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Archimedes research essay

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National Science Foundation - Where Discoveries Begin. Chapter II - Proposal Preparation Instructions. Each proposing organization that is new to research NSF or has not received an NSF grant within the on service description methods, previous two years should be prepared to submit basic organization and management information and certifications, when requested, to the applicable award making division within BFA. The requisite information is described in the Prospective New Awardee Guide. The information contained in this Guide will assist the organization in preparing documents which the National Science Foundation requires to conduct administrative and financial reviews of the organization. This Guide also serves as a means of highlighting the archimedes essay, accountability requirements associated with Federal awards. To facilitate proposal preparation, Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) regarding proposal preparation and submission are available electronically on literature review on service, the NSF website.

8. A. Conformance with Instructions for Proposal Preparation. It is important that all proposals conform to the instructions provided in essay the GPG. Television Shows. Conformance is required and will be strictly enforced unless an authorization to deviate from standard proposal preparation requirements has been approved. NSF may return without review proposals that are not consistent with these instructions. See GPG Chapter IV.B for additional information.

NSF must authorize any deviations from these instructions in advance of proposal submission. Deviations may be authorized in one of two ways: 1. through specification of different requirements in an NSF program solicitation; or. 2. by the written approval of the archimedes essay, cognizant NSF Assistant Director/Office Head or designee. Television. These approvals to deviate from NSF proposal preparation instructions may cover a particular program or programs or, in rare instances, an “individual” deviation for essay, a particular proposal. Proposers may deviate from these instructions only to resume the extent authorized. Proposals must include an authorization to archimedes deviate from jobstreet standard NSF proposal preparation instructions has been received in archimedes research one of the following ways, as appropriate: (a) by identifying the solicitation number that authorized the deviation in the appropriate block on the proposal Cover Sheet; or (b) for individual deviations, by identifying the name, date and title of the NSF official authorizing the deviation. 9 Further instructions are available on the FastLane website.

B. Format of the a systematic literature review methods, Proposal. Prior to electronic submission, it is strongly recommended that proposers conduct an administrative review to ensure that proposals comply with the proposal preparation guidelines established in the GPG. GPG Exhibit II-1 contains a proposal preparation checklist that may be used to assist in archimedes essay this review. On Reality Television Shows. This checklist is not intended to be an archimedes, all-inclusive repetition of the why schools should persuasive, required proposal contents and associated proposal preparation guidelines. It is, however, meant to essay highlight certain critical items so they will not be overlooked when the proposal is prepared. 1. Proposal Pagination Instructions. Proposers are advised that FastLane does not automatically paginate a proposal. Each section of the proposal that is uploaded as a file must be individually paginated prior to upload to a midsummer dream themes the electronic system. 2. Proposal Margin and Spacing Requirements. The proposal must be clear, readily legible, and conform to the following requirements: a. Use one of the archimedes research, following typefaces identified below: Arial 10 , Courier New, or Palatino Linotype at a font size of 10 points or larger Times New Roman at a font size of 11 points or larger Computer Modern family of fonts at a font size of 11 points or larger.

A font size of less than 10 points may be used for mathematical formulas or equations, figure, table or diagram captions and when using a Symbol font to should have essay insert Greek letters or special characters. PIs are cautioned, however, that the text must still be readable; b. Essay. No more than 6 lines of text within a vertical space of 1 inch; and. c. Margins, in all directions, must be at least an essay friend, inch. These requirements apply to all uploaded sections of a proposal, including supplementary documentation. 3. Page Formatting. Since many reviewers will be reviewing proposals electronically, proposers are strongly encouraged to essay use only on rural development, a standard, single-column format for archimedes research, the text. Avoid using a two-column format since it can cause difficulties when reviewing the document electronically. While line spacing (single-spaced, double-spaced, etc.) is at the discretion of the a systematic literature review description methods, proposer, established page limits must be followed. Archimedes Essay. (Individual program solicitations, however, may eliminate this proposer option by for girls requiring other type size, margin or line spacing requirements.)

The guidelines specified above establish the minimum type size requirements; however, PIs are advised that readability is of paramount importance and should take precedence in selection of an research, appropriate font for should have uniforms, use in the proposal. Small type size makes it difficult for research, reviewers to read the proposal; consequently, the use of small type not in compliance with the above guidelines may be grounds for NSF to essays on reality shows return the proposal without review. Adherence to type size and line spacing requirements also is necessary to ensure that no proposer will have an unfair advantage, by using smaller type or line spacing to provide more text in the proposal. C. Proposal Contents. NSF utilizes a variety of mechanisms to generate proposals. Archimedes Research Essay. A brief description of each category of funding opportunity follows: 1. Single-Copy Documents. Certain categories of information that are submitted in conjunction with a proposal are for NSF Use Only. Jobstreet. As such, the information is not provided to essay reviewers for use in the review of the proposal. Why Schools Uniforms Persuasive Essay. With the exception of proposal certifications (which are submitted via the research essay, Authorized Organizational Representative function 11 ), these documents should be submitted electronically via the Proposal Preparation Module in the FastLane System.

A summary of each of these categories follows: a. Information About Principal Investigators/Project Directors and co-Principal Investigators/co-Project Directors. NSF is committed to providing equal opportunities for review on service description methods, participation in its programs and promoting the full use of the essay, Nation's research and engineering resources. Resume. To aid in archimedes research essay meeting these objectives, NSF requests information on essay best friend, the gender, race, ethnicity and disability status of individuals named as PIs/co-PIs on proposals and awards. Essay. Except for the required information about current or previous Federal research support and why schools uniforms essay, the name(s) of the PI/co-PI, submission of the information is voluntary, and individuals who do not wish to provide the archimedes, personal information should check the box(es) provided for that purpose. b. Authorization to Deviate from NSF Proposal Preparation Requirements (if applicable) Instructions for obtaining authorization to deviate from NSF proposal preparation instructions are provided in GPG Chapter II.A. c. List of essay on my, Suggested Reviewers or Reviewers Not to archimedes essay Include (optional) Proposers may include a list of suggested reviewers who they believe are especially well qualified to review the proposal. Proposers also may designate persons they would prefer not review the proposal, indicating why. These suggestions are optional. GPG Exhibit II-2 contains information on conflicts of interest that may be useful in preparation of this list.

The cognizant Program Officer handling the proposal considers the uniforms, suggestions and may contact the proposer for further information. However, the decision whether or not to essay use the suggestions remains with the Program Officer. d. Proprietary or Privileged Information (if applicable) Instructions for a midsummer, submission of proprietary or privileged information are provided in GPG Chapter I.D.3. e. Essay. Proposal Certifications. With the exception of the Disclosure of Lobbying Activities (SF LLL) identified below, the procedures for submission of the proposal certifications differ from those used with other single-copy documents.

The AOR must use the on my friend for girls, Authorized Organizational Representative function in the FastLane System to electronically sign and submit the proposal certifications. It is the proposing organization's responsibility to assure that only archimedes, properly authorized individuals sign in this capacity. 12. The required proposal certifications are as follows: Certification for Authorized Organizational Representative or Individual Proposer: The AOR is required to complete certifications regarding the accuracy and completeness of statements contained in the proposal, as well as to certify that the organization (or individual) agrees to jobstreet resume accept the research essay, obligation to comply with award terms and conditions. Certification Regarding Conflict of Interest: The AOR is required to should uniforms complete certifications stating that the institution 13 has implemented and research essay, is enforcing a written policy on conflicts of interest, consistent with the provisions of AAG Chapter IV.A.; that, to methods the best of his/her knowledge, all financial disclosures required by the conflict of interest policy were made; and that conflicts of interest, if any, were, or prior to the institution's expenditure of any funds under the award, will be, satisfactorily managed, reduced or eliminated in accordance with the institution's conflict of interest policy. Conflicts that cannot be satisfactorily managed, reduced or eliminated must be disclosed to NSF via use of the Notifications and Requests Module in the NSF FastLane System. Drug-Free Workplace: The AOR is required to archimedes research essay complete a certification regarding the essay development, Drug-Free Workplace Act.

See GPG Exhibit II-3 for the full text of the Drug-Free Workplace Certification. Debarment and Suspension: The AOR is required to complete a certification regarding Debarment and Suspension. See GPG Exhibit II-4 for the full text of the Debarment and Suspension Certification. Certification Regarding Lobbying: When the proposal exceeds $100,000, the AOR is required to archimedes research essay complete a certification regarding lobbying restrictions. The Certification for Contracts, Grants, Loans and Cooperative Agreements is included in full text on the FastLane submission screen as well as in GPG Exhibit II-5. The box for Disclosure of Lobbying Activities must be checked on the proposal Cover Sheet only if, pursuant to should uniforms persuasive essay paragraph 2 of the certification, submission of the SF LLL is archimedes essay, required.

14. Certification Regarding Nondiscrimination: The AOR is required to complete a certification regarding compliance with NSF Nondiscrimination regulations and policies. See GPG Exhibit II-6 for the full text of the Nondiscrimination Certification. Certification Regarding Flood Hazard Insurance: Two sections of the National Flood Insurance Act of development programme, 1968 (42 USC §4012a and §4106) bar Federal agencies from giving financial assistance for acquisition or construction purposes in any area identified by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) as having special flood hazards unless the: (1) community in which that area is located participates in the national flood insurance program; and. (2) building (and any related equipment) is covered by research adequate flood insurance. By electronically signing the proposal Cover Sheet, AORs for prospective grantees located in on rural programme FEMA-designated special flood hazard areas are certifying that adequate flood insurance has been or will be obtained in the following situations: (1) for NSF grants for the construction of archimedes, a building or facility, regardless of the dollar amount of the grant; and. (2) for other NSF grants when more than $25,000 has been budgeted in the proposal for repair, alteration or improvement (construction) of a building or facility. On Rural Development Programme. 15.

Prospective grantees should contact their local government or a federally-insured financial institution to archimedes essay determine what areas are identified as having special flood hazards and the availability of flood insurance in their community. 2. On Rural. Sections of the Proposal. The sections described below represent the body of archimedes research essay, a proposal submitted to NSF. Essay Friend. With the exception of “Special Information and Supplementary Documentation” and archimedes research essay, “Appendices,” all sections are required parts of the proposal. A Systematic Literature On Service. These documents must be submitted electronically via the Proposal Preparation Module in the FastLane System. 16. There are four major components of the research essay, proposal Cover Sheet.

A number of the boxes contained on the Cover Sheet are electronically prefilled as part of the FastLane login process. The information requested on the Cover Sheet is as follows: (1) Awardee and Performing/Research Organization: This information is pre-filled on the Cover Sheet based on the login information entered. (2) Program Announcement/Solicitation/Description Number: Proposers are required to select the applicable program announcement, solicitation or program description. Why Schools Should Have Persuasive Essay. If the proposal is not submitted in response to a specific program announcement, solicitation, or program description, proposers should select Grant Proposal Guide. Archimedes Essay. Compliance with this requirement is television shows, critical in determining the relevant proposal processing guidelines. Proposals submitted with Grant Proposal Guide selected that are directed to Division/Program combinations with active program descriptions will default to the nearest target date for that program.

Proposers are advised to select No Closing Date when the proposal is archimedes research, not submitted in why schools should uniforms persuasive essay response to any relevant NSF funding opportunity (which includes program announcements, solicitations or program descriptions). (3) NSF Unit of Consideration: Proposers must follow instructions for selection of an applicable NSF Division/Office and Program(s) to which the proposal should be directed. (4) Remainder of the Cover Sheet: (a) Title of Proposed Project. The title of the project must be brief, scientifically or technically valid, intelligible to a scientifically or technically literate reader, and suitable for use in the public press. NSF may edit the title of a project prior to making an archimedes, award. (b) Budget and Duration Information. The proposed duration for which support is requested must be consistent with the nature and complexity of the proposed activity. Grants are normally awarded for up to three years but may be awarded for periods of on my, up to five years. The Foundation encourages PIs to request awards for durations of three to five years when such durations are necessary for completion of the proposed work and are technically and managerially advantageous. Specification of a desired starting date for the project is important and helpful to NSF staff; however, requests for specific effective dates may not be met.

Except in special situations, requested effective dates must allow at least six months for archimedes essay, NSF review, processing and decision. Should unusual situations (e.g., a long lead time for procurement) create problems regarding the shows, proposed effective date, the archimedes essay, PI should consult his/her organization’s sponsored projects office. (c) PI Information and co-PI Information. Information (including address information) regarding the PI is why schools should persuasive essay, derived from login information and is not entered when preparing the archimedes research, Cover Sheet. The proposal also may identify up to four additional co-Principal Investigators. Each individual's name and either pseudo social security number or primary registered e-mail address, should be entered in on rural development the boxes provided. (d) Previous NSF Award. If the proposal is a renewal proposal, or an accomplishment-based renewal proposal, the applicable box must be checked. If yes, the proposer will be requested to select the essay, applicable previous award number.

Some NSF program solicitations require submission of on my for girls, both a preliminary and full proposal as part of the proposal process. In such cases, the following instructions apply: (i) During the preliminary proposal stage, the proposing organization should identify the submission as a preliminary proposal by archimedes research checking the block entitled, “Preliminary Proposal” on the proposal Cover Sheet; (ii) During the full proposal submission stage, the proposing organization should identify in the block entitled, “Show Related Preliminary Proposal Number”, the related preliminary proposal number assigned by NSF. (e) Other Federal Agencies. If the proposal is being submitted for consideration by another Federal agency, the abbreviated names of the Federal agencies must be identified in the spaces provided. (f) Awardee Organization Information. The awardee organization name, address, DUNS number and on rural development, Employer Identification Number/Taxpayer Identification Number are derived from the login information and are not entered when preparing the Cover Sheet via FastLane. Profit making organizations must identify their status by checking the appropriate boxes on the Cover Sheet, using the following guidelines: A small business must be organized for profit, independently owned and operated (not a subsidiary of or controlled by another firm), have no more than 500 employees, and not be dominant in its field.

The appropriate box also must be checked when the proposal involves a cooperative effort between an academic institution and a small business. A minority business must be: (i) at least 51 percent owned by one or more minority or disadvantaged individuals or, in the case of a publicly owned business, have at least 51 percent of the research essay, voting stock owned by one or more minority or disadvantaged individuals; and (ii) one whose management and daily business operations are controlled by one or more such individuals. A woman-owned business must be at least 51 percent owned by why schools have persuasive a woman or women, who also control and archimedes research, operate it. Control in should uniforms essay this context means exercising the power to make policy decisions. Operate in this context means being actively involved in the day-to-day management.

(g) Performing/Research Organization. Should the essay, project be performed at a place other than where the award is to be made, that should be identified in the block entitled, “Name of Performing Organization.” Examples are as follows: Northern Virginia University. Northern Virginia University Health Center. Southern Virginia University. Southern Virginia University. (h) Other Information. Should any of the should persuasive essay, following items on archimedes research, the proposal Cover Sheet apply to a proposal, the applicable box(es) must be checked.

Beginning Investigator (See GPG I.G.2) Disclosure of Lobbying Activities (See GPG II.C.1.e) Proprietary or Privileged Information (See GPG I.D.3 II.C.1.d) Historic Places (See GPG II.C.2.j) Small Grants for Exploratory Research (SGER) (See GPG II.D.1) Vertebrate Animals 17 (See GPG II.D.5) Human Subjects 18 (See GPG II.D.6) High Resolution Graphics/Other Graphics Where Exact Color Representation is Required for a midsummer night's dream essay, Proper Interpretation (See GPG I.G.1) International Cooperative Activities Country Name(s) (See GPG II.C.2j) b. Project Summary. The proposal must contain a summary of the proposed activity suitable for publication, not more than one page in length. It should not be an archimedes, abstract of the proposal, but rather a self-contained description of the activity that would result if the proposal were funded. The summary should be written in the third person and include a statement of objectives and essays shows, methods to essay be employed. It must clearly address in separate statements (within the one-page summary): the intellectual merit of the proposed activity; and. the broader impacts resulting from the proposed activity. It should be informative to other persons working in jobstreet the same or related fields and, insofar as possible, understandable to a scientifically or technically literate lay reader. Proposals that do not separately address both merit review criteria within the one-page Project Summary will be returned without review. c. Research. Table of why schools uniforms essay, Contents.

A Table of Contents is automatically generated for the proposal by the FastLane system. The proposer cannot edit this form. d. Project Description (including Results from archimedes essay Prior NSF Support) All proposals to NSF will be reviewed utilizing the two merit review criteria described in greater length in GPG Chapter III. The Project Description should provide a clear statement of the work to be undertaken and must include: objectives for why schools should essay, the period of the proposed work and expected significance; relation to research longer-term goals of the essay on rural development programme, PI's project; and relation to the present state of knowledge in the field, to essay work in progress by the PI under other support and to work in progress elsewhere. The Project Description should outline the general plan of work, including the essay on my best friend for girls, broad design of activities to be undertaken, and, where appropriate, provide a clear description of experimental methods and procedures and plans for archimedes, preservation, documentation, and sharing of data, samples, physical collections, curriculum materials and other related research and education products. It must describe as an integral part of the narrative, the broader impacts resulting from the proposed activities, addressing one or more of the following as appropriate for the project: how the project will integrate research and education by advancing discovery and understanding while at the same time promoting teaching, training, and learning; ways in essays television which the proposed activity will broaden the research, participation of underrepresented groups (e.g., gender, ethnicity, disability, geographic, etc.); how the project will enhance the infrastructure for research and/or education, such as facilities, instrumentation, networks, and partnerships; how the on my best friend for girls, results of the research essay, project will be disseminated broadly to enhance scientific and technological understanding; and potential benefits of the proposed activity to society at large. Examples illustrating activities likely to demonstrate broader impacts are available electronically on the NSF website. A Table of literature on service description methods, Contents is archimedes research essay, automatically generated for the proposal by the FastLane system. The proposer cannot edit this form. (ii) Page Limitations and Inclusion of Universal Resource Locators (URLs) within the best friend, Project Description.

Brevity will assist reviewers and Foundation staff in dealing effectively with proposals. Research. Therefore, the Project Description (including Results from Prior NSF Support, which is limited to five pages) may not exceed 15 pages . Visual materials, including charts, graphs, maps, photographs and other pictorial presentations are included in the 15-page limitation. Essays. PIs are cautioned that the project description must be self-contained and that URLs that provide information related to archimedes the proposal should not be used because 1) the literature review on service methods, information could circumvent page limitations, 2) the reviewers are under no obligation to view the essay, sites, and why schools should, 3) the archimedes essay, sites could be altered or abolished between the time of why schools should persuasive, submission and the time of review. Conformance to the 15-page limitation will be strictly enforced and may not be exceeded unless a deviation has been specifically authorized. (GPG Chapter II.A contains information on archimedes research essay, deviations.) (iii) Results from Prior NSF Support. If any PI or co-PI identified on the project has received NSF funding in the past five years, information on the award(s) is required. Each PI and co-PI who has received more than one award (excluding amendments) must report on the award most closely related to essay on rural programme the proposal. The following information must be provided: (a) the NSF award number, amount and period of support; (b) the archimedes, title of the themes essay, project; (c) a summary of the archimedes research, results of the completed work, including, for a research project, any contribution to the development of human resources in science and engineering; (d) publications resulting from the NSF award; (e) a brief description of available data, samples, physical collections and other related research products not described elsewhere; and. (f) if the proposal is for renewed support, a description of the relation of the completed work to the proposed work. Reviewers will be asked to comment on jobstreet, the quality of the prior work described in research this section of the proposal. Please note that the proposal may contain up to five pages to describe the results.

Results may be summarized in fewer than five pages, which would give the balance of the essay for girls, 15 pages for archimedes research essay, the Project Description. (iv) Unfunded Collaborations. Any substantial collaboration with individuals not included in essay on rural programme the budget should be described and documented with a letter from essay each collaborator, which should be provided in the supplementary documentation section of the FastLane Proposal Preparation Module. Collaborative activities that are identified in the budget should follow the instructions in GPG Chapter II.D.3. NSF encourages submission of proposals by groups of investigators; often these are submitted to dream carry out research essay interdisciplinary projects. Unless stipulated in a specific program solicitation, however, such proposals will be subject to the 15-page Project Description limitation established in Section (ii) above. PIs who wish to exceed the established page limitations for the Project Description must request and receive a deviation in advance of proposal submission. A Systematic Review. (GPG Chapter II.A contains information on deviations.) (vi) Proposals for Renewed Support.

A proposal for renewed support may be either a “traditional” proposal in which the proposed work is documented and described as fully as though the proposer were applying for the first time; or, an “Accomplishment-Based Renewal” (ABR) proposal, in which the project description is replaced by copies of no more than six reprints of research essay, publications resulting from the research supported by NSF during the preceding three to on reality shows five year period, plus a brief summary of plans for the proposed support period. (See GPG Chapter V for additional information on research essay, preparation of a systematic literature review on service description, Renewal Proposals.) e. References Cited. Reference information is required. Archimedes Research. Each reference must include the names of all authors (in the persuasive, same sequence in which they appear in the publication), the article and journal title, book title, volume number, page numbers, and archimedes, year of publication. If the document is available electronically, the website address also should be identified. 19 Proposers must be especially careful to follow accepted scholarly practices in providing citations for source materials relied upon when preparing any section of the proposal. While there is resume, no established page limitation for archimedes essay, the references, this section must include bibliographic citations only and must not be used to provide parenthetical information outside of the 15-page project description. f. Biographical Sketch(es) (i) Senior Personnel. A biographical sketch (limited to two pages) is required for each individual identified as senior project personnel. Jobstreet. (See GPG Exhibit II-7 for the definitions of Senior Personnel.) The following information must be provided in research the order and format specified below. Do not submit personal information such as home address; home telephone, fax, or cell phone numbers; home e-mail address; date of birth; citizenship; drivers’ license numbers; marital status; personal hobbies; and the like. Such personal information is irrelevant to the merits of the proposal.

If such information is included, NSF will make every effort to prevent unauthorized access to such material, but the Foundation is not responsible or in any way liable for the release of such material. (See also GPG Chapter III.G). (a) Professional Preparation. A list of the individual's undergraduate and graduate education and postdoctoral training as indicated below: Inclusive Dates (years) A list, in reverse chronological order, of all the individual's academic/professional appointments beginning with the current appointment.

A list of: (i) up to 5 publications most closely related to review the proposed project; and (ii) up to 5 other significant publications, whether or not related to archimedes research essay the proposed project. Shows. Each publication identified must include the names of all authors (in the same sequence in which they appear in the publication), the article and journal title, book title, volume number, page numbers, and year of publication. If the document is available electronically, the website address also should be identified. For unpublished manuscripts, list only research, those submitted or accepted for publication (along with most likely date of publication). Patents, copyrights and software systems developed may be substituted for publications.

Additional lists of publications, invited lectures, etc., must not be included. Only the list of 10 will be used in the review of the proposal. (d) Synergistic Activities. A list of essays on reality television, up to archimedes five examples that demonstrate the on rural development programme, broader impact of the individual’s professional and essay, scholarly activities that focuses on night's dream, the integration and transfer of knowledge as well as its creation. Examples could include, among others: innovations in research essay teaching and training (e.g., development of curricular materials and pedagogical methods); contributions to the science of learning; development and/or refinement of research tools; computation methodologies, and algorithms for problem-solving; development of databases to support research and education; broadening the participation of groups underrepresented in science, mathematics, engineering and technology; and service to the scientific and engineering community outside of the individual’s immediate organization.

(e) Collaborators Other Affiliations. Collaborators and Co-Editors. A list of have persuasive essay, all persons in archimedes research essay alphabetical order (including their current organizational affiliations) who are currently, or who have been collaborators or co-authors with the individual on a project, book, article, report, abstract or paper during the 48 months preceding the essay programme, submission of the proposal. Also include those individuals who are currently or have been co-editors of a journal, compendium, or conference proceedings during the 24 months preceding the submission of the archimedes essay, proposal. A Systematic Literature. If there are no collaborators or co-editors to report, this should be so indicated.

Graduate Advisors and Postdoctoral Sponsors. A list of the names of the individual’s own graduate advisor(s) and principal postdoctoral sponsor(s), and their current organizational affiliations. Thesis Advisor and Postgraduate-Scholar Sponsor. A list of all persons (including their organizational affiliations), with whom the research essay, individual has had an association as thesis advisor, or with whom the individual has had an association within the last five years as a postgraduate-scholar sponsor. The total number of graduate students advised and postdoctoral scholars sponsored also must be identified. The information in section (e) above of the biographical sketch is used to help identify potential conflicts or bias in the selection of jobstreet resume, reviewers.

See GPG Exhibit II-2 for additional information on potential reviewer conflicts. (ii) Other Personnel. For the personnel categories listed below, the proposal also may include information on exceptional qualifications that merit consideration in the evaluation of the proposal. (a) Postdoctoral associates. (b) Other professionals. (c) Students (research assistants) (iii) Equipment Proposals. For equipment proposals, the following must be provided for each auxiliary user: (a) Short biographical sketch; and. (b) List of up to five publications most closely related to the proposed acquisition. Each proposal must contain a budget for archimedes research essay, each year of support requested, unless a particular program solicitation stipulates otherwise.

The amounts requested for each budget line item should be documented and jobstreet resume, justified in archimedes research essay the budget justification as specified below. The budget justification should be no more than three pages. The proposal may request funds under any of the categories listed so long as the item and amount are considered necessary, reasonable, allocable, and should uniforms, allowable under the applicable cost principles, NSF policy, and/or the program solicitation. Amounts and expenses budgeted also must be consistent with the proposing organization's policies and procedures and cost accounting practices used in accumulating and archimedes research essay, reporting costs. A discussion of the budget and the allowability of selected items of cost is contained in both the GPG (from a budget preparation perspective) and in the Award Administration Guide (AAG) (from an allowability and administration perspective), as well as NSF program solicitations. In preparation of the budget, however, proposers are encouraged to consult the essay on my, AAG to determine whether a certain category of cost is allowable under an research essay, NSF award. Cost principles governing the essay development programme, allowability of research, costs are contained in OMB Circulars A-21 (Colleges Universities), A-87 (State, Local, Indian Tribal Governments), and A-122 (Non-Profit Organizations) and are available at Cost Principles applicable to for-profit organizations can be found in the Federal Acquisition Regulations (FAR), Part 31. (i) Salaries and Wages (Lines A and on rural development programme, B on the Proposal Budget)

As a general policy, NSF recognizes that salaries of archimedes, faculty members and have uniforms persuasive essay, other personnel associated directly with the project constitute appropriate direct costs and may be requested in archimedes research proportion to the effort devoted to the project. Individuals included on budget lines A and B should be employees of the proposing organization. Budget lines A and B should not include compensation related to consultants or subawardees. Salaries and wages for consultants and subawardees should be budgeted on Lines G.3. and G.5 of the proposal budget, respectively. NSF regards research as one of the normal functions of faculty members at institutions of higher education. Compensation for time normally spent on research within the term of appointment is deemed to be included within the faculty member’s regular organizational salary. Grant funds may not be used to augment the why schools should have persuasive essay, total salary or salary rate of faculty members during the period covered by the term of archimedes essay, faculty appointment or to reimburse faculty members for consulting or other time in addition to a regular full-time organizational salary covering the on my friend for girls, same general period of employment. Exceptions may be considered under certain NSF science and engineering education program solicitations for weekend and evening classes, remote locations, or for administrative work done as overload.

If anticipated, any intent to provide salary compensation above the base salary should be disclosed in the grant proposal budget justification and must be specifically approved by archimedes essay NSF in why schools should uniforms the award notice. Summer salary for faculty members at colleges and research, universities on academic-year appointments is limited to no more than two-ninths of their regular academic-year salary. This limit includes summer salary received from all NSF-funded grants. These same general principles apply to other types of non-academic organizations, such as research institutes. Since their employment periods are usually annual, salary must be shown under “calendar months.” An independent institute or laboratory may propose to employ college or university faculty members on a part-time basis.

In such cases, it is the general intent of the above policies to limit an individual’s total compensation to what would be earned under a grant to essay on my the home academic institution. In most circumstances, particularly for institutions of higher education, salaries of administrative or clerical staff are included as part of indirect costs (also known as Facilities and Administrative Costs (FA) for Colleges and Universities). Archimedes Research Essay. Salaries of administrative or clerical staff may be requested as direct costs for a project requiring an extensive amount of administrative or clerical support and essays on reality television, where these costs can be readily and specifically identified with the project with a high degree of accuracy. Salaries for administrative or clerical staff shall be budgeted as a direct cost only if this type of cost is consistently treated as a direct cost in like circumstances for all other projects and archimedes research essay, cost objectives. The circumstances for requiring direct charging of a midsummer dream themes, these services must be clearly described in the budget justification. Such costs, if not clearly justified, may be deleted by NSF. See OMB Memorandum dated July 13, 1994, for examples of archimedes research essay, where direct charging of administrative salaries may be appropriate. Additional information on the charging of salaries and wages to an NSF award is available in AAG Chapter V.B.1. The names of the PI(s), faculty, and other senior personnel and the estimated number of full-time-equivalent academic-year, summer, or calendar-year person-months for which NSF funding is requested and the total amount of salaries requested per year must be listed.

For postdoctoral associates and other professionals, the total number of jobstreet resume, persons for each position must be listed, with the number of full-time-equivalent person-months and total amount of salaries requested per year. For graduate and archimedes research, undergraduate students, secretarial, clerical, technical, etc., whose time will be charged directly to a systematic on service description methods the project, only the total number of persons and total amount of salaries requested per year in each category is archimedes research essay, required. Salaries requested must be consistent with the on my for girls, organization’s regular practices. Essay. The budget justification should detail the a systematic literature review description, rates of pay by individual for senior personnel, postdoctoral associates, and other professionals. The budget may request funds for support of graduate or undergraduate research assistants to help carry out the proposed research. Compensation classified as salary payments must be requested in the salaries and wages category. (c) Confidential Budgetary Information.

The proposing organization may request that salary data on research, senior personnel not be released to persons outside the on rural development programme, Government during the review process. In such cases, the item for senior personnel salaries in the proposal may appear as a single figure and the person-months represented by that amount omitted. If this option is exercised, senior personnel salaries and person-months must be itemized in a separate statement, and forwarded to NSF in research accordance with the essay on my best for girls, instructions specified in archimedes research GPG Chapter I.D.3. This statement must include all of the information requested on the proposal budget for each person involved. NSF will not forward the detailed information to reviewers and will hold it privileged to the extent permitted by law. The information on senior personnel salaries will be used as the on my, basis for archimedes research essay, determining the salary amounts shown in the grant budget. The box for Proprietary or Privileged Information must be checked on the proposal Cover Sheet when the proposal contains confidential budgetary information. 20. (ii) Fringe Benefits (Line C on the Proposal Budget)

If the proposer's usual accounting practices provide that its contributions to employee benefits (social security, retirement, other payroll-related taxes and time off including vacation, sick, and other leave, etc.) be treated as direct costs, NSF grant funds may be requested to fund fringe benefits as a direct cost. These are typically determined by application of a calculated fringe benefit rate for a particular class of essays, employee (full time or part-time) applied to the salaries and wages requested. Although, they also may be paid based on actual costs for individual employees, if that institutional policy has been approved by the cognizant federal agency. (iii) Equipment (Line D on archimedes, the Proposal Budget) Equipment is defined as an item of property that has an acquisition cost of why schools, $5,000 or more (unless the organization has established lower levels) and an expected service life of more than one year.

It is important to note that the acquisition cost of equipment includes modifications, attachments, and accessories necessary to make the property usable for the purpose for which it was purchased. Essay. Items of needed equipment must be adequately justified, listed individually by essay description and estimated cost. Allowable items ordinarily will be limited to essay research equipment and apparatus not already available for the conduct of the programme, work. General-purpose equipment, such as a personal computer and office furnishings, are not eligible for support unless primarily or exclusively used in the actual conduct of scientific research. Additional information on the charging of equipment to an NSF award is available in AAG Chapter V.B.2. (iv) Travel (Line E on the Proposal Budget)

Travel and its relation to the proposed activities must be specified and itemized by destination and cost. Archimedes Research. Funds may be requested for field work, attendance at meetings and essay development programme, conferences, and other travel associated with the proposed work, including subsistence. In order to qualify for support, however, attendance at meetings or conferences must be necessary to accomplish proposal objectives, or disseminate its results. Allowance for archimedes, air travel normally will not exceed the cost of themes, round-trip, economy airfares. Persons traveling under NSF grants must travel by US-Flag Air carriers, if available.

21. Additional information on the charging of travel costs to an NSF award is available in AAG Chapter V.B.4. (b) Domestic Travel. For budget preparation purposes, domestic travel includes travel in essay the US, its possessions, Puerto Rico, and for girls, travel to Canada and archimedes research essay, Mexico. (c) Foreign Travel.

For budget purposes, travel outside the areas specified above is considered foreign. The proposal must include relevant information, including countries to be visited (also enter names of countries on the proposal budget), dates of visit, if known, and justification for any foreign travel planned in connection with the on my best for girls, project. Travel support for dependents of archimedes research, key project personnel may be requested only when all of the essay on rural, following conditions apply: (i) the individual is a key person who is archimedes research, essential to the research on a full-time basis; (ii) the individual’s residence away from home and in should have essay a foreign country is for a continuous period of six months or more and is essential to the effective performance of the project; and. (iii) the dependent’s travel allowance is consistent with the policies of the essay, organization administering the grant. (v) Participant Support (Line F on the Proposal Budget) This budget category refers to costs of transportation, per diem, stipends and other related costs for participants or trainees (but not employees) in connection with NSF-sponsored conferences, meetings, symposia, training activities and workshops. 22 (See GPG Chapter II.D.7) For some educational projects conducted at local school districts, however, the participants being trained are employees. In such cases, the costs must be classified as participant support if payment is made through a stipend or training allowance method. The school district must have an accounting mechanism in place (i.e., sub-account code) to differentiate between regular salary and review methods, stipend payments.

Generally, indirect costs (FA) are not allowed on participant support costs. The number of participants to be supported must be entered in archimedes the parentheses on the proposal budget. These costs also must be justified in the budget justification section of the proposal. Some programs, such as Research Experiences for Undergraduates, have special instructions for a midsummer themes essay, treatment of participant support. Additional information on the charging of essay, participant support costs to an NSF award is available in AAG Chapter V.B.8. (vi) Other Direct Costs (Lines G1 through G6 on the Proposal Budget) Any costs proposed to an NSF grant must be allowable, reasonable and directly allocable to a midsummer night's essay the supported activity.

The budget must identify and itemize other anticipated direct costs not included under the headings above, including materials and supplies, publication costs, computer services and archimedes research, consultant services. Should Have Uniforms. Examples include aircraft rental, space rental at archimedes research research establishments away from the should uniforms essay, grantee organization, minor building alterations, payments to human subjects, service charges, and construction of equipment or systems not available off the research, shelf. Reference books and periodicals may be charged to the grant only if they are specifically allocable to the project being supported by NSF. (a) Materials and night's themes essay, Supplies (Line G1 on the Proposal Budget) The proposal budget justification should indicate the general types of expendable materials and essay, supplies required. Materials and supplies are defined as tangible personal property, other than equipment, costing less than $5,000, or other lower threshold consistent with the policy established by the proposing organization.

Cost estimates must be included for items that represent a substantial amount of the proposed line item cost. (b) Publication/Documentation/Dissemination (Line G2 on the Proposal Budget) The proposal budget may request funds for the costs of documenting, preparing, publishing or otherwise making available to others the findings and essays on reality television, products of the research essay, work conducted under the grant. This generally includes the following types of activities: reports, reprints, page charges or other journal costs (except costs for prior or early publication); necessary illustrations; cleanup, documentation, storage and indexing of data and databases; development, documentation and debugging of software; and storage, preservation, documentation, indexing, etc., of physical specimens, collections or fabricated items. Additional information on the charging of publication/documentation/dissemination costs to an NSF award is available in AAG Chapter V.B.7.

(c) Consultant Services (Line G3 on the Proposal Budget) Anticipated consultant services must be justified and information furnished on each individual’s expertise, primary organizational affiliation, normal daily compensation rate, and essay best, number of days of expected service. Consultants’ travel costs, including subsistence, may be included. If requested, the proposer must be able to justify that the essay, proposed rate of pay is why schools should uniforms persuasive essay, reasonable. Archimedes Essay. 23.

Additional information on the charging of best, consultant costs to an NSF award is available in AAG Chapter V.B.6. (d) Computer Services (Line G4 on the Proposal Budget) The cost of research, computer services, including computer-based retrieval of scientific, technical and educational information, may be requested only where it is institutional policy to charge such costs as direct charges. A justification based on the established computer service rates at the proposing organization must be included. The proposal budget also may request costs for leasing of why schools uniforms persuasive, computer equipment. General purpose (word processing, spreadsheets, communication) computer equipment should not be requested.

Special purpose or scientific use computers or associated hardware and software, however, may be requested as items of equipment when necessary to essay accomplish the project objectives and essay on rural programme, not otherwise reasonably available. Additional information on the charging of archimedes research, computer services to an NSF award is available in AAG Chapter V.B.5. (e) Subawards 24 (Line G5 on the Proposal Budget) Except for the procurement of such items as commercially available supplies, materials, equipment or general support services allowable under the essays on reality television, grant, no significant part of the research, research or substantive effort under an NSF grant may be contracted or otherwise transferred to another organization without prior NSF authorization. The intent to enter into such arrangements must be disclosed in the proposal, and essay development programme, a separate budget should be provided for archimedes research, each subawardee, if already identified, along with a description of the work to be performed. Otherwise, the disclosure should include a clear description of the work to essay on my for girls be performed, and the basis for selection of the essay, subawardee (except for collaborative/joint arrangements).

(f) Other (Line G6 on the Proposal Budget) Any other direct costs not specified in Lines G1 through G5 must be identified on a midsummer dream themes essay, Line G6. Essay. Such costs must be itemized and detailed in the budget justification. 25. (vii) Total Direct Costs (Line H on the Proposal Budget) The total amount of direct costs requested in the budget, to include Lines A through G, must be entered on Line H. (viii) Indirect Costs (also known as Facilities and Administrative Costs (FA) for Colleges and Universities) (Line I on the Proposal Budget) The applicable indirect cost rate(s) negotiated by the organization with the cognizant negotiating agency must be used in computing indirect costs (FA) for television shows, a proposal. The amount for indirect costs should be calculated by applying the current negotiated indirect cost rate(s) to archimedes the approved base(s). Indirect cost recovery for colleges, universities, and other organizations of higher education are additionally restricted by OMB Circular A-21.

The Circular stipulates in section G.7.a. that Federal agencies are required to use the negotiated FA rates that are in effect at the time of the initial award throughout the life of the essay development, sponsored agreement. Additional information on the charging of indirect costs to an NSF award is available in AAG Chapter V.D. For proposing organizations that do not have a current negotiated rate agreement with a cognizant Federal agency, its business officer should prepare an indirect cost proposal based on expenditures for its most recently ended fiscal year. Essay. If the on my friend, proposal is recommended for funding, the proposing organization will be required to provide its indirect cost proposal to support the budgeted indirect rate. The contents and financial data included in indirect cost proposals vary according to the make-up of the proposing organization. A sample indirect cost proposal is available at: Proposing organizations submitting a proposal to NSF for the first time are encouraged to request guidance from the Cost Analysis Audit Resolution Branch of NSF’s Division of Institution Award Support at archimedes essay (703) 292-8244. Within Government guidelines, it is NSF policy that grantees are entitled to reimbursement from grant funds for essay on rural, indirect costs (FA) allocable to the NSF share of allowable direct costs of a project. NSF program staff may not negotiate indirect costs as a discrete item of a proposal budget since only the essay, duly authorized Grants and Agreements Officer has authority to negotiate indirect costs. NSF program staff are not authorized to suggest or request that PI/PDs seek reductions or waivers of indirect costs except as explicitly specified in applicable NSF program solicitations.

Exceptions to Basic Policy. No Indirect or Limited Reimbursement. In some cases, however, NSF program solicitations may indicate no or limited reimbursement for indirect costs. A Systematic On Service Description. In addition, NSF generally provides no amounts for indirect costs for the following: grants solely for the support of travel, equipment, construction of facilities, or doctoral dissertation research; grants in which NSF support is exclusively in the form of fellowships, traineeships or other fixed amounts such as cost-of-education allowances; participant support costs. However, an allowance for indirect costs associated with participant support costs may be established or negotiated in advance when circumstances indicate that the grantee could be expected to incur significant expenses in administering participant payments (other than salary or other direct expenses being reimbursed under the award). or, foreign grantees (unless the foreign grantee has a previously negotiated rate agreement with a US Federal agency that has a practice of negotiating rates with foreign entities). (ix) Total Direct and Indirect Costs (FA) (Line J on the Proposal Budget) The total amount of direct and archimedes research essay, indirect costs (FA) (sum of Lines H and I) must be entered on Line J. (x) Amount of This Request (Line L on the Proposal Budget) The total amount of funds requested by jobstreet resume the proposer should be the same as the research, amount entered on Line J. Jobstreet. If disapproved, Line L will be equal to Line J minus Line K. (xi) Cost Sharing (Line M on the Proposal Budget)

Since issuance of the NSF Cost Sharing Policy in 1999, the Foundation’s cost sharing policy has continued to archimedes be an why schools should, issue widely discussed by the community, as well as within NSF and the National Science Board (NSB). Cost sharing was most recently discussed formally at the NSB's 382nd meeting on October 13-14, 2004, when the research, Board approved a revision to the Foundation's policy on cost sharing to eliminate NSF program-specific cost sharing requirements. In implementation of the Board's policy, there is essay for girls, no expectation by the Foundation that proposals submitted for funding will include a cost sharing component. When cost sharing is included on Line M, it is solely at the discretion of the proposing institution and will not be a factor in the Foundation's decision to make an award. However, once cost sharing is proposed on Line M, and accepted by the Foundation, the commitment of funds becomes legally binding and is subject to audit. 26. Failure to essay provide the level of cost sharing reflected in essay on my best the approved grant budget may result in termination of the NSF grant, disallowance of grant costs and/or refund of grant funds to NSF by archimedes the grantee. (xii) Unallowable Costs. Proposers should be familiar with the complete list of unallowable costs that is contained in jobstreet the applicable cost principles.

The following categories of unallowable costs are highlighted because of their sensitivity: Costs of archimedes research essay, entertainment, amusement, diversion and a midsummer night's dream themes essay, social activities and archimedes, any costs directly associated with such activities (such as tickets to shows or sporting events, meals, lodging, rentals, transportation and on my best for girls, gratuities) are unallowable. Travel, meal and hotel expenses of grantee employees who are not on travel status are unallowable. Costs of employees on travel status are limited to those allowed under the governing cost principles for travel expenses. (b) Meals and Coffee Breaks. No NSF funds may be spent on meals or coffee breaks for intramural meetings of an organization or any of its components, including, but not limited to, laboratories, departments and centers. (c) Alcoholic Beverages. No NSF funds may be spent on alcoholic beverages. Additional information on the charging of certain types of costs generally associated with meetings and conferences to archimedes research essay NSF awards is available in AAG Chapter V.C.5. h. A Systematic Literature Review On Service. Current and Pending Support. This section of the proposal calls for required information on all current and archimedes essay, pending support for ongoing projects and proposals, including subsequent funding in the case of continuing grants.

All current project support from whatever source (e.g., Federal, State, local or foreign government agencies, public or private foundations, industrial or other commercial organizations) must be listed. The proposed project and all other projects or activities requiring a portion of on my best friend, time of the PI and other senior personnel must be included, even if they receive no salary support from the project(s). The total award amount for the entire award period covered (including indirect costs) must be shown as well as the number of person-months per year to be devoted to the project, regardless of source of archimedes essay, support. Similar information must be provided for all proposals already submitted or submitted concurrently to other possible sponsors, including NSF. A Systematic Review On Service Description. Concurrent submission of a proposal to other organizations will not prejudice its review by NSF.

Note the Biological Sciences Directorate exception to this policy, however, delineated in GPG Chapter I.G.2. If the project now being submitted has been funded previously by a source other than NSF, the information requested in the paragraph above must be furnished for the last period of funding. i. Archimedes Research. Facilities, Equipment and Other Resources. This section of the should have uniforms persuasive, proposal is used to assess the adequacy of the archimedes research essay, organizational resources available to perform the effort proposed. Proposers must describe only those resources that are directly applicable. j. Special Information and Supplementary Documentation. Except as specified below, special information and supplementary documentation must be included as part of the project description (or part of the budget justification), if it is relevant to determining the quality of the proposed work. Information submitted in the following areas is not considered part of the jobstreet, 15-page project description limitation. This Special Information and Supplementary Documentation section also is not considered an appendix.

Specific guidance on the need for additional documentation may be obtained from the archimedes, organization’s sponsored projects office or in the references cited below. Rationale for performance of all or part of the project off-campus or away from organizational headquarters. (See AAG Chapter V.D.1) Documentation of a systematic review on service description, collaborative arrangements of significance to the proposal through letters of commitment. (See GPG Chapter II.C.2d(iv)). The National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA) (42 USC §4332). NEPA requires that Federal agencies consider the environmental impacts of major Federal actions significantly affecting the quality of the human environment. Archimedes Research Essay. If a proposed project might have an environmental impact, the proposal should furnish sufficient information to assist Foundation officials in assessing the essay development programme, environmental consequences of supporting the project. NSF will determine: the adequacy of the information submitted; whether or not additional information is needed; and essay, whether or not an environmental assessment or environmental impact statement will be necessary. Work in foreign countries. Some governments require nonresidents to obtain official approval to carry out investigations within their borders and why schools should have uniforms, coastal waters under their jurisdiction. PIs are responsible for obtaining the required authorizations and for advising NSF that they have been obtained or requested. Advance coordination should minimize disruption of the research. Essay. (See AAG Chapter VI.B.4 and VI.G.3)

Antarctic proposals to any NSF program require operational worksheets by the first Wednesday of June in the year before any proposed fieldwork. See “proposals with fieldwork” in Chapter V.A of Antarctic Research. Essays On Reality Shows. Special budget considerations also apply. See Chapter V.B of Antarctic Research. Research in research a location designated, or eligible to be designated, a registered historic place. (See AAG Chapter VI.K). Where applicable, the television shows, box for “Historic Places” must be checked on the proposal Cover Sheet. Research involving field experiments with genetically engineered organisms. (See AAG Chapter VI.B.2) Documentation regarding research involving the use of research, human subjects, hazardous materials, vertebrate animals, or endangered species. (See AAG Chapter VI.B. and why schools should have uniforms essay, GPG Chapter II.D.5 and II.D.6).

Projects that involve technology utilization/transfer activities, that require a management plan, or that involve special reports or final products. Please note that some program solicitations provide specific guidance on preparation and inclusion of archimedes research, management plans in proposals submitted to NSF. Special components in new proposals or in requests for supplements, such as Facilitation Awards for Scientists and Engineers with Disabilities (FASED), Research Opportunity Awards (ROAs) or Research Experiences for Undergraduates (REUs). (See GPG Chapter II.D.2 for information on FASED, and for the other programs identified, consult the relevant program solicitation.) Research in Undergraduate Institutions . (See RUI program solicitation for information.) In addition, the supplementary documentation section should alert NSF officials to unusual circumstances that require special handling, including, for example, proprietary or other privileged information in the proposal, matters affecting individual privacy, required intergovernmental review under E.O. 12372 (Intergovernmental Review of Federal Programs) for activities that directly affect State or local governments, or possible national security implications. Proposers are reminded that, unless required by a specific program solicitation, letters of support should not be submitted as they are not a standard component of an NSF proposal, and, if included, a reviewer is under no obligation to review these materials. Letters of support submitted in response to a program solicitation requirement must be unique to the specific proposal submitted and a midsummer, cannot be altered without the author’s explicit prior approval. NSF may return without review proposals that are not consistent with these instructions.

All information necessary for the review of a proposal must be contained in Sections A through I of the proposal. Appendices may not be included unless a deviation has been authorized . GPG Chapter II.A contains further information. D. Special Guidelines. 1. Small Grants for Exploratory Research (SGER) Proposals. Proposals for small-scale, exploratory, high-risk research in the fields of science, engineering and education normally supported by NSF may be submitted to individual programs.

Such research is characterized as: preliminary work on research, untested and novel ideas; ventures into emerging and on service, potentially transformative research ideas; application of new expertise or new approaches to “established” research topics; having a severe urgency with regard to availability of, or access to data, facilities or specialized equipment, including quick-response research on natural or anthropogenic disasters and similar unanticipated events; or. efforts of similar character likely to catalyze rapid and innovative advances. Investigators are strongly encouraged to contact the NSF program(s) most germane to the proposal topic before submitting an SGER proposal. This will facilitate determining whether the proposed work meets the guidelines described above and availability and appropriateness for archimedes, SGER funding, or whether the work is more appropriate for submission as a fully reviewed proposal. SGER proposals are prepared in accordance with the following guidelines. Note the proposal preparation instructions for these types of proposals deviate from the standard proposal preparation instructions contained in this Guide. The project description must be brief (no more than two to five pages) and include clear statements as to why the proposed research should be considered particularly exploratory and high risk, the nature and significance of its potential impact on the field, and why an SGER grant would be a suitable means of supporting the on reality, work. Brief biographical information is required for the PI and co-PI(s) only, and must list no more than five significant publications or other research products. The box for “Small Grant for Exploratory Research” must be checked on the proposal Cover Sheet.

These proposals will be subject to internal NSF merit review only. Renewed funding of SGER awards may be requested only archimedes, through submission of a non-SGER proposal that will be subject to full merit review. The maximum SGER award amount will not exceed $200,000. Although the initial maximum award amount is $200,000, the award amount usually will be substantially less than a given program’s average award amount. The project’s duration will normally be one year, but may be up to a systematic literature description methods two years.

At the discretion of the Program Officer, and research, with the concurrence of the Division Director, a small fraction of especially promising SGER awards may be extended for a maximum of six additional months and/or supplemented with up to an additional $50,000 in funding. The SGER award extensions will be possible for awards of two-year initial duration as well as for those of shorter initial duration. Requests for extensions must be submitted one to two months before the best friend, expiration date of the initial award. A project report and outline of proposed research, not to exceed five pages, must be included. 2. Facilitation Awards for Scientists and Engineers with Disabilities (FASED) As part of its effort to promote full utilization of highly qualified scientists, mathematicians, and engineers, and to develop scientific and technical talent, the Foundation has the following goals: to reduce or remove barriers to participation in research essay research and training by physically disabled individuals by providing special equipment and assistance under awards made by NSF; and. to encourage disabled individuals to pursue careers in science and engineering by stimulating the night's, development and demonstration of special equipment that facilitates their work performance. Individuals with disabilities eligible for facilitation awards include principal investigators, other senior project personnel, and graduate and undergraduate students. Archimedes Essay. The cognizant NSF Program Officer will make decisions regarding what constitutes appropriate support on a case-by-case basis.

The specific nature, purpose, and need for equipment or assistance should be described in sufficient detail in the proposal to permit evaluation by knowledgeable reviewers. There is no separate program for funding of special equipment or assistance. Essay Best Friend For Girls. Requests are made in conjunction with regular competitive proposals, or as a supplemental funding request to an existing NSF award. Specific instructions for each type of request are provided below. a. Requests as part of research essay, a competitive proposal submission.

Funds may be requested to purchase special equipment, modify equipment or provide services required specifically for the work to be undertaken. Requests for funds for equipment or assistance that compensate in a general way for the disabling condition are not permitted. For example, funds may be requested to provide: prosthetic devices to manipulate a particular apparatus; equipment to why schools have persuasive convert sound to visual signals, or vice versa, for a particular experiment; access to a special site or to a mode of archimedes research essay, transportation (except as defined below); a reader or interpreter with special technical competence related to the project; or other special-purpose equipment or assistance needed to conduct a particular project. Night's Dream Themes Essay. Items, however, such as standard wheel chairs, prosthetics, hearing aids, TDD/text-phones, or general readers for the blind would not be supported because the need for archimedes essay, them is not specific to the proposed project. A Midsummer Night's Themes Essay. Similarly, ramps, elevators, or other structural modifications of research facilities are not eligible for direct support under this program. No maximum funding amount has been established for such requests. It is archimedes research essay, expected, however, that the cost (including equipment adaptation and installation) will not be a major component of the total proposed budget for the project. Requests for funds for special equipment or assistance to facilitate the participation of essay, individuals with disabilities should be included in the proposed budget for the project and documented in the budget justification. Essay. The specific nature, purpose and need for such equipment or assistance should be described in why schools have uniforms essay sufficient detail in the Project Description to permit evaluation of the request by knowledgeable reviewers.

b. Archimedes Research Essay. Supplemental funding requests to existing NSF grants. Supplemental funds for a midsummer night's dream, special equipment or assistance to facilitate participation in NSF-supported projects by persons with disabilities may be provided under existing NSF grants. Normally, title is vested in the grantee organization for equipment purchased in conjunction with NSF-supported activities. In accordance with the GC-1), 27 the essay, grantee organization guarantees use of the equipment for the specific project during the period of work funded by the Foundation, and assures its use in essay on my best friend an appropriate manner after project completion. In instances involving special equipment for persons with disabilities, the need for such may be unique to the individual.

In such cases, the grantee organization may elect to transfer title to the individual to assure appropriate use after project completion. Supplemental requests should be submitted electronically by using the ”Supplemental Funding Request” function in FastLane and should include a brief description of the request, a budget and a budget justification. Requests must be submitted at least two months before funds are needed. Funding decisions will be made on the basis of the justification and availability of program funds with any resultant funding provided through a formal amendment of the existing NSF grant. 3. Collaborative Proposal. A collaborative proposal is one in which investigators from two or more organizations wish to collaborate on a unified research project. Collaborative proposals may be submitted to research essay NSF in one of two methods: as a single proposal, in shows which a single award is being requested (with subawards administered by the lead organization); or by simultaneous submission of proposals from different organizations, with each organization requesting a separate award. Research Essay. In either case, the lead organization’s proposal must contain all of the requisite sections as a single package to a systematic review on service description be provided to reviewers (that will happen automatically when procedures below are followed). All collaborative proposals must clearly describe the roles to essay be played by a systematic literature description the other organizations, specify the managerial arrangements, and explain the advantages of the multi-organizational effort within the project description.

PIs are strongly encouraged to contact the research, cognizant NSF Program Officer prior to submission of a collaborative proposal. a. Submission of a collaborative proposal from one organization. The single proposal method allows investigators from two or more organizations who have developed an integrated research project to submit a single, focused proposal. A single investigator bears primary responsibility for the administration of the grant and discussions with NSF, and, at the discretion of the essays television shows, organizations involved, investigators from any of the participating organizations may be designated as co-PIs. Please note, however, that if awarded, a single award would be made to archimedes the submitting organization, with any collaborators listed as subawards. By submission of the essay on rural development, proposal, the organization has determined that the archimedes research essay, proposed activity is essay on my best friend for girls, administratively manageable. Archimedes. NSF may request a revised proposal, however, if it considers that the project is essays on reality, so complex that it will be too difficult to review or administer as presented. (See GPG Chapter II.C.2.g.(vi)(e) for additional instructions on preparation of this type of proposal.) b. Submission of a collaborative proposal from multiple organizations 28.

In many instances, simultaneous submission of proposals that contain the same project description from archimedes research each organization might be appropriate. For these proposals, the project title must begin with the words Collaborative Research:”. The lead organization's submission will include a proposal Cover Sheet, project summary, project description, references cited, biographical sketches, budgets and budget justification, current and essay on my best for girls, pending support, and facilities, equipment and other resources for their organization. Research. Non-lead organization submissions will include all of the above for their organization except the project summary, project description, and references cited which are the same for all collaborating organizations. On Rural Development Programme. FastLane will combine the proposal submission for printing or electronic viewing.

To submit the archimedes research essay, collaborative proposal, the following process must be completed: 29. (i) Each non-lead organization must assign their proposal a proposal PIN. This proposal PIN and have uniforms essay, the temporary proposal ID generated by FastLane when the non-lead proposal is created must be provided to essay the lead organization before the lead organization submits its proposal to essay development NSF. (ii) The lead organization must then enter each non-lead organization(s) proposal PIN and temporary proposal ID into the FastLane lead proposal by using the essay, Link Collaborative Proposals option found on the FastLane Form Preparation screen. Given that such separately submitted proposals constitute a “single” proposal submission to NSF, it is imperative that the literature review description methods, proposals be submitted within a reasonable timeframe to one another. Failure to submit all components of the collaborative proposal on a timely basis may impact the research essay, review of the proposal. 4. Proposals for Equipment.

Proposals for specialized equipment may be submitted by an organization for: (1) individual investigators; (2) groups of investigators within the same department; (3) several departments; (4) organization(s) participating in essay on my friend for girls a collaborative or joint arrangement; (5) any components of an organization; or (6) a region. Archimedes Research. One individual must be designated as PI. Essays Television Shows. Investigators may be working in closely related areas or their research may be multidisciplinary. Instrumentation and equipment proposals must follow the standard proposal preparation guidelines contained in archimedes research essay this Guide. Each potential major user must describe the project(s) for which the equipment will be used. These descriptions must be succinct, not necessarily as detailed as in why schools have persuasive an individual research proposal, and research essay, must emphasize the night's dream themes essay, intrinsic merit of the activity and the importance of the equipment to it. A brief summary will suffice for auxiliary users.

Equipment to be purchased, modified or constructed must be described in sufficient detail to allow comparison of archimedes research, its capabilities with the jobstreet, needs of the proposed activities. Equipment proposals also must describe comparable equipment already at archimedes essay the proposing organization(s) and explain why it cannot be used. This includes comparable government-owned equipment that is on-site. Equipment proposals must discuss arrangements for on reality television shows, acquisition, maintenance and operation, including: biographical sketch of the person(s) who will have overall responsibility for research essay, maintenance and operation and a brief statement of qualifications, if not obvious; description of the best, physical facility, including floor plans or other appropriate information, where the equipment will be located; statement of why the equipment is severable or non-severable from the physical facility; annual budget for operation and archimedes research, maintenance of the proposed equipment, indicating source of essay, funds, and particularly related equipment; and. brief description of archimedes essay, other support services available and the annual budget for their operation, maintenance and administration. Equipment proposals must include the information described above within the 15-page project description. These proposals normally compete with proposals for research or education projects.

30. 5. Proposals Involving Vertebrate Animals. a. Any project proposing use of vertebrate animals for research or education shall comply with the Animal Welfare Act [7 U.S.C. 2131 et seq.] and the regulations promulgated thereunder by the Secretary of Agriculture [9 CFR 1.1-4.11] pertaining to the humane care, handling, and treatment of television, vertebrate animals held or used for research, teaching or other activities supported by Federal awards. In accordance with these requirements, proposed projects involving use of any vertebrate animal for research or education must be approved by the submitting organization's Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC) before an award can be made. For this approval to be accepted by NSF, the organization must have a current Public Health Service (PHS) Approved Assurance. b. Archimedes Essay. Sufficient information must be provided within the 15-page project description to enable reviewers to evaluate the choice of a systematic review on service description, species, number of research essay, animals to be used, and on rural programme, any necessary exposure of animals to discomfort, pain, or injury.

c. Research facilities subject to the Animal Welfare Act using or intending to use live animals in research and who receive Federal funding are required to register the facility with the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS), US Department of Agriculture. Research Essay. A current listing of themes, licensed animal dealers may also be obtained from APHIS. The location of the nearest APHIS Regional Office, as well as information concerning this and other APHIS activities, may be obtained at d. Projects involving the care or use of essay, vertebrate animals at television shows a foreign organization or foreign field site also require approval of research protocols by the US grantee’s IACUC. If the project is to be funded through an award to a foreign organization or through an research essay, individual fellowship award that will support activities at a foreign organization, NSF will require a statement of compliance that the activities will be conducted in should have uniforms persuasive essay accordance with all applicable laws in the foreign country and archimedes, that the International Guiding Principles for Biomedical Research Involving Animals (see will be followed. e. The following information regarding the best for girls, organization’s intention to utilize vertebrate animals as part of the project should be provided on the NSF Cover Sheet: (1) The box for Vertebrate Animals must be checked on the proposal Cover Sheet if use of vertebrate animals is envisioned. (2) The IACUC approval date (if obtained) must be identified in research essay the space provided.

If IACUC approval has not been obtained prior to submission, the proposer should indicate Pending in the space provided for why schools should have persuasive essay, the approval date. (3) If a date is archimedes essay, provided, the PHS Approved Animal Welfare Assurance Number must be entered in the space provided. f. Essay Development. These same requirements apply to essay awards to essays individuals (fellowships) for activities that involve use of vertebrate animals. If an IACUC approval date is entered on the Cover Sheet, a copy of the approval letter from the IACUC with Assurance Number and organizational signature should be included in the Supplementary Documentation section of the proposal or sent directly to the cognizant program. See also AAG Chapter VI.B.3 for essay, additional information on essays shows, the administration of awards that utilize vertebrate animals. 6. Proposals Involving Human Subjects. a. Projects involving research with human subjects must ensure that subjects are protected from research risks in conformance with the relevant federal policy known as the Common Rule ( Federal Policy for the Protection of Human Subjects , 45 CFR 690). All projects involving human subjects must either (1) have approval from the organization's Institutional Review Board (IRB) before issuance of an NSF award or, (2) must affirm that the IRB or an appropriate knowledgeable authority previously designated by the organization (not the Principal Investigator) has declared the research exempt from IRB review, in accordance with the applicable subsection, as established in section 101(b) of the Common Rule.

b. The following information regarding the organization’s intention to essay utilize human subjects as part of the project should be provided on the NSF Cover Sheet: (1) The box for Human Subjects must be checked on the proposal Cover Sheet if use of human subjects is envisioned. (2) If human subject activities are exempt from literature methods IRB review, provide the essay, exemption number(s) corresponding to one or more of the jobstreet, exemption categories. The six categories of research that qualify for exemption from coverage by the regulations are defined in the Common Rule for Protection of Human Subjects. (3) If the research is not designated as exempt, the archimedes research, IRB approval date should be identified in the space provided. This date, at minimum, should cover the period at which the project is initiated. If IRB approval has not been obtained prior to submission, the proposer should indicate Pending in essay best the space provided for research essay, the approval date. (4) Enter the Federal Wide Assurance (FWA) Number that the proposer has on file with the Office of Human Research Protections, if available. See also AAG Chapter VI.B.1 for additional information on the administration of awards that utilize human subjects. 7. Proposals for Conferences, Symposia and Workshops. NSF supports conferences, symposia and essays on reality shows, workshops in special areas of science and engineering that bring experts together to discuss recent research or education findings or to essay expose other researchers or students to new research and education techniques.

NSF encourages the convening in the US of major international conferences, symposia and workshops. Conferences will be supported only if equivalent results cannot be obtained at regular meetings of professional societies. Jobstreet. Although requests for support of conferences, symposia and workshops ordinarily originate with educational institutions or scientific and engineering societies, they also may come from other groups. Shared support by archimedes essay several Federal agencies, States or private organizations is encouraged. Because proceedings of such conferences normally should be published in essay on rural professional journals, requests for support may include publication costs. Proposals for conferences, symposia and workshops should generally be made at least a year in advance of the scheduled date.

Conferences or meetings, including the facilities in which they are held, funded in whole or in archimedes research essay part with NSF funds, must be accessible to participants with disabilities. A conference, symposium or workshop proposal 31 (that complies with the page and font size instructions in GPG Chapter II.B) must contain the elements identified below. Note the proposal preparation instructions for these types of proposals deviate from the standard proposal preparation instructions contained in this Guide. A statement of the objectives of the review on service description, project (summarized in one page or less); A statement of the archimedes essay, need for such a gathering and a list of topics; A listing of recent meetings on the same subject, including dates and review methods, locations; The names of the chairperson and archimedes essay, members of literature review methods, organizing committees and archimedes research, their organizational affiliations; Information on essays on reality television, the location and probable date(s) of the meeting and archimedes research essay, the method of announcement or invitation;

A statement of how the meeting will be organized and conducted, how the results of the meeting will be disseminated and how the meeting will contribute to the enhancement and improvement of scientific, engineering and/or educational activities; A plan for recruitment of and support for speakers and why schools persuasive, other attendees, that includes participation of groups underrepresented in science and engineering (e.g., underrepresented minorities, women, and persons with disabilities); An estimated total budget for research, the conference, together with an itemized statement of the amount of support requested from NSF (the NSF budget may include participant support for transportation (when appropriate), per diem costs, stipends, publication and other conference-related costs. (Note: participant support costs must be excluded from the indirect cost base.) See GPG Chapter II.C.2g(v); and. The support requested or available from other Federal agencies and other sources. (GPG Chapter II.C.2.h should be consulted to prepare this portion of the proposal.) For additional coverage on allowability of costs associated with meetings and conferences, proposers should consult AAG Chapter V.C.5.

8. Essay Friend For Girls. Proposals to Support International Travel. Proposals for travel support for US participation in international scientific and engineering meetings held abroad are handled by the NSF organizational unit with program responsibility for the area of interest. Group travel awards are encouraged as the archimedes, primary means of support for international travel. A university, professional society or other non-profit organization may apply for essays television, funds to enable it to coordinate and support US participation in research essay one or more international scientific meeting(s) abroad. Proposals submitted for this purpose should address the essays shows, same items as those indicated for essay, conferences, symposia, and workshops (see Section 7 above), with particular attention to plans for composition and recruitment of the travel group.

Information on planned speakers should be provided where available from the conference organizer. Group travel proposals may request support only for the international travel costs of the proposed activity. On Reality Television Shows. However, in addition, group travel proposals also may include as compensation for the grantee, a flat rate of $50 per traveler for general administrative costs of archimedes essay, preparing announcements, evaluating proposals and handling travel arrangements customarily associated with this type of project. (See AAG Chapter VI.G.5) Group travel grantees are required to retain supporting documentation that funds were spent in accordance with the original intent of the proposal. Such documentation may be required in final reports and is subject to audit. 9. Proposals for Doctoral Dissertation Research. NSF awards grants in support of doctoral dissertation research in some disciplines, primarily field research in the environmental, behavioral and social sciences.

Support may be sought through those disciplinary programs and, in cases involving research abroad, through the Office of International Science and Engineering. The thesis advisor or concerned faculty member submits proposals on behalf of the graduate student. Further information can be obtained from the cognizant program office. Deadlines for these programs vary by Directorate. Consult the NSF website for dream themes, additional information. 10. Support for essay, Development of NSF Centers. NSF provides support for a variety of individual Centers and Centers programs that contribute to the Foundation's vision as outlined in jobstreet resume the NSF Strategic Plan. Centers exploit opportunities in science, engineering and technology in archimedes which the complexity of the research problem(s) or the resources needed to on my for girls solve the(se) problem(s) require the archimedes, advantages of scope, scale, change, duration, equipment, facilities, and students that can only be provided by an academic research center. They focus on investigations at the frontiers of knowledge not normally attainable through individual investigations, at the interfaces of disciplines and/or by incorporating fresh approaches to the core of disciplines.

Centers focus on integrative learning and discovery and demonstrate leadership in broadening participation through focused investments in a diverse set of partner institutions and individuals. In doing so, they draw upon, and contribute to, the on service description methods, development of the Nation's full intellectual talent. Most Center awards are limited to a maximum duration of ten years and are often subject to mid-course external merit review. Proposers interested in archimedes essay learning more about current or future NSF Centers are encouraged to contact the jobstreet resume, appropriate disciplinary Program Officer. 11. Support for Development of archimedes research, Major Facilities and Equipment. As an integral part of its stewardship of the science and engineering infrastructure of the resume, country, NSF provides support for Major Research Equipment and essay, Facilities construction.

NSF depends on the research communities to provide input for the planning, development, and resume, implementation of Large Facility Projects. This normally occurs through National Academy of Science studies, community workshop reports, professional society activities, and many other methods to ensure community input funded by interested NSF programs on the basis of merit-reviewed proposals. Archimedes Essay. These efforts also can include engineering studies, ad hoc workshops, and research projects related to the development of new technologies. Proposers are strongly encouraged to contact the appropriate disciplinary program officer to discuss potential funding and mechanisms in advance of a midsummer night's, proposal submission. Exhibit II-1: Proposal Preparation Checklist. It is imperative that all proposals conform to archimedes essay the proposal preparation and submission instructions specified in resume this Guide. Proposals also must comply with NSF font, spacing and margin requirements. Research. The guidelines specified in GPG Chapter II.B establish minimum requirements, however, readability is of utmost importance and should take precedence in should selection of an appropriate font. Essay. Conformance with all preparation and submission instructions is required and will be strictly enforced unless a deviation has been approved in advance of proposal submission. NSF may return without review proposals that are not consistent with these instructions.

See GPG Chapter IV.B for why schools have uniforms, additional information. Prior to electronic submission, it is strongly recommended that an administrative review be conducted to ensure that proposals comply with the instructions, in the format specified. This checklist is not intended to be an all-inclusive repetition of the required proposal contents and associated proposal preparation guidelines. Archimedes Essay. It is, however, meant to highlight certain critical items so they will not be overlooked when the proposal is prepared. [ ] Proposal is literature description, responsive to archimedes research essay the program announcement/solicitation or to the GPG. [ ] If a proposal has been previously declined and is being resubmitted, proposal has been revised to take into why schools persuasive, account the major comments from the prior NSF review. [ ] Proposed work is appropriate for funding by NSF, and is not a duplicate of, or substantially similar to, a proposal already under consideration by NSF from the same submitter. [ ] Single Copy Documents: [ ] Information about Principal Investigators/Project Directors (except for the required information regarding current or previous Federal research support and archimedes, the name(s) of the PI/co-PI, submission of the information is voluntary). [ ] Authorization to Deviate from a midsummer night's themes NSF Proposal Preparation Requirements (if applicable). [ ] List of essay, Suggested Reviewers, or Reviewers Not to Include (optional).

[ ] Proprietary or Privileged Information Statement (if applicable). [ ] Proposal Certifications (submitted by the Authorized Organizational Representative within 5 working days following the electronic submission of the proposal). (See GPG Chapter II.C.1.e for on rural development, a complete listing of proposal certifications.) [ ] SF LLL, Disclosure of Lobbying Activities (if applicable). (One copy only, scanned as a single copy document.) [ ] Program Announcement/Solicitation No./Closing Date (If the proposal is not submitted in response to a specific program announcement/solicitation, proposers must enter NSF Grant Proposal Guide.) [ ] Specific NSF program(s) identified (if known). [ ] For renewal proposal, previous award number entered. [ ] Related preliminary proposal number entered (if applicable). [ ] Check Appropriate Box(es), and provide requisite information, if the proposal includes any of the archimedes research essay, items identified. Note in literature review on service methods particular, proposals that include use of human subjects or vertebrate animals require additional information to be submitted with these types of proposals. Note limitation of archimedes, one page, and the requirement that both merit review criteria be separately addressed within the body of the essays television, Summary. [ ] Note limitation of archimedes essay, 15 pages.

[ ] Merit Review Criteria: Ensure both merit review criteria are described as an integral part of the narrative 32. [ ] Inclusion of Universal Resource Locators (URLs): PIs are advised that the Project Description must be self-contained and are cautioned that URLs (Internet addresses) that provide information necessary to the review of the proposal should not be used because reviewers are not obligated to view such sites. [ ] Results from Prior NSF Support: Required only for PIs and co-PIs who have received NSF support within the last 5 years. [ ] Human-resource information: Required for a midsummer essay, renewal proposals from academic institutions only. [ ] No page limitation, however, this section must include bibliographic citations only and must not be used to provide parenthetical information outside of the 15-page Project Description. Each reference must be in the specified format. [ ] Note limitation of 2 pages per individual; required for all senior project personnel.

The required information must be provided in research the order and format specified. [ ] Proposal Budget: (cumulative and annual) [ ] Budget Justification (Note limitation of 3 pages per proposal.) [ ] Current and Pending Support: Required for all senior project personnel. [ ] Facilities, Equipment and Other Resources. [ ] Special Information and a midsummer dream, Supplementary Documentation: [ ] See GPG Chapter II.C.2.j for the types of information appropriate for research essay, submission in development programme this section, as required. [ ] Any additional items specified in a relevant program solicitation. [ ] Note that GPG Chapter II.D contains special proposal preparation instructions for archimedes research, certain types of proposals. Exhibit II-2: Potentially Disqualifying Conflicts of Interest. Unless a waiver has been granted by NSF, a reviewer cannot review a proposal if: the reviewer, the reviewer’s spouse, minor child, or business partner; the organization where the reviewer is employed, has an arrangement for future employment or is negotiating for should uniforms persuasive essay, employment; or. the organization where the reviewer is an officer, director, trustee, or partner, has a financial interest in the outcome of the archimedes research, proposal. Unless a waiver has been granted by NSF, a potential reviewer also may be barred from reviewing a proposal, if it involves individuals with whom he/she has a personal relationship, such as a close relative, current or former collaborator, or former thesis student/advisor. Unless a waiver has been granted by NSF, a disqualifying conflict may exist, if a proposal involves an institution or other entity with which the potential reviewer has a connection.

Such potentially disqualifying connections include: a reviewer’s recent former employer; an organization in which the reviewer is an active participant; an institution at which the reviewer is currently enrolled as a student, or at which he/she serves as a visiting committee member; or. an entity with which the reviewer has or seeks some other business or financial relationship (including receipt of an honorarium.) Exhibit II-3: Drug-Free Workplace Certification. Instructions for Certification. By electronically signing the NSF proposal Cover Sheet and submitting this proposal, the grantee is providing the certifications set out below. The certification set out essays below is a material representation of research essay, fact upon which reliance was placed when the agency determined to award the grant. Should Essay. If it is later determined that the grantee knowingly rendered a false certification, or otherwise violates the requirements of the Drug-Free Workplace Act, the agency, in addition to research any other remedies available to the Federal Government, may take action authorized under the Drug-Free Workplace Act.

For grantees other than individuals, Alternate I applies. For grantees who are individuals, Alternate II applies. Certification Regarding Drug-Free Workplace Requirements. Alternate I (Grantees Other Than Individuals) The grantee certifies that it will or will continue to provide a drug-free workplace by: (a) Publishing a statement notifying employees that the unlawful manufacture, distribution, dispensing, possession or use of a controlled substance is jobstreet resume, prohibited in the grantee’s workplace and specifying the actions that will be taken against employees for violation of such prohibition; (b) Establishing an archimedes research, ongoing drug-free awareness program to inform employees about television, -- (1) The dangers of drug abuse in the workplace; (2) The grantee’s policy of maintaining a drug-free workplace; (3) Any available drug counseling, rehabilitation and employee assistance programs; and.

(4) The penalties that may be imposed upon employees for drug abuse violations occurring in the workplace; (c) Making it a requirement that each employee to be engaged in the performance of the research essay, grant be given a copy of the statement required by paragraph (a); (d) Notifying the employee in the statement required by essays television shows paragraph (a) that, as a condition of employment under the grant, the employee will -- (1) Abide by the terms of the archimedes, statement; and. (2) Notify the essays on reality television shows, employer in writing of his or her conviction for a violation of a criminal drug statute occurring in the workplace, no later than five calendar days after such conviction; (e) Notifying the agency in writing, within 10 calendar days after receiving notice under subparagraph (d)(2) from an employee or otherwise receiving actual notice of such conviction. Employers of convicted employees must provide notice, including position title, to research essay every grant officer or other designee on essays on reality, whose grant activity the convicted employee was working, unless the archimedes research essay, Federal agency has designated a central point for the receipt of such notices. Notice shall include the identification number(s) of each affected grant; (f) Taking one of the following actions, within 30 calendar days of receiving notice under subparagraph (d)(2), with respect to any employee who is so convicted-- (1) Taking appropriate personnel action against such an employee, up to essay best and including termination, consistent with the requirements of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973, as amended; or. (2) Requiring such employee to participate satisfactorily in a drug abuse assistance or rehabilitation program approved for such purposes by a Federal, State, or local health, law enforcement, or other appropriate agency; (g) Making a good faith effort to research continue to resume maintain a drug-free workplace through implementation of paragraphs (a), (b), (c), (d), (e) and (f). Alternate II (Grantees Who Are Individuals) (a) The grantee certifies that, as a condition of the grant, he or she will not engage in the unlawful manufacture, distribution, dispensing, possession or use of a controlled substance in archimedes conducting any activity with the grant. (b) If convicted of a criminal drug offense resulting from a violation occurring during the conduct of any grant activity, he or she will report the conviction, in a systematic review description writing, within 10 calendar days of the conviction, to every grant officer or other designee, unless the Federal agency designates a central point for research, the receipt of such notices. When notice is made to a midsummer dream themes such a central point, it shall include the archimedes essay, identification number(s) of each affected grant. For NSF, grantee notification should be made to the Cost Analysis Audit Resolution Branch, Division of Institution Award Support, NSF, Arlington, VA 22230. Exhibit II-4: Debarment and Suspension Certification.

Instruction on a midsummer night's, Certification Regarding Debarment and Suspension. By electronically signing and submitting this proposal, the prospective primary participant is archimedes research, providing the certification set out below. The inability of a person to a systematic literature methods provide the certification required below will not necessarily result in archimedes essay denial of why schools, participation in this covered transaction. The prospective participant shall submit an essay, explanation of why it cannot provide the certification set out below. The certification or explanation will be considered in connection with the department or agency's determination whether to enter into this transaction. However, failure of the prospective primary participant to furnish a certification or an explanation shall disqualify such person from participation in this transaction. The certification in a midsummer dream this clause is any material representation of fact upon research, which reliance was placed when the department or agency determined to enter into this transaction.

If it is later determined that the essays television shows, prospective primary participant knowingly rendered an erroneous certification, in addition to other remedies available to the Federal Government, the department or agency may terminate this transaction for cause or default. The prospective primary participant shall provide immediate written notice to the department or agency to whom this proposal is submitted if at any time the prospective primary participant learns that its certification was erroneous when submitted or has become erroneous by archimedes essay reason of changed circumstances. The terms covered transaction, debarred, suspended, ineligible, lower tier covered transaction, participant, person, primary covered transaction, principal, proposal, and voluntarily excluded, as used in this clause, have the meanings set out in the Definitions and Coverage sections of the rules implementing Executive Order 12549. You may contact the department or agency to which this proposal is being submitted for assistance in obtaining a copy of those regulations. The prospective primary participant agrees by on reality television shows submitting this proposal that, should the essay, proposed covered transaction be entered into, it shall not knowingly enter into any lower tier covered transaction with a person who is themes, debarred, suspended, declared ineligible, or voluntarily excluded from participation in this covered transaction, unless authorized by the department or agency entering into this transaction.

The prospective primary participant further agrees by essay submitting this proposal that it will include the essay programme, clause titled Certification Regarding Debarment, Suspension, Ineligibility and archimedes research essay, Voluntary Exclusion - Lower Tier Covered Transaction, provided by the department or agency entering into this covered transaction, without modification, in all lower tier covered transactions. A participant in a covered transaction may rely upon a certification of a prospective participant in a lower tier covered transaction that it is not debarred, suspended, ineligible, or voluntarily excluded from the covered transaction, unless it knows that the certification is night's dream themes essay, erroneous. A participant may decide the method and frequency by which it determines the eligibility of its principals. Each participant may, but is not required to, check the Nonprocurement List. Nothing contained in the foregoing shall be construed to require establishment of a system of records in order to render in good faith the certification required by this clause. The knowledge and information of a participant is not required to exceed that which is normally possessed by a prudent person in the ordinary course of business dealings. Except for transactions authorized under paragraph 6 of these instructions, if a participant in a covered transaction knowingly enters into a lower tier covered transaction with a person who is suspended, debarred, ineligible, or voluntarily excluded from archimedes essay participation in essay on my best for girls this transaction, in research addition to other remedies available to jobstreet resume the Federal Government, the research essay, department or agency may terminate this transaction for cause or default. (1) The prospective primary participant certifies to the best of its knowledge and belief, that it and its principals: (a) Are not presently debarred, suspended, proposed for debarment, declared ineligible, or voluntarily excluded from development programme a covered transaction by any Federal department or agency; (b) Have not within a three-year period preceding this proposal been convicted of or had a civil judgment rendered against research essay, them for commission of a systematic literature review description, fraud or a criminal offense in connection with obtaining, attempting to obtain, or performing a public (Federal, State or local) transaction or contract under a public transaction; violation of Federal or State antitrust statutes or commission of embezzlement, theft, forgery, bribery, falsification or destruction of records, making false statements, or receiving stolen property; (c) Are not presently indicted for or otherwise criminally or civilly charged by a governmental entity (Federal, State or local) with commission of any of the archimedes research essay, offenses enumerated in paragraph (1)(b) of this certification; and (d) Have not within a three-year period preceding this application/proposal had one or more public transactions (Federal, State or local) terminated for cause or default. (2) Where the prospective primary participant is unable to certify to any of the statements in this certification, such prospective participant shall include an explanation with this proposal. Exhibit II-5: Lobbying Certification. Instructions on Certification Regarding Lobbying.

This certification is required for an award of a Federal contract, grant or cooperative agreement exceeding $100,000 and for an award of a Federal loan or a commitment providing for the United States to insure or guarantee a loan exceeding $150,000. The Certification for Contracts, Grants, Loans and Cooperative Agreements also is television shows, included in full text on the FastLane submission screen. Certification for Contracts, Grants, Loans and Cooperative Agreements. The undersigned certifies, to the best of his or her knowledge and belief, that: (1) No Federal appropriated funds have been paid or will be paid, by or on behalf of the undersigned, to research any person for influencing or attempting to influence an essay on my, officer or employee of any agency, a Member of Congress, an officer or employee of research essay, Congress, or an employee of a Member of Congress in connection with the essay, awarding of any federal contract, the making of any Federal grant, the making of any Federal loan, the entering into of any cooperative agreement, and the extension, continuation, renewal, amendment, or modification of any Federal contract, grant, loan, or cooperative agreement. (2) If any funds other than Federal appropriated funds have been paid or will be paid to any person for influencing or attempting to influence an archimedes essay, officer or employee of any agency, a Member of Congress, an officer or employee of why schools should have uniforms persuasive essay, Congress, or an archimedes research essay, employee of a Member of Congress in a systematic methods connection with this Federal contract, grant, loan, or cooperative agreement, the undersigned shall complete and submit Standard Form LLL, “Disclosure of Lobbying Activities,” in accordance with its instructions.

(3) The undersigned shall require that the research essay, language of this certification be included in the award documents for all subawards at all tiers including subcontracts, subgrants, and contracts under grants, loans, and cooperative agreements and on my best friend, that all subrecipients shall certify and disclose accordingly. This certification is a material representation of fact upon which reliance was placed when this transaction was made or entered into. Submission of this certification is a prerequisite for research essay, making or entering into this transaction imposed by Section 1352, Title 31, U.S. Code. Any person who fails to file the required certification shall be subject to a civil penalty of not less than $10,000 and not more than $100,000 for each such failure. Exhibit II-6: Nondiscrimination Certification.

Instructions for Nondiscrimination Certification. In accordance with NSF policy, a proposal for NSF funding must by accompanied by a systematic on service the nondiscrimination certification set out archimedes research essay below. By electronically signing and submitting this proposal, the proposer is providing the requisite certification. The proposer shall provide immediate notice to the Foundation if at any time the proposer learns that its certification was erroneous when submitted, or has become erroneous by essay development programme reason of changed circumstances. Certification of Compliance with National Science Foundation Nondiscrimination Regulations and Policies. By electronically signing the archimedes, proposal, the Authorized Organizational Representative hereby certifies that the organization will comply with Title VI of the resume, Civil Rights Act of 1964 (42 USC § 2000d), Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972 (20 USC §§ 1681 et seq.), the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 (29 USC § 794), the Age Discrimination Act of 1975 (42 USC §§ 6101 et seq.) and all regulations and archimedes research, policies issued by NSF pursuant to essays these statutes. To that end, in accordance with the above-referenced nondiscrimination statutes, and NSF’s implementing regulations and policies, no person in the United States shall, on the ground of race, color, national origin, sex, disability, or age, be excluded from participation in, be denied the research, benefits of, or be otherwise subjected to discrimination under any program or activity for which the Proposer receives Federal financial assistance from the Foundation; and HEREBY CERTIFIES THAT it will immediately take any measures necessary to effectuate this agreement. If any real property or structure thereon is provided or improved with the aid of Federal financial assistance extended to why schools have persuasive essay the Proposer by the Foundation, this Certification shall obligate the research essay, Proposer, or in the case of any transfer of such property, the jobstreet, transferee, for the period during which the real property or structure is used for a purpose for which the Federal financial assistance is extended or for research, another purpose involving the provision of essays television shows, similar services or benefits.

If any personal property is so provided, this Certification shall obligate the Proposer for the period during which it retains ownership or possession of the archimedes essay, property. In all other cases, this Certification shall obligate the Proposer for essays, the period during which the Federal financial assistance is extended to archimedes research essay it by the Foundation. THIS CERTIFICATION is given in consideration of and for the purpose of obtaining any and essay on rural development, all Federal grants, cooperative agreements, loans, contracts, property, discounts or other Federal financial assistance extended after the date hereof to the Proposer by the Foundation, including installment payments after such date on account of applications for Federal financial assistance which were approved before such date. The Proposer recognizes and agrees that such Federal financial assistance will be extended in reliance on the representations and agreements made in this Certification, and that the United States shall have the right to seek judicial enforcement of this Certification. This Certification is binding on the Proposer, its successors, transferees, and archimedes essay, assignees. Exhibit II-7: Definitions of Categories of Personnel. The personnel categories listed on parts A and B of the Proposal Budget are defined as follows: A. Senior Personnel. 1. (co) Principal Investigator(s) -- the individual(s) designated by the grantee and essay best for girls, approved by archimedes NSF who will be responsible for essay best for girls, the scientific or technical direction of the project.

If more than one, the first one listed will have primary responsibility for the project and the submission of research, reports. 2. Faculty Associate (faculty member) -- an individual other than the on reality, Principal Investigator(s) considered by the performing institution to be a member of its faculty or who holds an appointment as a faculty member at another institution, and archimedes essay, who will participate in the project being supported. B. Other Personnel. 1. Postdoctoral Scholar -- An individual who has received a doctoral degree (or equivalent) and is engaged in a temporary and defined period of mentored advanced training to enhance the on reality television, professional skills and research independence needed to pursue his or her chosen career path. Postdoctoral scholars not identified under Senior Personnel above should be listed as Other Personnel. 2. Other Professional -- a person who may or may not hold a doctoral degree or its equivalent, who is considered a professional and is not reported as a Principal Investigator, faculty associate, postdoctoral scholar or student. Examples of persons included in this category are doctoral associates not reported under B1, professional technicians, physicians, veterinarians, system experts, computer programmers and design engineers. 3. Graduate Student (research assistant) -- a part-time or full-time student working on the project in archimedes research a research capacity who holds at least a bachelor’s degree and is enrolled in a degree program leading to television an advanced degree. 4. Undergraduate Student -- a student who is research, enrolled in a degree program (part-time or full-time) leading to a bachelor’s or associate’s degree. 5. Jobstreet Resume. 6. These categories include persons working on the project in a non-research capacity, such as secretaries, clerk-typists, draftsmen, animal caretakers, electricians and custodial personnel regardless of whether they hold a degree or are involved in archimedes degree work.

Any personnel category for which NSF funds are requested must indicate, in a midsummer the parentheses provided on archimedes research, the Proposal Budget, the number of persons expected to receive some support from those funds and, where called for in the friend for girls, budget format, person-months to the nearest tenth. 9 Requests for approval of research, a deviation from NSF’s electronic submission requirement (including both FastLane and must be forwarded to the cognizant NSF program for review and approval prior to submission of the paper proposal. Back to Text. 10 In addition to the typefaces identified above, Macintosh users also may use Helvetica and Palatino typefaces.Back to Text. 11 Further instructions for jobstreet, this process are available electronically on the FastLane website. Back to archimedes essay Text. 12 Detailed instructions for completion of this process are available electronically on the FastLane website. Back to jobstreet Text.

13 For consistency with the archimedes research, Department of night's essay, Health and Human Services conflict of interest policy, in research essay lieu of organization, NSF is using the term institution which includes all categories of proposers. Back to Text. 14 Detailed instructions submission of the SF LLL are available on the FastLane website. Back to essay best for girls Text. 16 Requests for approval of a deviation from NSF’s electronic submission requirement must be forwarded to the cognizant NSF program for review and essay, approval prior to submission of the literature review on service, paper proposal. Back to Text. 17 If the proposal includes use of Vertebrate Animals, supplemental information is required. See GPG Chapter II.D.5 for additional information.Back to Text.

18 If the proposal includes use of Human Subjects, supplemental information is archimedes research, required. See GPG Chapter II.D.6 for a systematic literature review on service description, additional information. Back to Text. 19 If the proposer has a website address readily available, that information should be included in the citation, as stated above. It is not NSF's intent, however, to place an undue burden on proposers to search for the URL of research essay, every referenced publication. Therefore, inclusion of a website address is optional. A proposal that includes reference citation(s) that do not specify a URL address is not considered to be in violation of NSF proposal preparation guidelines and the proposal will still be reviewed.Back to Text. 20 Detailed instructions for submission of literature on service methods, confidential budgetary information are available on the FastLane website.

Back to Text. 21 See also the NSF Grant General Conditions (GC-1) for additional information on use of archimedes essay, US-Flag Air Carriers at On My. Back to Text. 22 Proposers are advised that the GC-1 requires the grantee to obtain written authorization from the cognizant NSF program officer prior to the reallocation of funds budgeted for participant support.Back to Text. 23 For all funds awarded prior to March 15, 2006, payment for archimedes, a consultant’s services may not exceed the daily equivalent of the then current maximum rate paid to an Executive Schedule Level IV Federal employee (exclusive of indirect cost, travel, per diem, clerical services, fringe benefits and review description methods, supplies).Back to Text. 24 The term subaward also includes contracts, subcontracts and other arrangements. Back to Text. 25 See AAG Chapter V.C.4 for specific instructions and requirements regarding the allowability of relocation costs under NSF awards. Back to Text.

26 If proposed, the essay, estimated value of any in-kind contributions should be included on Line M. An explanation of the essay programme, source, nature, amount and archimedes research essay, availability of literature review on service methods, any proposed cost sharing also must be provided in the budget justification. Section .23 of OMB Circular A-110 describes criteria and procedures for the allowability of cash and essay, in-kind contributions in essays on reality shows satisfying cost sharing and archimedes research essay, matching requirements.Back to Text. 28 Separately submitted collaborative proposals must be submitted via FastLane as does not currently support this type of functionality.Back to Text. 29 Detailed instructions for the electronic preparation and essay on my, submission of collaborative proposals are available on the FastLane website at archimedes essay 30 See AAG Chapter IV.D for additional information on the administration of equipment awards.

Back to Text. 31 Costs associated with conferences, symposia, workshops or other meetings supported by an NSF grant must be specifically and essay on rural development, clearly identified in the proposed scope of work and archimedes essay, budget, and approved by NSF. Essay Development Programme. Additional information on the charging of conference, symposia and archimedes, workshops is contained in AAG Chapter V.C.5. Back to a midsummer themes essay Text. 32 Examples illustrating activities likely to demonstrate broader impacts are available electronically on the NSF website at Back to Text.

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This Ghostwriter Takes Us Inside Hip-Hop's Secret Society. Look into the world of research essay, a hip-hop ghostwriter. When Meek Mill accused Drake of enlisting writers to essay help pen his rhymes this week, the Philly MC left hip-hop fans with more questions than answers. Then, when Hot 97's DJ Funkmaster Flex played an alleged reference track for Drake's 10 Bands on the radio Wednesday, things got even crazier. Rappers with writers is nothing new; artists like Dr. Research Essay! Dre, Diddy and Kanye West are all known to have used writers in varying degrees. Still, for an MC like Drake, who is widely regarded as one of the game's top lyricists, the accusations are shocking and could be damaging. Most fans don't know the jobstreet, politics of rappers with writers, and that's because in hip-hop a ghostwriter is supposed to remain quiet.

They very rarely speak out archimedes research, -- until now. On Thursday, I sat with a well-known rapper, who moonlights as a ghostwriter for multiplatinum, Grammy Award-winning and literature description iconic hip-hop artists. This writer, who we will refer to as Aaron (in order to research essay protect his identity), walks us through the process of friend, ghostwriting and explains why hip-hop fans are freaking out about the new Drake rumors. (MTV News debates what these Drake allegations really mean) MTV: How does someone go about becoming a ghostwriter?

Aaron: The thing about ghostwriting is it's extremely tough to get into because the lane is so small and it's such a secret society. So there's the trust factor that a lot of archimedes research essay, people have to have with you, there's people not wanting you to get in. Let's say, if this guy over here is a ghostwriter and best friend y'all are friends, he's probably not going to help you become a ghostwriter and get into that world, because the world is so small and if he does that, then he's potentially taking bread out of his pocket. So it's hard to get in, it's very hard to get in the door. Once you're in, you're kinda in for a while, but getting that first crack is extremely tough. MTV: What is archimedes research it that attracts an on service artist to a writer? What are the attributes that artists look for? Aaron: There's so many ways that it could be played out. You could be an artist that's moving around, selling records, creating a buzz and then the person looking for help may hear you, reach out and come to you. Or it may be vice versa, you may have a connect to a certain artist, a certain rapper, you may have a connect to their AR, their assistant, their management or whatever and you're pitching them records.

You're giving them your stuff or stuff that you whipped up specifically for research, them. There's so many ways that it goes about, but it really becomes a trust factor of literature review, being able to keep all that under the archimedes, rug and then also being able to a systematic review methods get the job done. Research! Most of the a systematic on service methods, time ghostwriters are either artists themselves, or aspiring artists. MTV: Can you break down the archimedes research, difference between the two types of writers? Aaron: You have two different types of people who are ghostwriters. Literature Review On Service! One is the person who is an artist, moving around doing their thing so people are reaching out to them for archimedes research, help.

Or on the other side is somebody who wanted to be an artist their whole life, but they haven't cracked it yet. Persuasive! And a lot of times those become the best writers. To be a writer is one thing, but to actually be an artist, there's a lot of other moving parts. There's the flow, there's diction, there's the look, image, brand and some artists don't have that. Essay! It takes a lot of moving parts to jobstreet resume be a successful artist and if you don't have those parts and you only have a pen, then you can sell that pen to somebody else who has all the parts but no pen.

You can make money and live a life and still be able to archimedes research essay walk to the store and not get harassed. MTV: Once you get tapped by an artist to essay development write, what happens next? Is there an agreement that's signed before you step in research essay the studio? Aaron: I never had an agreement [before writing], so I can't speak on everybody's situation, but to sign an jobstreet resume agreement before you go in would seem very rare. I would assume you'd have to be writing for somebody who's looked at as never having a writer. It would have to archimedes research essay be a Jay Z, and obviously we know Jay isn't getting any help. Jay's written for other people; Jay's been writing for people since 1996.

For the most part it's just a vibe, it's really going in the studio, catching a vibe, building, feeling each other out and just making music. It usually starts with one song and that turns into more. It's like a trial and error. You see how that goes and then you keep going. MTV: Some writers receive writing credit, some do not. It's assumed that being a ghostwriter means that you receive no traditional writing credit. Can you break that down? Aaron: You're still a ghostwriter if you're getting credit, the difference is if it's public knowledge. When you look at a systematic literature description album credits and track one has five or six names on it. The artist, you know his real name, that name may be first.

The second name is the producer's name, so that name is there. Let's say there's a Michael Jackson sample, so you might have Michael Jackson's name there. You might have Quincy Jones' name there, because he produced the research, original Michael Jackson record. So now you got so-and-so rapper, so-and-so producer, M. Essays On Reality Television Shows! Jackson from the sample, Q. Jones from the archimedes research essay, sample and then there's a fifth name and it becomes, Who's that fifth name? And that's when people start doing research and a systematic literature methods trying to figure out who's this fifth name on this record. And that's when you start getting to the bottom of things.

You gotta really read the credits. There's a lot of musicians on research, the record, you may have 10 names, it doesn't mean 10 people wrote the rhymes. I say all that to say, you're still a ghost if your name is in essay on my best for girls the credits. It's still hidden, it's still tucked away, that person isn't doing interviews running around saying, I wrote this and I wrote that. (CyHi the Prynce explains his writing credit on Kanye West's Yeezus ) MTV: Writing doesn't have the same stigma in other genres like RB, but in archimedes hip-hop it's taboo. Why?

Aaron: When you look at RB and you look at pop and all these other genres of jobstreet, music, it's nothing to have writers. I see a lot of people arguing for different artists, saying, Well, Michael Jackson had help with this and archimedes Mary J. Blige had help with that. And Usher had help with that. That's very true, the reason is because in RB and resume pop it's about so much more than what you're saying. What you're saying may be the last piece of the puzzle. It's about vocally, can you hit octaves and ranges. And if it's not dancing, it's playing an instrument. So you take somebody like Alicia Keys, she has to be able to sing, she has to be able to play instruments, and essay then the writing is just the essay best friend for girls, added component -- and we all know Alicia Keys writes -- but if she's not writing a certain song, that's not what she really came there for research, anyway. Jobstreet! She came to sing and play the piano. Usher came to sing and dance, Mary came to sing and occasionally dance.

It's about essay those components. (Dr. Dre's Still D.R.E. was written by a systematic literature, Jay Z) MTV: So what's different about hip-hop? Aaron: The requirements in hip-hop are not about being a dancer, it's not about being able to archimedes essay play the guitar and drums while you're rapping, or even DJ'ing while you're rapping. On Rural! It is literally about what you're saying, that's it. Archimedes Research Essay! And that's why people have such a problem when they find out an artist that they look up to is getting help.

It's like, Wait a minute, all you're supposed to do is jobstreet resume worry about archimedes research what you're saying. I know an RB artist may not have written their song, but I'm not coming to them for essay development, that, I'm coming because their voice is amazing. so it doesn't matter if this guy or that guy wrote the record. With rappers, you're only coming to them because they can rap. So if you're not rapping, what are we doing, why am I here? And that's the tug of archimedes research, war that the on my best friend, older fans understand from a different generation and archimedes essay the newer fans don't get. Of course flow is a big part of it and on reality television shows cadence and archimedes research essay different things like that. 100 percent, but it's very different from hitting nine octaves like Mariah Carey.

(Kanye West plays an early version of Lucifer for Jay Z) MTV: If somebody wrote a hook for on my best friend for girls, a rapper, is that more acceptable? Aaron: Yeah, it's more accepted because it's the hook. The hook is eight bars -- it's really four bars looped up twice, so it's a little more acceptable with that. It's even more accepted when the hook comes with the beat. A lot of times a producer like Kanye West or Pharrell or Swizz Beatz, they'll give you a beat with the hook in place. So if you don't take the research essay, record, they're going pitch that record to somebody else.

That's common knowledge. If you watch Fade to Black the [2004] Jay Z documentary, Kanye was playing all of those beats for on reality, Jay for The Black Album with the hooks. Archimedes Research! The Encore beat was playing and 'Ye was spitting the same hook that you now hear Jay spitting on the record. The Lucifer beat was playing and Kanye was spitting the jobstreet resume, same hook that Jay was spitting when you bought the album -- he changed a line or two, but 'Ye wrote those hooks. Research! It's not because Jay needed a writer, it's because when Kanye made the review on service, beat as a producer, he had a vision for research, what the hook should be and he pitched the development programme, beat with the hook and Jay just wrote around it.

That happens all the archimedes, time. Development Programme! When the archimedes research essay, producer pitches the hook with the beat, that's not ghostwriting at all. When it comes to those verses and the whole song, that's when we have an issue. MTV: I'm assuming the review on service, really good writers take on archimedes research essay, the persona of the artist they are writing for. Night's Dream! How do you prepare for archimedes research essay, that? Aaron: For me, I step into that person's world. I could write for somebody from the south, I could write for somebody from review on service methods he midwest, the west coast, whatever it may be. I become that person.

My job is to take off my hat from where I'm from and become that person. Archimedes! I have to put away my morals, certain things that I may never talk about, certain things that I may never say, certain phrases or views that I may never use, because it's not about me. A lot of essay development programme, times you hear rappers who don't write and you can tell who wrote for them and to me that's an issue. If I could listen to an artist and tell who actually wrote the rhymes than that means the writer didn't really transform themselves. MTV: You've written the archimedes essay, verse and you to why schools should have persuasive present it to the artist that you're writing for. Are you handing him a sheet of paper?

Or you laying down a reference track for him to listen to? What's next? Aaron: It's the reference, it's 100 percent the reference. A lot of the times you'll send them the lyrics as well, whether you wrote it down on paper or you're texting it to their phone. Archimedes Research! 99 percent of artists nowadays write everything on their phone just because it's convenient-- myself included. But you're laying down a reference track.

You lay it down in that artist's voice and tone to dream themes the exact beat that they're going to do it to and you give them that. Maybe over the course of a couple of days, they learn it, they got it down and they can go in archimedes research and record it themselves. (Quentin Miller's alleged reference track for Drake's 10 Bands) MTV: Does the artist just spit the rap as you wrote it or do they change some words? Aaron: A lot of times, even the guys who don't write a word, they still may flip a line or two. That doesn't mean I didn't write the record; you changed half a line and that's totally fine. A Midsummer Night's Themes Essay! That does happen a lot and I think fans get mistaken with that as well. Rarely is a record 100 percent the way you wrote it. Most of the times it's 95 percent because they'll change a word or change a cadence. But at the end of the day you wrote that.

That's like if you're mother is cooking dinner and archimedes research you put a dash of garlic in the pot and then say, Oh, I cooked too. No you didn't, you put a dash of garlic. (The Notorious B.I.G's reference track for Lil Kim's Queen Bitch) MTV: What happens to these reference tracks? I remember back in the 1990s when a reference track of Lil Kim's Queen Bitch leaked with the Notorious B.I.G. spitting Kim's rhymes from a woman's perspective. Resume! It was funny to hear Biggie rap about research essay his lady parts and development programme referring to himself as bitch. Aaron: When you're writing for an MC, somebody who gets busy, those reference tracks aren't supposed to get out. A lot of times what people will do, instead of emailing the songs back and forth, you come into archimedes, the studio.

I go into their studio, write the record, lay it down in should uniforms essay front of them, they keep it. It's in their studios, they have it, I don't have it. The only thing I have is the archimedes research essay, lyrics in my phone. I don't have any proof that I've recorded that. Television! If that got out, it wouldn't be on essay, me, it would be on on reality shows, that artist's engineer. A lot of archimedes research, times leaks happen because of the development programme, engineer. The reference should never have gotten out.

MTV: Drake is viewed as one of the archimedes research, top MCs in hip-hop. An alleged reference track to his 10 Bands song was recently leaked. Does this hurt him? Aaron: We look at Drake like he really gets busy, he's really, really nice. This is a guy who has pretty much hits home runs almost every time he's went up to bat. So when you find out that there's allegedly something going on, it is a shock. Essay On My Friend! It is a punch to the gut; it does blow you away. And for some people it's like, Oh, that's why you've been so great, because you got a million people helping you. And that's what people are trying to archimedes essay come at him with. This is all alleged we don't know that, but it's like having a ringer when you're playing sports.

MTV: As a ghostwriter, at essays on reality what point do you discuss the particulars of archimedes, your credit and or compensation with the essay on rural development programme, artist? Aaron: Once an artist agrees that they want to use that record, that's when all that happens. The thing about essay ghostwriting and songwriting is essay for girls you can write 10 records and nothing gets used. If an archimedes essay artist brings me to their studio and I work on five records, they may not use any of them for their album. These are all ideas and best for girls sketches, you never know. When you get that call it's normally an artist's manager or lawyer or a publishing company that will reach out to you. There's a lot of archimedes, stories of writers doing records for people that never saw the light of day -- myself included. Essay! You may get your upfront money as a work-for-hire, meaning here's some money for you coming into the studio everyday. But those records may never have came out. Archimedes Research Essay! You don't get paid for uniforms persuasive, real until the song comes out and archimedes hits the stores and hits radio.

It's a tough business. MTV: But when you build a reputation as a writer, I'm sure it gets easier. Aaron: Exactly. The situation with [Quentin Miller], who they're saying wrote for a midsummer night's essay, Drake -- whether it's true or not -- there's enough floating around that I'm sure that his phone is on archimedes essay, fire right now. Every publisher, other artists, managers, producers are reaching out saying Hey we need some of essay on my best friend, that. MTV: How much money can a ghostwriter make?

Aaron: It's endless. It depends on what you write and where it gets placed. Archimedes! If you write an a midsummer dream themes essay album cut, you'll get a percentage of the sales and royalties. It may not be crazy, it won't set you up for life. But if you write a record that becomes Gangnam Style or something like that, then you can eat forever. It's limitless. (Diddy's I'll Be Missing You was written by research, Sauce Money) MTV: You make a living writing for others, so you benefit from ghostwriting but should hip-hop fans draw a line, or is on rural ghostwriting something that fans should just accept? Aaron: I don't know if fans care because of where the generation is now. Archimedes Research! 15 years ago this wouldn't have been a discussion.

If it was an artist of Drake's stature 15 years ago, there would be no discussion, there would be no rebuttal, there wouldn't be a single fan saying, I don't care. With everything going on this week, half of the fans are like, Who cares? That's totally fine. The only gripe that a lot of people have is if you're an artist that is looked at as being the best and then we find out that it may have not all been you -- I think that's where people are having an issue. I don't know if this will become a debate in hip-hop though, something will happen tomorrow and make everybody forget about this. © 2017 Viacom International Inc.

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11 Foolproof Ways to Attract Investors. But, what if your startup is archimedes essay, a good candidate, but you’re having trouble getting meetings and convincing investors that your company is the next big thing? Maybe it’s time to try a different approach. Here are 11 tips from the Young Entrepreneur Council that will help you attract the eye of an angel investor or a VC, and make your business a more appealing investment. Essay On My Best! 1. Try the #8220;soft sell#8221; via networking. “If you#8217;ve been building a great business, getting out and networking within the local startup and investing community can be a great way to meet investors,” recommends Diana Goodwin of AquaMobile Swim School. Archimedes! “Most of my meetings with investors developed by being out at an event and mentioning my business.” On the on reality shows surface, it seems like it could be a little awkward. After all, you’re still selling your business—won’t that put people off? Not necessarily. “If they seem interested in your business, they will keep the research conversation going,” says Diana. Why Schools Should Have Uniforms Persuasive Essay! “Letting things happen organically can yield great results.” While there is something of an art to the organic soft-sell, when done right it can make investors more likely to consider your business. After all, you’re not just pitching your idea—you’re also strategically relying on the social capital built through the networking process to influence their investment decision. It can be a difficult cycle to break: You need money to get customers, but you need customers to get money.

A catch-22 this may be, but it’s worth making an effort to acquire customers or users before you approach an investor, rather than seeking funds first and customers second. “Make a plan to get your first customer that doesn#8217;t depend on huge outside investment,” says John Rood of archimedes essay, Next Step Test Preparation. Why is this so important? “Particularly if you are a first-time entrepreneur, it will be much easier to get investments on good terms (particularly from non-institutional investors) if you have some traction first,” he explains. Investors want proof that your idea is on my best for girls, going to work, and nothing proves this better than having real, paying customers. Instead of cold calling investors begging them to invest in your business, consider asking to pick their brain first. Archimedes Research! “Cold calls or emails asking investors to consider your startup generally come off desperate,” says Hussein Ahmed of Transpose. Should Have Uniforms Essay! “Instead, I prefer to seek out advice from investors that I admire.” By strategically reaching out to an investor for advice first, you may be able to build a relationship with them that will result in archimedes, a greater willingness to invest in your business later on. Development! It gives them a chance to point out archimedes essay potential flaws in your business and shows that you value their input. Essay On My Best For Girls! “In my experience, asking for research essay genuine advice can often lead to an engaged, passionate investor,” says Hussein.

When you approach investors, you’re not just selling them on your product or service; you’re selling them on your team. “Angels and VCs often look for talented co-founders, as opposed to a single founder, which is a rarer case,” says Ben Lang of television shows, Mapme. With that said, don’t take on just anyone. Choosing the archimedes essay right leadership team for for girls your startup is a delicate process, as having the wrong co-founders can ultimately be more hurtful to your business than having no co-founders at all. However, if you can find the perfect co-founder, it can make the starting process infinitely easier—even beyond attracting investors. “Starting a company alone is very difficult,” says Ben. “Having partners gives you people to rely on, which can be a huge boost for your company.” While investors may believe in your business, their investment is ultimately a means to archimedes essay, an end—they need to make money on their investment. So, it’s important to highlight what they will personally gain from investing in should have, your business. “Whether you#8217;re pitching an angel, VC, or your rich uncle, it#8217;s imperative to show how you#8217;re going to get them a return,” explains Nick Braun of “It#8217;s tempting to focus on yourself and your business model, but ultimately, investors want to know what#8217;s in it for them. The best way to stand out and get interest is to archimedes, clearly illustrate how and when you will get them a return.” 6. Essays Shows! Find an research essay, investor that is also a partner, not just a check. An injection of cash into dream themes essay your business is great (and, realistically, it’s what you’re after in the first place), but be on archimedes research essay, the lookout for investors that can really add something tangible to jobstreet resume, your business beyond just money. An investor who can help make your business stronger—whether through advice or industry connections and knowledge—will ultimately serve you better than an research, investor who has money to offer and nothing more. Essay Best Friend For Girls! “Ask them how they view your company, what they see your company accomplishing, and archimedes, their ultimate growth goal with your company,” suggests Aron Susman of TheSquareFoot. Why Schools Have Uniforms Persuasive! “It’s ideal to archimedes research essay, find an active investor, instead of one who plans to put in night's dream, some money and leave it at that.” “For first-time entrepreneurs with no direct VC connections, I recommend applying to reputable startup accelerators that can lend their network and archimedes research essay, credibility to your startup,” suggests Vishal Shah of NoPaperForms. From mentorship opportunities to working out the kinks in your startup process, joining an accelerator can be hugely helpful for new startups. Dream! While it doesn’t guarantee that you’ll snag investment, it does make your startup a more appealing investment candidate. “Graduating from a top accelerator such as Y-Combinator or TechStars does not by itself guarantee funding, but it can significantly improve the odds that you would raise a follow-up round at archimedes essay a favorable valuation,” Vishal explains.

You’ll probably have plenty on your plate once you begin seeking startup investment, but if you say that you’ll follow up with a potential investor, follow up. “Fundraising is usually not a quick process. Engage a potential investor before you actually need the money,” suggests Douglas Hutchings of a systematic literature methods, Picasolar. Douglas’s advice for how to keep potential investors in the loop? “Tell them where you are currently, where you will be before closing the next round and what the research essay new capital will enable you to essays television shows, do. Get them to agree that the metrics make sense and then hit them.

Everyone likes someone with a track record of doing what they say they will do!” 9. Share user engagement and metrics. Just as we mentioned in tip number two, actually demonstrating that people like and archimedes research, are using your product is going to on reality television shows, be one of your biggest assets when it comes to research, attracting investors. “Your users#8217; reviews are your best weapon going into a pitch,” says Nanxi Liu of Enplug. “We have a spreadsheet with a list of resume, our top customers; for essay each customer in the list, we include additional data such as quotes from the best friend customer, how much they pay, how long they#8217;ve been a customer and how many times they#8217;ve upgraded their software plan.” Not only does keeping track of and sharing this information prove that people are interested in your product or service, it also demonstrates your commitment to the growth of your startup. “The spreadsheet shows you care about results,” says Nanxi. 10. Take advantage of the research online fundraising market.

Networking in person is important, but your location shouldn’t be your limiting factor when it comes to essay best friend, securing investment. “With the popularity of fundraising platforms like AngelList, Gust, and CircleUp, you are no longer restricted to only being able to raise money if you#8217;re in Silicon Valley,” says Fan Bi of Blank Label. “If your business has best-in-class metrics for your industry, you will be able to raise money.” His advice? “Post your business to one of these sites highlighting your best metrics, and find investors on the platform covering your industry.” To attract the essay attention of an investor, make sure your product solves a real problem. Too many entrepreneurs simply try to reinvent the wheel, so avoid being one of essays television, them. “As Jeff Hammerbacher, Founder and Chief Scientist of research, Cloudera, put it, ‘The best minds of my generation are thinking about resume, how to make people click ads. That sucks.’#8221; says Aidan Cunniffe of Dropsource. Archimedes Essay! #8220;I#8217;ve found more investors than I expected who were tired of funding #8216;me-too#8217; apps and incremental advances.#8221; “Build something first, whatever business you#8217;re in,” adds Jay Johnson of Small Lot Wine. “Do it as scrappy as you can, and get users and revenue. Essay Programme! There are many ways to do this thinking outside the box.” “As the research old proverb goes: Fortune favors the night's themes bold,” Aidan says, and advises other entrepreneurs to try to “do something wonderful.” Excellent tips. #5 is very important. Unless the investors sees proper ROI they will not be interested in providing you the funding. Briana is research, also one hell of on my friend for girls, a hot chick !! Click here to join the conversation ( ) Have something to say about this article? Share it with us on: Bplans is owned and archimedes essay, operated by Palo Alto Software, Inc., as a free resource to help entrepreneurs start and on my, run better businesses. 1996 - 2017 Palo Alto Software. All Rights Reserved | We're Hiring!

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CRIMINAL JUSTICE SYSTEM AND HUMAN RIGHTS. Criminal justice System of any country is the basis of establishing, Peace and research, tranquility, includes not only the judicial system but investigating machinery also. To tame the over flooding of crimes a strong criminal justice system is on reality shows required. Administration of justice through the instrumentality of law is an essential component of governance. Rule of law is the bedrock of democracy, which is acknowledged as the best system of governance to ensure respect for human rights. The dignity and worth of the individual being at the core of a democracy, constitutional governance in a democratic set up is the safest guarantee for essay the protection of human rights and assurance of human resource development. Equal respect for the rights of all sections of the society is necessary to obtain full human resource development respecting the basic human right of on rural development programme, non-discrimination.

The concept of inclusive democracy recognizes this aspect. Key Words: Criminal Justice System, Democracy, Judiciary, Non-Discrimination Human Rights. The Criminal Justice System has the power to control crime, prevent crime and punish the criminals. Research? Pre-trial procedure involves arrest and Investigation under the jobstreet, Criminal Procedure Code 1973. Criminal Justice System is composed mainly three vital organs, namely (i) Police, (ii) Judiciary and (iii) Prison. Arrest means physical restraint put on a person as a result of allegation of accusation that he has committed a crime or an offence of quasi-criminal nature1.

Sec.41 (1) of the criminal procedure code confined only to archimedes the power to arrest and extends to both cognizable and non-cognisable offences; without the order of a competent magistrate under S.155 (2) of Cr.P.C2. The Code of Criminal Procedure contemplates two types of arrests. (i) Arrest made in jobstreet resume pursuance of a warrant issued by a magistrate; and (ii) arrest made without such warrant but made in accordance with some legal provision permitting such arrest. Sec. 46 of Cr.P.C. explains how arrest could be made. Any resistance or obstruction to lawful arrest has been made punishable U/s. 224,225,225-B of IPC. Art.22 (1) of the Indian Constitution- No person arrested shall be denied right to consult and to archimedes essay be defended by a legal practioner of his choice. Sec. 303 of Cr.P.C., Any person accused of an offence before a criminal court or against whom proceedings are instituted, may of right to be defended by a pleader of his choice. As the police manage most of the pre-trial events, it is necessary to take a look at the Indian police system. The Despatch of the Court of Directors, dated September 24, 1856, gave a candid account of the working of the system: That the police in India have lamentably failed in accomplishing the ends for which it was established is a notorious fact, that it is all but useless for essays on reality shows the prevention, and sadly inefficient for the detection of crime, is generally admitted.

Unable to check crime, it is, with rare exceptions, unscrupulous as to its mode of wielding the archimedes essay, authority with which it is armed for the functions which it fails to jobstreet resume fulfil and has a very general character for corruption and oppression3. The British, who had given Britain a new police system between 1829 and 1856, gave India the Police Act, 1861, and the Criminal Procedure Code, 1861.The Indian Evidence Act came a little later. These three acts gave India the present police system. Efforts were made later at the provincial level to research review and reform the system. A major effort was, however, made at the central level to reform the essays on reality shows, system when Curzon appointed the Police Commission, 1920. The Commission studied the work of police stations and said: There can be no doubt that the police force throughout the country is in a most unsatisfactory condition, that abuses are common everywhere, that this involves great injury to essay the people and discredit to the government and that radical reforms are necessary4. Investigation is the exclusive dominion of police officer and television shows, he cannot be questioned by any authority. Archimedes Research? In India as has been shown, there is a statutory right on the part of the police to investigate the circumstances of an alleged cognizable crime without requiring any authority from the judicial authorities. Should Uniforms? 5. ‘In the criminal justice system the investigation of an offence is the domain of the police.

The power to investigate into the cognizable offence by the police officers is ordinarily not impugned by any fetters. However, such power has to be exercised consistent with the statutory provisions and for legitimate purpose.’ 6. In D.K.Basu vs. State of West Bengal.,7The Apex court laid down 11, guidelines to be followed by police. (i).The police personnel carrying out the arrest and handling the archimedes, interrogation of the arrestee should bear accurate, visible and clear identification and name togs with their designations.

The particulars of all such police personnel who handle interrogation of the arrestee must be recorded in a register. (ii).Preparation of memo of essay on my best for girls, arrest with the essay, witness of a family member or local person; (iii).Right of the arrestee to have his relative or friend informed of arrest as soon as practicable; (iv).The details of arrest to be informed within 8 to 12 hours if the essay on my for girls, relative or friend of the arrestee lives outside the district or town of arrest; (v).The arrestee must be made aware of this right to essay have someone informed soon after arrest; (vi).Entry in the police diary about arrest and transmission of information to next friend or relative; (vii).In case arrestee requests for literature on service description examination of his bodily injuries at the time of arrest, the request to be complied with; (viii).Subjection of the arrestee to medical examination by a trained doctor every 48 hours during custodial detention; (ix).Copies of documents to be submitted to archimedes essay magistrate; (x).The arrestee may be permitted to meet his lawyer during interrogation, though not throughout the interrogation; (xi).Police control room in District or State headquarters to notify in the notice board about the fact of arrest within 12 hours from the moment of arrest. 1. Indian constitutional Framework. The preamble the people of on reality television, India has resolved to secure to research all citizens the following four objectives:8Justice, social, economic and political; Liberty of thought, expression, belief, faith and worship; Equality of status and essay, opportunity and to promote among them all and Fraternity assuring the dignity of the individual and the unity and archimedes research essay, integrity of the Nation. Indian criminal justice system has two primary responsibilities i.e, prevention and control of crime and the protection of on my friend, rights. The most important factor in research essay preventing and determining crime is the certainty of punishment; the on my best, efficiency with which who commits crime is arrested, prosecuted, convicted and punished. No constitutional guarantee of archimedes research essay, fundamental rights existed before or during the regime of Britishers over India. The Indian Constituent assembly after considerable deliberations incorporated a chapter on fundamental rights in the constitution of India. The Supreme Court of India has interpreted the Indian Constitution’s fundamental rights guarantees expansively.9The Constitution protects ‘equality before the law’ and a systematic literature review on service, ‘equal protection of the laws’ under provisions which embody a broad guarantee against arbitrary or irrational state action more generally.

Indian citizens are guaranteed the rights to archimedes research essay speech and expression, peaceable assembly, association, free movement, and residence although Parliament may legislate ‘reasonable restrictions’ on review, some of these rights in the interests of the ‘sovereignty and archimedes essay, integrity of India,’ ‘security of the state,’ or ‘public order.’ As discussed below, the on service methods, Constitution also authorizes suspension of judicial enforcement of these rights during lawful, formally declared periods of emergency. The criminal justice context, the Constitution prohibits ex post facto laws, double jeopardy, and compelled self-incrimination. Individuals arrested and taken into custody must be provided the basis for arrest ‘as soon as may be’ and produced before a magistrate within 24 hours. In its landmark case of D.K. Basu v. State of West Bengal, the Supreme Court extended the Constitution’s procedural guarantees further by requiring the research essay, police to follow detailed guidelines for arrest and interrogation10. Television Shows? The Constitution also guarantees the right to counsel of the defendant’s choice, and the Supreme Court has held that legal assistance must be provided to indigent defendants at government expense, a right that attaches at archimedes essay, the first appearance before a magistrate. Essay Friend For Girls? These guarantees do not apply to laws authorizing preventive detention, which, as discussed below, the Constitution subjects to a more limited set of protections. While the Constitution does not explicitly protect ‘due process of law,’ it does prohibit deprivation of life or personal liberty from research essay any person except according to ‘procedure established by law,’ and jobstreet, the Supreme Court has broadly interpreted this guarantee to encompass a range of archimedes, procedural and substantive rights that approximate the concept of ‘due process.’11 Procedures must be ‘right, just and literature review on service description methods, fair,’ and not arbitrary, fanciful or oppressive.12 The Court has held, based on its broad understanding of the archimedes, right to life and liberty, that the Constitution guarantees the right to privacy13 and freedom from torture or cruel, inhuman, or degrading treatment14.The Court also has recognized a constitutional right to a fair criminal trial, including among other elements the presumption of innocence; independence, impartiality, and competence of the methods, judge; adjudication at a convenient and non-prejudicial venue; knowledge by research essay, the accused of the accusations; trial of the accused and essays on reality shows, taking of evidence in his or her presence; cross-examination of prosecution witnesses; and presentation of evidence in defense15.

The Constitution also requires a speedy trial, extending from the outset of an investigation through all stages of the criminal process16. Human Rights under Indian Constitution 17. The Indian Constitution shows that human rights have been classified under Indian Constitution into the following categories: a) Fundamental Rights and Rights to freedom (Fundamental freedoms) b) Civil, Political, Economic, Social and archimedes essay, Cultural Rights, c) Human Rights for all and Human Rights for citizens only, d) Justifiable Human Rights and Non-justifiable Human Rights. e) Enumerated Human Rights and Un-enumerated Human Rights. 2. Police and Criminal Justice System frame work. The legal and institutional framework that independent India inherited from the British to govern criminal law, criminal procedure, and policing largely remains in place today. Police matters are governed primarily by the Police Act of 1861, one of several framework statutes enacted in the wake of the Indian uprising of 1857 to more firmly establish British control.

The 1861 statute self-consciously followed the paramilitary model of jobstreet, policing that the British had established in Ireland, structuring the police not to promote the research, rule of law, serve the community, or ensure accountability, but rather to ‘perpetuate British rule.’ In doing so, the British incorporated the feudal values already present in Indian society, hiring into the police rank and file Indians perceived to be loyal and willing to acquiesce to the place of British leadership within the social hierarchy. Upon independence, the British ‘bequeathed’ to India and Pakistan the laws, institutions, philosophy, and review description methods, norms of the colonial police. The new government implemented no significant changes in policing, and the police remained principally an instrument of coercive state power and political intelligence. The strength of the armed police continued to grow, reaching approximately 60 percent of research, all forces by resume, the late 1960s18. Despite reform proposals in the intervening years, the Police Act of 1861 continues to govern policing throughout India today19. In the police institutions of contemporary India, notes a former senior police officer, ‘the Raj lives on.’20. These colonial-era laws and institutions are now situated within a post-independence constitutional framework that distributes power between the central and archimedes, state governments. While the Indian Constitution establishes a strong central government, its role is particularly constrained in policing and criminal justice matters, over which the states enjoy broad authority and play the predominant day-to-day role. The Constitution grants the central and state governments’ concurrent jurisdiction to enact substantive and procedural criminal laws, and on my friend for girls, authorizes the central government to research legislate exclusively on matters involving national security and the use of the military or central police forces to essay help state civilian authorities maintain public order.

At the same time, the Constitution leaves public order and police matters principally to the states, which accordingly regulate, supervise, and exercise highly centralized control over research the majority of police resources in their day-to-day operations21. The central government nevertheless retains an active, if circumscribed, role in policing and public order. First, the central government maintains several police and paramilitary forces of its own, including the regular police forces of the seven so-called ‘union territories’ and the national capital territory of Delhi, which lack full autonomy from the why schools uniforms persuasive, central government. The central government also operates a number of research, police, investigative, and paramilitary services that have jurisdiction over specialized areas. The Central Bureau of jobstreet resume, Investigation handles complex criminal investigations involving matters such as internal security, espionage, narcotics, and organized crime, particularly when such investigations concern matters of research, particular national importance or extend across interstate or international borders22. Several central paramilitary forces, with total force strength of over 685,000 individuals, may be deployed to help state police maintain order under appropriate circumstances23.

Ordinarily, these central forces may be deployed only at the request or with consent of the relevant state government, given the Constitution’s division of why schools should have uniforms essay, central and state powers, but the precise scope of the central government’s authority to deploy these forces has been controversial24. Second, while the regular domestic police services are subject to state government control, the most senior officers in all police forces nationwide are drawn from the Indian Police Service, an ‘all-India’ civil service cadre whose members are recruited, organized, trained, and research essay, disciplined by the Union Home Ministry25 IPS officers may be appointed at the rank of assistant superintendent of police or higher and may be assigned to positions with the state or central governments26.As of January 2005, just under 3,200 IPS officers were assigned to the senior ranks of the state police forces27. Third, the central government has constitutional authority to deploy the army ‘in aid of the television, civil [police] power.’28 This authority derives directly from essay powers granted under successive British colonial-era laws to resume deploy the army to maintain internal security29Pursuant to this authority, the central government has enacted several laws conferring sweeping search, arrest, and preventive detention authority upon the armed forces, even authorizing them to shoot to kill suspected terrorists or insurgents, and has deployed the army to maintain order in particular moments of crisis. Finally, the research essay, central government has limited authority to investigate and essay friend, enforce directly some criminal matters that otherwise fall within the ambit of archimedes essay, state authority, but may do so only under exceptional and highly constrained circumstances. The CBI may take over particular state criminal investigations, but ordinarily only at essay best, the request or with consent of a state government. Research Essay? As discussed below, in more extreme situations, if the central government exercises its emergency power to impose ‘President’s Rule’ in a particular state, then the entire state government becomes subject to central control30. The Constitution guarantees the independence of the judiciary, which is a unitary, integrated system with jurisdiction over both central and state law issues. The independence and responsibility of the essays on reality shows, judiciary to interpret and enforce fundamental rights are considered ‘basic features’ of the archimedes essay, Constitution that cannot be withdrawn even by constitutional amendment. The judiciary consists of the jobstreet, Supreme Court of archimedes essay, India, twenty-one High Courts, and an extensive system of a midsummer night's themes essay, subordinate courts and tribunals which are subject to the broad supervisory jurisdiction of the High Courts. The states are divided into research districts which consist of civil district courts and criminal sessions courts.

Judicial magistrates are authorized to adjudicate lesser criminal offenses, subject to oversight by the session’s courts, and have supervisory responsibility over police investigations and a systematic review on service methods, other pretrial matters. While the organization and jurisdiction of the Supreme Court and High Courts are, within constitutional constraints, largely subject to central government control, state governments share concurrent authority to regulate the jurisdiction of all courts other than the Supreme Court for areas in archimedes essay which they have legislative authority. Essay On My For Girls? The Constitution confers both the Supreme Court and the High Courts with broad original jurisdiction to enforce fundamental rights through the filing of writ petitions. 3. Indian Judiciary ‘ Criminal justice system. The Judiciary has been assigned supervisory role, it cannot take over the investigation process31.The Constitution of India, Criminal Procedure Code, Indian Penal Code, Indian Evidence Act and the Police Act.ets Important Statues for research Criminal Justice System. For maintaining law and dream, order and protection of liberty, criminal justice system operates through police, courts, prison and correctional system.

Illegal detentions, Custodial violence, torture, lock up deaths are the Human rights violation cases are matters of concern. Judiciary has interpreted and evolved new concepts of Criminal Justice System. A fair criminal trail protects accuser’s right along with social security, human dignity and personal liberty. It is necessary to publicity made through vernacular languages, print and electronic media, NGO’s political parties, Academicians, judiciary, human rights organizations etc. to increase awareness of the human rights. Human rights granted form the very essence of civilized life and to be ever attentive to protect freedoms and basic human right. Indian Constitution and other international documents, Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) 1948 which says: ‘Everyone is entitled in full equality to a fair and public hearing by any independent and impartial tribunal in the determination of his rights and obligations and of any criminal charge against him.’ The right to archimedes essay life and personal liberty enshrined in essay Article 21 of the archimedes research, Constitution is of widest amplitude and several un-enumerated rights fall within Article 21. These rights are: a) Right to go abroad; b) Right to privacy; c) Right against solitary confinement; d) Right against Bar Falters; e) Right to free legal aid in should criminal trail; f) Right to speedy trail; g) Right against handcuffing; h) Right against delayed execution; i) Right against custodial execution; j) Right against public hanging; k) Right to health care or Doctor’s assistance; l) Right to Shelter; Other Rights which have been held to emanate from Article 21 are following: a) Right to know; b) Right to compensation; c) Right to Release and Rehabilitation of archimedes, Bonded Labour; d) Right against cruel and unusual punishment; e) Right of Inmates of protective Homes.

4. Prison Justice System. ‘Prisonization symbolizes a system of punishment and also a sort of institutional placement of literature on service description methods, under trails and research, suspects during the period of trial. One cannot think of a society without crime and criminals, thus, the institution of a midsummer night's dream, prison is obligatory for every country32.The Prison Statistics of India shows , a total of 1,391 prisons across the country, as on 31 st December, 2013 have 4, 11,992 prison inmates against archimedes, authorized capacity of 3, 47,859, which amounts to 118.4% of occupancy rate. The rate of imprisonment in India, as per number of prison inmates, is 32 prisoners per dream essay one lakh population during 2013, which is demonstrably one of the lowest in the world. The prison inmates in India comprise of 67.6% under trials, 31.5% convicts and remaining 0.9% as civil prisoners and detainees33. Purpose of Prisons.

Maintenance of law and order lies in essay the hands of the state and therefore if a person violates the law of the state and commits crime, he is put behind the bars so that he cannot commit another crime. Why Schools Have? The place where he is put is archimedes essay called ‘prison’ or ‘jail’. Jail is the oldest institution for incarcerating offenders. It is the a midsummer night's, portal of the criminal justice system. It can be described as ‘cesspools of crime’ the ultimate ghetto, ‘dumping grounds’ and festering sores in the criminal justice system34.

The purpose of prisons can be broadly categorized as punishment, deterrence, isolation, reformation and reintegration. If a person commits a crime, is put behind the bars. Prison acts as agents of punishment on behalf of the society. The powers of the trial court are very wide and the legislative intent of providing a fair trial and essay, presumption of innocence in jobstreet favour of the accused is the essence of the archimedes, criminal justice system. A magistrate is competent to direct further investigation in television shows terms of Section 173 (8) Code of Criminal Procedure in the case instituted on a police report.

Similarly, the Magistrate has powers under Section 202 Code of Criminal Procedure to direct police investigation while keeping the archimedes, trial pending before him instituted on the basis of a private complaint in terms of that Section. The provisions of essays, Section 210 Code of Criminal Procedure use the expression ‘shall’ requiring the Magistrate to stay the proceedings of inquiry and trail before him in the event in a similar subject matter, an investigation is found to be in progress. 5. International human rights norms. The idea of Human Rights is universal concept for all mankind and archimedes essay, it has evolved gradually through the world. It is based on natural rights. The Magna Carta(1215), Petition of Rights (1628), Bill of Rights(1689), Charter of New Plymouth (1620), State of Virginia declaration of rights (1776), French Declaration of the Rights of Man and a systematic on service description, of the Citizen(1789), Bill of Rights in America (1791),Babylonain laws, Hittile laws, Dharma of the Vedic period in India and sangam literature etc. have roots for archimedes essay the protection of rights of man. The first democracy use of the expression ‘ human rights’ is to be found in jobstreet the charter of the United Nations, Which was adopted (after the second world war) at archimedes research, San Francisco on June 26, 1945 and ratified by a majority of its signatories in October that year. UN’s Universal Declaration of Human Rights (1948), Covenant on Civil and Political Rights and jobstreet resume, Covenant on Economic, Social and archimedes essay, Cultural Rights (1966) are international instruments. India has long recognized the importance of ensuring its own compliance with these international human rights obligations. While international treaties do not automatically become part of domestic law upon ratification35, the Constitution provides, as a Directive Principle of State Policy, that the government ‘shall endeavor to foster respect for jobstreet international law and treaty obligations in the dealings of archimedes research essay, organized people with one another,’ and also authorizes the essay best friend, central government to enact legislation implementing its international law obligations without regard to the ordinary division of central and state government powers. The Supreme Court of India has frequently emphasized that constitutional and statutory provisions should be interpreted in light of India’s international law obligations 36 and archimedes research, has looked for guidance when interpreting the Constitution’s fundamental rights provisions to the UDHR, which was adopted while the Constitution was being drafted.

India also is bound by customary international law norms, to the extent it has not persistently objected to those norms, and is absolutely bound by norms that have attained the status of jus cogens. A Midsummer Night's Dream Essay? In 1993, India established the National Human Rights Commission, an independent government commission whose mandate is to protect and promote international human rights norms. The NHRC is empowered to receive and investigate individual complaints of human rights violations, initiate such investigations on its own, monitor and archimedes research essay, make non-binding recommendations to the government on domestic implementation of international human rights norms, and promote public awareness of human rights standards. To conduct these activities, the NHRC has the powers of a civil court, including the ability to compel appearance of witnesses, examine witnesses under oath, compel discovery and production of documents, and order production of records from courts and government agencies. If the NHRC concludes that violations occurred, it may recommend compensation to the victim or prosecution of those responsible. The government must report any actions taken within one month, and the NHRC publishes these responses along with the report of its own investigation and conclusions. The NHRC only may investigate alleged violations within the previous year and jobstreet resume, may not investigate allegations against research essay, the armed forces. India and International Conventions on Human Rights. Rights UDHR Indian Constitution. Right to Life, liberty and jobstreet, security of person Article 3 Article 21. Probation of archimedes research, slavery, slavery trade etc Article 4 Article 23.

Equality before law and non-discriminate Article 7 Article 14 and on reality shows, 15(1) Right to effective remedy Article 8 Article 32. Right against arbitrary arrest, detention etc Article 9 Article 22. Right against ex-post factor laws Article 11 (2) Article 20(1) Right to freedom of movement Article 13(1) Article 10(1) (d) Right to own property and not to archimedes research essay be deprived of resume, property (But it was omitted by the constitute (42 Amendment Act, 1978) Article 17 Article 19(1) (f) Right to freedom of thought, conscience and archimedes, Religion Article 18 Article 25(1) Right to freedom of opinion and expression Article 19 Article 19(1) (a) Right to freedom of peaceful assembly and association Article 20 (1) Article 19 (1) (b) Right to equal access to public service Article 16 (1) Article 21 (2) Right to social security Article 22 Article 29 (1)

Right to form and to why schools persuasive essay join trade unions Article 19 (1) (c) Article 23 (4) 6. Balancing Rights of the accused and the victim. The protection of human rights through the research essay, criminal justice delivery system is an indispensable feature of any system governed by the rule of law. the protection of human rights have been acknowledged to varying extents across time, but since the Second World War, the universality of human rights has been recognized by the United Nations as inherent in the very nature of human beings ‘ a reflection of their common humanity. The Constitution of India, in on reality shows its Part III, guarantees a set of archimedes essay, Fundamental Rights to citizens. A few of these rights are also available to the accused, a suspect as well as an under trial. These rights are guaranteed under Articles 14, 19, 20, 21 and best, 22. Prisoners are also entitled to the benefits of Articles 32 and 226 of the archimedes research, Constitution. In addition to the fundamental rights, the essay best friend, accused, suspects and under trail prisoners enjoy certain other legal rights provided under the archimedes, Indian Penal Code, 1860 (IPC); the Criminal Procedure Code, 1973(Cr.P.C); and the Indian Evidence Act, 1872 (IEA). The Supreme Court of India and High Courts have not only played a vital role in attaching constitutional significance to these rights but, through humane judicial interpretation and acumen, also expanded their contents.

An attempt is made to highlight briefly a few prominent rights of the accused, a suspect, an under trial and to best for girls offer some suggestions to research ensure their promotion and protection. Rights of the Accused37. 1. Right to Life. 2. Right to Speedy Trial. 3. Right to Counsel. 4. Essay Friend? Right to Free Legal Aid.

5. Essay? Right to Fair Trial. 6. Right against Double Jeopardy. 7. Right against Self-incrimination. 8. Right against Third-Degree Methods. 9. A Midsummer Essay? Right to Fair Treatment. In India the fundamental rights guaranteed under our constitution is the repository of those inalienable human rights, which inhere in a person. The words ‘life’ and ‘liberty’ appearing in Article 21 has been construed by essay, the Hon’ble Supreme Court of India in an open all encompassing way that it has now matured to an extent not seen in their mind’s eye by the fathers of the Constitution or by review description methods, the Judges who gave it an initial lustre. Research? In Maneka Gandhi’s case 38, the Hon’ble Supreme Court, held that the Article is a recognition and declaration of rights, which inhere in every individual.

It was a major departure from the narrow interpretation of jobstreet resume, Article in A.K.Gopalan’s Case39.This remarkable expansion of archimedes research, Article 21 paved way for the resurrection of many non-justifiable Directive Principles as enforceable fundamental rights. The word ‘deprived’ used in Article was supposed to impose upon the State the negative duty not to interfere with the life or liberty of an a systematic description, individual without the sanction of law. Archimedes Research Essay? With the magic wand of judicial activism, Judges imposed a positive obligation upon the State to initiate steps for jobstreet ensuring to the individual a better enjoyment of his life and dignity. This positive aspect of the article essentially is a suitable tool for essay the higher judiciary to protect victim’s rights. The past three decades saw many judgments by why schools uniforms essay, the higher judiciary invoking Article 21 to protect the right of the accused in criminal proceedings. Archimedes? Prisoners’ right of speedy disposal 40, handcuffing of prisoners 41, delay in execution of death sentence 42, right to open fair trial 43, are few of the countless number of instances when the Apex court came to the aid of the accused to guard their rights. Victims’ rights did receive the literature review, attention of archimedes research, our apex court especially in the recent times though instances are not many.

The rights of the victims of crime and abuse of power are still not effectively acknowledged. The fundamental rights guaranteed in on reality the Constitution of India and other statutory rights, victims can fall back on the International Conventions to which our country is research essay a party, to best establish their rights. The Supreme Court in several cases accepted International Conventions as enforceable when these Conventions elucidate and research essay, bring into effect the fundamental rights under the Constitution. They have also been read as part of domestic law, as long as there is no inconsistency between the Convention and domestic law44. It is now an literature on service description, accepted rule of archimedes research, judicial construction that regard must be had to international conventions and norms for construing domestic law when there is no inconsistency between them and essay on my best friend for girls, there is essay a void in the domestic law. Any International Convention not inconsistent with the fundamental rights and in harmony with its spirit must be read into essay these provisions to enlarge the meaning and content thereof, to promote the object of the constitutional guarantees. This is implicit from Article 51(c) and the enabling power of the parliament to enact laws for implementing the International Conventions and norms by virtue of Art.253 read with Entry 14 of the Union List in Seventh Schedule of the archimedes research, Constitution45. All Criminal Justice Systems in democratic World have three separately organized parts; The Police as law enforcement agency; The Courts; which, serve to establish the guilt or innocence of the apprehended person and, if his guilt is established, pass sentence upon him as provided by the sanctity of the essay on my friend, code violated; and archimedes research essay, The prison and correctional system. Each one of the components of the Criminal Justice System shares certain common goals.

They collectively exist to protect society, maintain law and a midsummer night's essay, order and protect crime. Archimedes? But they also individually contribute to these goals in their own special way. The Indian Criminal Justice System has incorporated human rights friendly provisions of the international instruments, particularly the judiciary have responded to the new situation in a positive manner and sincerely hoped that in the long run we will have international standards enforced in the criminal justice administration in why schools uniforms persuasive India. Malimath Committee recommendations are implemented immediately. 1.State of Punjab v.Ajaib Singh, AIR 1953,SC 10. 2.Avinash v.State of Maharastra (1983) Cr.L.J 1833 (para 9) Bombay. 3.Anand Swarup Gupta, Police Reform in Retrospect, XXIV Indian Journal of Public Administration (Silver Jubilee Issue, 1978) p.59. 5.H.N.Rishbud and Indersingh v.State of Delhi [(1955) 1 SCR 115]

6.Manohar Lal Sharma v. Principal Secretary [2013 STPL (Web) 1017 (SC)] para. 29. 7.(1997) 1 SCC 416: 1997 SCC (Cri) 92: AIR 1997 SC 610. 8.K.P.Saksena, Human Rights and the Constitution- Vision and the Reality, 2003, p.246. 9.Pathumma v. State of Kerala, A.I.R. 1978 S.C. 771. 11.Maneka Gandhi v. Union of India, A.I.R. Archimedes Essay? 1978 S.C. Development? 597;

12.Kartar Singh v. State of Punjab, (1994) 2 S.C.R. 375, 1994 Indlaw SC 525, para. 216. 13.Kharak Singh v. State of Uttar Pradesh, A.I.R. 1963 S.C. 898. 14.Francis Coralie Mullin v. Union Territory of Delhi, A.I.R. Archimedes? 1981 S.C.

746. 15.State of Punjab v. Baldev Singh, A.I.R. Literature On Service Methods? 1999 S.C. 2378. 16.Antulay v. R.S. Naik, A.I.R. 1992 S.C. Archimedes Research? 1701.

17.Arun Ray, National Human Rights Commission of India: Formation, Functioning and Future properties, Vol.1, 2004, p.50-52. 18.T. Anantha Chari, Democracy and Social Defence, SEMINAR, Oct. 1977, at 26, 29 (quoting Report of the Delhi Police Commission, 1966-68). 20.Verma, supra note 25. 25.

R.K. A Systematic Literature On Service Description? Raghavan, The Indian Police: Problems and Prospects,Sept. 2003, at 119, 129. 26. R.K.Raghavan, supranote 39, at 131 n.14; seeINDIA CONST. art. 311.

27.MHA, ANNUAL REPORT 2004-05, supranote 37, at 105. 28. Research Essay? Indian Constitution., 7th sched., List I (Union List), ” 2A; see also 355. 31.State of literature on service description, Bihar v. J.A.C. Saldhana, 1980 SCC (Cri) 272, 286. 32.Dr.Shivani Gosami , Prison reforms in India, Nyaya Deep , Vol.XIII, Issue 2 3 , April July, 2012, National Legal Service Authority, New Delhi, p. 65. 34.

Dr.Shivani Gosami , Prison reforms in India, Nyaya Deep , Vol.XIII, Issue 2 3 , April July, 2012, National Legal Service Authority, New Delhi, p. 66. 35.State of research, Madras v. G.G. Menon, A.I.R. 1954 S.C. 517. 37. Shivraj B.Nakade. A Systematic? Rights of the Accused ‘Some Reflections on the Legislative Scheme in essay India.In, Criminal Justice System (A Human Rights perspective of the Criminal Justice Process in India) Editd. Dr.K.I.Vibhute. Eastern Book Company, Lucknow, 2004.pp.129. 38.

AIR 1978 SC 597. 39. AIR 1950 SCR 88. 40. Raghbir Singh v. Resume? State of Bihar 1987 SC 149; Ramdas v.State of Bihar 1987 SC 1333; A.R.Antulay v. R.S.Nayak 1992 SC 1701. 41. Aeltemesh v. Union of India, 1988 SC.1765. 42. Triveniben v.State of archimedes research essay, Gujarat 1989 SC 1335.

43. Kehar Singh v. State 1988 SC.1883. 44. R.D.Upadhaya v. State of A.P. AIR 2006 Supreme Court 1946=2006 AIR SCW 2274. 45. Vishaka v. state of on reality television shows, Rajasthan [(1997)] 6 SCC 241. 46. 1998 CRLJ 4561. 47.

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