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Essays by thoreau

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bank treasury resume Resume Body CORPORATE FINANCE TREASURY MANAGEMENT. Business Supplies Distributor. By Thoreau? August 2006 – Present. About Sojourner? Reporting to the CEO, recruited to establish strong treasury controls and processes; responsible for debt, interest risk, foreign exchange risk, global cash, credit support, insurance, and capital structure. • Direct analyst in delivering daily cash management, liquidity forecasting, covenant compliance, affiliate financing, cash reporting, credit support and financial risk management. • Manage $125M global debt portfolio and associated covenant compliance. Support negotiations and structuring for by thoreau 9 senior and essays children, 7 subordinated debt amendments, accommodating evolving business needs and conditions, including three divestitures. • Driving refinancing initiative to reduce cost of capital, realign capital structure and expand borrowing base in essays by thoreau, order to fund growth and better utilize assets. • Prepare weekly, monthly, quarterly and annual financial disclosures and support MDA. Television? • Partner with business unit management to identify, measure and mitigate financial risks. Develop and execute strategies for FX and Interest Rate hedging. • Refined 13-week Cash Forecasting model; developed methodology to incorporate demand planning and purchasing data, reducing average weekly actual to essays forecast variance from essays television children, 40% to 3%. • Standardized and refined Lease-Buy analysis methodologies and essays, models for equipment, facilities, IT infrastructure and vehicles. • Developed enterprise valuations for divestitures, restructuring and equity repurchases. • Support due diligence for credit facility extensions, divestitures, refinancing and sale of company. Tier One Auto Supplier.

December 2005 – July 2006. Recruited to an essay on co-education drive restructuring efforts, and reporting to the Assistant Treasurer, responsible for debt, interest risk, intercompany lending, credit support, and capital structure and affiliate funding. • Supported negotiations and structuring for refinancing $1.2B debt portfolio. • Developed and implemented plans, in coordination with Tax, Legal, and essays by thoreau, Regional management, for mobilizing global cash, migrating profit, affiliate financing, dividends, and creating tax-effective ownership structures. Global Chemicals Company. June 2003 – December 2005. Essayer? Reporting to the Assistant Treasurer, managed debt, interest risk, intercompany lending, pension, credit support, and capital structure and subsidiary funding. • Recommended and implemented rationalization of European legal and tax structures under European Holding Company and Finance Branch, realizing $8M ongoing annual tax savings, and repatriation of €112M during 2004. • Proposed, structured and essays by thoreau, implemented capitalizations, pension contributions, dividend plans, credit and funding for foreign subsidiaries. Rationalized and restructured $2B intercompany loan portfolio. • Managed $770M global debt portfolio, including €200M commercial paper program, and an essay on co-education, associated covenant compliance. Negotiated and managed credit commitments in excess of $700M. Supported renewal negotiations for by thoreau $450M 5-year revolving credit facility in 2004. • Supported rating agency and BOD reviews relating to debt, capital markets, retirement plan performance, interest expense, and capital structure. Write On Co-education? Global Battery Manufacturer.

October 2002 – April 2003. Upon relocation of Access’ operations overseas, recruited as Assistant Treasurer reporting to the Treasurer to manage global cash, intercompany funding, credit support, and Debtor-in-Possession financing. • Developed and coordinated implementation of restructuring strategies, delivering free cash flow of essays by thoreau, $8M and essayer, $5.3M ongoing annual tax savings. Essays? • Managed $875M global credit facilities, $250M DIP facility and $561M intercompany loan portfolio. • Negotiated agency role for Netherlands corporate bank in sparation dissertation, $150M European Asset Securitization, increasing efficiency and reducing liquidity needs. Private International Investment Group. April 1998 – July 2002. An international private investment group providing management services to wholly-owned assets in the former Soviet Union, and managing all international financing, sales, and logistics. Recruited by Access to report to essays the CFO, leading a multi-functional team of seven with three direct reports in managing the $1.3 billion metals trade and export operations. • Managed liquidity, investments, collateral, A/R and corps dissertation, A/P for essays by thoreau corporate subsidiaries.

Forecasted cash flows for both working capital needs and essay on the war, strategic investments. • Developed and essays, managed international corporate bank, providing credit, funding and FX risk management to corporate subsidiaries. Managed global intercompany loan portfolio of $261M. • Analyzed, structured, negotiated, and implemented all financing activities including production financing, collateralized borrowing, credit facilities, lease-buy analyses, budgeting, planning, capital structure, capital expenditures, asset restructuring, and repatriation. Previous Positions July 1991 – April 1998. Bagelcraft, Inc., W. Hempstead, NY, July 1997 – April 1998, Contract Consultant, Operations; U.S. Agency for International Development, Moscow, Russia, June 1996 – November 1996; Financial Market Development Analyst, Intern; Bank of America Mortgage, Inc., Uniondale, NY,.

March 1993 – May 1995; and Mortgage Services Administrator, Whitenack Associates, New York, NY, July 1991 – January 1993, Assistant to Head Trader. Faire? Education Professional Development. Essays By Thoreau? International MBA, Finance. University of Notre Dame, 1991. B.A., Government International Studies/ Russian.

AFP Honors Program, Association for on co-education Financial Professionals, Recipient, 2007, 2008. Windows NT/XP; Microsoft Office Suite; Treasury workstations; Bloomberg; Reuters; QuickBooks; Hyperion, IFS, Proclarity, Groupwise. AFP Corporate Treasurers Council, Member; Association for essays by thoreau Financial Professionals, Member; Minnesota Treasury Management Association, Member.

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Major essays by Henry David Thoreau

My Father My Mentor Essays and Research Papers. support that is essential to human nature. Essays! Romulus, My Father , a biographical memoir written by Raimond Gaita, explores these . concepts of how connections to people and place, or lack thereof, can have dramatic and essay on the gulf, detrimental consequences on essays by thoreau our wellbeing. Sojourner! This is particularly explored in the characters Christine and essays by thoreau, Romulus, who each experience an absence of belonging in their relationships with people and place. As well as this, Romulus, My Father demonstrates how belonging to persepolis essay, place can be affected.

Family , Interpersonal relationship , Jan Garbarek 976 Words | 3 Pages. Essay: Dreams From My Father Barack Obama’s Dreams From My Father is by thoreau exactly what it claims to be . by title, a story of race and essay gulf, identity. Barack Obama comes from a diverse background, which he explores throughout the book. Having a white American mother and black Kenyan father , he has a different experience than the by thoreau, majority of people in society when it comes to race and identity, however still it seems similar to the experience of many blacks as described in William E. Cross’s Black Psychological. African American , Barack Obama , Black people 1303 Words | 3 Pages. identification. The memoir, Romulus, My Father , by Raimond Gaita; John Guare’s play, Six Degrees of Separation; and Tim Winton’s . Sparation Corps Dissertation! short story, Big World, from the collection, The Turning, explore the concept that Belonging is the driving force for the human condition. Each composer represents their varied perceptions of essays, belonging in their texts, conveying that Belonging as a fundamental need we strive for in our search to create a concrete identity. The memoir, Romulus, My Father , portrays the sparation dissertation, ways in which. Audience , Gaita sanabresa , John Guare 1440 Words | 4 Pages. factors, understanding being one of these.

Without understanding of people, places, communities or the larger world, one cannot hope to establish a deep . connection with these things. This concept is evident in the biographical novel, Romulus, My Father (RMF), by Raimond Gaita (1998), as well as the film text, The Freedom Writers (TFW), directed by Richard LaGravenese. By Thoreau! These texts both present the essay on the gulf war, idea that the understanding associated with one’s heritage facilitates connection with others who. Concept , Erin Gruwell , Freedom Writers 1026 Words | 3 Pages. ROMULUS MY FATHER , THE ISLAND Belonging is about finding a sense of essays, place in the world which can be due to film, a strong sense of . connection with others. For those who don’t belong and cannot find ‘their place’ they are faced with problems of alienation and loneliness from others or feel estranged or in essays by thoreau, conflict with the essay, environment. These different aspects are reflected in the texts Romulus my Father , Raimond Gaita and The Island, Armin Greder. By Thoreau! These texts portray the concept of belonging and not. Australia , Island , Raimond Gaita 768 Words | 3 Pages. Romulus, My Father . An individual's capacity to belong is primarily dependent on their personal experience, and write on co-education, varies in by thoreau, . difficulty depending on the dynamics of each individual's personality and temperament. The landscape in which an individual resides has a definitive impact upon sparation corps, an individual’s sense of belonging.

Furthermore, the specific place, in relation to where the essays, individual literally resides, too influences ones sense of belonging. In Raimond Gaita's biographical memoir Romulus, My Father. Australia , Culture of Australia , Raimond Gaita 967 Words | 3 Pages. often reflected and shaped through one’s own personal understanding of impact children, where they belong in a society. A sense of belonging is driven by both the external . and internal factors that exist around them. Raimond Gaita’s biographical memoir Romulus, My Father and Margaret Atwood’s poem “Further Arrivals” clearly demonstrate similar concepts of how a person’s sense of essays by thoreau, belonging may differ. Both texts construct related understanding of the harsh experience of migration to Australia, the impact, struggle to find. Emotion , Gaita sanabresa , Margaret Atwood 1284 Words | 4 Pages.

“There is such hate and rage inside me now that I know I have the essays by thoreau, power to destroy and kill.” Do you think Loung’s hate and rage made her strong in the face . of film analysis essay, adversity? Discuss. The novel, First They Killed My Father , written by and told from the perspective of by thoreau, Loung Ung, is a chilling tale of a disturbed childhood, where the essays sojourner, impact and influence of the communist government, the Khmer Rouge, fuels the anger and perpetual loathing of the regime which she claims to be the sole reason of the separation. Communism , First They Killed My Father , Khmer Rouge 1159 Words | 3 Pages. ‘An individual’s interaction with others and the world around them can enrich or limit their experience of belonging.’ This statement can be readily depicted . through various texts which include Raimond Gaita’s memoir, Romulus My Father and Universal Studio’s 2004 film, Hating Alison Ashley. Both of these texts involve various techniques that assist in essays by thoreau, portraying the concept of sojourner truth, belonging to both an environment and to relationships. Belonging is essays by thoreau a concept that is more complex than it first appears. Eric Bana , Family , Raimond Gaita 2226 Words | 6 Pages.

Essay- Community and Society Belonging is corps a paradoxical concept illustrating an individual’s sense of inclusions and exclusion simultaneously. This is . evident in Raimond Gaita’s memoir Romulus My father as the individuals Romulus, Raimond and by thoreau, Christine experience the dynamic changes evident in the concept of persepolis analysis essay, belong to by thoreau, place, society and community. Armin Greder also explores the fluid and dynamic nature of belonging through his picture book ‘The Island’ through the isolation of the protagonist. Australia , Foreigner , Immigration 1120 Words | 3 Pages. Romulus My Father and Tintern Abbey. can be seen within Raimond Gaita’s 1998 memoir ‘Romulus my Father ’ and William Wordsworth’s 1978 poem ‘Tintern Abbey’ as they . search through their past and discover their own individual sense of acceptance to their story and their world. The 1998 reflective memoir ‘Romulus my Father ’ is sparation dissertation a written testimony to by thoreau, Raimond Gaita’s father after his death, and a journey of self-discovery as he recollects the many memories he shared with his father upon migration to Australia.

It offers the contrasting. Landscape , Lyrical Ballads , Natural landscape 1306 Words | 4 Pages. Belonging- 'Romulus, My Father' and 'Avatar' challenged by feelings of insecurity, but either way belonging shapes the way we all live our lives. Essay On The Gulf War! This is represented thoroughly in both ‘Romulus . my Father ’ by essays, Raimond Gaita and ‘Avatar’ by James Cameron, both texts show that belonging or not belonging is an unavoidable activity and may take many different forms, some obvious and others hidden. ‘Romulus My Father ’ opens with an immediate sense of insecurity and danger, ‘pitchfork held tightly in both hands, knowing that he would probably kill his uncle…’. Barrier , Feeling , Human 1199 Words | 3 Pages. Raimond Gaita's Romulus, My Father Sujata Bhatt's Search for essays impact children, My Tongue. Raimond Gaita’s “Romulus, My Father ” Sujata Bhatt’s “Search For My Tongue” The need to connect with our . contextual environment, particularly forging strong bonds of by thoreau, association with other individuals is persepolis film analysis common to by thoreau, humanity. Paradoxically however, individuals often have to compromise their own values and personal integrity into about sojourner, order to be accepted. This is the case with Romulus in the 1998 memoir Romulus, My Father , written by Raimond Gaita, who is compelled by the rest of 1950’s Australian. Australia , Culture , Integrity 1396 Words | 4 Pages.

Romulus My Father, Gattaca - Belonging. EVALUATE HOW BELONGING IS EXPLORED THROUGH ‘ROMULUS MY FATHER ’ ONE RELATED TEXT An individual’s ability to belong is essays by thoreau based . on their capacity to reconcile their values to a larger group identity; whereas a failure to connect, due to a disparity in values, results in isolation. Raimond Gaita’s memoir Romulus, My Father , highlights the children, centrality of essays, values in connecting through the contrasting experiences of Raimond and persepolis, Romulus where Romulus’ failure to belong is based on essays his refusal to acculturate. Andrew Niccol , Gaita sanabresa , Gattaca 1353 Words | 4 Pages. Dreams from My Father (Barack Obama) What is television My Identity? Dreams from My Father archives Barack Obama’s journey, and struggles, to find his . Essays By Thoreau! identity. Obama quickly admits that race is an important part of himself, and it is that quest of race and identity that pushes him to question his own uniqueness.

Ultimately spanning both worlds of the vastly different cultures of corps dissertation, his life in America and his roots in Kenya causes Obama confusion and by thoreau, self-doubt. Impact! It is through the steady love of his family that allows Obama to truly find acceptance. African American , Ann Dunham , Barack Obama 841 Words | 3 Pages. Obama: Individual in the Community(Dreams of My Father) Alyna Torres QU 101 Professor Matt Tortora September 29, 2010 Dreams from My Father There are many barriers one must . overcome, and to accomplish this, one must find their distinctiveness and take a key role in the community. Throughout the by thoreau, novel, Dreams from my Father by our current president Barrack Obama, Barrack demonstrates the true meaning of being an individual. He is highly active in his community, despite the fact that he is faire part of the black community. The economic, social, and. A Great Way to Care , Barack Obama , Dreams from by thoreau, My Father 1916 Words | 5 Pages.

Belonging - 'Romulus, My Father' and 'Pursuit of Happyness' seen in gulf war, the strong relationship between a father and son. This concept can be clearly identified with reference to both Raimond Gaita’s elegiac . memoir ‘Romulus, My Father ’ and Gabriele Muccino’s film ‘the Pursuit of Happyness’ which is by thoreau based on the biography by persepolis analysis, Chris Garner. Essays! In both texts, a strong sense of belonging can be recognised between a father and son and through the unconditional love they share with each other as a parent and child. Each father contributes so much to their sons’ lives. Emotion , Family , Gabriele Muccino 1158 Words | 3 Pages. Presentation: Barack Obama Dreams from persepolis analysis essay, My Father Barack Obama – “Dreams From My Father -A Story of Race and essays, Heritance” Today I want to introduce you United States President . Barack Obama’s first memoir, dreams from my father . It was first published in July 1995 as he was preparing to launch his political career and republished in August 2004. Author: Since my book is an autobiography I won’t tell you everything about the essayer faire dj, author, I just will give some personal facts about by thoreau, him. Write An Essay On Co-education! Barack Obama was born in 1961 in by thoreau, Honolulu, Hawaii to impact television, Barack Obama Senior. Ann Dunham , Barack Obama , Barack Obama, Sr.

1586 Words | 6 Pages. Belonging- Black Swan Romulus My Father. memoir ‘Romulus My Father ’ and Darren Aronofsky’s film ‘Black Swan’. Good morning teacher and classmates. The text ‘Black . Swan’ is a film directed by Darren Aronofsky. Essays By Thoreau! It is about a ballerina, Nina, who is elected for the main role in the classic ballet performance Swan Lake. She must play both the white and black swan but can only dance the white. She strives to belong in the position as the film analysis essay, black swan and essays by thoreau, succeed in her role, but in doing so she spirals into insanity. My collage of pictures. Alice in Wonderland , Alice's Adventures in Wonderland , Darren Aronofsky 1479 Words | 4 Pages.

Belonging in Romulus, My Father and This Is England. which in turn is based on society’s standards. It may serve as a process of belonging, or alternatively, as a barrier. This concept is evident in persepolis analysis, the first . scene of the film This is England, as 12-year-old Shaun enters his new school, wearing his fathers ’ old denim jeans. He stands helplessly among his classmates, most in ties, hats and uniform jackets. This juxtaposition immediately shows Shaun’s quickly formed perception of how one may belong in essays, this environment, as a fight is initiated caused by. Perception , Psychology , Raimond Gaita 917 Words | 3 Pages. Romulus My Father Related Text the essays about sojourner truth, Boy in the Striped Pajamas. the consequences of not belonging can be dire- resulting in the loss of by thoreau, identity, understanding and essays children, purpose. As a result it is a prominent feature of the . literary world.

This is evident in the (1998) memoir by Raimond Gaita, “Romulus, My Father ,” Jodi Picoult’s novel My sister’s Keeper and John Boyne’s 2007 film, “The Boy in the Striped Pajamas.” Each of the texts directly explore ambivalent relationships which can create a sense of belonging through the connections established through a shared context. Interpersonal relationship , Marriage , Raimond Gaita 952 Words | 3 Pages. Comparative Analysis on Belonging of Romulus My Father and Revolutionary Road by Richard Yates.Pdf. The 1961 novel Revolutionary Road by author Richard Yates links strongly with the autobiographical recount Romulus, My Father , by . Essays! Raimond Gaita, and in so doing provides a greater understanding of the concept of Belonging. It charts the disintegration of the marriage of essayer faire dj, Frank and April Wheeler as they struggle against the oppressive conformity of essays, suburban 1950s America. The texts together explore the processes undergone by the individual in write an essay, their integration to society and it’s inherent cultural. Morality , Raimond Gaita , Romulus, My Father 1678 Words | 4 Pages. Belonging Essay 'Romulus My Father', 'the Lost Thing' and essays by thoreau, 'the Catcher in the Rye' Raimond Gaita’s memoir ‘Romulus My Father ,’ Shaun Tan’s ‘The Lost Thing’ and JD Salinger’s ‘The Catcher in the Rye.’ An . individual’s interaction with others and the world around them can enrich or limit their experience of belonging to an environment. ‘Romulus My Father ’ demonstrates this through the profound sense of acceptance that exists within Raimond. About! He delivers his observations in a reflective and thoughtful tone, particularly in his recollections of his father , as he “loved him too deeply….

Demonstration , Feeling , I'm Crazy 959 Words | 3 Pages. Belonging: Romulus My Father and Becoming Jane Related Text. paramount in by thoreau, the development of ones identity and therefore the definition of the institutions to which they may belong. The fragility and labyrinthine . nature of belonging is explored in Raimond Gaita’s Romulus, My Father through the contrasting characters of the narrator and his titular father in persepolis analysis, their experiences to assimilate to Australian culture and by thoreau, society. Contrasting, Julian Jarrold’s biographical drama ‘Becoming Jane’ illustrates the essay, influences of society on the development of an individual’s. Becoming Jane , Jane Austen , Julian Jarrold 1221 Words | 4 Pages. Belonging Essay, Romulus My Father, Yellow Wallpaper and Gran Torino. when we feel most comfortable, most connected to the people and environment that surrounds us. These connections are essential for essays by thoreau, us to come to film analysis essay, terms with . who and what we are, as is essays seen in write an essay on co-education, Raimond Gaita’s Romulus My Father . Essays By Thoreau! Gaita’s memoir here highlights the corps dissertation, difficulties his father encountered in essays, attempting to establish himself amid the conservative and narrow attitudes of 1950’s Australian people having being relocated from his native home land.

Although belonging is central to the discussion. Aristotle , Charlotte Perkins Gilman , Clint Eastwood 2172 Words | 6 Pages. What Do You Think Are the Most Powerful Influences That Impact on an Individual’s Sense of Belonging?; Romulus, My Father. choosing. An individual’s sense of belonging is composed of many aspects and persepolis essay, influences, the essays, most powerful being cultural influences, and write an essay, influences from . having a connection and affiliation to a place. This can be seen in; the memoir ‘Romulus, My Father ,’ by by thoreau, Raimond Gaita, in which Romulus’ culture is seen to have a large impact on his sense of belonging, as is his lack of connection to his new home in Australia. The poem ‘ We are going,” by Oogeroo Noonuccul demonstrates the importance of the influence. Australian Aboriginal culture , Bora , Culture 1203 Words | 3 Pages. and cultural contexts have all worked together to essays impact television, shape my understanding of belonging and not belonging. How would you feel if you were thrown . into an entirely different landscape to what you were used to? And were treated as an outsider just because of the colour of your skin, or where you were from?

You would feel neglected, alienated, alone. This is the sense of not belonging that is strongly illustrated in both the novel Romulus my father , by Raimond Gaita, and the song Oxford Town written by. Emotion , Interpersonal relationship , James Meredith 973 Words | 3 Pages. examination of Raimond Gaita’s memoir Romulus, My Father and by thoreau, Shaun Tan’s wordless graphic novel, The Arrival a detailed . Impact Television! understanding of belonging, especially in by thoreau, regards to the migrant experience, can be attained. A person’s identity and sense of self-actualisation are shaped by the evolution of their sense of belonging over time.

In his reflective memoir, Gaita is writing about his childhood with a man who he loves and is comfortable with. The title “Romulus, MY father ” shows ownership and a strong sense. DNA , Raimond Gaita , Romulus, My Father 829 Words | 2 Pages. find a true state of belonging. This internal struggle, an individual may endure involves barriers that are needed to be overcome in order to impact children, feel included, . as if these barriers are not overcome then alienation occurs. The memoir, Gaita’s “Romulus, My Father ” highlights the prevalent intense struggle of seeking belonging in a foreign country in Romulus, and by thoreau, emphasizes the positive effect that finding a state of sojourner truth, belonging has. On the contrary, Kath Walkers’ poem “We Are Going” represents an aboriginal. Australia , Raimond Gaita , Romulus, My Father 1488 Words | 4 Pages.

to look for stable and loving care outside the essays by thoreau, family. Our president Barack Obama was born in Honolulu, Hawaii on August 4th, 1961. His . father , Barack Obama Sr., was from the Kenyan decent, and his mother, Stanley Ann Dunham was from the American Decent. Growing up, Obama mainly lived in Hawaii raised by write an essay, his grandparents. He was abandoned by his father when he was little boy. His mother got remarried and by thoreau, they moved to on the gulf, Indonesia. Barack’s mother wanted him to learn an English education so he. Ann Dunham , Barack Obama , Barack Obama, Sr.

1774 Words | 4 Pages. The Struggle to Belong and Find One’s Place Is Significant in the Lives of Some People. ‘Romulus, My Father ’ by Raimond Gaita. By Thoreau! Through Gaita’s employment of various writing techniques and his recollection of past . events and sparation, adversities, the reader becomes aware of the many struggles of the characters, particularly to belong to the Australian culture and landscape. In the 2001 short story ‘Mate’, by Kate Grenville, this struggle is again represented through intertextual references, dialogue and tone. Romulus Gaita’s struggle to belong is evident from an early age. “His father died when. Australia , Culture of Australia , Dorothea Mackellar 1464 Words | 4 Pages. world around them. Essays By Thoreau! The memoir Romulus, My Father , written by persepolis film analysis essay, Raimond Gaita and essays, the graphic novel by Shaun Tan, The Arrival both . incorporate prominent aspects of the concept of belonging. Through their representation of various elements in the text, ideas about write on co-education, family unity and the sense of connectedness with the environment both show how the experience of essays by thoreau, belonging is enriched, yet limited to a certain extent.

Through the interaction between Raimond and his father , Romulus, a sense of family relationship. Cousin , Ecology , Environment 936 Words | 3 Pages. The Area of Study 63 Sample response: Nonfiction Prescribed text: Romulus, My Father , Raimond Gaita, 1999 Related text: . Gary’s House, Debra Oswald, 2000 (drama) Statement about belonging and understanding directly related to sojourner, the question through the thesis statement Context Relationship of by thoreau, place to belonging is on the gulf discussed, with supporting evidence from text Final statement in essays by thoreau, the paragraph sums up the pressures of place versus family in the quest to belong – taps into. Family , Knowledge , Perception 1381 Words | 5 Pages. appears is fantastically demonstrated by the combination of techniques used in the novel 'Romulus my father ' by Raimond Gaita . and also in the song 'I must belong somewhere' by Bright Eyes. Television! One of the major aspects of belonging which is essays throughout the entire novel, is the essay, belonging that Romulus has with his personal character. Gaita uses the word “work” as a metaphor to represent the way his father believes that work and character lay hand in hand. Romulus gains the essays, respect of many different people.

Novel , Raimond Gaita , Romulus, My Father 947 Words | 3 Pages. Belonging describes the state when one finally reaches an affinity, whether it is physical, emotional or otherwise, with an entity, which may be a community, . place or ideal. Essays Sojourner Truth! The importance of the desire to essays, belong can be seen in on co-education, the texts, Romulus My Father by Raimond Gaita, Mao’s Last Dancer by Li Cunxin and Fiddler On The Roof by Norman Jewison, all which explore potential barriers to affinity. These barriers can be described as the inability to essays, make connections due to a different cultural background. Fiddler on film essay the Roof , Israel , Jan Garbarek 1059 Words | 4 Pages.

identity. These ideas are illustrated in the biography Romulus, My Father by Raimond Gaita, the essays by thoreau, film The Blind Side directed by . John Hancock and the poem ’Dermott’ by Colin Thiele. Family is one of the strongest sources of essay on the gulf, belonging that can be found and they act as the most supreme provider of ideas and morals from which one can base their life upon or form their identity on. In Romulus my father , Raimond’s relationship with his father is very important in Raimond’s development as he says; ‘I know. Family , Ignaz Semmelweis , Interpersonal relationship 1296 Words | 3 Pages. landscape. It is the physical, yet more importantly the psychological feeling of attachment. By understanding the landscape, society and family one comes . from a sense of belonging may be nourished. This portrayal of belonging is evident in Romulus, My Father , (1998) by Raimond Gaita, Edward Scissorhands, (1990), directed by by thoreau, Tim Burton and Mao’s Last Dancer (2009) directed by Bruce Beresford. Corps Dissertation! These texts emphasize the importance of essays by thoreau, understanding in order to nourish a sense of essays about, belonging within a certain.

Culture , Edward Scissorhands , Europe 1210 Words | 4 Pages. Gattaca and by thoreau, Romulus Belonging Essay. to achieve. Belonging can change over persepolis time in essays, one of two ways: with one’s search and acquirement of belonging, or with one’s deliberate or unintentional . alienation over time. This is clearly demonstrated in two texts: the about sojourner truth, novel/memoir, Romulus, My Father , by Raimond Gaita; and the futuristic, dystopian film, Gattaca, by Andrew Niccol. In the memoir by Raimond Gaita, he effectively conveys the changing levels of belonging felt by Romulus throughout the essays by thoreau, text.

As an immigrant or ‘New Australian’. Andrew Niccol , Australia , Gattaca 1082 Words | 3 Pages. Explore How Perceptions of Belonging or Not Belonging Are Influenced by Connections to Places. experiences and memories in certain places is explored in the texts Romulus my Father a memoir by Raimond Gaita and Oranges and . Sunshine directed by sparation, Jim Loach. It is not a connection with the physical landscape that allows us to experience a sense of inclusion but rather connections built with people or communities that either heighten ones sense of affiliation or estrangement. By Thoreau! This concept is portrayed in Romulus my Father through the character of truth, Anna who is unable to form a connection with the. Gaita sanabresa , Jan Garbarek , Perception 1722 Words | 5 Pages. Barriers to Belonging - Romulus and by thoreau, World of Warcraft.

acceptance and self-worth. Write On Co-education! This is by thoreau explored in the two texts I have studied – the memoir, “Romulus, My Father ” by Raimond Gaita . and the MMORPG “World of Warcraft” by Blizzard Entertainment. Both of these texts explore how culture, gender, race and tradition can all create barriers to belonging. Barriers to belonging can be broken down as fast as they are put up. Sparation Dissertation! In the memoir “Romulus, My Father ”, this idea is essays by thoreau explored throughout the book. For example, in the second chapter when Romulus is sent. Barrier , Blizzard Entertainment , Massively multiplayer online game 1010 Words | 3 Pages. influenced by a response to the memoir Romulus, My Father by Raimond Gaita, the short story Two Friends by Guy de Maupassant and . translated by Roger Colet and about sojourner, the bildungsroman The Catcher in the Rye by J.D. Salinger. Through one of the fundamental relationships in life, the development of by thoreau, friendship, allegiances are formed, nurtured and forever bonding. In the course of this account of fragility, despair, loss and resilience, Romulus, My Father works to about sojourner truth, articulate an ethical understanding of.

Friendship , Gaita sanabresa , Guy de Maupassant 1184 Words | 4 Pages. belonging in by thoreau, society and hence some are excluded naturally. This collated idea is portrayed in Raimond Gaita’s memoir Romulus my . father which is supported by George orwell’s 1984. Both texts emphasise the conundrum of belonging and sparation corps, how exclusion can be present with belonging as well as having the ability to essays by thoreau, fit in. Gaita expresses the irony of belonging in his memoir Romulus my father exposing how morality has an influencing factor in write an essay, one’s belonging. Furthermore, Romulus’ nationalism for Romania is essays significant. 1946 births , Big Brother , Fahrenheit 451 933 Words | 3 Pages. throughout their life. This is conveyed through the memoir Romulus My Father by essay gulf war, Raimond Gaita. As Raimond recounts the story of essays by thoreau, . his father’s life, he explores the strength of family ties. Despite the sometimes tumultuous nature of the war, Gaita family, there never ceases to be a strong sense of belonging between the individuals.

Notions of belonging between Romulus and Raimond are conveyed through the passion of Gaita’s writing about his father and the emotive language of the text. Physical belonging is essays also. John Green , Life , Meaning of write on co-education, life 918 Words | 3 Pages. Aforementioned notions are clearly exemplified in by thoreau, Raimond Gaita’s memoir, Romulus, My Father (RMF), and Shaun Tan’s picture book, . The Lost Thing (TLT). One’s sense of acceptance is determined by their strength of character. Through RMF, Gaita recounts his family’s struggle to adapt to new life as immigrants to post World War II Australia. Romulus’ “strength of character” is established by the high modality, “ my father valued truthfulness above most things”, allowing him to form a “lifelong friendship”. Individual , Raimond Gaita , Romulus, My Father 933 Words | 3 Pages. Belonging is a complex perception informed by an individual’s understanding of their own identity, and their connections with other people and essay, places. As . such it is an by thoreau intensely personal and subjective concept; Raimond Gaita’s memoir ‘Romulus, My Father ’ represents belonging as a perception closely interrelated with one’s identity and wellbeing. Similarly, Penn’s 2007 film ‘Into the Wild’ and Judith Wright’s poem ‘Nigger’s Leap, New England’ explore the analysis essay, wider significance of belonging on a socio-cultural.

Australia , Eric Bana , Identity 750 Words | 3 Pages. migration. Essays By Thoreau! To add on, I will inform you about he migration that occurred through out my relatives lives. And finally, I will speak upon the . migration that occurred through out the movie Scarface that starred Al Pacino that played Tony Montana's role. My parents weren't born in the United States, but they were looking for better lives and opportunities, so they migrated from Haiti to the United States. Write On Co-education! My parents growing up in such a poor country that didn't provide much opportunity for them. Ann Dunham , Barack Obama , Democratic Party 1984 Words | 5 Pages. A Journey of Self-Discovery and essays, Self-Initiation. because no one has just one thing that makes them who they are.

Creating one’s identity is a continuous labyrinth of ideas, likes, dislikes, and other . factors that somehow end at one person and affect their whole character. Having read Dreams From My Father : A Story of Race and Inheritance by Barack Obama over the summer, I found out how he formed his true identity through the essays sojourner, knowledge he gained of the essays, different events and episodes of his life. Some people find out who they are at a very young age. African American , Barack Obama , Black people 2809 Words | 7 Pages. change your perspective on corps the idea of Belonging. One must know who they are and where they belong in order for the community and for people around them . to accept the individual. This idea is explored throughout Raimond Gaita’s memoir Romulus My Father as well as in essays, Shaun Tan’s picture book, The Red Tree, which reveals the effect closed communities can have on the individuals mind set, by dampening the self assurance and worth, one looses site of how to belong to their community. Both Gaita and. Accept , Human , Identity management 958 Words | 3 Pages. Prepared Remarks of President Barack Obama: Back to essayer faire, School Event. the whole speech, and pathos when he tells about his own experience and expresses how he feels on this matter in the speech, which in general, makes it . easier to earn people's attention. By Thoreau! “I know the persepolis analysis, feeling.

When I was young my family lived in essays, Indonesia for a few years, and corps dissertation, my mother didn't have the money to send me where all the American kids went to school. So she decided to teach me extra lessons herself, Monday through Friday – at 4:30 in the morning.” Feelings are important to use, especially. 2008 Democratic National Convention , Barack Obama , Democratic Party 1117 Words | 3 Pages. Christina Gaita's Story Is a Chronicle of the Course of a Mental Illness That Leads to by thoreau, Her Tragic End. Should Romulus Take Responsibility for His Part in His Wife's Descent Into Depression and Despair, or Is It the Deficiencies in Her Character Th. In Raimond Gaita's memoir ?Romulus, My Father ', it is clear that both Romulus and Christina share the responsibility for her . descent into depression and despair. However Romulus and Christina alone are not the only ones to blame for other exterior factor influenced her spiraling descent into a mental illness. It is essays sojourner truth hard to say which of Christine's actions were caused by her, and by thoreau, which of them were caused by her mental illness.

It was her actions, and no others that caused her to have the affairs. Childbirth , Great Depression , Individual responsibility 878 Words | 3 Pages. restorative force by essayer dj, which individuals reaffirm or transform their identities. Ultimately, it is the ability to form meaningful and essays, sustaining relationships . Essays Television! that allows individuals to assess and affirm their values. Raimond Gaita’s memoir, “Romulus, My Father ” (RMF), Evan Hunters short story “On the Sidewalk Bleeding’ (OTSB), and “The Oasis”, a Shark Island Documentary, explore this notion through employing the universal themes of by thoreau, compassion, alienation and love as they enrich characters sense of hope. Interpersonal relationship , Love , Meaning of life 1048 Words | 3 Pages. Dreams from My Father : A Story of Race and Inheritance Summer . Reading Assignment 1. Explain the author’s purpose for writing this book? The author of this book is Barack Obama, and gulf, the reason I believe he wrote this book is to share his experience growing up and for people be able to understand his personal background.

He shared experiences from being raised by his mother and grandmother while his father was living in Kenya. 2008 Democratic National Convention , Ann Dunham , Barack Obama 530 Words | 2 Pages. Romulus, My Father by Raimond Gaita Teaching notes prepared for VATE members by Bev Rangott . CONTENTS |1. |Introduction |Page | 1 | |2. |Ways into by thoreau, the text |Page | 3 | |3. |Summary of the corps, text |Page. Bankruptcy in by thoreau, the United States , Raimond Gaita , Romulus, My Father 10082 Words | 34 Pages. why did Barack wrote a book for his father ? Dreams for my father Barack Hussein Obama was born in 1961, . in Honolulu, Hawaii. His mother was a white American girl from Kansas and his father a black man from essayer faire, Luo, a Kenyan tribe. At that time their union was unusual, so Barack had to live with that combination of races. He grew up with his mothers family far from his father and essays, thus to his black origins. Corps Dissertation! Barack had a hard time understanding his situation during his childhood. He was lost. African American , Barack Obama , Democratic Party 823 Words | 2 Pages.

In the essays by thoreau, text Romulus my father , written by Raimond Gaita, the write, main character of Romulus's life is marked by essays, suffering. Gaita who . is the son of Romulus, includes plenty personal and descriptive accounts of his father Romulus. Many of these accounts involve examples of how Romulus life was marked by suffering. Sojourner Truth! Such suffering occurred throughout Romulus life by having to move away from his homeland to essays by thoreau, Australia, being denied his love for education, having to work his hands to the bone in order to sparation corps, scrape. Pain , Raimond Gaita , Romulus, My Father 529 Words | 2 Pages. Romulus, My Father (Belonging to landscape)

Concepts of belonging features in Romulus, My Father due to Raimond Gaita's connection to the Australian Landscape, his mother . and father's immigrant experience, their unusual family situation and also the values and essays by thoreau, beliefs Raimond was raised with. Gaita uses an an essay unbiased and objective tone throughout the retelling of his upbringing and by doing this he, displays techniques through quotes and symbolism in his desriptions. Romulus never fully adjusts to the Austraian landscape, he misses the. Australia , Raimond Gaita , Romulus, My Father 436 Words | 2 Pages. Book Report on First They Killed My Father Book Report on essays by thoreau First They Killed My Father by sparation, Loung Ung The name of one of the books that I read this summer is called First . they Killed my Father by Loung Ung. I choose this book because it was recommended by an older friend and essays by thoreau, it was recommended to me by my English teacher. My older friend told me this was a good book and corps dissertation, he couldn't put it down. He also told me that it was a easy read and that I would like it.

My English teacher also told me that this book is good and that I would be interested. Cambodia , First They Killed My Father , Khieu Samphan 614 Words | 2 Pages. Barack Obama: 'Dreams from by thoreau, My Father' Personal Response Number One Title: Dreams from My Father ‘A Story of Race and Inheritance’ Author: Barack Obama Genre: . Autobiography, Life Memoir Before Barack Obama was a Politician he was an author. Impact Television Children! ‘Dreams from essays, My Father : A Story of Race and Inheritance’ is an corps Auto-Biography written by Barack Obama. Essays By Thoreau! The book describes Obama’s life in on the, three parts, from his birth in Honolulu, Hawaii up to the final part of the book which includes his emotional and revealing trip back to his father’s homeland;. African American , Ann Dunham , Barack Obama 765 Words | 2 Pages. Belonging essay -George Orwell 1984 - Raimond Gaita Romulus, My Father. novels, ‘Romulus, My Father ’ by Raimond Gaita and ‘Nineteen Eighty-Four’ (1984) by George Orwell.

A sense of essays, belonging can be . created through a range of significant events. However, at times, these events demonstrate the changing nature of essays sojourner, belonging and the way in which challenging can both forge and break a sense of belonging between individuals. Essays! Romulus, My Father details a number of very tragic events which emphasise the importance of belonging between Raimond and his father . Essay Gulf! It demonstrates. Big Brother , George Orwell , Human 721 Words | 2 Pages. MY VACATION AT THE CITY I can still remember the time I went to the city with my family just to have a bit of essays, relaxation since . we are over and done with our periodical examinations. Hoping that we can spend some precious time together, I felt so excited while we are on essayer our way. I expected a lot of jokes and essays by thoreau, laughter, and full of satisfaction when we get there. After a long journey on a muddy and terribly devastated nautical highway, we reach the city, the only city and the capital of our province.

Barack Obama , Democratic Party , Dreams from My Father 773 Words | 2 Pages.

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Cisco Wireless Intrusion Prevention System Configuration Guide, Release 7.4. Cisco Wireless Intrusion Prevention System Configuration Guide, Release 7.4. wIPS Policy Alarm Encyclopedia. View with Adobe Reader on a variety of essays, devices. Chapter: wIPS Policy Alarm Encyclopedia.

The addition of WLANs to the corporate environment introduces a new class of threats for network security. RF signals that penetrate walls and extend beyond intended boundaries can expose the network to unauthorized users. Rogue access points installed by employees for essay gulf, their personal use usually do not adhere to the corporate security policy. A rogue access point can put the entire corporate network at risk for outside penetration and attack. Not to by thoreau, understate the threat of the sparation dissertation, rogue access point, there are many other wireless security risks and intrusions such as mis-configured and essays unconfigured access points and DoS (Denial of Service) attacks. The Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS (wIPS) is essayer faire dj, designed to help manage against security threats by validating proper security configurations and essays detecting possible intrusions. Sojourner Truth? With the comprehensive suite of security monitoring technologies, the wIPS alerts the user on more than 100 different threat conditions in the following categories: User authentication and traffic encryption Rogue and ad-hoc mode devices Configuration vulnerabilities Intrusion detection on security penetration Intrusion detection on DoS attacks. To maximize the power of the wIPS, security alarms can be customized to best match your security deployment policy. For example, if your WLAN deployment includes access points made by a specific vendor, the product can be customized to generate the rogue access point alarm when an essays access point made by another vendor is detected by the access point or sensor. Intrusion Detection—Denial of Service Attack.

Wireless DoS (denial of service) attacks aim to disrupt wireless services by write on co-education taking advantage of various vulnerabilities of WLAN at Layer one and two. DoS attacks may target the essays, physical RF environment, access points, client stations, or the back-end authentication RADIUS servers. For example, an RF jamming attack with a high power directional antenna from a distance can be carried out from the outside of your office building. Attack tools used by about truth intruders leverage hacking techniques such as spoofed 802.11 management frames, spoofed 802.1x authentication frames, or simply using the brute force packet flooding method. The nature and protocol standards for wireless are subject to some of these attacks. Because of this, Cisco has developed Management Frame Protection, the basis of by thoreau, 802.11i, to proactively prevent many of these attacks. (For more information on MFP, see the Cisco Prime Infrastructure online Help.) The wIPS contributes to this solution by an early detection system where the attack signatures are matched. The DoS of the wIPS detection focuses on write on co-education, WLAN layer one (physical layer) and essays two (data link layer, 802.11, 802.1x).

When strong WLAN authentication and encryption mechanisms are used, higher layer (IP layer and above) DoS attacks are difficult to execute. The wIPS server tightens your WLAN defense by validating strong authentication and encryption policies. In addition, the sparation dissertation, intrusion detection of the wIPS on denial of service attacks and security penetration provides 24 X 7 air-tight monitoring on potential wireless attacks. Denial of essays by thoreau, service attacks include the following three subcategories: Denial of gulf, Service Attack Against Access Points. DoS attacks against by thoreau access points are typically carried out on the basis of the following assumptions:

Access points have limited resources. For example, the per-client association state table. Essay On The Gulf War? WLAN management frames and authentication protocols 802.11 and 802.1x have no encryption mechanisms. Wireless intruders can exhaust access point resources, most importantly the client association table, by emulating large number of wireless clients with spoofed MAC addresses. Each one of by thoreau, these emulated clients attempts association and authentication with the corps dissertation, target access point but leaves the protocol transaction mid-way. When the access points resources and the client association table is essays, filled up with these emulated clients and their incomplete authentication states, legitimate clients can no longer be serviced by the attacked access point. This creates a denial of service attack. The wIPS tracks the dj, client authentication process and identifies DoS attack signatures against the access point. Incomplete authentication and association transactions trigger the attack detection and essays by thoreau statistical signature matching process. Detected DoS attack results in setting off wIPS alarms, which includes the usual alarm detail description and target device information. Cisco Management Frame Protection (MFP) also provides complete proactive protection against frame and children device spoofing.

For more information on MFP, see the Prime Infrastructure online Help. DoS attacks against access points include the following types: Alarm Description and essays Possible Causes. A form of DoS (denial-of-service) attack is to exhaust the access point's resources, particularly the client association table, by flooding the access point with a large number of emulated and spoofed client associations. At the 802.11 layer, Shared-key authentication is flawed and rarely used. The other alternative is essays impact children, Open authentication (null authentication) that relies on higher level authentication such as 802.1x or VPN. Open authentication allows any client to authenticate and then associate. An attacker leveraging such a vulnerability can emulate a large number of by thoreau, clients to flood a target access point's client association table by creating many clients reaching State 3 as illustrated below. Sparation Dissertation? Once the client association table overflows, legitimate clients are not able to get associated thus a denial-of-serve attack is committed. The Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS detects spoofed MAC addresses and tracks the follow-up 802.1x actions and data communication after a successful client association to detect this form of essays by thoreau, DoS attack. After this attack is reported by dj the Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS, you may log on to this access point to inspect its association table for the number of client associations.

Cisco Management Frame Protection (MFP) also provides complete proactive protection against frame and device spoofing. For more information on MFP, refer to essays, the Cisco Prime Infrastructure Configuration Guide or the Online help. Denial of Service Attack: Association Table Overflow. Alarm Description and Possible Causes. Wireless intruders can exhaust access point resources, most importantly the client association table, by imitating a large number of essays truth, wireless clients with spoofed MAC addresses. Each one of essays by thoreau, these imitated clients attempts association and authentication with the essayer faire dj, target access point.

The 802.11 authentication typically completes because most deployments use 802.11 Open System authentication, which is basically a null authentication process. Association with these imitated clients follows the authentication process. These imitated clients do not, however, follow up with higher level authentication such as 802.1x or VPN, which would leave the protocol transaction half-finished. At this point, the attacked access point maintains a state in the client association table for each imitated client. Once the access point's resources and client association table is filled with these imitated clients and their state information, legitimate clients can no longer be serviced by the attacked access point. This creates a DoS (denial of service) attack. The Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS tracks the client authentication process and identifies a DoS attack signature against an access point. Incomplete authentication and by thoreau association transaction trigger the Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS's attack detection and statistical signature matching process. Denial of essays about sojourner, Service Attack: Authentication Flood. Alarm Description and Possible Causes. IEEE 802.11 defines a client state machine for tracking station authentication and association status.

Wireless clients and access points implement such a state machine according to the IEEE standard (see illustration below). On the access point, each client station has a state recorded in essays the access point's client table (association table). This recorded state has a size limit that can either be a hard-coded number or a number based on the physical memory constraint. A form of DoS (denial-of-service) attack floods the access point's client state table (association table) by imitating many client stations (MAC address spoofing) sending authentication requests to the access point. Upon reception of each individual authentication request, the target access point creates a client entry in State 1 of the association table.

If Open System authentication is used for the access point, the access point returns an authentication success frame and moves the client to State 2. If Shared-key authentication is used for the access point, the access point sends an authentication challenge to the attacker's imitated client which does not respond. Sojourner? In this case, the essays by thoreau, access point keeps the faire, client in essays State 1. In either case, the essays truth, access point contains multiple clients hanging in either State 1 or State 2 which fills up the access point association table. When the table reaches its limit, legitimate clients are not able to authenticate and associate with this access point. Essays? This results in a DoS attack. The Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS detects this form a DoS attack by tracking client authentication and association states. When the write an essay on co-education, alarm is triggered, the access point under attack is identified. The WLAN security analyst can log on to the access point to check the essays by thoreau, current association table status. Denial of Service Attack: EAPOL-Start Attack.

Alarm Description and essay on the gulf Possible Causes. The IEEE 802.1x standard defines the essays by thoreau, authentication protocol using EAP (Extensible Authentication Protocol) over LANs, or EAPOL. The 802.1x protocol starts with a EAPOL-Start frame sent by corps the client station to essays, begin the authentication transaction. The access point responds to an EAPOL-Start frame with a EAP-Identity-Request and some internal resource allocation. An attacker attempts to bring down an access point by flooding it with EAPOL-Start frames to exhaust the access point internal resources. The Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS detects this form of DoS (denial-of-service) attack by tracking the persepolis film, 802.1x authentication state transition and particular attack signature. Denial of Service Attack: PS Poll Flood Attack. Alarm Description and Possible Causes. Power management is probably one of the most critical features of wireless LAN devices. Power management helps to conserve power by enabling stations to remain in power saving state mode for longer periods of time and to receive data from the access point only at essays by thoreau specified intervals.

The wireless client device must inform the access point of the length of time that it will be in the sleep mode (power save mode). At the end of the time period, the client wakes up and checks for persepolis film analysis, waiting data frames. After it completes a handshake with the access point, it receives the by thoreau, data frames. The beacons from the access point also include the Delivery Traffic Indication Map (DTIM) to inform the client when it needs to wake up to accept multicast traffic. The access point continues to buffer data frames for the sleeping wireless clients. Dissertation? Using the Traffic Indication Map (TIM), the essays, access point notifies the wireless client that it has buffered data buffered. Multicast frames are sent after the beacon that announces the DTIM.

The client requests the delivery of the buffered frames using PS-Poll frames to the access point. For every PS-Poll frame, the access point responds with a data frame. If there are more frames buffered for the wireless client, the access point sets the data bit in the frame response. The client then sends another PS-Poll frame to get the next data frame. Essays Truth? This process continues until all the buffered data frames are received. A potential hacker could spoof the by thoreau, MAC address of the wireless client and send out a flood of PS-Poll frames.

The access point then sends out the write, buffered data frames to the wireless client. In reality, the client could be in the power safe mode and would miss the data frames. The Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS can detect this DoS (denial-of-service) attack that can cause the wireless client to lose legitimate data. Locate the device and take appropriate steps to remove it from the by thoreau, wireless environment. Cisco Management Frame Protection (MFP) also provides complete proactive protection against frame and device spoofing. Essays? For more information on MFP, refer to the Cisco Prime Infrastructure Configuration Guide or the essays by thoreau, Online help. Denial of Service Attack: Probe Request Flood.

Alarm Description and Possible Causes. A form of Denial of Service attack allows the faire dj, attacker to essays, force the target AP into a constant stream of gulf, wireless packets intended to serve nonexistent clients. During a Probe Request Flood, the attacker will generate large quantities of probe requests targeted at a specific AP. Typical wireless design specifies that an AP will respond to essays, a probe request by sending a probe response, which contains information about the corporate network. Sparation? Due to the volume of essays, probe requests transmitted during a flood attack, the AP will be stuck continuously responding, thus resulting in a denial of service for all clients depending on that AP.

The wIPS server monitors the sparation corps dissertation, levels of probe request frames detected and by thoreau will trigger a Probe Request Flood alarm when the threshold is exceeded. On The? Even in cases where the requests are valid, the volume of the essays by thoreau, frames could cause problems with wireless activity. Consequently, the source(s) of the offending frames should be located and removed from the enterprise environment. Denial of Service Attack: Re-association Request Flood. Alarm Description and Possible Causes. A form of Denial-of-service attack is to exhaust the AP's resources, particularly the client association table, by flooding the AP with a large number of corps dissertation, emulated and spoofed client re-associations.

At the 802.11 layer, Shared-key authentication is flawed and rarely used any more. The only other alternative is Open authentication (null authentication) that relies on higher level authentication such as 802.1x or VPN. Open authentication allows any client to authenticate and then associate. An attacker leveraging such a vulnerability can emulate a large number of clients to flood a target AP's client association table by creating many clients reaching State 3 as illustrated below. Once the client association table overflows, legitimate clients will not be able to get associated thus a denial-of-serve attack is committed.

The wIPS server monitors the levels of by thoreau, re-association requests on the network and triggers this alarm if the threshold is sparation corps dissertation, exceeded. Denial of Service Attack: Unauthenticated Association. Alarm Description and Possible Causes. A form of essays by thoreau, DoS (denial-of-service) attack is to exhaust the essays sojourner, access point's resources, particularly the client association table, by flooding the access point with a large number of imitated and essays spoofed client associations. At the 802.11 layer, Shared-key authentication is flawed and rarely used. The other alternative is Open authentication (null authentication) that relies on essays about, a higher level of by thoreau, authentication such as 802.1x or VPN. Open authentication allows any client to authenticate and then associate. An attacker leveraging such a vulnerability can imitate a large number of clients to flood a target access point's client association table by an essay on co-education creating many clients reaching State 3 as illustrated below. Once the client association table overflows, legitimate clients are not able to get associated causing a DoS attack.

Denial of essays, Service (DoS) attacks are unique in that most ways to contain them will not work. Unauthenticated Association Attack is no different. You have an attacker that is randomly generating hundreds if not thousands of MAC addresses and crafting those as Association frames and sending them as fast as possible to the target Access Point. Wireless containment on this type of attack is clearly not possible. What are your options?

Locating the source of the attack is your best option. Using a wireless analyzer, lock onto the channel where the attack is sparation corps, coming from. Since you will see Association Frames streaming by, take note of signal strength readings from those frames. Using these signal strength numbers, try to essays, locate the essayer faire, source of the attack by walking around the area where you think the by thoreau, attack is being generated from. Denial of write an essay on co-education, Service Attack Against Infrastructure. In addition to attacking access points or client stations, the wireless intruder may target the RF spectrum or the back-end authentication RADIUS server for essays, DoS (denial of on the gulf war, service) attacks. The RF spectrum can be easily disrupted by injecting RF noise generated by a high power antenna from a distance. Back-end RADIUS servers can be overloaded by a DDoS (distributed denial of service) attack where multiple wireless attackers flood the RADIUS server with authentication requests. This attack does not require a successful authentication to perform the attack. DoS attacks against infrastructure include the following types:

Denial of Service Attack: Beacon Flood. Alarm Description and Possible Causes. A form of Denial of Service attack allows an attacker to inhibit wireless activity for the entire enterprise infrastructure by preventing new associations between valid APs and stations. Typically, an enterprise AP will broadcast beacon frames to all recipients within range to essays by thoreau, notify users of the network's presence. Upon receipt of this beacon, stations can consult their configurations to war, verify that this is an appropriate network. During a beacon flood attack, stations that are actively seeking a network are bombarded with beacons from networks generated using different MAC addresses and by thoreau SSIDs. This flood can prevent the write on co-education, valid client from detecting the beacons sent by the corporate APs, and thus a denial of service attack is initiated. The wIPS server monitors the levels of beacon frames detected and will trigger a Beacon Flood alarm when the threshold is exceeded. Even in essays by thoreau cases where the beacons are valid, the volume of the frames could cause problems with wireless activity.

Consequently, the sources of the offending frames should be located and removed from the enterprise environment. Denial of Service Attack: CTS Flood. Attack tool: CTS Jack. Alarm Description and sparation corps dissertation Possible Causes. As an optional feature, the IEEE 802.11 standard includes the RTS/CTS (Request-To-Send/Clear-To-Send) functionality to control the station access to the RF medium.

The wireless device ready for transmission sends a RTS frame in order to acquire the right to the RF medium for a specified time duration. The receiver grants the right to the RF medium to the transmitter by sending a CTS frame of the same time duration. All wireless devices observing the CTS frame should yield the media to essays by thoreau, the transmitter for war, transmission without contention. A wireless denial-of-service attacker may take advantage of the privilege granted to by thoreau, the CTS frame to reserve the RF medium for television, transmission. By transmitting back-to-back CTS frames, an attacker can force other wireless devices sharing the RF medium to hold back their transmission until the attacker stops transmitting the CTS frames. The Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS detects the abuse of CTS frames for essays, a DoS attack.

Denial of essay war, Service Attack: Destruction Attack. Alarm Description and Possible Causes. MDK3 is a suite of hacking tools that allows users to utilize a number of different security penetration methods against corporate infrastructures. MDK3-Destruction mode is a specific implementation of the essays, suit that uses an array of the tools to effectively completely shut down a wireless deployment. During an MDK-Destruction attack, the tool simultaneously: Initiates a beacon flood attack, which creates fake APs within the environment, Triggers an authentication flood attack against valid corporate APs, preventing them from servicing clients, and kicks all active connections with valid clients. Additional enhancements allow for the tool to be used to connect the on the war, valid clients to the fake APs generated with the beacon flood, causing further confusion in by thoreau the environment. The wIPS server monitors for the combination of essayer faire, symptoms of an MDK3-Destruction attack and triggers an alarm when they are detected. Due to by thoreau, the dramatic impact that this attack can have on a wireless deployment, it is strongly recommended that the source of the attack be identified and removed immediately in order to essay on the, resume normal network operations. Denial of Service Attack: Queensland University of Technology Exploit. Denial of by thoreau, Service Vulnerability in gulf IEEE 802.11 Wireless Devices: US-CERT VU#106678 Aus-CERT AA-2004.02.

Alarm Description and Possible Causes. 802.11 WLAN devices use Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Avoidance (CSMA/CA) as the basic access mechanism in which the WLAN device listens to the medium before starting any transmission and backs-off when it detects any existing transmission taking place. Collision avoidance combines the physical sensing mechanism and the virtual sense mechanism that includes the Network Allocation Vector (NAV), the time before which the essays, medium is available for transmission. Clear Channel Assessment (CCA) in the DSSS protocol determines whether a WLAN channel is clear so an 802.11b device can transmit on it. Mark Looi, Christian Wullems, Kevin Tham and Jason Smith from the Information Security Research Centre, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Australia, have recently discovered a flaw in the 802.11b protocol standard that could potentially make it vulnerable to DoS (denial-of-service) RF jamming attacks. This attack specifically attacks the CCA functionality. According to the AusCERT bulletin, an attack against this vulnerability exploits the CCA function at the physical layer and causes all WLAN nodes within range, both clients and access points, to defer transmission of data for impact, the duration of the attack. When under attack, the device behaves as if the channel is always busy, preventing the transmission of any data over the wireless network.

This DoS attack affects DSSS WLAN devices including IEEE 802.11, 802.11b, and low-speed (below 20Mbps) 802.11g wireless devices. IEEE 802.11a (using OFDM), high-speed (above 20Mbps using OFDM) 802.11g wireless devices are not affected by this attack. Devices that use FHSS are also not affected. Any attacker using a PDA or a laptop equipped with a WLAN card can launch this attack on SOHO and by thoreau enterprise WLANs. Switching to the 802.11a protocol is the persepolis essay, only solution or known protection against essays this DoS attack.

For more information on this DoS attack refer to : The Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS detects this DoS attack and sparation corps sets off the alarm. Locate the responsible device and take appropriate steps to remove it from the wireless environment. Denial of essays, Service attack: RF Jamming Attack. Alarm Description and Possible Causes. WLAN reliability and efficiency depend on the quality of the RF media. Each RF is susceptible to RF noise impact. An attacker leveraging this WLAN vulnerability can perform two types of DoS (denial-of-service) attacks: Disrupt WLAN service Physically damage AP hardware. Disrupt WLAN service —At the 2.4GHz unlicensed spectrum, the attack may be unintentional. A cordless phone, Bluetooth devices, microwave, wireless surveillance video camera, or baby monitor can all emit RF energy to disrupt WLAN service.

Malicious attacks can manipulate the RF power at 2.4GHz or 5GHz spectrum with a high gain directional antenna to amplify the on the gulf, attack impact from a distance. By Thoreau? With free-space and indoor attenuation, a one kilo-watt jammer 300 feet away from a building can jam 50 to 100 feet into the office area. The same one kilo-watt jammer located inside a building can jam 180 feet into truth, the office area. During the attack, WLAN devices in the target area are out of wireless service. Physically damage AP hardware— An attacker using a high output transmitter with directional high gain antenna 30 yards away from an access point can pulse enough high energy RF power to essays by thoreau, damage electronics in the access point resulting in it being permanently out of service. Such HERF (High Energy RF) guns are effective and are inexpensive to build. Like any RF based disturbance, your best way to essays about, resolve this would be to physically locate the essays, device that is gulf war, triggering the RF Jamming alarm and take it offline. Alternatively with Cisco CleanAir and its signature library, you can get a better description of this device. Find out the wIPS Access Point that triggered this alarm.

Using a mobile spectrum analyzer, walk around to locate the source of the interference. Once the device is located, turn off or move the device to an area that won't affect your WLAN. Alarm Description and essays by thoreau Possible Causes. As an optional feature, the IEEE 802.11 standard includes the RTS/CTS (Request-To-Send/Clear-To-Send) functionality to control access to essayer, the RF medium by stations. The wireless device ready for transmission sends an RTS frame to acquire the right to the RF medium for a specified duration. Essays? The receiver grants the right to the RF medium to the transmitter by sending a CTS frame of the same duration. All wireless devices observing the CTS frame should yield the RF medium to essayer, the transmitter for transmission without contention. A wireless denial of service attacker may take advantage of the privilege granted to the CTS frame to reserve the RF medium for transmission.

By transmitting back-to-back RTS frames with a large transmission duration text box, an attacker reserves the wireless medium and force other wireless devices sharing the essays by thoreau, RF medium to hold back their transmissions. The Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS detects the abuse of gulf war, RTS frames for denial-of-service attacks. Denial of Service Attack: Virtual Carrier Attack. Alarm Description and Possible Causes. The virtual carrier-sense attack is implemented by modifying the 802.11 MAC layer implementation to allow random duration values to be sent periodically. This attack can be carried out on the ACK, data, RTS, and CTS frame types by using large duration values. By doing this the essays by thoreau, attacker can prevent channel access to legitimate users. Under normal circumstances, the only time a ACK frame carries a large duration value is when the ACK is part of a fragmented packet sequence. A data frame legitimately carries a large duration value only when it is a subframe in a fragmented packet exchange.

One approach to deal with this attack is to analysis essay, place a limit on the duration values accepted by essays nodes. Any packet containing a larger duration value is truncated to essayer faire, the maximum allowed value. Low cap and high cap values can be used. By Thoreau? The low cap has a value equal to essay on the war, the amount of time required to send an ACK frame, plus media access backoffs for that frame. The low cap is used when the by thoreau, only packet that can follow the observed packet is an ACK or CTS.

This includes RTS and all management (association, etc) frames. The high cap is used when it is valid for a data packet to follow the observed frame. The limit in this case needs to include the time required to send the largest data frame, plus the media access backoffs for that frame. The high cap must be used in two places: when observing an ACK (because the dj, ACK my be part of a MAC level fragmented packet) and when observing a CTS. A station that receives an RTS frame also receives the data frame. The IEEE 802.11 standard specifies the exact times for the subsequent CTS and data frames.

The duration value of RTS is respected until the following data frame is received or not received. Either the observed CTS is unsolicited or the observing node is a hidden terminal. If this CTS is by thoreau, addressed to a valid in-range station, the valid station can nullify this by sending a zero duration null function frame. If this CTS is addressed to an out-of-range station, one method of defense is to introduce authenticated CTS frames containing cryptographically signed copies of the preceding RTS. About? With this method, there is a possibility of overhead and feasibility issues.

The Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS detects this DoS (denial-of-service) attack. Locate the device and take appropriate steps to essays, remove it from the wireless environment. Denial of Service Attacks Against Client Station. DoS attacks against write on co-education wireless client stations are typically carried out based on the fact that 802.11 management frames and 802.1x authentication protocols have no encryption mechanism and thus can be spoofed. For example, wireless intruders can disrupt the service to a client station by continuously spoofing a 802.11 disassociation or deauthentication frame from the access point to the client station.

Besides the 802.11 authentication and association state attack, there are similar attack scenarios for 802.1x authentication. For example, 802.1x EAP-Failure or EAP-logoff messages are not encrypted and can be spoofed to disrupt the 802.1x authenticated state to disrupt wireless service. Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS tracks the by thoreau, client authentication process and identifies DoS attack signatures. Incomplete authentication and association transactions trigger the sparation, attack detection and statistical signature matching process. By Thoreau? Detected DoS attack results in setting off wIPS alarms that include the usual alarm detail description and target device information. DoS attacks against client station include the following types: Denial of Service Attack: Authentication Failure Attack. Alarm Description and an essay Possible Causes. IEEE 802.11 defines a client state machine for tracking station authentication and association status.

Wireless clients and access points implement this client state machine based on the IEEE standard (see illustration below). Essays By Thoreau? A successfully associated client station remains in State 3 in order to continue wireless communication. A client station in State 1 and in State 2 cannot participate in essay on the war the WLAN data communication process until it is essays, authenticated and associated to State 3. Essays? IEEE 802.11 defines two authentication services: Open System Authentication and by thoreau Shared Key Authentication. Wireless clients go through one of an essay, these authentication processes to associate with an by thoreau access point. A denial-of-service (DoS) attack spoofs invalid authentication request frames (with bad authentication service and status codes) from an associated client in essayer dj State 3 to an access point. Upon reception of the invalid authentication requests, the access point updates the client to State 1, which disconnects its wireless service. The Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS detects this form of a DoS attack by monitoring for spoofed MAC addresses and authentication failures. Essays By Thoreau? This alarm may also indicate an intrusion attempt. When a wireless client fails too many times in authenticating with an access point, the server raises this alarm to indicate a potential intruder's attempt to breach security. This alarm focuses on 802.11 authentication methods, such as Open System and Shared Key.

802.1x and EAP based authentications are monitored by essays television children other alarms. Denial of Service Attack: Block ACK Flood. Alarm Description and Possible Causes. A form of essays by thoreau, Denial of Service attack allows an attacker to prevent an 802.11n AP from receiving frames from a specific valid corporate client. With the introduction of the 802.11n standard, a transaction mechanism was introduced which allows a client to transmit a large block of frames at film analysis once, rather than dividing them up into segments. In order to initiate this exchange, the client will send an Add Block Acknowledgement (ADDBA) to the AP, which contains sequence numbers to inform the AP of the size of the block being transmitted.

The AP will then accept all frames that fall within the specified sequence (consequently dropping any frames that fall outside of the range) and essays by thoreau transmit a BlockACK message back to the client when the transaction has been completed. In order to sparation, exploit this process, an by thoreau attacker can transmit an invalid ADDBA frame while spoofing the valid client's MAC address. This process will cause the AP to ignore any valid traffic transmitted from the client until the invalid frame range has been reached. The wIPS server monitors Block ACK transactions for signs of spoofed client information. Corps? When an attacker is detected attempting to initiate a Block ACK attack, an alarm is triggered. It is recommended that users locate the essays by thoreau, offending device and eliminate it from the wireless environment as soon as possible. Denial of Service Attack: Deauthentication Broadcast. Attack tool: WLAN Jack, Void11, Hunter Killer. Alarm Description and Possible Causes.

IEEE 802.11 defines a client state machine for tracking the essay gulf, station authentication and association status. By Thoreau? Wireless clients and access points implement this state machine according to the IEEE standard. A successfully associated client station remains in State 3 to sparation dissertation, continue wireless communication. A client station in State 1 and State 2 can not participate in WLAN data communication until it is authenticated and associated to State 3. A form of DoS (denial-of-service) attack aims to send all clients of an access point to the unassociated or unauthenticated State 1 by by thoreau spoofing de-authentication frames from the access point to the broadcast address.

With today's client adapter implementation, this form of attack is very effective and immediate in faire dj terms of disrupting wireless services against multiple clients. Essays By Thoreau? Typically, client stations re-associate and re-authenticate to regain service until the attacker sends another de-authentication frame. The Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS detects this form of corps dissertation, DoS attack by by thoreau detecting spoofed de-authentication frames and tracking client authentication and association states. When the alarm is triggered, the access point under attack is identified. The WLAN security analyst can log on to the access point to check the current association table status.

Cisco Management Frame Protection (MFP) also provides complete proactive protection against MAC spoofing. For more information on MFP, refer to the Cisco Prime Infrastructure Configuration Guide or Online help. Denial of Service Attack: Deauthentication Flood. Attack tool: WLAN Jack, Void11. Alarm Description and Possible Causes. IEEE 802.11 defines a client state machine for tracking station authentication and association status. Wireless clients and access points implement this state machine according to the IEEE standard. A successfully associated client station stays in State 3 in order to continue wireless communication. A client station in State 1 and State 2 can not participate in WLAN data communication until it is authenticated and write associated to State 3. A form of by thoreau, DoS (denial-of-service) attack aims to send an access point's client to the unassociated or unauthenticated State 1 by spoofing de-authentication frames from the access point to the client unicast address.

With today's client adapter implementations, this form of gulf war, attack is very effective and immediate in terms of disrupting wireless services against the client. Typically, client stations re-associate and re-authenticate to regain service until the attacker sends another de-authentication frame. An attacker repeatedly spoofs the by thoreau, de-authentication frames to keep all clients out of sparation corps dissertation, service. The Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS detects this form of DoS attack by detecting spoofed dis-association frames and tracking client authentication and association states. When the alarm is triggered, the access point under attack is identified. The WLAN security officer can log on to the access point to check the current association table status. Denial of Service Attack: Disassociation Flood. Alarm Description and Possible Causes. IEEE 802.11 defines a client state machine for tracking the station authentication and association status. Wireless clients and essays by thoreau access points implement this state machine according to the IEEE standard.

A successfully associated client station stays in State 3 in children order to continue wireless communication. A client station in State 1 and essays State 2 can not participate in WLAN data communication until it is authenticated and associated to war, State 3. A form of DoS (denial-of-service) attack aims to send an access point's client to the unassociated or unauthenticated State 2 by essays spoofing dis-association frames from the access point to the broadcast address (all clients). With today's client adapter implementations, this form of attack is effective and immediate in terms of disrupting wireless services against multiple clients. Typically, client stations re-associate to regain service until the attacker sends another dis-association frame. An Essay On Co-education? An attacker repeatedly spoofs the dis-association frames to keep all clients out of service. The Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS detects this form of DoS attack by detecting spoofed dis-association frames and tracking client authentication and association states. When the alarm is essays by thoreau, triggered, the access point under attack is identified. The WLAN security officer can log on to the access point to check the current association table status.

Denial of Service Attack: EAPOL Logoff Attack. Alarm Description and Possible Causes. The IEEE 802.1x standard defines the authentication protocol using EAP (Extensible Authentication Protocol) over LANs, or EAPOL. Essays Impact Television? The 802.1x protocol starts with a EAPOL-Start frame to by thoreau, begin the authentication transaction. At the end of an authenticated session when a client station wishes to log off, the client station sends an 802.1x EAPOL-Logoff frame to terminate the session with the access point. Since the film analysis essay, EAPOL-logoff frame is by thoreau, not authenticated, an attacker can potentially spoof this frame and log the user off the access point, thus committing a DoS (denial-of-service) attack. About Sojourner Truth? The client station is unaware that it is logged off from the access point until it attempts communication through the WLAN.

Typically, the by thoreau, client station discovers the disrupted connection status and re-associates and authenticates automatically to regain the wireless connection. The attacker can continuously transmit the persepolis, spoofed EAPOL-Logoff frames to be effective on this attack. The Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS detects the essays by thoreau, use of dissertation, FATA-jack by monitoring on spoofed MAC addresses and authentication failures. Essays? This alarm may also indicate an intrusion attempt. When a wireless client fails too many times in authenticating with an essay on the gulf war access point, the Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS raises this alarm to indicate a potential intruder's attempt to by thoreau, breach security. This alarm focuses on 802.11 authentication methods (Open System, Shared Key, etc). EAP and 802.1x based authentications are monitored by other alarms.

Denial of Service Attack: FATA Jack Tool Detected. Alarm Description and essays about sojourner Possible Causes. EEE 802.11 defines a client state machine for tracking station authentication and association status. Wireless clients and access points implement this state machine based on the IEEE standard. By Thoreau? A successfully associated client station stays in State 3 in order to continue wireless communication. A client station in State 1 and in State 2 cannot participate in the WLAN data communication process until it is sojourner, authenticated and by thoreau associated to State 3. Essays? IEEE 802.11 defines two authentication services: Open System Authentication and Shared Key Authentication. Wireless clients go through one of these authentication processes to associate with an access point.

A form of DoS (denial-of-service) attack spoofs invalid authentication request frames (with bad authentication service and by thoreau status codes) from an associated client in State 3 to an access point. Upon reception of the invalid authentication requests, the access point updates the faire, client to by thoreau, State 1, which disconnects its wireless service. FATA-jack is one of the commonly used tools to run a similar attack. It is a modified version of WLAN-jack and it sends authentication-failed packets along with the essayer faire, reason code of the previous authentication failure to the wireless station. This occurs after it spoofs the MAC address of the essays, access point. Sparation? FATA-jack closes most active connections and at times forces the user to reboot the essays by thoreau, station to continue normal activities. The Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS detects this form of DoS attack by tracking the spoofed pre-mature EAP-Failure frames and the 802.1x authentication states for each client station and essays impact access point. Locate the device and take appropriate steps to remove it from the wireless environment. Denial of Service Attack: Premature EAP Failure Attack.

Alarm Description and essays by thoreau Possible Causes. The IEEE 802.1x standard defines the authentication protocol using EAP (Extensible Authentication Protocol) over LANs, or EAPOL. The 802.1x protocol starts with a EAPOL-Start frame to begin the authentication transaction. Essay On The War? When the 802.1x authentication packet exchange is complete with the back-end RADIUS server, the access point sends an EAP-Success or EAP-Failure frame to the client to indicate authentication success or failure. The IEEE 802.1X specification prohibits a client from displaying its interface when the required mutual authentication is essays, not complete. This enables a well-implemented 802.1x client station to avoid being fooled by a fake access point sending premature EAP-Success packets. An attacker keeps the client interface from displaying (therefore Denial-of-Service) by write an essay on co-education continuously spoofing pre-mature EAP-Failure frames from the access point to the client to disrupt the authentication state on the client. The Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS detects this form of DoS attack by tracking spoofed premature EAP-Success frames and essays the 802.1x authentication states for each client station and access point. Locate the device and take appropriate steps to remove it from the wireless environment. Intrusion Detection—Security Penetration.

A form of wireless intrusion is to breach the write, WLAN authentication mechanism to gain access to the wired network or the wireless devices. Dictionary attacks on the authentication method is a common attack against an access point. The intruder can also attack the by thoreau, wireless client station during its association process with an access point. For example, a faked access point attack on a unsuspicious wireless client may fool the client into associating with faked access point. This attack allows the intruder to gain network access to the wireless station and potentially hack into its file system. The intruder can then use the an essay on co-education, station to by thoreau, access the persepolis film analysis essay, wired enterprise network. These security threats can be prevented if mutual authentication and strong encryption techniques are used. The wIPS looks for weak security deployment practices as well as any penetration attack attempts. The wIPS ensures a strong wireless security umbrella by validating the best security policy implementation as well as detecting intrusion attempts. If such vulnerabilities or attack attempts are detected, the wIPS generates alarms to essays by thoreau, bring these intrusion attempts to the administrator's notice. Security penetration attacks include the following types:

Alarm Description and Possible Causes. WLAN devices using static WEP key for encryption are vulnerable to write an essay on co-education, the WEP key cracking attack. Cisco Systems introduced LEAP (Lightweight Extensible Authentication Protocol) to leverage the existing 802.1x framework to essays by thoreau, avoid such WEP key attacks. The Cisco LEAP solution provides mutual authentication, dynamic per dissertation session and per user keys, and configurable WEP session key time out. The LEAP solution was considered a stable security solution and is easy to configure. There are hacking tools that compromise wireless LAN networks running LEAP by using off-line dictionary attacks to break LEAP passwords After detecting WLAN networks that use LEAP, this tool de-authenticates users which forces them to essays by thoreau, reconnect and provide their user name and password credentials.

The hacker captures packets of essays children, legitimate users trying to re-access the network. The attacker can then analyze the traffic off-line and guess the password by by thoreau testing values from persepolis essay a dictionary. The main features of the ASLEAP tool include: Reading live from any wireless interface in RFMON mode with libpcap Monitoring a single channel or performing channel hopping to look for target networks running LEAP. Actively deauthenticating users on LEAP networks, forcing them to reauthenticate. This allows quick LEAP password captures. Only de-authenticating users who have not already been seen rather than users who are not running LEAP.

Reading from stored libpcap files. Using a dynamic database table and index to by thoreau, allow quick lookups on large files. This reduces the worst-case search time to .0015% as opposed to lookups in a flat file. Writing only the LEAP exchange information to a libpcap file. This could be used to capture LEAP credentials with a device short on disk space (like an iPaq); the LEAP credentials are then stored in the libpcap file on a system with more storage resources to mount the dictionary attack. The source and persepolis analysis essay Win32 binary distribution for the tool are available at http://asleap.sourceforge.net. Cisco Systems has developed the essays by thoreau, Extensible Authentication Protocol-Flexible Authentication via Secure Tunneling (EAP-FAST) protocol which stops these dictionary attacks. EAP-FAST helps prevent man-in-the-middle attacks, dictionary attacks, and packet and authentication forgery attacks. In EAP-FAST, a tunnel is created between the client and on the the server using a PAC (Protected Access Credential) to authenticate each other.

After the tunnel establishment process, the client is then authenticated using the user-name and password credentials. Some advantages of EAP-FAST include: It is not proprietary. By Thoreau? It is compliant with the IEEE 802.11i standard. About Truth? It supports TKIP and WPA. It does not use certificates and essays by thoreau avoids complex PKI infrastructures.

It supports multiple Operating Systems on PCs and Pocket PCs. The Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS detects the de-authentication signature of the persepolis film essay, ASLEAP tool. Once detected, the server alerts the wireless administrator. The user of the attacked station should reset the password. The best solution to essays by thoreau, counter the ASLEAP tool is to on the gulf, replace LEAP with EAP-FAST in the corporate WLAN environment. Cisco WCS also provides automated security vulnerability scanning that proactively reports any access points configured to utilize weak encryption or authentication. For more information on automated security vulnerability scanning, refer to by thoreau, Cisco WCS online help.

Starting with Apple OSX Lion, Apple has a new feature called AirDrop. Essayer? This new feature is supported on essays, newer MacBook, MacBook Pro and iMac. What this new feature allows users to do is quickly setup a wireless file transfer system. To achieve this, both of the users that want to share files need to corps, open their finder and click on by thoreau, the AirDrop link. Once both of the systems are in range of each other and the link is setup, the users will see the other user's login icon in the AirDrop window. They can then drag-and-drop files onto the other users icon to essays, begin a file transfer.

This could potentially create a security risk due to unauthorized Peer-to-Peer networks being dynamically created in your WLAN environment. By Thoreau? File sharing is also a concern here. The system monitors the wireless network for sparation dissertation, traffic consistent with an AirDrop session. Cisco recommends that you locate users creating AirDrop sessions and inform them of your company policies regarding unauthorized Peer-to-Peer networks. Alarm Description and Possible Causes. Airpwn is a framework for essays by thoreau, 802.11 packet injection. Airpwn listens to incoming wireless packets, and write on co-education if the data matches a pattern specified in the config files, custom content is injected (spoofed) from the essays by thoreau, wireless access point.

Airpwn utilizes the on the war, inherent delay when a client sends a request to the internet. Since the Airpwn attacker is closer, it will be able to quickly respond. As an example, the hacker might replace all images on essays, a website that the visitor is trying to view, showing only what the television, hacker wants the essays, visitor to see. Airpwn only works on open wireless networks and WEP encrypted networks when the attacker knows the on the, WEP key. Cisco Enterprise monitors the wireless network for essays, potential traffic that is consistent with an dj Airpwn attack against Open or WEP decrypted Access Points and notifies the WLAN administrator.

It is recommended that security personnel identify the essays by thoreau, device and locate it using the sparation corps dissertation, Floor Plan screen. The attacking station should be removed from the wireless environment as soon as possible. Alarm Description and Possible Causes. The Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS detects the wireless device running the AirSnarf tool. Appropriate action must be taken by the administrator to remove the AirSnarf tool from the WLAN environment. Alarm Description and Possible Causes.

Certain frame transmissions from a valid corporate client to an AP can cause a crash in some AP models due to insufficient or invalid data. A wireless attacker can take advantage of this vulnerability by transmitting the defective frames in essays by thoreau order to bring down a corporate AP. By sending EAP-TLS packets with flags set to 'c0' and no TLS message length or data, APs from some vendors can be rendered inoperable until they are rebooted. During this reboot process, attackers may have a brief opportunity to gain access to about sojourner truth, the corporate network, resulting in a potential security leak. The wIPS server monitors EAP-TLS transmissions and triggers an alarm if defective or invalid frames are detected.

Although this issue may not always represent a wireless attack, it is an issue that should be remedied in order to maintain the by thoreau, health of the overall wireless deployment. Alarm Description and Possible Causes. 802.11 Fuzzing is the process of introducing invalid, unexpected or random data into the 802.11 frames and then replaying those modified frames into the air. This can cause unexpected behavior to write on co-education, the destination device including driver crashes, operating system crashes and stack based overflows which would allow execution of arbitrary code on essays by thoreau, the affected system. The CVE website (http://cve.mitre.org/index.html) has numerous reported entries for essays impact television children, fuzzing based vulnerabilities on 802.11 frames. The system inspects each beacon frame looking for signs of fuzzing activity. Most common forms of beacon fuzzing involve expanding the SSID field beyond the limit of essays by thoreau, 32 bytes and changing the supported data rates to invalid rates. The system looks for these anomalies and essays about sojourner truth will generate the by thoreau, Beacon Fuzzing alarm when the field values are beyond the 802.11 specification. The system monitors the faire dj, wireless network for essays, traffic consistent with Beacon Fuzzing. It is recommended to locate the essayer faire, device and take it offline.

Alarm Description and Possible Causes. A common practice amongst WLAN Administrators is to by thoreau, disable broadcasting of the SSID for an Access Point. The idea behind this is that if people scanning for wireless networks can't see you, then you are safe. Basically you would need to know the SSID in impact television order to connect to that wireless network. This protects your wireless network from casual drive by users who don't have the essays, tools to extract the impact television children, SSID from hidden networks. But hackers are a different story. They have the tools, the essays, time and energy to extract the SSID from hidden networks. Essayer Faire? There are many tools to perform this type of snooping. By Thoreau? If a hidden SSID is write an essay on co-education, not found through normal methods, hackers can use a brute force method using the tool mdk3. With the tool mdk3, they can perform a Dictionary attack or a word list attack on the hidden network to extract the SSID.

Cisco Enterprise monitors the wireless network for potential traffic that is consistent with a brute force attack against a hidden SSID and notifies the WLAN administrator. It is recommended that security personnel identify the device and essays by thoreau locate it using the Floor Plan screen. The attacking station should be removed from the wireless environment as soon as possible. Alarm Description and television Possible Causes. This attack takes advantage of an insecure redundancy checking algorithm implemented in the WEP protocol.

By compromising a few known properties, an by thoreau attacker is able to take an encrypted packet and film analysis decrypt it while retrieving the keystream used to encrypt the packet. The way the attack works, is the attacker captures a packet and chops one byte off the essays by thoreau, end of the essay, packet before the ICV. The attacker will then append a guess to the decrypted value of the byte. The packet is fixed by recalculating the ICV then injects this packet to the target AP. If the target AP, re-broadcasts this frame back out, the attacker knows he has correctly guessed the value of the decrypted byte. Essays By Thoreau? The attacker then moves onto essays children the next byte. As the guesses become successful, the essays by thoreau, packet being injected actually gets smaller and smaller. If the packet doesn't get re-broadcasted, then the attacker changes the guess and write repeats the process, he or she has 256 possible choices to try and guess. Below is an example of the tool running trying the essays, various possible guesses. Once complete, the attacker will have decrypted the entire WEP packet byte by byte, which can then be XORed with the original encrypted packet to produce the plaintext data.

The ChopChop Attack is essayer, targeted at WEP based Access Points to break the WEP key and gain direct access to the wireless network. Essays By Thoreau? Since this particular attack can take less than 5 minutes to essay gulf war, perform, there is a good chance the attacker has already gained access to your wireless network. If possible, migrate your WLAN off WEP. WPA2-AES is by thoreau, recommended. If that's not an option, here are some steps to help troubleshoot the situation. Turn off the essays, radios for by thoreau, the affected AP. This will disconnect all clients that are currently connected.

Change the WEP key Turn the radios back on write an essay on co-education, You will need to change the WEP key on all of the devices that were currently connected to the new WEP key that was just set. Essays? Monitor NCS to gulf war, see if the ChopChop alarm happens again. Alarm Description and Possible Causes. DHCP Starvation is an attack where a malicious user broadcasts large amounts of DHCP requests with spoofed MAC addresses. If enough DHCP request frames flood the network, the attacker could use up all of the remaining DHCP IP addresses that are available for valid users. This would create a DoS condition on essays, the network.

There are two tools that can do this fairly easily: Gobbler and Yersinia are publicly available tools that can perform this type of attack. Essayer Faire Dj? This type of attack is essays, especially harmful on guest networks or hotspot networks where the user is allowed to get an IP address before the authentication happens. Mitigation options for this type of attack can be handled at the switch level. For Cisco IOS switches, enable DHCP Snooping. For Cisco CatOS, enable port security. The system monitors the persepolis analysis essay, wireless network for traffic consistent with a DHCP Starvation attack. Cisco recommends that you locate the user running the attack or implement tighter switch security.

Day-0 Attack by WLAN Security Anomaly. The Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS has detected a single Security IDS/IPS policy violation on a large number of devices in the wireless network. Essays? Either the number of devices violating the specific policy in the time period specified are observed or there is a sudden percentage increase in the number of devices as specified in the threshold settings for the alarm. Corps Dissertation? Depending on the Security IDS/IPS violation, it is suggested that the violation be monitored individually to determine the source and destination of this attack. Essays? If this is an increase in the number of rogue devices, it may indicate an attack against the network. If there is a sudden increase in the number of television, client devices with encryption disabled, it may be necessary to revisit the Corporate Security Policy and enforce users to use the essays by thoreau, highest level of encryption and authentication according to the policy rules. Day-0 Attack by Device Security Anomaly. The Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS detects a device violating a large number of Security IDS/IPS policies. This device has either generated a number of Security IDS/IPS violations in the time period specified or there is a sudden percentage increase as specified in the threshold settings for television, the various alarms. The device should be monitored and by thoreau located to carry out further analysis to check if this device is compromising the Enterprise Wireless Network in any way (attack or vulnerability).

If this is impact television children, a rogue device, the WLAN administrator may use the integrated over-the-air physical location capabilities, or trace device on the wired network using rogue location discovery protocol (RLDP) or switchport tracing to find it. Alarm Description and essays by thoreau Possible Causes. Cross-Site scripting vulnerabilities are well known and consist of publicized attacks that target web applications to gain access to the underlying server or the web application itself. It does this by sparation injecting a client-side script into by thoreau, web pages viewed by the user. This attack is performed using a device to broadcast the client-side code as the SSID. Once a WLAN monitoring system picks up the write on co-education, malicious SSID and records it, if the essays by thoreau, system is web based and there are Cross-Site Scripting vulnerabilities, then that system will be exploited once the device with the malicious SSID is essay on the, clicked. Cisco Enterprise monitors the wireless network for essays by thoreau, Access Points and Ad-hoc devices broadcasting malicious Cross-site scripting (XSS) traffic. It is recommended that security personnel identify the device and locate it using the floor plan screen.

The device should then be removed from the wireless environment as soon as possible. Some commonly used scan tools include: NetStumbler (newer versions), MiniStumbler (newer versions), MACStumbler, WaveStumbler, PrismStumbler, dStumbler, iStumbler, Aerosol, Boingo Scans, WiNc, AP Hopper, NetChaser, Microsoft Windows XP scans. Alarm Description and Possible Causes. The Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS detects wireless devices probing the persepolis film analysis essay, WLAN and attempting association (i.e. association request for an access point with any SSID). Such devices could pose potential security threats in one of the following ways: War-driving, WiLDing (Wireless LAN Discovery), war-chalking, war-walking, war cycling, war-lightrailing, war-busing, and war-flying. Legitimate wireless client attempting risky promiscuous association. War-driving, war-chalking, war-walking, and essays by thoreau war-flying activities include: War-driving- A wireless hacker uses war-driving tools to discover access points and dj publishes information such as MAC address, SSID, and security implemented on the Internet with the essays by thoreau, access points' geographical location information. War-chalking- War-chalkers discover WLAN access points and mark the WLAN configuration at public locations with universal symbols War-flying-War-flying refers to sniffing for impact television, wireless networks from the air. The same equipment is used from a low flying private plane with high power antennas.

It has been reported that a Perth, Australia-based war-flier picked up e-mail and Internet relay chat sessions from an essays by thoreau altitude of 1,500 feet on a war-flying trip. To prevent your access points from being discovered by these hacking tools, configure your the access points to not broadcast SSIDs. Impact? Use the Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS to see which access points are broadcasting (announcing) their SSID in the beacons. Alarm Description and by thoreau Possible Causes. IEEE 802.1x provides an EAP (Extensible Authentication Protocol) framework for children, wired or wireless LAN authentication. An EAP framework allows flexible authentication protocol implementation. Essays By Thoreau? Some implementations of corps dissertation, 802.1x or WPA use authentication protocols such as LEAP, MD5, OTP (one-time-password), TLS, and TTLS.

Some of these authentication protocols are based upon the user name and password mechanism, where the user name is transmitted clear without encryption and the password is used to answer authentication challenges. Most password-based authentication algorithms are susceptible to dictionary attacks. During a dictionary attack, an attacker gains the essays by thoreau, user name from the unencrypted 802.1x identifier protocol exchange. The attacker then tries to guess a user's password to gain network access by using every word in war a dictionary of common passwords or possible combinations of passwords. A dictionary attack relies on the fact that a password is often a common word, name, or combination of both with a minor modification such as a trailing digit or two. A dictionary attack can take place actively online, where an attacker repeatedly tries all the possible password combinations. Online dictionary attacks can be prevented using lock-out mechanisms available on the authentication server (RADIUS servers) to lock out the user after a certain number of essays, invalid login attempts. A dictionary attack can also take place off-line, where an attacker captures a successful authentication challenge protocol exchange and then tries to match the challenge response with all possible password combinations off-line. Essays Truth? Unlike online attacks, off-line attacks are not easily detected.

Using a strong password policy and periodically expiring user passwords significantly reduces an off-line attack tool's success. The Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS detects online dictionary attacks by tracking 802.1x authentication protocol exchange and the user identifier usages. Upon detection of a dictionary attack, the alarm message identifies the user name and attacking station's MAC address. The Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS advises switching user name and password based authentication methods to by thoreau, encrypted tunnel based authentication methods such as PEAP and EAP-FAST, which are supported by many vendors including Cisco. Alarm Description and Possible Causes. The Fake AP tool is meant to protect your WLAN acting as a decoy to confuse war-drivers using NetStumbler, Wellenreiter, MiniStumbler, Kismet, etc.

The tool generates beacon frames imitating thousands of counterfeit 802.11b access points. War-drivers encountering a large amount of access points are not able to identify the real access points deployed by the user. This tool, although very effective in faire dj fending off war-drivers, poses other disadvantages such as bandwidth consumption, misleading legitimate client stations, and interference with the WLAN management tools. The Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS does not recommend running the Fake AP tool in your WLAN. The Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS recommends that the administrator locate the device running the by thoreau, Fake AP tool and take appropriate steps to remove it from the sparation, wireless environment.

Alarm Description and Possible Causes. The Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS detects such wireless STAs running the DHCP service and essays providing IP addresses to unaware users. Once the client is identified and faire reported, the essays, WLAN administrator may use the integrated over-the-air physical location capabilities, or trace device on the wired network using rogue location discovery protocol (RLDP) or switchport tracing to find the device. The Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS detects such wireless STAs running the DHCP service and providing IP addresses to write on co-education, unaware users. Once the client is identified and reported, the WLAN administrator may use the integrated over-the-air physical location capabilities, or trace device on the wired network using rogue location discovery protocol (RLDP) or switchport tracing to find the device.

Fast WEP Crack (ARP Replay) Detected. Alarm Description and by thoreau Possible Causes. It is well publicized that WLAN devices using static WEP key for essayer, encryption are vulnerable to WEP key cracking attack (Refer to by thoreau, Weaknesses in the Key Scheduling Algorithm of RC4 - I by Scott Fluhrer, Itsik Mantin, and Adi Shamir). The WEP secret key that has been cracked by any intruder results in no encryption protection, thus leading to compromised data privacy. The WEP key that is in impact television children most cases 64-bit or 128-bit (few vendors also offer 152-bit encryption) consists of the secret key specified by the user linked with the 24-bit IV (Initialization Vector). The IV that is determined by the transmitting station can be reused frequently or in consecutive frames, thus increasing the possibility of the secret key to be recovered by wireless intruders.

The most important factor in essays any attack against the WEP key is the key size. For 64-bit WEP keys, around 150K unique IVs and for 128-bit WEP keys around 500k to persepolis film essay, a million unique IVs should be enough. With insufficient traffic, hackers have created a unique way of generating sufficient traffic to perform such an attack. Essays? This is called the replay attack based on faire, arp-request packets. Such packets have a fixed length and essays can be spotted easily. By capturing one legitimate arp-request packet and resending them repeatedly, the other host responds with encrypted replies, providing new and possibly weak IVs. The Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS alerts on weak WEP implementations and recommends a device firmware upgrade if available from the device vendor to correct the IV usage problem. Ideally, enterprise WLAN networks can protect against WEP vulnerability by using the TKIP (Temporal Key Integrity Protocol) encryption mechanism, which is now supported by most enterprise level wireless equipment.

TKIP enabled devices are not subject to essays truth, any such WEP key attacks. Cisco WCS also provides automated security vulnerability scanning that proactively reports any access points configured to utilize weak encryption or authentication. For more information on automated security vulnerability scanning, refer to the Cisco WCS online help. Alarm Description and Possible Causes. It is well publicized that a WLAN device using a static WEP key for encryption is by thoreau, vulnerable to various WEP cracking attacks. Refer to Weaknesses in the Key Scheduling Algorithm of RC4 - I, by sparation dissertation Scott Fluhrer, Itsik Mantin, and Adi Shamir for by thoreau, more information. The Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS alerts on detecting a potential fragmentation attack in progress, and recommends that WEP not be used in the corporate environment and that appropriate measures be taken to avoid any security holes in the network and upgrade the write an essay on co-education, wireless network infrastructure and devices to use the more secure IEEE 802.11i standard. HT Intolerant Degradation Services. Alarm Description and essays Possible Causes.

While 802.11n deployments provide the potential for dramatically increased wireless range and speed over legacy implementations, these benefits can be easily lost or offset if a single legacy device is introduced to the network. To help prevent this situation, the wIPS server will trigger an HT-Intolerant Degradation of Service alarm when it detects packets transmitted between n-capable devices at sub-n speeds. Alarm Description and Possible Causes. While 802.11n deployments provide the potential for dramatically increased wireless range and speed over legacy implementations, these benefits can be easily lost or offset if a single legacy device is introduced to the network. To help prevent this situation, the wIPS server will trigger an HT-Intolerant Degradation of Service alarm when it detects packets transmitted between n-capable devices at essays impact children sub-n speeds. Alarm Description and Possible Causes. The addition of WLANs in the corporate environment introduces a whole new class of essays, threats for network security. RF signals that penetrate walls and extend beyond intended boundaries can expose the network to unauthorized users. A rogue access point can put the entire corporate network at write risk for outside penetration and attack. Not to understate the threat of the essays, rogue access point, there are many other wireless security risks and intrusions such as mis-configured access points, unconfigured access points, and DoS (denial-of-service) attacks. One of the most effective attacks facing enterprise networks implementing wireless is the sparation corps, use of a honey pot access point.

An intruder uses tools such as NetStumbler, Wellenreiter, and MiniStumbler to discover the SSID of the corporate access point. Then the intruder sets up an essays access point outside the building premises or, if possible, within the premises and broadcasts the discovered corporate SSID. An unsuspecting client then connects to this honey pot access point with a higher signal strength. Truth? Once associated, the essays by thoreau, intruder performs attacks against an essay the client station because traffic is diverted through the honey pot access point. Once a honey pot access point is identified and reported by the Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS, the WLAN administrator may use the integrated over-the-air physical location capabilities, or trace device on the wired network using rogue location discovery protocol (RLDP) or switchport tracing to find the rogue device. Hot-Spotter Tool Detected (Potential Wireless Phishing) Alarm Description and Possible Causes. A hotspot is any location where Wi-Fi network access available for the general public. By Thoreau? Hotspots are often found in airports, hotels, coffee shops, and on the gulf other places where business people tend to congregate.

It is currently one of the by thoreau, most important network access service for write, business travelers. By Thoreau? The customer requires a wireless-enabled laptop or handheld to connect to the legitimate access point and to receive service. Most hotspots do not require the user to have an advanced authentication mechanism to connect to the access point, other than using a web page to log in. The criterion for essayer, entry is only dependent on whether or not the subscriber has paid subscription fees. In a wireless hotspot environment, no one should trust anyone else. Due to current security concerns, some WLAN hotspot vendors are using 802.1x or higher authentication mechanisms to validate the identity of the user.

The four components of a basic hotspot network are: Hotspot Subscribers-Valid users with a wireless enabled laptop or handheld and valid login for accessing the hotspot network. WLAN Access Points-SOHO gateways or enterprise level access points depending upon essays by thoreau the hotspot implementation. Hotspot Controllers-Deals with user authentication, gathering billing information, tracking usage time, filtering functions, etc. This can be an independent machine or can be incorporated in the access point itself.

Authentication Server-Contains the login credentials for the subscribers. In most cases, hotspot controllers verify subscribers' credentials with the authentication server. Hotspotter automates a method of penetration against wireless clients, independent of the encryption mechanism used. Using the Hotspotter tool, the intruder can passively monitors the essayer faire dj, wireless network for by thoreau, probe request frames to identify the SSIDs of the networks of the Windows XP clients. After it acquires the preferred network information, the intruder compares the faire dj, network name (SSID) to essays, a supplied list of commonly used hotspot network names. Once a match is found, the Hotspotter client acts as an access point. The clients then authenticate and associate unknowingly to this fake access point.

Once the sparation corps, client gets associated, the by thoreau, Hotspotter tool can be configured to run a command such as a script to kick off a DHCP daemon and other scanning against the new victim. Clients are also susceptible to this kind of attack when they are operating in different environments (home and office) while they are still configured to include the hotspot SSID in on the gulf the Windows XP wireless connection settings. The clients send out essays by thoreau, probe requests using that SSID and essays about sojourner make themselves vulnerable to the tool. Once the rogue access point is essays, identified and write an essay on co-education reported by the Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS, the WLAN administrator may use the integrated over-the-air physical location capabilities, or trace device on essays by thoreau, the wired network using rogue location discovery protocol (RLDP) or switchport tracing to analysis essay, find the rogue device. Identical Send and Receive Address. Alarm Description and essays Possible Causes. In order to inhibit wireless activity in television children a corporate network, attackers will often modify wireless packets to essays, emulate various different characteristics, including changes to the packets' Source and Destination MAC information. In cases where these fields are identical, the essays about sojourner truth, Identical Send and Receive Address alarm will be triggered in order to essays by thoreau, alert IT personnel of a potential attack. In a normal network environment, a packet's Source and Destination will never be identical. As such, the persepolis film analysis essay, enterprise administrators should take immediate steps to essays by thoreau, locate the root cause of the essay gulf war, modified packets. Alarm Description and Possible Causes.

Standard 802.11 deployments allow for certain frames to be transmitted to individual destinations (also known as unicast frames, such as an ACK) and by thoreau other frames to be 'broadcast' to all recipients in sparation corps the wireless deployment. In general, these two categories should not overlap, e.g., an Association Request frame should not be sent out as a broadcast to essays by thoreau, all listening devices. In this scenario, the faire, wIPS server will trigger an essays Improper Broadcast Frames alarm to alert staff of a potential problem. Alarm Description and Possible Causes. The Karma tool allows a wireless attacker to configure a client as a soft AP that will respond to any probe request detected. Faire? This implementation is designed to essays, respond to essays impact, queries from stations configured to connect to multiple different networks, e.g., SSID Corporate for work and SSID Home for home use. In this example, the soft AP may be configured to respond to the probe for Home when the client is at essays work. In this manner, the attacker tricks the corporate client to route potentially sensitive network traffic to the false AP. The wIPS server will trigger a Karma Tool alarm if a wireless station is discovered using the tool within the corporate environment. Users should locate the attacking device and eliminate it immediately. Alarm Description and Possible Causes.

Man-in-the-Middle (MITM) attack is one of the corps, most common 802.11 attacks that can lead to confidential corporate and essays private information being leaked to impact, hackers. In a MITM attack, the hacker can use a 802.11 wireless analyzer and monitor 802.11 frames sent over the WLAN. By capturing the wireless frames during the essays, association phase, the hacker gets IP and corps MAC address information about the wireless client card and access point, association ID for the client, and the SSID of the wireless network. A commonly used method for performing the MITM attack involves the hacker sending spoofed dis-association or de-authentication frames. The hacker station then spoofs the MAC address of the client to by thoreau, continue an essayer association with the essays by thoreau, access point. At the same time, the hacker sets up a spoofed access point in another channel to keep the sojourner truth, client associated.

This allows all traffic between the valid client and access point to pass through the hacker's station. One of the most commonly used MITM attack tools is Monkey-Jack. The Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS recommends the use of essays, strong encryption and write on co-education authentication mechanisms to thwart any MITM attacks by hackers. One way to avoid such an attack is to prevent MAC spoofing by using MAC address exclusion lists and monitoring the RF channel environment. Cisco Management Frame Protection (MFP) also provides complete proactive protection against MITM attacks. For more information on MFP, refer to essays by thoreau, the Cisco Wireless Control System Configuration Guide or the WCS online help. Alarm Description and Possible Causes. The Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS detects a wireless client station probing the WLAN for an anonymous association (such as an association request for write on co-education, an access point with any SSID) using the NetStumbler tool. The Device probing for Access Point alarm is essays, generated when hackers use recent versions of the NetStumbler tool. For older versions, the Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS generates the NetStumbler detected alarm.

NetStumbler is the most widely used tool for war-driving and war-chalking. A wireless hacker uses war-driving tools to discover access points and to publish their information (MAC address, SSID, security implemented, etc.) on the Internet with the access points' geographical location information. War-chalkers discover WLAN access points and mark the WLAN configuration at public locations with universal symbols as illustrated above. Dj? War-walking is similiar to war-driving, but the hacker is on foot instead of a car. It can run on a machine running Windows 2000, Windows XP, or better. It also supports more cards than Wellenreiter, another commonly used scanning tool. War-walkers like to essays, use MiniStumbler and similar products to sniff shopping malls and big-box retail stores.

War-flying is sniffing for wireless networks from the air. The same equipment is used from a low flying private plane with high power antennas. It has been reported that a Perth, Australia-based war-flier picked up email and essayer faire Internet Relay Chat sessions from an altitude of 1,500 feet on essays by thoreau, a war-flying trip. To prevent your access points from being discovered by persepolis film analysis essay these hacking tools, configure your access points to not broadcast its SSID. You can use the Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS to essays by thoreau, see which of your access points is broadcasting an SSID in the beacons. Cisco WCS also provides automated security vulnerability scanning that reports any access points configured to broadcast their SSIDs. For more information on automated security vulnerability scanning, refer to essayer, the WCS online help. To prevent your access points from being discovered by essays these hacking tools, configure your access points to not broadcast its SSID. You can use the Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS to film essay, see which access point is broadcasting its SSID in the beacons. Alarm Description and Possible Causes.

The Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS detects a wireless client station probing the WLAN for an anonymous association (i.e., association request for an access point with any SSID) using the NetStumbler tool. The Device probing for essays, access point alarm is generated when hackers more recent versions of the NetStumbler tool. For older versions, the Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS generates the NetStumbler detected alarm. NetStumbler is the most widely used tool for war-driving, war-walking, and war-chalking. A wireless hacker uses war-driving tools to essay gulf war, discover access points and publish their information (MAC address, SSID, security implemented, etc.) on the Internet with the access points' geographical location information. War-chalkers discover WLAN access points and mark the WLAN configuration at public locations with universal symbols as illustrated above.

War-walking is similar to war-driving, but the hacker conducts the illegal operation on essays, foot instead of by car. The NetStumbler web site (http://www.netstumbler.com/) offers MiniStumbler software for use on Pocket PC hardware, saving war-walkers from essayer faire carrying heavy laptops. It can run on a machine running Windows 2000, Windows XP, or later. It also supports more cards than Wellenreiter, another commonly used scanning tool. War-walkers typically use MiniStumbler and similar products to sniff shopping malls and essays by thoreau big-box retail stores. War-flying is essays impact, sniffing for wireless networks from the air. The same equipment is used, but from a low-flying private plane with high-power antennas. Essays By Thoreau? It has been reported that a Perth, Australia-based war-flier picked up e-mail and Internet Relay Chat sessions from an altitude of persepolis, 1,500 feet on a war-flying trip. The Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS alerts the user when it observes that a station running Netstumbler is associated to a corporate access point. Publicly Secure Packet Forwarding (PSPF) Violation. Alarm Description and Possible Causes.

Publicly Secure Packet Forwarding (PSPF) is a feature implemented on essays, WLAN access points to block wireless clients from communicating with other wireless clients. With PSPF enabled, client devices cannot communicate with other client devices on the wireless network. For most WLAN environments, wireless clients communicate only about truth with devices such as web servers on the wired network. By enabling PSPF it protects wireless clients from essays being hacked by a wireless intruder. PSPF is effective in protecting wireless clients especially at wireless public networks (hotspots) such as airports, hotels, coffee shops, and college campuses where authentication is null and anyone can associate with the access points. Film Essay? The PSPF feature prevents client devices from inadvertently sharing files with other client devices on the wireless network.

The Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS detects PSPF violations. Essays? If a wireless client attempts to essay, communicate with another wireless client, the Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS raises an alarm for a potential intrusion attack. This alarm does not apply if your WLAN deploys wireless printers or VoWLAN applications because these applications rely on essays by thoreau, wireless client-to-client communication. Probe Request Fuzzed Frame Detected. Alarm Description and Possible Causes.

802.11 Fuzzing is the process of introducing invalid, unexpected or random data into the 802.11 frames and then replaying those modified frames into the air. This can cause unexpected behavior to sparation, the destination device including driver crashes, operating system crashes and stack based overflows which would allow execution of arbitrary code on essays, the affected system. The CVE website (http://cve.mitre.org/index.html) has numerous reported entries for fuzzing based vulnerabilities on 802.11 frames. The system inspects each Probe Request frame looking for signs of fuzzing activity. Most common forms of Probe Request fuzzing involve expanding the SSID field beyond the limit of 32 bytes and changing the faire, supported data rates to invalid rates. Essays? The system looks for these anomalies and will generate the an essay, Probe Request Fuzzing alarm when the field values are beyond the 802.11 specification. Probe Response Fuzzed Frame Detected. Alarm Description and Possible Causes.

802.11 Fuzzing is the process of introducing invalid, unexpected or random data into the 802.11 frames and then replaying those modified frames into essays, the air. Faire? This can cause unexpected behavior to the destination device including driver crashes, operating system crashes and stack based overflows which would allow execution of arbitrary code on the affected system. The CVE website (http://cve.mitre.org/index.html) has numerous reported entries for fuzzing based vulnerabilities on 802.11 frames. The system inspects each Probe Response frame looking for by thoreau, signs of fuzzing activity. Most common forms of Probe Response fuzzing involve expanding the essays impact television, SSID field beyond the limit of 32 bytes and changing the supported data rates to invalid rates. Essays By Thoreau? The system looks for these anomalies and will generate the Probe Response Fuzzing alarm when the field values are beyond the 802.11 specification. The system monitors the wireless network for traffic consistent with Probe Response Fuzzing. It is recommended to dj, locate the device and take it offline. Host AP tools: Cqure AP. Alarm Description and Possible Causes. A hotspot is any location where Wi-Fi network access available for essays, the general public.

Hotspots are often found in airports, hotels, coffee shops, and essayer dj other places where business people tend to congregate. It is currently one of the most important network access service for business travelers. The customer requires a wireless-enabled laptop or handheld to connect to the legitimate access point and to receive service. Most hotspots do not require the by thoreau, user to have an about sojourner advanced authentication mechanism to connect to the access point, other than using a web page to log in. The criterion for entry is essays, only dependent on whether or not the essays children, subscriber has paid subscription fees. In a wireless hotspot environment, no one should trust anyone else. Due to current security concerns, some WLAN hotspot vendors are using 802.1x or higher authentication mechanisms to validate the identity of the user. Basic components of by thoreau, a WLAN Hotspot network. The four components of a basic hotspot network are as follows: Hotspot Subscribers—Valid users with a wireless enabled laptop or handheld and valid log in for accessing the hotspot network.

WLAN Access Points—SOHO gateways or enterprise level access points depending upon the hotspot implementation. Hotspot Controllers—Deals with user authentication, gathering billing information, tracking usage time, filtering functions. This can be an independent machine or can be incorporated in the access point itself. Authentication Server—Contains the log in credentials for the subscribers. In most cases, hotspot controllers verify subscribers' credentials with the authentication server.

Hotspotter automates a method of penetration against war wireless clients, independent of the by thoreau, encryption mechanism used. Using the Hotspotter tool, the television, intruder can passively monitor the wireless network for probe request frames to identify the SSIDs of the networks of the Windows XP clients. After it acquires the preferred network information, the intruder compares the network name (SSID) to a supplied list of commonly used hotspot network names. When a match is found, the Hotspotter client acts as an access point. The clients then authenticate and associate unknowingly to this fake access point. When the client gets associated, the essays by thoreau, Hotspotter tool can be configured to run a command such as a script to kick off a DHCP daemon and other scanning against the new victim. Clients are also susceptible to this kind of attack when they are operating in different environments (home and film office) while they are still configured to include the by thoreau, hotspot SSID in the Windows XP wireless connection settings. The clients send out probe requests using that SSID and make themselves vulnerable to the tool.

Soft APs or Software Access points should be treated as a Rogue device. The following steps should help eliminate this threat. Use integrated over-the-air physical location capabilities to locate the Rogue device Wireless Containment to prevent any devices from connecting to the Soft AP Trace the device on the wired network using rogue location discovery protocol (RLDP) or switch port tracing to find the rogue device. Alarm Description and Possible Causes. Spoofed mac address detected is a type of attack where a hacker will change their factory assigned wireless mac address to either gain access to a restricted wireless network by impersonating a valid connected user or to hide their presence on the wireless network. There are two types of film essay, Spoofed MAC address attacks, Client based and by thoreau AP based. For client based Spoofed MAC address attacks, the client could be trying to impersonate a valid user. An example of on co-education, this would be a wireless hacker trying to get onto an access controlled hotspot by essays spoofing their wireless mac address of a client that is already connected, in effect piggybacking on the connection. Another popular example would be in a hotel environment where a hacker bypasses the payment process to get on the wireless network by spoofing their wireless mac address of a paid user.

Another type of essayer dj, Spoofed MAC address attack is AP based. In this case, the hacker is trying to hide their presence on the wireless network by spoofing the mac address of a corporate access point. This is a typical rogue scenario. Suspicious After Hours Traffic Detected. Alarm Description and Possible Causes. One way to detect a wireless security penetration attempt is to match wireless usage against by thoreau the time when there is not supposed to be any wireless traffic. The wIPS server monitors traffic patterns against the office-hours configured for this alarm to faire, generate alerts when an abnormality is found. Specific suspicious wireless usage sought after by the wIPS server during after-office hours include the following: Client station initiating authentication or association requests to the office WLAN that may indicate security breach attempts. By Thoreau? Wireless data traffic that may indicate suspicious download or upload over the wireless network. For global wIPS deployment, the configurable office-hour range is film essay, defined in essays by thoreau local time.

The access point or sensor can be configured with a time zone to facilitate management. For the office and manufacturing floor mixed WLAN, one can define one set of office hours for the office WLAN SSID and dj another (for example, 6am to 9pm) for the manufacturing floor WLAN SSID. If this alarm is essays, triggered, the impact television, administrator should look for devices responsible for the suspicious traffic and take appropriate steps to locate it and remove it from the wireless environment. Unauthorized Association By Vendor List. Alarm Description and Possible Causes.

The Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS enables network administrators to by thoreau, include vendor information in a policy profile to allow the system to effectively detect stations on faire dj, the WLAN that are not made by approved vendors. By Thoreau? Once such a policy profile is created, the system generates an alarm whenever an access point is associating with a station by an unapproved vendor. See the diagram below. As the diagram shows, the write an essay on co-education, access points in ACL-1 should only associate with stations made by Cisco and by thoreau the access points in ACL-2 can only associate with stations manufactured by Intel. This information is essays, entered in the wIPS system's policy profile.

Any association between the access points and by thoreau non-Cisco or non-Intel stations is unauthorized and essays about triggers an alarm. In the enterprise WLAN environment, rogue stations cause security concerns and undermine network performance. They take up air space and compete for by thoreau, network bandwidth. Since an access point can only about sojourner accommodate a limited number of stations, it rejects association requests from stations once its capacity is reached. An access point laden with rogue stations denies legitimate stations the access to essays by thoreau, the network. Common problems caused by rogue stations include connectivity problems and degraded performance. The Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS automatically alerts network administrators to any unauthorized access point-station association involving non-conforming stations using this alarm.

Once the alarm has been triggered, the unauthorized station must be identified and actions must be taken to sojourner, resolve the issue. One way is to block it using the rogue containment. Unauthorized Association Detected. Alarm Description and Possible Causes. In an enterprise network environment, rogue access points installed by employees do not usually follow the essays by thoreau, network's standard deployment practice and therefore compromise the integrity of the essay gulf, network. They are loopholes in network security and make it easy for intruders to hack into the enterprise wired network.

One of the major concerns that most wireless network administrators face is unauthorized associations between stations in an ACL and essays by thoreau a rogue access point. Since data to and from the stations flows through the rogue access point, it leaves the door open for an essay on co-education, hackers to obtain sensitive information. Rogue stations cause security concerns and undermine network performance. They take up air space and compete for essays, bandwidths on the network. Impact Children? Since an access point can only essays by thoreau serve a certain number of faire, stations, it rejects association requests from stations once its capacity is reached. An access point laden with rogue stations denies legitimate stations access to the network. Common problems caused by rogue stations include disrupted connections and essays degraded performance. The Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS can automatically alert network administrators to any unauthorized access point-station association it has detected on the network through this alarm. The WLC new feature MAC Address Learning will prevent this violation from essays sojourner happening, it is by thoreau, recommended to enable this feature.

Alarm Description and Possible Causes. The Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS detects a wireless client station probing the WLAN for an anonymous association (i.e. association request for an access point with any SSID) using the Wellenreiter tool. Wellenreiter is a commonly used tool for war-driving and war-chalking. A wireless hacker uses war-driving tools to discover access points and to publish their information (MAC address, SSID, security implemented, etc.) on the Internet with the access points' geographical location information. War-chalkers discover WLAN access points and mark the WLAN configuration at essayer faire public locations with universal symbols as illustrated above. War-walking is similar to war-driving, but the hacker is on foot instead of a car. War-walkers like to use Wellenreiter and similar products to sniff shopping malls and big-box retail stores.

War-flying is sniffing for wireless networks from the air. The same equipment is used, but from a low flying private plane with high power antennas. It has been reported that a Perth, Australia-based war-flier picked up e-mail and Internet Relay Chat sessions from an altitude of essays by thoreau, 1,500 feet on essays impact television, a war-flying trip. The tool supports Prism2, Lucent, and Cisco based cards. The tool can discover infrastructure and ad-hoc networks that are broadcasting SSIDs, their WEP capabilities, and by thoreau can provide vendor information automatically. Essay? It also creates an ethereal/tcpdump-compatible dumpfile and an Application savefile.

It also has GPS support. Users can download the tool from Wellenreiter website. To prevent your access points from being discovered by these hacking tools, configure your access points to not broadcast its SSID. You can use the Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS to see which of your access points is broadcasting an SSID in the beacons. Cisco WCS also provides automated security vulnerability scanning that reports any access points configured to broadcast their SSIDs.

For more information on automated security vulnerability scanning, refer to the WCS online help. WiFi Protected Setup Pin Brute Force. Alarm Description and Possible Causes. WiFi Protected Setup is essays, a feature on most consumer grade Access Points that allows for essays, easy device setup without the need for complex passwords. The feature allows the essays by thoreau, user to either use the push button method or enter in the pin found on the bottom of the Access Point to connect. A vulnerability was announced in December 2011 by Stefan Viehböck and independently discovered by Craig Heffner. The vulnerability is with the external registrar that only sparation requires the devices pin. This mode is susceptible to brute force attacks against the pin. Essays? There are currently 2 active tools in sojourner the wild exploiting this. The basic idea behind the attack is when a pin authentication fails, the access point sends back an essays by thoreau EAP-NACK message to the client.

With this EAP-NACK message, the attacker is able to determine if the first half of the pin is essayer, correct. The last digit of the pin is known since it is a checksum for the pin. This reduces the attempts to brute force the pin down to 11,000. It is essays, recommended to persepolis analysis essay, disable the external registrar feature of essays, WiFi Protected Setup on your Access Point. An Essay? Most manufacturers have this feature on by default. The system monitors the wireless network for traffic consistent with WiFi Protected Setup Pin brute force. Essays? It is recommended to locate the device and corps take it offline.

Alarm Description and Possible Causes. The WiFiTap tool allows a wireless attacker to by thoreau, configure a client to communicate directly with another client, without connecting to a corporate AP. This implementation allows the intruder to target an persepolis attack against the individual client, bypassing any security measures configured on the corporate network. The attacker then has access to all files and information stored on the victim client station. The wIPS server monitors for use of the WiFiTap tool and triggers an essays alarm if it is detected.

Users should attempt to locate the attacking device and remove it from the wireless environment.

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Fax Cover Sheets (How-To + 29 Templates) Even though the very first fax machine was made in essays by thoreau, 1842, today, fax machines are still not considered relics of the past. There are 17 million fax machines in faire, the U.S. alone, and by thoreau, 17 billion faxes are sent worldwide each year! At many jobs or internships, you may need to send faxes. Essay On The Gulf War. Let’s take a look at essays, why the fax machine is analysis still thriving, and what you need to know about faxes and essays by thoreau, fax cover sheets. Below, you’ll find our free fax cover sheet templates, which you can download and print to persepolis film essay, make sending a fax easy. Online faxing has provided a new way to essays, send faxes, but many still send them the old-fashioned way. First, it’s a means of persepolis analysis transmitting information using a method that’s accepted worldwide. Many places still have unreliable internet service.

Smaller or older businesses may not want to invest in an expensive computer or tablet, so they send documents by fax. In an office with limited access to essays by thoreau, computers or the Internet, a fax machine is helpful. Fax machines are also very reliable and secure. Unlike some email or online message systems, a fax machine will tell you if the fax has been sent successfully. A fax will hold up in corps dissertation, court, where an essays email might not, and a traditional fax machine can’t be hacked the way an email can. In fact, some places require the use of a fax machine for those reasons. For example, if you’re working in a medical office, there’s a good chance you will use a fax machine. Corps Dissertation. Also, HIPAA laws require privacy, and faxing is by thoreau usually the safest option. It’s a good idea to write an essay, learn how to by thoreau, send a fax. There are two ways to send faxes today: with a fax machine, and online.

How to Send a Fax with Fax Machine. First, you will put the essay gulf war document in the document feeder of the essays by thoreau fax machine. An icon on the machine itself should show you which way the paper needs to be facing. The folded corner in the icon indicates whether the fax machine reads the about sojourner underside or the top side of the essays document, thus directing you to place the paper into persepolis film essay the machine face up or face down. Next, you’ll enter the fax number you’re sending the document to. Then, press the “Send” button.

The button may look different from one fax machine to another: it might be a green button, or have “Go” or “Start” on it. Some fax machines will give you a confirmation page once the complete fax is received. Otherwise, you will just wait until the essays fax is write an essay done scanning and transmitting. The document that comes through on the recipient’s side will be an essays by thoreau exact copy of the one you just sent. Finally, take the original document and essays impact children, keep it or dispose of it–if it’s sensitive information, it may need to be shredded. Different types of essays fax machines can have additional features. Some work as a copy machine, scanner, or printer. Some allow you to schedule faxes to be sent later.

Ones with large memory and paper capacity may be able to send multiple documents in a queue. There might also be a password you need to persepolis analysis, enter before you can send a fax. Today you can actually send a fax over the internet using your laptop, tablet, or smartphone. Using an online fax app is simple. Essays By Thoreau. Open the app or program, choose a file or enter the on the gulf text you would like to send as a fax, and enter the essays by thoreau necessary contact information, such as an email address. Then select “Send” and wait for the app to alert you that the essay gulf fax has gone through. The app will likely send your fax as an essays by thoreau image or a PDF.

With some online fax apps, you can not only send and receive faxes from faire, your phone or other device, but sign and edit them as well. A fax cover sheet is an informational document that you send with a fax. You will position the cover sheet as the first sheet of the fax, so that it gets received first. By Thoreau. Both traditional and online faxes can require a cover sheet. It is considered more professional to include a cover sheet with a fax. That way, all the necessary information is easy for the recipient to locate. You can ask at your job or internship whether they expect faxes to be sent with a cover sheet. What Should a Fax Cover Sheet Include? A fax cover sheet contains important information that needs to be organized and easy to read quickly.

It identifies who the sender of the faire dj fax is, who it is intended for, and includes contact information for both parties. This helps ensure the fax ends up in the right hands, and that the sender can be contacted easily. A professional fax cover sheet will typically have this information: Company name (sender) Company name (recipient) Date Fax number (sender) Fax number (recipient) Phone number (sender) Phone number (recipient) Number of pages (including cover sheet) A professional fax cover sheet might also have this optional information: Company logo (sender) Company tagline (sender) Individual’s name (sender) Individual’s name (recipient) Physical and/or email address (sender) Physical and/or email address (recipient) Urgency level Subject (‘regarding’ or ‘re:’) field Whether a reply is expected Short message about the by thoreau fax document. Fax cover sheets should typically be simple and persepolis analysis, without fancy design elements. Occasionally, a fancy cover sheet is by thoreau appropriate, such as when sending a fax from a creative business, or for a certain occasion (eg. birthdays, Christmas, event invitations).

We have both simple and elaborate fax cover sheet templates for essay gulf war, you to choose from below. Our printable fax cover sheet templates save you from the tedious job of making a new, professional cover sheet each time you send a fax. By Thoreau. They are free, and easy to download, edit, and print. These templates contain all the basic information that should go on a professional fax cover sheet. Just remove the sample information from the template and replace it with your information.

We have cover sheet templates for every need, whether it’s simple or stylish. Take a look and see which ones are best for you. Generic Fax Cover Sheet Templates. This fax-cover sheet uses wide margins for essayer, a clean look. Sender and essays by thoreau, receiver details are centered on the page, and plenty of room is given for sojourner truth, a message or instructions. Size: 183 B Downloads: 276 Filename: Simple-Cover-Sheet.doc Uploaded: 2017-06-07 10:32:00 / 88801. Sender and receiver details are organized with clean horizontal lines. Good for business or professional faxes, with four checkboxes for message categorization by urgency and plenty of space for essays, messages.

Size: 183 B Downloads: 164 Filename: Basic-Fax.doc Uploaded: 2017-06-07 10:29:00 / 88789. While this basic template lacks sender information, it has plenty of room for essayer dj, a message or additional instructions at essays by thoreau, the bottom of the page. Size: 58 KB Downloads: 136 Filename: Classic-Bordered.doc Uploaded: 2017-06-07 10:26:00 / 88768. Forgoing sender details gives this form a clean, uncluttered appearance, and also leaves it with plenty of room for essayer, a message. Size: 55 KB Downloads: 137 Filename: Clean-Fax.doc Uploaded: 2017-06-07 10:23:00 / 88748. With a prominently displayed company name, this template is essays best for film, businesses such as law offices or consulting firms. Minimal sender/receiver details leaves plenty of essays room for write, a message. Size: 53 KB Downloads: 128 Filename: Prominent-Business-Name.doc Uploaded: 2017-06-07 10:24:00 / 88754.

Sender and receiver information are justified left and right, balancing the page so as not to detract from your message in this clean, simple, yet eye-catching form. Size: 56 KB Downloads: 139 Filename: Efficient-Fax-Cover.doc Uploaded: 2017-06-07 10:25:00 / 88760. For when the included message is essays by thoreau important, this template draws in the reader#039;s eye by corps aligning sender and essays, receiver information to essays impact, the top left and right. Size: 59 KB Downloads: 115 Filename: Business-Cover-Sheet.doc Uploaded: 2017-06-07 10:20:00 / 88735. In this professional form, sender and receiver details are aligned right, giving prominence to by thoreau, the space for a message at the bottom of the page. Size: 65 KB Downloads: 116 Filename: Letterhead-Fax.doc Uploaded: 2017-06-07 10:21:00 / 88741.

This fax transmittal template makes economical use of space for sender/receiver information, and sparation dissertation, leaves the majority of the page for a large message. Size: 65 KB Downloads: 119 Filename: Uncomplicated-Fax-Transmittal.doc Uploaded: 2017-06-07 10:17:00 / 88721. In this professional form, sender/receiver details are kept neat with horizontal lines. Essays. Checkboxes are offered to essays, categorize message urgency, and by thoreau, the bottom of the form is reserved for additional comments. Size: 69 KB Downloads: 125 Filename: Professional-Fax-Form.doc Uploaded: 2017-06-07 10:18:00 / 88726. With space for a logo, this fax-cover sheet includes room for comments and messages.

With a pre-written privacy notice, it is perfect for write, hospital groups, doctors#039; offices, or law firms. Size: 31 KB Downloads: 121 Filename: Banner-Fax-Cover.docx Uploaded: 2017-06-07 10:03:00 / 88639. This cover sheet is for essays, electronic claims submissions requiring additional documents. It features a privacy disclaimer and basic shaded boxed format. Perfect for insurance, medical, legal, or other professional organizations. Size: 48 KB Downloads: 127 Filename: E-Claim-Cover-Fax.docx Uploaded: 2017-06-07 10:00:00 / 88622. With space for your company logo, this straightforward form is for businesses with a brand. Return information is on co-education included, and the form includes plenty of by thoreau white space for additional messages.

Size: 48 KB Downloads: 118 Filename: Logo-Boxed-Return-Fax.docx Uploaded: 2017-06-07 09:42:00 / 88601. This fax cover sheet has a logo and return information compactly included at the top of the page. About Truth. This gives additional space for a longer message. Size: 909 KB Downloads: 118 Filename: Logo-Simple-Return-Fax.doc Uploaded: 2017-06-07 09:53:00 / 88607. This template includes basic contact information as well as space for essays, an additional message. An Essay. A touch of whimsy is added with the by thoreau image of essays impact a man#039;s hand delivering the fax. Size: 62 KB Downloads: 119 Filename: Hand-Off-Basic-Fax.doc Uploaded: 2017-06-07 10:15:00 / 88708. Company information is top left with phone and fax number. Sender/receiver information is separated by horizontal lines.

Busy professionals will appreciate this template. By Thoreau. Includes a large field for additional messages. Size: 26 KB Downloads: 134 Filename: Just-Facts.docx Uploaded: 2017-06-07 10:01:00 / 88631. This unadorned, straightforward blank fax template allows you to get to the point. Appropriate for businesses and individuals, it includes fax and phone number and lines for an additional comment. Size: 20 KB Downloads: 202 Filename: Straightforward-Blank-Fax.docx Uploaded: 2017-06-07 09:56:00 / 88613. Stylish Fax Cover Sheet Templates. The paper airplane featured in this colorful template suggests youthful creativity and motion. While sender information is absent, there is still plenty of dj white space for additional messages. Size: 59 KB Downloads: 122 Filename: Flight-Fax.docx Uploaded: 2017-06-07 10:04:00 / 88646. The geometric design adorning this template, and the space for a logo, make it perfect for firms in fields such as architecture or design.

Includes space for a sizable message. Size: 56 KB Downloads: 136 Filename: Geometric-Fax.docx Uploaded: 2017-06-07 10:05:00 / 88655. For a more lighthearted template, this whimsical form features an antlered moose. With room for a message and essays, the sender/receiver details, this fax-cover sheet is sure to brighten someone#039;s day. Size: 62 KB Downloads: 112 Filename: Merry-Christmas-Fax.docx Uploaded: 2017-06-07 10:07:00 / 88664. This creative template features room for sender and receiver information. Essayer. A black and essays, gold call-out box, bookended by quotation marks, leaves enough space for a mid-sized message. Size: 30 KB Downloads: 152 Filename: Quotation-Bubble.docx Uploaded: 2017-06-07 10:08:00 / 88673. This cover sheet amplifies your message with a smiling character and bullhorn. Essays Sojourner Truth. While sender information is essays by thoreau absent and receiver information limited, this form does leave room for a sizable message. Size: 39 KB Downloads: 117 Filename: Message-Amplifier.docx Uploaded: 2017-06-07 10:09:00 / 88681.

Most appropriate for schools and other educational settings, this cover sheet features cartoon pencils. Sparation. It includes ample message space but limited room for sender details. Size: 131 KB Downloads: 144 Filename: Pencil-Fax-Cover.docx Uploaded: 2017-06-07 10:10:00 / 88687. This friendly looking template includes your contact information, but not space for the recipient#039;s number. A large area for a message is enclosed by by thoreau a speech bubble. Size: 43 KB Downloads: 165 Filename: Speech-Bubble.docx Uploaded: 2017-06-07 10:12:00 / 88694. This professional template has space for an essay on co-education, all the pertinent sender-receiver details also includes check-boxes for essays, five categorizations of write on co-education urgency. Best used when your fax needs no additional messages. Size: 183 B Downloads: 131 Filename: the-business-card.docx Uploaded: 2017-06-07 10:13:00 / 88700. The clipboard image of this template reinforces its checkboxed request for urgency, review, or reply. By Thoreau. With room for essayer dj, a significant memo and recipient and sender information.

Size: 2 MB Downloads: 141 Filename: Clipboard-Cover.docx Uploaded: 2017-06-07 10:16:00 / 88715. This template features sender and receiver information in a column at essays by thoreau, the top-left of the essay page, and includes room for an additional message in a clean, square call-out box. Size: 61 KB Downloads: 144 Filename: Sidebar-Blocks.doc Uploaded: 2017-06-07 10:27:00 / 88775. The large F-A-X at the top of the page makes a dramatic statement, but still leaves room for sender and receiver details, as well as an by thoreau additional message. Size: 183 B Downloads: 154 Filename: Big-Square.doc Uploaded: 2017-06-07 10:28:00 / 88781. The emoji-like fax machine on an essay on co-education, the top right gives this form a whimsy that recipients will enjoy. It includes pertinent sender and receiver details and room for a small message. Size: 183 B Downloads: 142 Filename: FAX-on-FAX.docx Uploaded: 2017-06-07 10:31:00 / 88795.

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