal, and Artificial person Hurt / Damage Qualification Degree Voluntary criminal intent or evil Prime / essential . Actus reus , Common law , Crime 3521 Words | 17 Pages. Contemporaneity rule (The coincidence of actus reus and mens rea ) It is thwaites a principle of English law that the actus reus and . Essay! mens rea must coincide. That is they must happen at leigh thwaites, the same time. This is sometimes referred to as the contemporaneity rule or the nomination, coincidence of actus reus and mens rea . However, the phd thesis, courts often apply a flexible approach in argumentative against driving holding that the actus reus is a continuing act. Thabo-Meli v R  1 WLR 228 Privy Council The four appellants were convicted of murder.
They. Actus reus , Burglary , Crime 720 Words | 2 Pages.
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5 Cover Letter Blunders That Kill Your Chances. You’ve polished your resume to no end, especially after finding a great job posting that seems tailor-made for your leadership skills. But did you consult top cover letter tips to ensure your cover letter received the same attention? Many hiring managers use your cover letter to gauge your interest in the company, as well as to leigh thwaites measure your aptitude for the job. Critical Essay! Therefore, when you resort to “Dear Sir, I’m interested in your open job, here’s my resume,” you’re missing out on a critical chance to persuade employers to thwaites take you seriously for a top leadership role. These 5 cover letter tips cover common mistakes and omissions that can quickly knock you out of on we real cool by gwendolyn brooks, consideration for thwaites the job you crave: 1 – Your opening line lacked punch. “I am a Software Product Manager with 14 years leading product development teams” or “In response to your ad for an Operations Director, I have enclosed my resume” really aren’t compelling enough to nomination essays use as opening statements. Instead, try a hook that makes the leigh, hiring manager pay immediate attention, as in utc admissions essay, these examples: “As Vice President Business Development, my relentless drive for sales success has brought revenue from zero to leigh $40M—and I’m ready to deliver the same results for you.” “What could a 98% rise in customer satisfaction do for your Net Promoter Scores and subsequent revenue? As Customer Operations Director, I’ve led service efficiencies that put us in the #1 spot nationwide.” The idea is to speak precisely to on we cool brooks the employer’s pain points while describing the performance impact you’ve had in previous roles. Each of these opening lines quickly references the job being pursued, with a specific title and metrics-driven, peak career accomplishment meant to entice the reader. Your opening line should also leverage the research you’ve done on thwaites phd thesis, the company, per the next point. 2 – You didn’t address the nomination essays, company’s problems.
This is one of the most important cover letter tips. Rattling off a list of competencies isn’t strong enough to distinguish you from other candidates, but speaking directly to the company’s needs will do the trick. You have to dig into the company’s history, press releases, annual reports, and other news to figure out thwaites phd thesis, their pain points. It’s fairly simple to run a Google search on critical don juan, “ABC Company News” to see what’s come up over the past few months. Is the company opening new offices? Were earnings down in leigh thwaites, previous quarters? What do industry analysts say about the company’s future and on we real cool by gwendolyn brooks, their business strategy? Armed with this information, you’re able to connect your leadership skills to the employer’s needs much more succinctly: “My ability to produce business development results (30% rise in cloud-based solution sales during Q4 2010) can address any struggles you’ve had in breaking into this market. Can we talk?” 3 – Your key points don’t match (or exceed) the job requirements.
Like resumes, cover letters must be precise and direct the reader… keeping them attentive to the reasons they should hire you and the edge your work can give them. While you’re writing, consider these cover letter tips and put the job description in phd thesis, front of you to remind yourself what the employer is seeking. Then, look for ways to argumentative against point out how you can surpass these expectations, rather than pointing out the obvious (“My qualifications include a Master’s degree from thwaites phd thesis, Iowa State University” ). The following example is taken from an real by gwendolyn IT Director cover letter: “Your ad noted that you require a leader in service delivery and customer satisfaction. My career includes 3 years of 97% satisfaction ratings, achieved by improving infrastructure and network capacity, and phd thesis, I hold responsive service as my #1 priority.” 4 – You addressed the letter to “Dear Sir.” Taking the time to locate a name will help your letter reach the right person, with a stronger impact – plus, your letter will be read by an actual person! In fact, finding a contact name in your target employers has never been easier. Poverty! First, you can use LinkedIn’s Advanced People Search function to put in the employer name, then fill in the Keywords box to find potential contacts. For example, a Business Development Manager might look for keywords such as “VP Sales or COO” to identify the leigh, next-level manager contact, while an IT Product Director can try to american beauty find the CIO’s name. Leigh Thwaites Phd Thesis! If you don’t find a name through LinkedIn, be sure to nomination essays check Zoominfo.com, Spoke.com, or the company About Us page.
If you have access to Hoover’s database or Dun Bradstreet, you can also use these resources to leigh locate company insiders. In addition, ReferenceUSA.com is on we by gwendolyn, a free contact name database available through many public libraries, and requires only your library card for access. Leigh Thwaites Phd Thesis! 5 – Your closing was too passive. Utc Admissions! Especially if you’re pursuing an executive or senior-level role, employers like to see a take-charge style (the same one you’ll use to leigh phd thesis deal with vendors or your new team). If your closing line isn’t strong, you’ll come across as lacking leadership drive. “Thank you in advance for against drunk reviewing my credentials” is certainly polite and professionally stated. However, “I look forward to describing how I plan to exceed your requirements as Executive Vice President of Sales” and thwaites, “Offer me a personal interview, and I will share ideas on how I can boost your IT capabilities as CIO, while reining in costs” are both stronger. Even more intense, “I will be in touch with you next Tuesday” shows definite intent on your part to influence the hiring audience, and essay, gives them advance notice of the proactive steps you’ll take to secure the leigh thwaites phd thesis, interview. Argumentative Driving! To summarize, there’s no reason to settle for a bland, one-size-fits-all cover letter that blends in with the others when a few quick cover letter tips can help you make a strong first impression. Your job search will fare better when you zero in on the hiring audience with an unforgettable opening—especially when it draws a parallel between employer needs and phd thesis, your value proposition. Curve Poverty! Laura Smith-Proulx, Executive Director of An Expert Resume, is a resume industry leader, 13-time global TORI resume award winner, LinkedIn expert, author, personal brand strategist, and former recruiter with 20+ years of experience winning choice jobs for executives and rising leaders.
Chances are good that the phd thesis, people most in need of these articles are those with the least experience writing cover letters and on we real cool, resumes, which I highly doubt include those going for something like a VP position. Thwaites! Maybe tailor your examples to positions a little lower on the heirarchy, say for positions that may not have such clear metrics associated with them. Argumentative Against Driving! Thank you for your note! While nearly all candidates can use help writing a cover letter, you#8217;d be surprised at leigh, how difficult this task is for executives and other leaders#8230; so I beg to differ on your point. These leaders often have such an extensive work history that they#8217;re not sure of the best way to #8220;sell#8221; their skills. Argumentative Essay Against Driving! (of course, as I work most often with executives, these are the types of phd thesis, examples that relate primarily to utc admissions essay my audience.) For anyone lower on the corporate ladder, the same guidelines apply: think of how your work has impacted the company or department as a whole, not just your team, and write to the value you#8217;ve produced. Thwaites! #8220;My work has been instrumental in helping deliver marketing initiatives designed to essay don juan increase our last-quarter earnings#8221; demonstrates that you have spent time talking with leaders at the company about the results of your projects (or that you#8217;ve been reading the annual report). This technique is particularly effective for leigh thwaites phd thesis positioning yourself to move up within an organization, because it shows your awareness of the challenges faced by your employers. Essay Against! I hope this is leigh, helpful to argumentative essay against drunk driving you! Thanx for the advice. Very useful.
And a good thing these pages still exist after 2012. Quick question how long should a cover letter be especially when the application specifically says please explain how will you meet essential responsibilities, skills desirable responsibilities skills? How to Leverage Alumni Networking on LinkedIn to thwaites Find a Job. Essay Real! Personal Branding: Where to Start When You Don#8217;t Know How.
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Free Information Technology essays. Efficiency Enhancing Applications. There are several efficiency enhancing applications that use wireless communication technology in leigh thwaites, ITS to improve road and transportation efficiencies mainly by reducing congestions on roads and by easing traffic flow and reducing accidents. Congestion occurs when the demand for travel exceeds highway capacity and is, in don juan, fact, a real problem, and it poses an unbearable burden and threat to drivers. Several policies tackle the problem of phd thesis, congestion depending on argumentative against drunk local conditions and priorities, and one of them is to apply the leigh Convenience or Cooperative Traffic Efficiency Application which is employed by authorities to ease traffic flow and resolve the problem of congestion. Cooperative Traffic Efficiency provides two applications: 1. Cooperative Speed Management (CSM) 2. Cooperative Navigation (CoNa) 1. Cooperative Speed Management comprises two services: a. In American Beauty! CSM-Speed Limits Notification: It provides speed limit notifications about current regulatory speed limits and about one or more recommended relative speed limits.
b. CSM-Traffic Light Optimal Speed Advisory: It is leigh phd thesis, responsible for traffic light optimal speed advisory in which a roadside ITS station delivers information about the existing traffic light phases (green, yellow, or red), the time left before traffic light phase changes, and the duration for each phase. The vehicle adjusts its journey accordingly. 2. Cooperative Navigation. The Cooperative Navigation Application assists vehicles in navigation and aids vehicles in adjusting their itinerary according to their geographic location. The CoNa application provides many services, some of which are: a. Traffic Probe (TP): in which vehicles collect TP information and send it to roadside units for traffic management. b. In American Beauty Essay! Free-Flow Tolling (TOLL): When a car passes through a toll point, a roadside antenna connects with the OBU mounted in the car, and then vehicles are billed automatically as they pass through the leigh phd thesis tolling area, increasing throughput and reducing delay. On We By Gwendolyn Brooks! TOLL applications are an efficient way of financing new infrastructure and easing traffic flow saving drivers’ time and frustration, and allowing them to drive continuously through tolling areas. c. Vehicle registration, inspection, credentials: Vehicle inspection help to regulate the legality of goods/person transportations using wireless vehicular networks that allow the exchange of data between vehicles and infrastructures avoiding the need for stopping vehicles to validate a driver’s license, or to inspect vehicle or trip documentation. d. Congested Road Notification (CRN): In which a vehicle sends notifications about leigh thwaites phd thesis road congestion to roadside units to help improve route and nomination, trip planning. e. Parking Availability Notification (PAN): In which information about available parking lots in a particular area are sent to vehicles. f. Parking Spot Locator (PSL): In which a vehicle obtains a list of leigh thwaites phd thesis, available parking spots upon entering a parking lot .
Mobility Enhancing Applications. In the essay US, traffic congestion results in an $87.2 billion annual drain on leigh thwaites the economy with road takers spending 4.2 billion hours annually in traffic jams, according to the 2009 Urban Mobility Report published by the Texas Transportation Institute. Essay Driving! Wireless communications combine information from roadside units and in-vehicle devices to provide system managers and leigh phd thesis, users with detailed real-time dynamic data about the conditions of the transportation system and the vehicles on the road helping them in making more efficient and convenient travel choices. In addition, wireless communications can provide information about weather and road conditions allowing drivers to cool make safer and more efficient decisions, and allowing the diversion of traffic away from an incident that may hinder the traffic flow. Consequently, this eases traffic flow and improves mobility on the roads . Environmental Protection Applications. The implementation of wireless communications and ICT in the transport system allows road drivers to make choices that can affect both the overall demand for transport and for leigh thwaites phd thesis, different transportation modes, such as easing home working, encouraging transportation mode switch, or optimizing the in american essay use of the system infrastructure in some way resulting in improved efficiency, improved safety, enhanced traveler experience or the use of a more sustainable mode of phd thesis, operation. Wireless communications can therefore lessen the utc admissions need to travel for social and business purposes. In addition, since wireless communications connect corresponding sectors and services of the transport network through digital connections rather than the thwaites phd thesis physical negotiation of geographical space, they can minimize the carbon intensive physical transport movement. Minimizing unnecessary travel using wireless communication and arranging well for unavoidable journeys using Real-Time Traffic Information (RTTI) is consistent with the “smarter choices” agenda. Smarter choices are ‘soft’ practices that affect travelers positively and boost a more sustainable voluntary behavior in schools, workplaces or at homes by producing and argumentative against drunk, implementing travel plans.
The smarter choices agenda could possible decrease national traffic levels by 10’15% if supplemented by ‘hard’ practices, and could thus significantly cut the carbon emissions of the transportation sector . ITS advanced applications: Collision Avoidance Systems. Collision Avoidance Systems are another type of the applications of thwaites, ITS that rely on several technologies including wireless vehicular communications. They have revolutionized transportation systems and roads by improving safety on roads, improving mobility and efficiency, and critical, reducing the negative impact on the environment. Thwaites Phd Thesis! The main advantage that would be gained from the installation and implementation of the collision avoidance systems on roads and in transportation is the almost complete reduction in the number of vehicles crashes and collisions. Consequently, collision avoidance systems would help increase, to a very high level, the utc admissions essay safety levels on roads and as a result improve efficiency and mobility due to reduced congestions. Leigh! Along with other intelligent transportation systems, collision avoidance systems also reduce the negative impact on the environment and thus help protect it. I. Impact on Road Safety and Efficiency. Collision Avoidance Systems employ several techniques and applications that help avoid or minimize almost all different types of collisions. The following section provides a description of each type of collision along with the collision avoidance systems used to prevent it.
1. Rear-end collisions. Rear-end collisions occur when a vehicle collides into the vehicle in front of in american beauty, it when the rear vehicle cannot make a suitable maneuver to prevent the crash mainly because of phd thesis, following very closely the rear vehicle and sudden brake of the front vehicle. Driving assistance systems provide information for the rear driver about the front vehicle’s behavior, and guide the driver on a safe speed/ headway. Collision Avoidance Systems used to prevent it. Rear-End Collision Avoidance Using Headway Monitoring. Monitoring vehicles’ headways allows for nomination essays, the application of rear-end collision avoidance systems which include: 1. Monitoring/informing systems: They monitor the phd thesis driving environment, such as the headway with the front vehicle, and then inform the driver about it. 2. Forward crash warning systems: They warn the driver of any dangerous and critical conditions with the front vehicle. 3. Essay Don Juan! Advisory systems: these advise the driver on the most suitable control actions that should be taken to maintain safety. 4. Control intervention systems: These can intervene with the vehicle’s control system regulating the vehicle’s acceleration/deceleration. Rear-End Collision Avoidance Using Wireless Networks.
Rear-end collisions can also be prevented or minimized in leigh thwaites, severity, by decreasing the time between an emergency event happening and the time that approaching vehicles react to nomination it. There are several methods by which this can be achieved but the most common is through the use of wireless communication to broadcast warning messages to approaching cars. Phd Thesis! The warning messages sent by a braking or a slowly moving vehicle enables the bell approaching vehicles to leigh phd thesis take appropriate actions, such as by slowing down or changing lanes, much earlier than it is possible with the current use of visible light signals; therefore, reducing the critical don juan possibility of phd thesis, crashes and chain collisions. 2. Chain collision accidents. Chain collision accidents occur when an initial collision between two vehicles results in in american beauty, a series of leigh phd thesis, collisions involving the vehicles behind. It mainly occurs because of drivers’ inability to react in time to an emergency event. Collision Avoidance Systems Used to prevent it.
Chain collisions are usually avoided using a Car Collision Avoidance (CCA) mechanism in which an incident warning message is propagated from vehicle to vehicle allowing drivers to respond to a critical incident before actually seeing it. This allows avoiding the traditional chain of drivers reacting to the brake lights of essay by gwendolyn brooks, vehicles ahead of them, thus reducing the time delay between the occurrences of leigh thwaites phd thesis, a critical incident and approaching vehicles being informed of it. This mechanism usually relies on wireless communications in which vehicles transmit warning messages to thesis poverty each other alerting the vehicles and the drivers to leigh thwaites take proper action either by slowing down to curve thesis a recommended speed or by applying a higher than normal deceleration rate. 3. Lane change and overtaking collisions. Lane change takes place when a vehicle changes its position from an originating lane to a destination lane of the same traffic direction. Overtaking happens when vehicles change position on leigh thwaites phd thesis lanes of opposite traffic direction, such as overtaking a slow moving truck on a divided two-way highway. Collision Avoidance Systems used to prevent it. Lane change and argumentative essay drunk, overtaking collisions can be avoided by two measures: infrastructural and in-vehicle. Infrastructural measures include making modifications to leigh the infrastructure, such as widening of lanes and reducing curvature.
On the dream essay other hand, in-vehicle driver assistance systems provide information to the drivers about the leigh thwaites surrounding traffic conditions, using sensors and wireless communication networks, allowing the drivers to take proper actions to avoid lane change and overtaking collisions. In-vehicle driver assistance systems include: a. Driver informing systems: continuously inform the drivers about the nomination essays driving environment and conditions, especially those that are not perceivable to the drivers (e.g. blind spot) or that can be provided with a higher accuracy than human perception (e.g. vehicle speed). b. Driver warning/advisory systems: evaluate the safety of a situation and warns the drivers when a particular threshold condition is thwaites phd thesis, met or exceeded. It can also provide advice to the drivers about the optimal actions to take, such as the optimal moment to overtake. c. Nomination! Control intervention systems: impose semiautomatic vehicle control for collision avoidance, such as by leigh thwaites applying deceleration or heading change in the face of a collision. d. Fully automatic control systems: impose automatic vehicle control from braking, to bell curve poverty steering and throttle control in thwaites phd thesis, the face of a collision, without allowing the dream in american driver to thwaites phd thesis overrule the utc admissions system’s actions.
4. Intersection Collisions. A large portion of road accidents occur at road intersections, and they can involve pedestrians as well as vehicles. Traditional methods of preventing intersection collisions include intersection control devices, stop signs and traffic signals. Collision Avoidance Systems used to prevent it. There are several collision avoidance systems that are used to leigh phd thesis prevent intersection collisions and thus improve safety and beauty, efficiency on the roads, some of which include: a. Cooperative systems: create a connected network between vehicles and the infrastructure based on vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) and vehicle-to-infrastructure (V2I) wireless communications which form the core of such systems and can help drivers understand the complex state of activities occurring in an approaching intersection. b. Thwaites! Intersection Control Devices: work in agreement with the basic traffic laws to utc admissions essay help provide information to drivers so they can drive their vehicles safely along the road. An example includes the right-of-way principle that informs vehicles about which driver has priority when approaching or entering an intersection. c. Autonomous Collision Avoidance (CAS) Systems: These systems mainly use image processing algorithms to leigh thwaites recognize objects on roads and then track them to estimate their dynamics and alert drivers of real cool, possible collisions. In addition, many of those systems bring about other advantages as well (e.g. positioning, on-board digital maps) so as to contextualize the leigh thwaites specific intersection geometry the vehicle is crossing. These systems have attracted particular attention of researchers as low-cost computers increased in performance allowing for essay, increased road efficiency and lower costs.
Other Avoidance Techniques. Some other collision avoidance systems use stereo infrared vehicle-mounted cameras to track the leigh thwaites phd thesis movements of pedestrians at night and essay, then provide a voice warning and leigh phd thesis, highlight infrared images of the pedestrians using a heads-up display on the windshield. This system has a particular safety advantage since it prevents night accidents and fatalities which are usually twice as much as those occurring during the day. Other systems of the same type depart from the utc admissions traditional vehicle-mounted cameras and use several video cameras installed at an intersection to predict possible collisions. 5. Car and Pedestrian Collisions. Car and leigh, Pedestrian collisions are considered the most serious road accidents as they usually lead to fatalities or serious injuries. However, during the last decades the number of essay real cool by gwendolyn brooks, fatalities or serious injuries from car and leigh thwaites, pedestrian collisions has declined due to advancements in passive vehicle safety by essay the use of safety belts, airbags, the Antilock Braking System (ABS), crumple zones, and leigh, the electronic stability control (ESC(. Collision avoidance systems have the potential to further reduce car and pedestrian collisions. Collision Avoidance Systems used to prevent it. The implementation of new vehicle-to-vehicle and essays, vehicle-to-infrastructure wireless communications in the collision avoidance systems and exchanging information about danger zones can enhance the safety of car passengers by leigh phd thesis avoiding collisions.
Devices such as rising hoods or pedestrian airbags have been invented to avoid a pedestrian hitting the engine block and the windshield. In addition to the implementation of american in american, active collision avoidance systems, governments worldwide are setting new requirements and enacting new laws to increase pedestrian safety. Pedestrian Detection Using On-board Sensors: this system allows vehicles to detect the presence of pedestrians on the roads and thus take the appropriate actions to avoid collisions. Some of the sensors used in this system include: Camera-Based Systems that capture the Visible Spectrum, Cameras that capture the Infrared Light Spectrum, Laser Scanner Devices, Radars, and Sensor Fusion . II- Impact on Mobility. In addition to improving safety and efficiency on roads, collision avoidance systems also improve the mobility of vehicles allowing for vehicles to move freely without having to go through congested traffic and phd thesis, also allows for fast emergency responses. As part of the collision avoidance systems, an Automatic Crash Notification system automatically notifies the nearest emergency call center in an incident of vehicles collision. Brooks! After that, data from vehicular sensors will provide the call center with all the information needed to save the situation, such as: whether the leigh thwaites vehicle was involved in bell curve thesis, a crash; whether an airbag was activated; the physical impact to leigh the vehicle; whether the vehicle did roll-over; the history of vehicle deceleration and status; the number of car passengers, etc. This advanced automatic crash notification system allows for utc admissions, the severity of emergency situations and their precise locations to be determined, and can thus save lives readily while exploiting rescue resources efficiently and sustainably.
This method is certainly more efficient, less time-consuming and greatly improves mobility rather than the old method of leigh, accident notification in which a witness of the collision calls the police and the police then connect with the fire department and utc admissions, medical services calling for an ambulance to the collision site . III- Impact on Environmental Performance. In addition to directly improving traffic management and easing traffic flow through the transmission and processing of information, all of the different collision avoidance systems described above help avoid excessive and aggressive driving maneuvers, uneven driving pace and unsafe speeds/ headways, sudden stopping and starting, and unnecessary speeding and lazing. These result in ecological driving or “eco-driving” which refers to good general operation of a vehicle to optimize performance and reduce environmental impact. The use of wireless communications and ICT in collision avoidance systems can further support greater automation and mobility within the transport system and therefore provide a further step towards reducing carbon emissions and reducing the leigh thwaites carbon footprint of vehicles, for example through intelligent speed adaptation. Moreover, the implementation of the beauty essay collision avoidance systems help reduce traffic congestions and unnecessary starting and stopping further reducing carbon emissions . Collision avoidance systems result in changes in mean traffic speed per unit time, reduction in the period of the episode of reduced capacity, reduction in unnecessary sudden stops and starts, reduction of unnecessary vehicle-miles traveled (VMT), and reduction in leigh thwaites phd thesis, traffic congestion which result in a total reduction of dangerous vehicle emissions and essay, reduction in fuel consumption. Some of the impacts of those changes include:
1. Reduction in the emissions of Nitrogen Oxide (NOx). 2. Reduction in the emissions of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC). 3. Reduction in the emissions of Carbon Monoxide (CO). 4. Thwaites Phd Thesis! Reduction in fuel consumption . Search our thousands of essays: If this essay isn't quite what you're looking for, why not order your own custom Information Technology essay, dissertation or piece of essay, coursework that answers your exact question? There are UK writers just like me on hand, waiting to help you. Each of us is qualified to a high level in our area of thwaites phd thesis, expertise, and we can write you a fully researched, fully referenced complete original answer to your essay question. Just complete our simple order form and you could have your customised Information Technology work in your email box, in as little as 3 hours. This Information Technology essay was submitted to us by a student in order to help you with your studies.
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Read a Biographical Essay, John Muir: Nature’s Witness. John Muir, circa 1902. In September 1865, John Muir wrote to a friend, “How intensely I desire to be a Humboldt!” At the leigh thwaites phd thesis time, it must have seemed a pipe dream. A pacifist opposed to the Civil War, the twenty-seven-year-old Muir had left his family’s Wisconsin farm the previous year and traveled to Michigan. Nomination. From there, he crossed the Canadian border and kept walking east. Now, the future forefather of American conservationists and savior of Yosemite found himself making broom handles and rakes in Meaford, Ontario, about as far removed as he could have been from the Latin American tropics made famous by leigh thwaites, the great German explorer Alexander von Humboldt. Muir’s journey from machinist to scientist, writer, and activist—and some would say icon—was aided by a host of real cool by gwendolyn brooks nineteenth-century luminaries. He walked California’s Mount Shasta with Asa Gray, the Harvard botanist who was Charles Darwin’s greatest American explicator, and communed with Ralph Waldo Emerson in Yosemite’s Mariposa Grove.
Robert Underwood Johnson of The Century Magazine was his editor, taskmaster, and friend. Presidents Theodore Roosevelt and William Howard Taft traveled Yosemite with Muir, and the railroad magnate Edward Harriman hosted him on a scientific survey of Alaska. But the person who cultivated Muir’s potential and who prodded him to become an explorer in phd thesis, his own right was Jeanne Carr, the recipient of the Humboldt letter. Carr met Muir in utc admissions essay, 1860 while she was judging the state fair in thwaites, Madison, Wisconsin. Utc Admissions. When he wasn’t toiling in his father Daniel’s fields, Muir spent his late adolescence inventing all manner of things: a field thermometer, a gadget that would tip him out of bed in the morning, and a model for automating the sawing of logs. With the thwaites phd thesis nudging of a neighbor, Muir showed some of his inventions in the Madison fair. Although they were well received, Muir, remembering his hellfire Scottish father’s admonishment to avoid praise, did not save the newspaper reports. Essay. In his memoirs, Muir recalled that “father carefully taught us to consider ourselves very poor worms of the dust, conceived in sin, etc., and devoutly believed that quenching every spark of pride and self-confidence was a sacred duty, without realizing that in so doing he might at the same time be quenching everything else.
Praise he considered most venomous.” In contrast, Jeanne Carr saw a promising young man, who, despite his haphazard early education, was meant to be more than a laborer. She and her husband, Ezra, a professor at the University of Wisconsin, encouraged him as he began to follow his inclinations toward botany and leigh thwaites, geology. Although Muir left the university without taking a degree, he continued his field studies in botany and sent his scientific musings to his Madison connections, particularly Jeanne. Her role in poverty, developing his potential is highlighted in John Muir in the New World , a new PBS documentary. “She gave [Muir] confidence that he could become something,” says University of Kansas environmental historian Donald Worster in the film. Initially, Muir had stilled the inner voice calling him to a life of thwaites exploration and used his considerable skills to american dream in american beauty, improve productivity in the Canadian broom factory and later in Indianapolis, where he worked as a sawyer for leigh phd thesis, Osgood, Smith Co. There, a file slipped out of his hand and blinded him—it turned out american dream beauty essay temporarily—making him despondent and forcing him to reconsider what he wanted to do. Telling him not to be anxious, Carr wrote, “I have often in my heart wondered what God was training you for. He gave you the eye within the eye, to see in all natural objects the realized ideas of thwaites His mind. . . . He will surely place you where your work is.” The Yosemite Valley with Half Dome in the distance, circa 1865, by Carleton E. Watkins.
Intent on getting to South America, Muir gave up his job, took his savings, and, in the fall of 1867, began walking mile after mile, collecting plants and observing the rise and american dream in american beauty, fall of the leigh phd thesis land from Louisville to Florida, where malaria felled him. Without being fully recovered, Muir moved on to Cuba, like Humboldt. Thesis. But illness, heat, and thwaites, humidity became oppressive, so Muir changed course. He hopped on a boat carrying oranges from Havana to New York, and from there headed to California and into the Sierra Nevada and its Yosemite Valley, where he took manual jobs as a sawyer and a sheep herder so he might study the magnificent landscape. Entranced by the peaks, trees, and waters in essays, what he eventually called “the Range of Light,” he told Carr that he was “feasting in the Lord’s mountain house.” It’s on his journey of scientific inquiry, first to the Gulf and in leigh thwaites phd thesis, his first summer in the Sierra Nevada, that Muir’s religious thinking evolves, and he leaves much of curve poverty his Calvinist background behind, says Worster.
A man of his time, Muir was raised with the view from Genesis that God has given man dominion over all of nature. But in A Thousand-Mile Walk to thwaites phd thesis, the Gulf , based on his journals from that period published posthumously in 1916, Muir adopts a humbler view: “The world, we are told, was made especially for man—a presumption not supported by all the facts. Essay Against. A numerous class of men are painfully astonished whenever they find anything, living or dead, in leigh thwaites phd thesis, all God’s universe, which they cannot eat or render in some way what they call useful to themselves.” He goes on argumentative against drunk, to say, “From the dust of the earth, from the common elementary fund, the leigh thwaites Creator has made Homo sapiens . From the same material he has made every other creature, however noxious and insignificant to us. They are earth-born companions and our fellow mortals. The fearfully good, the orthodox, of this laborious patchwork of modern civilization cry ‘Heresy’ on every one whose sympathies reach a single hair’s breadth beyond the boundary epidermis of our own species.”
Other nineteenth-century thinkers—Humboldt, Emerson, Thoreau, Ruskin—looked at nature for inspiration, and Muir knew their work, but Muir went further. He may be regarded, says Worster in an interview, “as a religious prophet,” one whose religion was Nature. At the same time, Muir fully remained a man of science, determined to “entice people to look at Nature’s loveliness.” In A Passion for Nature: The Life of John Muir , Worster explained, “More than ever, he saw that his method of opening others’ eyes must be through scientific exploration and scientific explanation. The beauty of the natural world would be revealed though an immersion in nomination, facts and mechanics.” In the summer of 1871, the Smithsonian Institution asked Muir to send along reports of what he discovered on his walks in California’s high peaks. Within months, Muir discovered glaciers in the Sierra Nevada and soon began measuring them, and in thwaites phd thesis, December reported his findings in the New-York Tribune : “The great valley itself, together with all of dream beauty its various domes and thwaites, walls, was brought forth and fashioned by a grand combination of glaciers, acting in certain directions against granite of peculiar physical structure.” Although time has proved Muir more right than wrong, the professional geology community, still a young discipline, was mixed in its response to cool brooks, an amateur geologist’s claim that Yosemite had glacial origins; and leigh, his father found no merit at curve thesis poverty, all in thwaites phd thesis, the work. “Yosemite Glaciers” was Muir’s first published essay.
Within the year, he began contributing articles to Overland Monthly (California’s answer to the Atlantic Monthly ) and other publications. Bell Thesis Poverty. A mix of natural history, geology, and adventures worthy of the modern magazine Outside , Muir gave armchair naturalists the “inexpressible joy experienced by every explorer in nature’s untrodden wilds” without having to deal with the animals, avalanches, and the violent storms common at high elevations. Muir traveled light. On a mountain he carried tea and a bit of bread and little else, confident that he was safe with Nature. Leigh Thwaites. In his wanderings, he got himself into essay by gwendolyn, some sticky situations, says Worster, and it is amazing he survived. By 1876, Muir was calling in his writings for better management of Yosemite, which was being overgrazed and thwaites phd thesis, heavily logged. Curve. Reporting in the Sacramento Daily Record-Union that “waste and pure destruction are already taking place at a terrible rate” in phd thesis, the Sierras, he wrote in terms that sound strikingly contemporary: “The practical importance of the preservation of american our forests is augmented by their relations to climate, soil and leigh phd thesis, streams.” For the next decade, Muir wrote little. He married Louie Strentzel—Jeanne Carr was the against driving matchmaker—in 1880, and, with the exception of forays to thwaites, Alaska to study its glaciers and people, Muir stayed close to home, doting on his daughters and running his father-in-law’s fruit farm at a good profit. But in dream, 1889, with Louie’s blessing, Robert Underwood Johnson drew him back into the literary world. On a camping trip in Yosemite’s high country, Johnson convinced Muir that he was just the leigh thwaites phd thesis person to bell thesis, lead the still-tiny conservation movement in arguing for national park status for Yosemite.
Johnson promised that if Muir wrote for The Century , the influential East Coast editor would make sure the ‘right people’ read his essays. In “Features of the leigh thwaites phd thesis Proposed Yosemite National Park,” which appeared in September 1890, Muir took readers through the landscape like a friendly tour guide, mapping out an area for protection and by gwendolyn brooks, letting them know that William Vandever of California has introduced a bill to thwaites, protect the region. In much milder language than he used later, Muir simply said, “Unless reserved or protected the whole region will soon or late be devastated by lumbermen and sheepmen, and essay against driving, so of course be made unfit for use as a pleasure ground.” Congress moved quickly and even expanded Yosemite’s size; President Benjamin Harrison signed the act into law on leigh thwaites, October 1, 1890. Turning Yosemite into a national park was a short sortie compared with the fights Muir would lead up until his death. Along the way, some of the men he considered friends would fall away, and the young conservation movement would experience a schism that is today expressed in battles over beauty essay spotted owls in thwaites, Oregon, wolves in Yellowstone, and the use of public lands generally. As Muir’s fame grew, he was asked to preside over the newly formed Sierra Club, and in 1896 he served as an dream beauty, adviser to leigh thwaites, a forest commission set up by the National Academy of Sciences to determine the condition of the nation’s western forests. Essays. Led by Charles Sprague Sargent, a Harvard University botanist, the leigh thwaites phd thesis commission (which also included the up-and-coming Gifford Pinchot, who became the first chief of the U.S.
Forest Service) traveled to essays, South Dakota, Wyoming, Montana, Washington, Oregon, California, Arizona and Colorado and determined that many forests were in poor shape and needed protection. But how? Sargent wanted forests to leigh thwaites, be protected by the army, a view that Muir had some sympathy for don juan, because the army had already made forays into Yosemite and Yellowstone. Pinchot wanted a professional civilian force. In its report, the commission balanced the Sargent and Pinchot views. Thwaites Phd Thesis. It also recommended that reserves totaling more than 20 million acres be set aside as national forests, a suggestion that was approved by President Grover Cleveland and challenged by western politicians. Muir made his own report in The Atlantic Monthly . “The forests of America, however slighted by man, must have been a great delight to God; for they were the best he ever planted.” He described trees with a diameter of twenty feet as “lordly monarchs proclaiming the gospel of beauty like apostles.” He reminded his readers of the changes that came with the clearing of the American landscape and wrote, “Every other civilized nation in the world has been compelled to care for its forests, and so must we if waste and poverty, destruction are not to go on leigh thwaites, to the bitter end.”
Even though Muir used a language of reverence, he did not say that the forests and the nation’s natural resources were not to be used. He wrote of America opening itself to don juan, “good men of every nation,” who should be “as free to pick gold and gems from the thwaites hills, to cut and essay on we by gwendolyn, hew, dig and plant, for thwaites phd thesis, homes and bread, as the birds are to american essay, pick berries from the wild bushes, and moss and leaves for nests.” Like a preacher exhorting his congregation, Muir went on to say, “Mere destroyers, however, tree-killers, wool and mutton men, spreading death and confusion in the fairest groves and gardens ever planted,—let the government hasten to cast them out and make an end of them.” Efforts by Muir and his conservation-minded colleagues received a huge boost when Theodore Roosevelt became president. At Roosevelt’s suggestion, Muir and thwaites phd thesis, the president camped together in Yosemite in 1903.
The president left convinced that Yosemite should be fully under control of the critical essay federal government. Although Roosevelt extended federal protection to millions of acres of land during his tenure, two of the great conservationists of the twentieth century were not cut from exactly the thwaites same cloth. At the same time Roosevelt was promoting conservation, he was also considering the critical essay need for dams and reservoirs and balancing competing political and social needs. Within his administration, Pinchot was a proponent of practicing “wise use”—a term that was not tightly defined—in managing natural resources. Leigh Thwaites. If “wise use” meant the selective harvesting of trees, the damming of waterways for irrigation, and essay, sometimes the destruction of wildlife habitat for leigh thwaites, economic development, then Muir had never been opposed to it, but he drew the line at national parks because they were about “consecrating a small part of nature,” Worster wrote. “For years Muir had gone along with utilitarian conservation, provided that ‘wise use’ included spiritual and aesthetic values, and he was confident that Roosevelt shared his thinking that those values were as important as economic benefits.” That was not the case when it came to the Hetch Hetchy Valley, a place Muir considered every bit as sublime as Yosemite Valley. As early as 1882, the city of San Francisco was looking to make the utc admissions valley a reservoir.
In 1903, Secretary of the Interior Ethan Hitchcock denied San Francisco’s mayor a permit to store water in the valley because it was within the bounds of a national park. James Phelan, the thwaites phd thesis city’s mayor, continued to petition, but not until the San Francisco earthquake and fire did the matter become urgent. When Muir learned that James Garfield, Roosevelt’s new Secretary of the Interior (with Pinchot’s encouragement) might approve San Francisco’s request to dam Hetch Hetchy, he launched a campaign that became the first national, all-out organized conservation fight. Passionate about “pieces of extraordinary nature,” Muir was willing to do whatever it took, says Cornell University historian Aaron Sachs in the film. “All he cared about in this fight was preserving something beautiful and inspirational and essays, sacred, and that came across as impractical. It came across as elitist. People wondered if he would just sacrifice everything about civilization in leigh thwaites phd thesis, order to preserve this one little piece of essay wilderness.”
In a convoluted series of thwaites phd thesis moves and countermoves that played out in the national press through the presidencies of Roosevelt, Taft, and Wilson, proponents and opponents argued over the best way to use public land. The film points out how difficult the debate was—everyone, including Muir, recognized that San Francisco needed water. But the dream beauty question was from where would that water come? Each side was harsh and alliances were not wholly predictable; the Sierra Club itself was divided. Hetch Hetchy was threatened by “robbers of every degree from leigh phd thesis, Satan to Senators,” wrote Muir. William Kent, a member of the in american beauty House of leigh thwaites Representatives and onetime friend of the conservationist, described him as devoid of social sense: “With him it is me and essay against drunk, God and the rock where God put it, and that is the end of the story.” When Woodrow Wilson in 1913 signed into law the bill allowing a dam in Hetch Hetchy, Muir wrote to a friend: “It is thwaites a monumental mistake, but it is more, it is a monumental crime.” In poor health, Muir died the next year. Over his seventy-six years, Muir transformed not only himself, but the nation. He taught us “to slow down and essays, think about what we are doing,” says Sachs. Muir once wrote, “I only went out for a walk and phd thesis, finally concluded to stay out till sundown, for going out, I found, was really going in.” He may have set off to critical, be a Humboldt, but, in walking, he became Muir.
Anna Maria Gillis is leigh thwaites phd thesis managing editor of critical Humanities . Republished from the March/April 2011 issue of Humanities , the magazine of the National Endowment for phd thesis, the Humanities. Brooks. Used with permission. John Muir in thwaites, the New World , which airs April 18 on PBS’s American Masters (check local listings), received major funding from the nomination NEH. Thwaites. John Muir’s Nature Writings , a collection published by The Library of America was helpful in writing this article.