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Business Plan for: Vitality Drinks Limited. Business Plan for: Vitality Drinks Limited. (Please use this template in conjunction with the guide Prepare a business plan, where you will find information about how to use your business plan as well as instructions on how to use this template) Business plan contents. Executive summary. 4. 1 Executive summary. 4. 2 Business details. 5. Essay? 3 Key personnel 6. 4 The business idea. Nursery Rhymes Essay? 8. On Poverty Conclusion? 5 Business goals. 9. 6 What the leo lionni, business does. 10.
7 What makes the business different 11. 8 Legal requirements. 12. Sales and marketing. 13. 9 Market research. 13. Essay Conclusion? 10 Profiling customers. 14. 11 Profiling competitors. Comparison Contrast? 15. Conclusion? 12 Managing market risks. Thesis Statement Begins With Essay? 16. 14 Promotion and essay on poverty conclusion advertising. 18. Running the business. Essay? 19. 17 Suppliers. 21. 18 Equipment 22. 19 Managing operational risks. 23. 20 Start-up costs. 24. 21 Profit and loss forecast 25. 22 Sourcing finance. On Poverty? 26. Nursery Rhymes? 23 Managing financial risks. 27. 24 Cashflow forecast 28.
This business plan is for vitality drinks company Limited, a proposed energy drinks company. The company will venture into essay on poverty, the drinks market and specialize on good thesis the production of soft drinks, energy drinks and essay on poverty packaged water. The business will be a limited liability company with perpetual succession. This structure was chosen because the owner of the business does not want to leo lionni term paper bear any more liability than the capital which was contributed to the company as share capital. However, it is on poverty conclusion, appreciated that operating a limited liability company has more legal requirements to be followed, than operating other forms of businesses. This is because a limited liability company is regarded as a legal person. The owner will first employ a limited number of nursery rhymes essay writing employees, so as to cut on costs. However, these will be increased as the business grows. The owner will be the manager of the entity, and will also oversee some extra functions such as human resources. The finance to start and on poverty conclusion operate the company will be sourced from the owner’s personal savings. However, this is not enough and the company will have to seek external financing from banks and other financial institutions.
This will, however, have an easy to writing essay interest which acts as the cost of the finance. Essay On Poverty? From the forecasts which were undertaken, the company is viable. The company will make minimal profits in the first year of operations, and this is good comparison thesis statement, expected to increase as the brand name of the business continues to essay on poverty conclusion grow. Vitality Soft Drink Company Limited. New South Wales. The company is to writing an analytical essay, yet to be set up. The business is essay on poverty conclusion, a limited liability company, with the ability to begins with in this i will own property, sue and be sued in its own name. It also has a perpetual succession. This business structure was chosen because the liability of the owner to the creditors and other third parties who are owed by the company is limited to the amount of capital which has been injected by the owner to the company. It is good for businesses which are starting up because it is not clear how the same will be. The business will: The business will be in the manufacture of conclusion soft drinks.
The soft drinks will be manufactured in New South Wales, and then transported to various consumers. As the business grows, other manufacturing and bottling plants will be opened. The company will also start with less than 10 employees, but the same will be increased as the time goes by. This is in a bid to in this save on essay conclusion costs. The costs of starting up the business will be sourced from the owner’s savings, and the deficit will be filled by a bank loan to linguistic essay be obtained. However, it is appreciated that the financing to be sought has a cost which has to be footed by the company in the form of interests. This is very delicate for businesses which are staring up because the essay on poverty conclusion, interest has to king research outline be paid regardless of on poverty conclusion whether the company makes profits or losses. This puts the company at king arthur paper risk. Details of owner(s): Position/main responsibilities: As the owner of the business, the essay on poverty conclusion, same will be in charge of general operations of the term, company. He will also be in charge of human resources and conclusion production management. Experience and arthur paper outline knowledge of our industry: The owner has had a wide experience in the soft drink industry, after working with the coca cola company first as a promoter, and essay later as a supervisor in one of the bottling plants.
The owner also has interests in nursery rhymes essay writing the manufacture and bottling of essay on poverty conclusion soft drinks, and he is optimistic that the introduction of another soft drink in the market will be met with enthusiasm by the consumers. Apart from the above knowledge and experience on soft drink, the essay, owner is also a management student, and he is eager to apply what he has learnt in school to his business. Previous employment: He has worked with Coca Cola company on previous occasions, as a supervisor and as a promoter. He also has managerial experience from a company he has previously worked with. Key skills brought to the business: Managerial skills. Business experience and any training undertaken: The owner has a managerial as well as marketing experience. Essay? Academic/professional qualifications: The owner has various managerial as well as marketing experiences.
Most recent salary ?: 6,000 p.a. Easy Steps An Analytical Essay? Name(s): MargaretPosition/main responsibilities: Margaret will be in charge of accounting and Finance in essay on poverty the company. Experience and knowledge of our industry: Margaret does not have much experience in the production sector, and in a good begins essay i will particular the beverage industry. Essay? However, she has a wide experience in the management of companies which are starting up. She has taken a number of decisions on whether to borrow loans or raise share capital, or employ any other capital available. Previous employment: She has worked in the accounting department of many companies, especially companies which are being started. She has also worked as a consultant as a part time activity, something she still does to date. Key skills brought to paper the business: Financial planning and management. Auditing will also fall under her docket. Essay Conclusion? Business experience and any training undertaken: She has not done any business on her own, but she has been the head of various accounts departments of steps an analytical companies. She has done small courses on business financing, and she has also been able to essay conclusion attend many business conferences dealing with business financing and management.
She is very crucial on the success of the business, noting that many businesses which are started do not finish the first two years of their operations. Finances also play a critical role as well as the survival of any business entity, and it is paramount that we get a person we can be able to trust. King Research Outline? Academic/professional qualifications: She has a degree in accounting, as well a masters degree in business administration. In her studies, she has had a bias in conclusion accounting and finance. Most recent salary/salaries ?: 9,000 p.a. The idea is to bring into the market a drink which has the good comparison contrast thesis, combinations of on poverty a soft drink and an energy drink. The nutritional value of the drink will also be considered. This is because there is no particular drink in the market which serves the arthur paper, two purposes in the market. On Poverty? The drinks available are either purely soft drinks or purely energetic.Another reasoning is linguistic, that there is an essay on poverty increasing number of persons who are continuously getting concerned about their weights.
These persons prefer low calorie drinks which are limited in the market. It is also appreciated that the drink should be able to arthur outline provide the needed energy despite the fact that it has low calorie content. The company will be started small, and left to grow gradually until it is able to compete on a level footing with the majority of the competitors who are present in the market today. The company should also be able to curve its own niche by manufacturing specialised products. Company mission : To incorporate hard work and essay on poverty integrity into nursery essay, becoming the leading manufacturer of energetic soft drink.
Company Vision : The mission of the company is to conclusion be the world manufacturer of the soft drink of nursery rhymes writing choice. What do you want to achieve in your first year of conclusion business? For example business goals could include turnover of ?100,000 or trading at breakeven. To achieve profit and increase the stakeholders wealth To achieve competitive edge over good statement, its competitors To achieve a very low staff turnover To open an additional bottling plant within two years of operations. To increase employees by 50% within the first year of operations To repay any additional financing the company may seek To achieve considerable goodwill and essay on poverty conclusion brand image To achieve break-even point and at least ?20,000 profit To have no accruements in terms of salaries and a good thesis statement essay wages. Where do you see your business in 3-5 years’ time? In 3-5 years the owner of the company hopes that the business will have stabilised.
It is hoped that all the finances which will have taken from banks and on poverty financial institutions will have been paid in completion, and the company will not owe any money. Another issue which should have occurred in the next five years is that the company should have gone outside its jurisdiction to have branches and distributors in other districts outside New South Wales. In fact in leo lionni term five years’ time the essay, company should have branches all over term paper, Europe, and there should be strategic plans to globalise the operations of the company. Essay On Poverty? The company should be considering offers from overseas bottlers on the bottling and linguistic essay packaging of the soft drink. Conclusion? The company should also have considerable number of good comparison contrast qualified employees, and essay the management staff should have also increased.
Soft drinks Energy drinks Combined benefits Water Mineral water Highly purified and leo lionni paper packaged. Soft drinks Diet drinks No calorie drinks for those watching their calorie intake. On Poverty? 7 What makes the business different. Good Comparison Thesis Statement? Your product/service is unique or different compared with the competition because: (Use as many fields as is applicable and add more if you need to.) It combines the on poverty conclusion, properties of soft drinks with energy drinks It is suitable for consumption for all categories of persons, and it is clinically tested. This is because some categories of steps an analytical essay persons such as diabetics have very restricted diets, and essay no company has looked into their interests. The drink will also be cost effective. The company will undertake a cost leadership strategy in the first years of operations before it develops a strong goodwill.
It will be packaged in environmentally friendly packages It will take into consideration corporate social responsibility Corporate governance best practices will be observed diligently by the management for the company The company will also maintain an open door policy to its employees for greater efficiency. 8 Legal requirements (including regulations and licences particular to your business) The legal and insurance requirements that apply in your business are: (Use as many fields as is applicable and leo lionni paper add more if you need to.) Name search Business registration/ Incorporations of the company Employee insurance Safety and quality certification Tax registration. You will meet your legal and insurance requirements by: (Use as many fields as is applicable and add more if you need to.) Applying for a name search and preparation of articles necessary for the registration of the company Taking out insurance policies for the benefit of the workers Filling out tax registration forms and on poverty conclusion obtaining ABNS Seeking quality standard certification. Trends in your chosen market are: Most soft drinks companies are going global Most of them are also adopting digital technology and e- selling There is rising competition in the soft drunks market.
How you know this: (Use as many fields as is applicable and add more if you need to.) Market research From business news Information from the competitor’s websites Horizontal analysis of competitors Stock exchange news. The customer groups you will be selling to are: Students People involved in manual work Travellers and those who are in outings and king arthur paper outline hikes. Your customer research has shown what your customers want is: (Use as many fields as is applicable and add more if you need to.) Cost effective drink- They want drinks which will give them value for their money. Quality assurance –The drink should also be of essay on poverty high quality. Linguistic Essay? Healthy drinks. How you know this: (Use as many fields as is applicable and add more if you need to.) Through customer survey- A survey was conducted on the prospective customers of the company. Through experience from existing energy drinks Through a pilot study.
Number of customers you expect to win in each group and what they might pay: (Use as many fields as is applicable and add more rows if you need to.) Use as many fields as is applicable in the table below and add more rows if you need to. Coca-cola Established brand name No reliable bottlers around the world Pepsi-Co Cost leadership strategies High employee turnover BertShell Pty Co. Local acceptance No publicity in other places other than Sydney Yuvenay Pty Co. The company is essay on poverty conclusion, gaining considerable goodwill Limited number of employees Redbull Australia This company has international acceptance Products sold at high prices. How you can improve on their offer and/or price(s): (Use as many fields as is applicable and add more if you need to.) Manufacture of essay high quality drinks Maintain high customer satisfaction and follow up Establish employee appraisals and motivation to prevent employee turnovers Implement cost cutting strategies to enable the on poverty conclusion, company to reduce on the prices of the soft drinks Employ aggressive advertising strategies.
Seek for low profit margins to enable the company to sell the drinks at lower prices Employ members from the New South Wales community, so as to achieve community acceptance of the soft drink. Write down the risks you have identified: (Use as many fields as is applicable and add more if you need to.) Market risks Financial risks Management risks Operations risks Competition risks. Arthur Paper? How will you manage these risks so that they become less of a threat: (Use as many fields as is applicable and add more if you need to.) Doing a proper market survey before the launch of the on poverty, soft drink. The market survey will enable the company to come up with strategies which will aid it in cost reduction. Employment of competent employees who can make rational decisions. This is important because a limited liability company is just but a legal person. All the decisions of the company are to be made by employees who are physical persons working for the company. Proper monitoring of the easy steps an analytical essay, operational activities of the firm Implementing proper competitive strategies such as differentiation strategy. However, a SWOT analysis will have to be conducted before the correct strategy can be arrived at. Training the management on essay conclusion corporate governance and on contemporary issues in management so as to be able to essay writing face contemporary challenges. How you can calculate your prices: (Use as many fields as is applicable and add more if you need to.) Adding a small mark up on the overall cost of manufacturing the on poverty conclusion, drink including the overheads Considering comparable products in arthur research paper outline the market Determining the overall profit anticipated dividing this among all the products which will be produced by the company.
This is very complicated, and may not be practicable in this case. How your prices compare with the conclusion, competition: (Use as many fields as is leo lionni term paper, applicable in the table below and add more rows if you need to.) Reasons for the difference between your price(s) and your competitors’ price(s): Our company is starting up, while the competing companies have been in conclusion the market for rhymes essay, a considerable period of time, and have goodwill to sell. My company is still building up a goodwill My company is also seeking low contribution margins in a bid to attract more customers The competitors use different production techniques, which may lead to different cost of essay on poverty conclusion production in the end. How and where will you promote your product/service? (Use as many fields as is applicable and add more if you need to.) With the advent of king outline technological advancement, internet tools such as the social media are gradually becoming a very important advertising tool, especially for upcoming companies, due to the cost saving involved. The company will, therefore, use the essay on poverty conclusion, social media by opening up facebook pages and twitter trends for linguistic essay, the purpose of the company. The company will also have a well structured website where consumers and suppliers can get in essay touch with it to negotiate on business tools. This will also save the company of employee costs because a person will also only come to the company premises when they have sufficient knowledge of the products, and the visit will be to conclude businesses.
Print and media broadcasts will also be undertaken. The broadcast which will be employed will be on the local media, because that will be the focus of the company upon the inception of operations. This will however, be evaluated with time to ensure that the company is benefiting from a good statement with i will it because it is known to be very expensive compared to other advertising methods. The employees of the company will also act as goodwill ambassadors of the company. What this means, is that they will wear the company t-shirts and essay on poverty conclusion have their cars branded at easy their requests. This will enable a wider knowledge of the company to third parties. Another way in which the company can advertise its services is through the use of billboards. These expire after a certain period of time, and their cost effectiveness should be considered before the company resorts to the same. These billboards will be placed at strategic locations where the company’s potential customers can be found. This requires a prior market analysis. Use as many fields as is applicable in the table below and add more rows if you need to.
Wide experience in conclusion managerial and supervisory work Degree in business Finance manager. Extensive financial work. Master of Business administration Production Manager. Wide experience in beverage production. Master of Business Administration Supervisor. Wide experience in supervisory work Degree in easy to writing Human resources management. Your key suppliers and their credit terms: (Use as many fields as is applicable and conclusion add more rows if you need to.) Chemical Suppliers The chemicals needed to manufacture the drinks.
30 Water suppliers They will be responsible for the supply of the water to be used in the manufacturing plant 30 Bottle manufacturer It will manufacture the bottles which are required to essay package the drinks. 30 Designers These will design the on poverty conclusion, bottles and the outward appearance on king paper outline the same. 30. Use as many fields as is applicable and on poverty add more rows if you need to. Enter into confidentiality agreements at the inception of employment contracts.
There should be restriction of trade clauses in the contacts of employment. perform a constant employee appraisal Investigate into the possible causes of good comparison turnover and on poverty rectify the same. Undertake employee fidelity insurance covers Perform audit procedures on the payroll frequently to ensure that ghost workers are not paid by the company. Contracts should be enforced strictly to protect the company. The company should implement supply techniques which save the begins with essay i will, company from detrimental effects of late suppliers. JIT techniques may not work for new suppliers. The finance section of this template is on poverty conclusion, intended for business planning purposes only. If financial tables are to be used for nursery rhymes essay, any purpose other than internal financial management, we strongly recommend you consult an accountant or tax advisor. Click on essay conclusion the links below to access a range of Microsoft Excel work sheets to input your figures, Microsoft Excel will automatically update the totals for you. (If you do not have access to leo lionni term Microsoft Excel you can save the files on to your PC. You can then use Open Source Software such as Google Docs or OpenOffice to access the information by essay, uploading the files into this software.
We have provided Open Document Format versions of the tables in this section as well.) Please note that all tables can be customised and additional rows and categories can be added. If you need to good comparison print out this business plan and the associated tables (once you have completed them) eg to show your accountant or your bank, place the essay on poverty conclusion, tables behind the next pages in this template. Calculate how much money you need before you start trading (This helps you to steps an analytical calculate the costs of starting your new business.) Computers and other accessories. Salaries and wages. Personal survival budget: Estimated annual personal expenditure (This helps you work out the on poverty conclusion, minimum amount you need to rhymes earn from essay your business in the first year and how much money you might need to borrow to start the business.) 21 Profit and loss forecast (Use the tabs within the Microsoft Excel work sheet to view the second year and third year forecast templates. The profit and loss forecast is more detailed at the start because you should have a clearer idea of your profit and loss expectations.) Where the business holds and contrast sells stock this cost should be included in essay conclusion direct costs. It is calculated as: opening stock + purchases closing stock. Research Paper? If you are VAT registered all sales and costs records should be entered excluding VAT.
If you are not VAT registered then you will need to include VAT in your costs where it is charged. For information about VAT, VAT threshold, VAT schemes and conclusion turnover threshold, please visit the HMRC website: VAT rates, thresholds, fuel scale charges, exchange rates. Total borrowing requirement for the business (This helps you to understand how much money you will need to find in order to close the gap between your start-up costs as well as the costs of steps an analytical operating before your business will make a profit, and the money that you have available to put into the business yourself.) This is in a separate excel worksheet which has been provided. The risks that you have identified for your financial forecast are: Interest rates risks Inflation which will lead to changes in the cost of sales Inability to achieve the intended sales Poor estimation of the costs of goods Poor repayment by the creditors, compromising the liquidity of the company Happening of events which will make the company unable to repay the bank loan it borrowed, and thereby threatening foreclosure. How you will minimise their impact: The risk of the loan which was taken by the company can be reduced through the use of hedging financial instruments such as derivatives. The finance department to do an evaluation of the market from time to time so as to know whether there is any change which is expected in the market. It is essay, only then that the company can take corrective action. The company should restrict the credits it offers, at least during the steps an analytical, first year of operations, or until it can determine the creditworthiness of the person who is seeking the credits. When estimating the costs of on poverty conclusion goods and other capital equipment, regard should be had on the upper margin. It is better to be overstated that being understated because this is a new business.
However, it is unfortunate that most of the factors which give rise to king arthur paper financial risks are external to the firm, and on poverty conclusion the firm has no control over them. Factors such as inflation and the fluctuation of money markets cannot be controlled by the company. 24 Cashflow forecast (Use the tabs within the Microsoft Excel work sheet to view the second 6 months and summary) You only need to complete the VAT line in the cashflow forecast if you are VAT registered. For information about VAT, VAT threshold, VAT schemes and steps an analytical turnover threshold, please visit the HMRC website: VAT rates, thresholds, fuel scale charges, exchange rates. Please note that if you are VAT registered all sales and costs records should be entered excluding VAT.
If you are not VAT registered then you will need to include VAT in your costs where it is charged. This has been done on the Microsoft Excel worksheet which has been uploaded differently.
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BEA WebLogic Server JBoss Apache Tomcat EntireX Apache Ant (including writing custom tasks) Apache Xerces, Xalan Rational Rose Eclipse JBuilder (incl. Leo Lionni Term Paper! WebLogic Ed.) Visual SlickEdit JCreator Vim, Vi CVS, WinCVS, SmartCVS, CVSNT Subversion MKS Source Integrity Visual SourceSafe JClass libraries JThreadKit SimpleServlets ProgramixGenericLib Dash-O Pro. Linux - Kubuntu, Ubuntu, Fedora Solaris Unix and other Unix flavors Windows 95/98/NT/2000/XP. Programix Incorporated, Plymouth, MN. July 2004 - present. Java Consultant and Mentor, Minnesota Department of Human Services, St. Paul, MN. Architected, designed, and lead development of the MEC 2 Integration Project for essay conclusion childcare assistance. This Java Web Start client and Java Servlet middle tier-based system was created to replace a browser-based system that was previously developed.
This system is thesis begins with, used by both county and state workers in Minnesota to determine eligibility for child care assistance, fight fraud by both families seeking assistance and by childcare providers, and to streamline the process from essay conclusion initial family application through provider payment. The architecture consists of a Swing-based Java Web Start (JNLP) client that serializes objects over an HTTPS connection to a Java Servlet middle tier. The middle tier connects through EntireX to king research outline Natural code which talks to an Adabas database that contains both this new child care information and essay, information on other Department of Human Services programs. Trained 40 state employees who where mainframe programmers with no Java or object-oriented experience. These employees were trained in essay, Java, UML, JDBC, XML, Serlvets and JSP's, and Java Web Start part-time during normal business hours over several months.
There were three groups trained over a period of a few years with breaks between groups. Mentored the newly trained state employees in Java as they developed the new child care assistance application. Encouraged the use of open-source tools to save the essay on poverty conclusion taxpayers' money, including the use of paper, Eclipse, Ant, Tomcat, Linux, CVS, and essay on poverty, Subversion. Continued to support a small team of state employees who were maintaining the easy steps old, browser-based (JSP, Struts, WebLogic, Microsoft SQL Server) child care assistance application while the replacement application was being developed. Used Java EE and Java SE technologies: JNLP, Java Web Start, Swing, Object Serialization, XML, Java Servlets; ProgramixGenericLib toolkit; UML diagrams for on poverty design; Eclipse 3.0, 3.1, and 3.2 for editing; CVS, WinCVS, SmartCVS, CVSNT, and easy to writing an analytical essay, Subversion for version control; and Ant for builds.
Metropolitan State University, St. Paul, MN. August 2004 - present. Adjunct Professor - Information and Computer Sciences Department - Evenings. Taught ICS 462 - Operating Systems semester-long course. Taught ICS 492 - XML and Java three-evening seminar. Programix Incorporated, Plymouth, MN. March 1998 - present.
Java Instructor - Evening, Weekday, and Weekend classes, Twin Cities, MN. Instructor for both Java 2 Standard Edition (J2SE) and Java 2 Enterprise Edition (J2EE) training courses. J2SE courses: Intro to Java (Java I), Advanced Java (Java II), Core Java - Part A, Core Java - Part B, and Threads and Java. On Poverty! J2EE courses: Database Access with JDBC, XML and Java, Java Servlets and JSP, EJB - Enterprise JavaBeans, and Java Web Start Advanced n-tier Development classes. Delivered courses to various clients: Minnesota Department of Revenue, St.
Paul, MN Dakota County Technical College, Eagan, MN Minneapolis Community Technical College, Minneapolis, MN Blue Cross Blue Shield, Eagan, MN Lockheed Martin, Eagan, MN Cap Gemini Ernst Young, Edina, MN Compuware, Bloomington, MN CIBER Inc., Eagan, MN Developed curricula for statement begins with in this all classes including quizzes, examples, and on poverty, graded lab projects. Used Ant and term, Eclipse as tools (including teaching the students how to use these tools). Consistently received outstanding student evaluations. Programix Incorporated, Plymouth, MN. October 2003 - June 2004. Java Consultant and Mentor, Minnesota Department of essay conclusion, Human Services, St. Paul, MN. Participated in nursery, the development of the MEC 2 childcare assistance project.
Architected, designed, and developed the AMR Navigator 3-tier interactive configuration, status, and reporting system. This system is used by electric and gas utility companies to monitor product usage, infrastructure events (like power outages), live polling of individual meters, and many more tasks to add efficiency to essay the utility companies' operations and demand planning. Thesis Begins In This Essay! Java Web Start was used on on poverty the client tier to build a highly interactive client which utilized multiple threads for steps an analytical simultaneous background tasks, custom graphical components, and the HTTP protocol to serialize objects up to (and back from) a Java Servlet middle-tier. Java Servlet technology was used on the middle tier to respond to serialized object requests. The servlet had extensive security and server-side session storage to essay on poverty conclusion streamline communication with the client tier. JDBC was used by the servlet to communicate with an Oracle database. Used Java Web Start (JNLP technology); J2EE Servlets running on Tomcat, JRun and BEA WebLogic; JDBC and SQL to talk to Oracle; Java stored procedures inside the Oracle database; UML diagrams for comparison thesis statement design; Swing; Reflection API; Serialization; Collections API; TCP/IP socket networking; Java 2D API for printing; extensive multithreading; JClass libraries; Vim and Eclipse for editing; CVS and WinCVS for version control; Ant for builds. Programix Incorporated, Plymouth, MN. July 2000 - November 2006. Chief Architect, Designer, Developer for JThreadKit.
Architected, designed, and developed JThreadKit multithreading utilities commercial product (see jthreadkit.com). JThreadKit is essay on poverty conclusion, a collection of Java API's which greatly accelerate the development of solid, thread-safe applications. Designed and developed the all classes and interfaces in the library. Architected, designed, and developed the good contrast thesis custom software key system that allows for developers to use a fully functional version of conclusion, JThreadKit for up to 30 days. King! After 30 this free trial period, the libraries go into a lockout mode until a purchased software key is input. Essay On Poverty! After the software key is rhymes writing, validated, the libraries return to a fully operational mode. Architected, designed, and developed the OS-independent installer application.
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Architected, designed, and participated in the development of a site builder application that is used to regenerate the a good statement with essay i will web site pages quickly and efficiently while adding the essay on poverty conclusion header, trailer, and navigation bar. This site builder tool runs in two modes, one mode to generate the web site for upload to research paper the web server, the essay conclusion other mode to generate a portion of the linguistic essay site for the documentation that gets put on the developer's machine during the installation process. Handled the business-side of JThreadKit including marketing, advertising, and the outsourced connection for essay the e-commerce purchase of software keys. Programix Incorporated, Plymouth, MN. January 2001 - November 2002. Java Consultant, Simplex Technology, Culver City, CA. Architected, designed, and developed multiple business computing modules using Java Web Start technology and plain Java Applets for web-page delivered simplicity. Applications include regression analysis, moving average, exponential smoothing, minimization of transportation costs, linear programming, along with many others. Created client-side graphs of term, data and results using Java2D API. Essay On Poverty! Created detailed printed pages with textual data and charts using the Java 2D Printing API.
Used Java Web Start (JNLP) technology, Swing, and steps an analytical essay, Visual SlickEdit. Programix Incorporated, Plymouth, MN. June 2001 - December 2001. Java Consultant, Circus Software, Edina, MN. Participated in on poverty conclusion, the analysis, design, and development of the RingMaster system. Architected, designed, and developed the client side of this n-tier product, which is a Swing-based application that makes extensive use of the drag-and-drop idiom. Essay! Built several custom components using the Model-View-Controller architecture including a custom dragging solution. Explored use of Java Web Start and EJB technologies. Utilized elements of the Extreme Programming approach (especially pair programming, coding standards, and writing test cases first).
Used Java Web Start (JNLP technology); UML diagrams in Visio for design; Swingextensively; Reflection API; Serialization; Collections API; multithreading; JClass libraries; Vim and Visual SlickEdit for essay on poverty conclusion editing; CVS and nursery, WinCVS for on poverty version control. Programix Incorporated, Plymouth, MN. October 2001 - November 2001. Java Consultant, Notiva, Bloomington, MN. Participated on good contrast statement the architecture and design of Notiva's business-to-business system for streamlining the reconciliation of invoices, purchase orders, and other billing processes. Worked with J2EE and J2SE technologies including JSP's, Servlets, Java Web Start, EJB's, BEA WebLogic, Apache Tomcat, and RedHat Linux. Programix Incorporated, Plymouth, MN. June 2001 - September 2001. Java Instructor, Minnesota Midrange Solutions, Plymouth, MN.
Instructor for Swing, HTML, Servlets/JSP, Unified Modeling Language (UML), and Object-Oriented Design Patterns classes. Essay On Poverty! Taught students how to use the following tools: JBuilder, Oracle (connecting via JDBC from JBuilder and Tomcat), Visio 2000 (for UML modeling), and Apache Tomcat (for Servlets and JSP). Received excellent student evaluations. Programix Incorporated, Plymouth, MN. May 2000 - March 2001. Java Consultant, Digital Cyclone, Minnetonka, MN. Participated in the development of the My-Cast.com local weather forecasting system. Worked extensively with Java 2 including threads, TCP/IP sockets, Swing, Java 2D, Java Servlets, and leo lionni, JDBC on the Solaris Unix platform along with the Oracle RDBMS.
Designed and built a high-availability middle tier that cached hundreds of megabytes of data. This data was refreshed at essay 3-hour intervals. Good! A key element of the design was to recycle large data structure objects to ease the burden on the garbage collector (without the recycling, garbage collection would sometimes freeze up the conclusion application for long periods of time - up to ten minutes!). This server was multithreaded and was able to quickly and safely handle simultaneous data requests coming in over TCP/IP socket connections. Architected, designed, and thesis statement with in this essay i will, developed a browser-based status and configuration administration tool. On Poverty Conclusion! This Java Servlet-based tool generated forms and HTML pages used to term convey the current status of on poverty, various servers behind the scenes in the My-Cast system. Leo Lionni Term! The servlet also facilitated the on-the-fly changing of some configuration parameters of the essay on poverty conclusion servers being monitored.
Architected, designed, and developed a browser-based load-testing tool. This Java servlet-based tool generated a form to accept testing parameters and then launched background threads to load test a server with thousands of simultaneous requests. The timing results of the load testing were calculated and displayed by essay writing, the servlet. Used J2EE Servlets running on essay on poverty conclusion Tomcat and arthur research paper, iPlanet; JDBC and SQL to conclusion talk to Oracle; extensive multithreading and TCP/IP networking; Swing; Reflection API; Serialization; Collections API; Java 2D API; Sun's Solaris Unix for research outline the development environment, Vim for on poverty editing; CVS for a good thesis version control. Programix Incorporated, Minneapolis, MN. January 1998 - May 2000. Java Consultant, Sylvan Prometric, Edina, MN.
Collaborated in the design of a distributed, n-tier Client/Server application. Design goals included creating a very thin client capable of running in a browser or as a stand-alone application. Design also called for a highly scalable server capable of load balancing with other servers. Worked extensively with Java 1.1 and 1.2 including threads, TCP/IP sockets, image processing, and AWT (including building custom lightweight components), Swing, Java 2D, Java Servlets, XML parsing, JDBC, and RMI. Explored early EJB technologies. Explored early Java Web Start technology.
Used Object Oriented Analysis (OOA) and Object Oriented Design (OOD) techniques using Unified Modeling Language (UML) and Rational Rose. Used JBuilder, Kawa, Vi, Vim, MKS Source Integrity, and Sybase RDBMS. Assisted in the evaluation and on poverty conclusion, recruitment of a good thesis statement begins with essay, additional development staff. Programix Incorporated, Minneapolis, MN. May 1997 - January 1998. Java Consultant, TECo Incorporated, Edina, MN. Coded Java applications on both client-side and server-side using JDBC, RMI, TCP/IP sockets, and advanced multithreading.
Lead the design of Java software architecture for distributed computing. ATT and Lucent Technologies, Whippany, NJ. February 1995 - January 1997. Head Software Designer and System Architect, Environment and essay on poverty conclusion, Safety Systems Development Group. Led investigation of research paper outline, distributed processing model to support a Graphical User Interface for new applications.
Conceived, designed, and led implementation of software architecture for new systems including the processing split between the conclusion clients and the server. Contrast Statement! Designed and administered databases using the Informix Online Dynamic Server 7.1. Performed routine UNIX system administration and hardware/software upgrades on the Sun Microsystems hardware. Assisted in the analysis phase, which included data modeling and graphical user interface design for on poverty a safety system that was being re-engineered. Arthur Research! Designed, coded, and tested application software written in essay conclusion, HTML, CGI scripts, C, Informix ESQL/C, Informix 4GL, Informix Stored Procedure Language, PowerBuilder, and king arthur research paper, UNIX shell scripts. On Poverty! Investigated and developed prototype Java applications for future project development. King Paper! Led development team in software engineering principles. The Chubb Institute, Parsippany, NJ. December 1995 - February 1997. Client/Server Curriculum Instructor - Evenings. Instructor for Sybase, UNIX, and essay on poverty, C courses in the Client/Server curriculum.
Developed 250-page student guide for Sybase class. ATT, Whippany, NJ. July 1992 - January 1995. Software Developer, Environment and Safety Systems Development Group. Designed, coded, and tested application software in C, Informix ESQL/C, Informix 4GL, and nursery rhymes writing, UNIX Korn shell scripts. Conceived, proposed, and essay conclusion, led migration of applications from Amdahl mainframe to a Sun Microsystems SPARCserver 1000 for a significant cost savings and performance improvement. Configured, assembled, and cutover to Sun 1000 running the Solaris 2.4 UNIX System V Release 4 operating system. Performed routine UNIX system administration and hardware/software upgrades. July 1990 - June 1992. Support Engineer, Northeastern Regional Technical Assistance Center. Provided 24-hour support of 5ESS Digital Switching System to NYNEX, Southern New England Telephone, Rochester Telephone, and paper, ATT Installation.
Worked to provide customer approved solutions. Experience with politically hot problems involving upper management of external customers. Database administrator and essay on poverty, developer for customer trouble tracking system used internally.
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Writing the A2 Art Personal Study: examples, help and guidance. February 8, 2017 by essay on poverty, Amiria Gale. This article has been written for nursery rhymes writing CIE A Level Art students who are working on essay on poverty conclusion their A2 Art Personal Study. It focuses purely on how to write the text of the Study; a previous article outlines how to come up with a good topic; a future article will address the illustrations and presentation methods. The Personal Study is an area of uncertainty for many A Level Art students. It differs from projects that are usually completed within high school Art programmes, as it involves a substantial written component (maximum 3,500 words) – something which can intimidate students, especially if they are unfamiliar with how to critically analyse an artwork, make informed judgements and write personal evaluations. With few examples of quality Personal Studies available, it can be difficult to know what is expected and how to a good thesis statement begins with i will begin. This article aims to ease this uncertainty and to make the Personal Study a more easily understood Component. This is the cover page of an conclusion, A* Personal Study by Nikau Hindin, exploring the topic: ‘Identity, Consumerism, Popular Culture: How Composition Conveys a Message’. The project analyses artwork by New Zealand artist Kelsy Taratoa. The Personal Study should be comprised of informed personal views – that is, views that are supported and shaped by an in-depth understanding of the paper outline, issues discussed.
Before starting the project, students should conduct thorough background research, selecting and recording information from second-hand sources (such as books, websites and other publications) and first-hand sources (interviews with artists, studio visits / gallery visits etc). Interviews with artists should be planned thoroughly, after preliminary second-hand research has been completed (as findings from research will suggest important issues to discuss with the conclusion, artist). Students are often uncertain about how to phrase questions, so sample questions have been included below (the exact questions asked will depend on the topic and focus of the study): Please talk me through the process you follow when designing your paintings. Do you work instinctively, directly onto the canvas, or are your works pre-planned, using sketches and photographs? What influences your choice of colour? I am interested particularly in the colours used in essay, [insert name of essay painting/s].
Could you explain your thought process behind the use of colour in good comparison contrast thesis statement, this work, particularly the essay on poverty conclusion, [give example]? I notice that your work has been described as [insert relevant comment from second-hand sources]. Research Paper. Do you agree with this statement? How do you respond to this? I notice that [insert an conclusion, aesthetic feature of their artwork i.e. ‘angular line’ or ‘organic form’] is easy steps essay, a dominant feature of your work. Is this strongly connected to the ideas that you are exploring?
Have you used these elements deliberately? Can you show me work in progress or semi-complete artwork? I would love to understand the process you go through and how you apply media at different stages. Are there any tips you would give to someone who was attempting to essay emulate your painting style? Which artists have influenced your work? In what way has your work been shaped by others people, events or situations? 2. Evaluate and interpret research findings. Conducting research is thesis statement begins in this, critical for essay on poverty creating an excellent Personal Study, however, it should be noted that submitting research on its own will not gain a student any marks. Photocopying, cutting and pasting or transcribing information from other sources is not acceptable. In This Essay I Will. Examiners do not want to read long lists of facts or chronological sequences of events.
They do not want long-winded technical processes or the inclusion of broad periods of art history; nor entire interviews with artists (interviews can be submitted as part of an appendix if necessary). Students should not include an extensive artist biography (only brief and relevant details are needed) nor include vast passages of text that have been regurgitated from other sources. Instead, students must select the information which is relevant and essay on poverty, analyse this in detail, evaluating and interpreting findings in relation to nursery rhymes writing the focus of their study . Research should be used to on poverty help form intelligent, knowledgeable, personal responses : to explain, justify or support the viewpoints, judgements and conclusions that are presented. Evidence of research might be demonstrated, for example, through the use of carefully chosen quotes (to support or contrast the a good thesis with in this, student’s own ideas) or through the inclusion of correct terminology and on poverty conclusion, background knowledge to king research communicate an in-depth understanding of relevant issues. Evidence might also be indicated photographically, with images depicting first-hand meetings between the essay on poverty conclusion, student and artist/s. This Personal Study by CIE A2 Level Art and Design student Alice Ham, from ACG Parnell College, shows a cleverly selected quote alongside images by New Zealand charcoal artist Liam Gerrard. Alice was awarded full marks (100%) for this component (99% overall for A Level).
A carefully composed Personal Study page for 9704 CIE Art and thesis, Design. 3. Structure the Personal Study in a logical and clear manner. Before writing the essay on poverty, Personal Study, students should plan the content, order and structure of their study thoroughly (often in conjunction with planning the layout of their project – this will discussed in more detail in a subsequent post). This should include headings and subheadings of material discussed and rough diagrams indicating how this will be supported by images. The proposed structure should then be checked and approved by a teacher, with recommendations and easy to writing an analytical, clear guidance given. While the essay conclusion, structure of each Personal Study will differ, depending on the topic chosen, every study should follow the basic format outlined below: Introduction . This is where students outline the thesis statement begins in this i will, purpose, focus or mission of their study. This may include question/s they are going to answer; themes they are going to explore; issues they hope to address etc.
It should set the scene for the project and may include reasons for selecting a topic and on poverty, an indication of how / why the topic is linguistic essay, of personal relevance or interest to the student. Essay Conclusion. It is important that the intentions of the essay, project are clearly set out in this section, so that the remainder of the project can be structured accordingly. Body . On Poverty. This is the main part of the Personal Study and will need careful thought. It is usually organised into separate sections (which may be formal chapters, or simply different areas of comparison thesis statement a visual study), usually with individual headings and sometimes sub-headings. (I recommend wording headings so that they sum up the material contained – i.e. ‘ Analysis of Composition: [artwork title] ’ rather than ‘ Chapter 3 ’. This means that the examiner is able to see immediately that the student has covered a range of appropriate areas). The sections should be ordered logically and address the focus of the project; they should NOT ramble haphazardly from one issue to the next.
High school Art students have a tendency to write without any preconceived order or structure, discussing issues spontaneously as they think of them. While this can be a suitable approach for essay more creative writing tasks – and can pulled off by certain students – this strategy runs the risk of creating a muddled and incoherent Personal Study. Conclusion . This is where students summarise key points from the project, arrive at final conclusions and make considered personal judgements about what has been learnt. This is research paper outline, one of the essay on poverty conclusion, concluding paragraphs in a Personal Study by Nikau Hindin (who achieved 98% for CIE A Level Art while studying at ACG Parnell College), entitled ‘ Identity, Consumerism Popular Culture: How composition conveys a message ‘. The project was focused upon easy steps an analytical, the analysis of artwork by New Zealand artist Kelcy Taratoa, with comparisons made with the work of American artist Bill Barminski: Taratoa’s use of composition helps convey his message concerning identity construction. The arrangement of elements is symbolic of an unconscious hierarchy within his paintings that forces the viewer to question and analyse them. The contents of the paintings can be identified, as they reflect New Zealand society. Taratoa’s use of essay on poverty conclusion colour is vibrant and king research outline, modern, echoing the essay conclusion, technological era we live in.
Barminski has a more dynamic and humorous approach to conveying his message. He mocks consumerism with his witty and blunt slogans and replications of consumer products. While these two artists are very different, they both communicate their own attitudes about society. Making a political statement through your paintings forces an arthur research paper outline, audience to engage. Conclusion. Ultimately we want our art to be remembered and admired and I think if the message of a painting is clear then the viewer is more likely to thesis statement begins with in this essay go away and think about it. Paintings are a powerful tool to communicate a meaning that is deeper than the 2mm of paint on a canvas. Paintings are an artist’s voice. Bibliography / References / Acknowledgements . This should list any resources that students have used in their project, including books, websites, articles and videos. It might also include sources of conclusion first-hand information, such as museums, galleries or websites, as well as acknowledgements, thanking the artist for their time.
While examiners are sympathetic towards a student whose first language is not English, a similar sympathy does not extend towards those who submit sloppy, poorly edited material. Just as it is expected that a Coursework project should contain beautiful well-composed artwork, a Personal Study is expected to contain well-structured, well-edited material. Linguistic Essay. Even if a student has chosen to produce a largely visual project, submitting a sequence of annotated images, the text should communicate with intention and the writing quality should match that achieved by an A Level English student. Poor grammar, spelling errors and essay on poverty, ‘txt’ speak are inexcusable. As with any important written project, drafts should be rewritten and refined several times: chapters re-arranged; paragraphs and annotation reorganised; repetitive material, waffle and unnecessary regurgitation eliminated. Teachers, parents and friends can all be recruited to paper outline read through drafts, highlighting spelling errors and identifying areas where the conclusion, writing is comparison thesis, muddled. Essay. While the work must of research paper outline course remain entirely that of the student, feedback from a fresh set of eyes is invaluable. A Personal Study should include an conclusion, appropriate range of essay writing Art related terms and vocabulary. While the exact words used will be dependent upon essay, the nature and focus of the study, there are a number of general Art-specific terms which students should be familiar with (these will be listed, with their definitions, in arthur, an upcoming article). Use of appropriate vocabulary helps to fulfil the ‘Knowledge and critical understanding’ assessment criteria.
As the essay on poverty, title indicates, a Personal Study must communicate distinctly personal opinions, insights, judgements and responses, demonstrating a clear engagement with the artwork studied. This excerpt from an linguistic essay, 100% OCR A Level Art Personal Study by Yantra Scott entitled ‘ An investigation into essay conclusion, gender roles in contemporary art ‘ illustrates this: I first encountered Sarah Lucas whist briskly strolling through the to writing essay, crowded rooms of the Tate. Amongst oils and finely crafted sculpture my eyes were transfixed in a two-way glare with a slightly butch, totally intense woman, with eggs for essay on poverty t*ts. Ever since then I’ve been hooked.
It is evident that Yantra not only visited and viewed artwork in the flesh, but had a strong personal reaction to it. It could never be assumed that this segment had been reworded from a textbook: it is absolutely the words of a passionate high school Art student. Although Yantra uses coarse language within her study (something which should be emulated with caution) this project is an exceptional example of an intelligent and personal response to a good thesis begins with i will a topic. (More of Yantra’s work, as well as the essay on poverty conclusion, entire text of her study, can be read in full on the great Julia Stubbs’ website). Similarly, this quote from an 88% OCR A2 Art Personal Study (one of the examples given in the OCR A2 Art Exemplar Work – Personal Study document) shows a personal response integrated within the analysis of Damien Hurst’s work, illustrated below. The glass is begins with in this essay, thick, so thick that it is intimidating. It is as if it is holding something terrible back. It makes you question the formaldehyde and query, what if the tank did break? The formaldehyde is not clear as I expected but is essay, quite strongly coloured by a blue and green pigment. With I Will. This colour is on poverty, very clinical and has the connotations of a hospital…
The musings about the tank breaking and the formaldehyde differing from expectations are clearly the good contrast thesis, individual thoughts of a high school art student. Some Comfort Gained from the essay, Acceptance of the Inherent Lies in Everything 2006, Damien Hurst. Within the Personal Study, students must demonstrate an understanding of cultural context – an a good thesis statement with in this essay, understanding that an artist does not create work in on poverty, isolation, but rather creates work that is shaped and influenced by linguistic, the circumstance/s they finds themselves in. This might mean that discussion of the influence of natural, social, political or cultural environments is on poverty, appropriate, or that – as is more common – the influence of other artists is discussed, with comparisons made between artwork that has been created in similar or differing contexts. ‘One night in a good begins with essay i will, Mong Kok’ by Akif Hakan Celebi.
The excerpt below is from a CIE A Level Art and Design Personal Study by essay conclusion, Tirion Jenkins, of YMCA of Hong Kong Christian College. Titled ‘Alternative Fashion Photography’, her Personal Study was awarded Best in Hong Kong (2012) and includes analysis of ‘One night in Mong Kok’ by photographer Akif Hakan Celebi. Tirion demonstrates a clear understanding of the interrelationship between a photographer’s work and statement begins, the setting in which it was created. The setting itself creates an intoxicating atmosphere with the essay on poverty, rows of king arthur research paper outline fluorescent light bulbs and layers of essay on poverty conclusion luminous signs that form an endless maze of gaudy colours. However, the setting does not overwhelm the two models who draw my eyes despite the signs above them. They create the comparison contrast, focal point of the image through the use of the rule of thirds as they are placed off-centre and through their quirky appearance which magnetises the eye towards them. They seem to belong to a different world to essay the passersby behind them with their flare of red hair and audacious choice of feathered flittered clothes. Akif has further crafted the leo lionni paper, image through the use of makeup as their chalk white faces further segregates and emphasises their surreal doll-like appearances.
…Akif’s pictures are reminiscent of Japanese cinema which he says he is so influenced by. “I like…its writhed and crazy stories; I feel very close to that way of looking at the world.” This photograph is particularly mystical due to essay the vibrant and decorative bokeh of Hong Kong’s street lights in the background. The core of the A2 Art Personal Study is the essay, in-depth analysis of selected artist works. On Poverty Conclusion. Some of these artworks must be viewed in person, however it is common (and completely acceptable) for students to analyse work from a combination of begins with essay primary and essay on poverty, secondary sources. In the best studies, artworks are chosen specifically to easy to writing an analytical facilitate the discussion of on poverty issues which are relevant to the study. The advice in this section is particularly important and should be read closely by steps an analytical essay, students who are hoping to achieve a high grade for on poverty their Personal Study. When analysing artwork, it is helpful to linguistic essay analyse the work in terms of composition, format, structure and visual elements (such as shape, line, texture, colour, space, tone) . Students might de-construct an conclusion, artwork and nursery, view it in on poverty conclusion, terms of a single visual element and/or discuss how the visual elements interact, relate, contrast, balance and connect with one another. Descriptions of important terms have been included below to aid this process: Composition is the placement or organisation of visual elements within an artwork – the way these have been composed, combined or ‘put together’. A Good Statement Begins With I Will. Composition may be instinctual or the result of elaborate planning (or a combination of both). A ‘compositional device’ is an aspect of a composition which has a certain effect (such as the use of frames within frames, which might help create a sense of distance or space within an artwork).
Format is the overall shape, size and orientation (portrait or landscape) of an artwork, i.e. whether a work is painted on a long, horizontal oblong canvas, or upon a vertically orientated A4 portrait board. Format can be influenced by practical considerations (i.e. the nature and shape of the essay on poverty, object or scene depicted) as well as being an research paper, active decision by the artist to help communicate a particular meaning or idea. The structure of an artwork is the essay, organisation of basic forms within a composition (this will be illustrated in more detail in the subsequent post focusing on imagery). Lines are a visual element that can direct a viewer’s gaze and create a visual path. These can direct attention to a focal point and nursery rhymes writing, create depth through perspective or horizon lines. Essay On Poverty. Different lines can create different effects: hard angular lines provoke a different response than soft, organic lines, for example.
Repetition of lines can create a sense of movement or rhythm. Shape is a visual element that is created by the junction of lines or changes in tone: the perceived boundaries of form. Larger shapes can become dominant focal points within an linguistic, artwork; similar shapes can be repeated to create balance and create unity / visual harmony. Shapes can be symbolic, i.e. they can represent more complex forms and carry meaning. As with lines, the essay on poverty, types of shapes used can communicate certain feelings – rigorous ordered shapes tend to create a different mood than irregular, free-flowing shapes. Shapes might also be used to create borders / frames and thesis begins essay, boundaries that connect, overlap or intersect, perhaps helping to draw viewers from the foreground / middle-ground to background.
Space – the absence of form – is an often overlooked visual element. Described as being either positive (the space contained within the boundary of an object) or negative (the background space in and around an object), space can determine how busy and cluttered a painting is. A busy composition can overwhelm a viewer; a simple and sparse composition may appear boring. Essay. Careful integration of space is fundamental to thesis statement any artwork. Form is a visual element that is usually discussed more easily in relation to three dimensional objects (as three-dimensional forms are usually described within two dimensional works in terms of shape, tone and line). Colour (or hue) is a visual element that is often discussed in combination with tone(how light or dark a colour appears). Essay Conclusion. Colour can affect the mood of an artwork due to colour associations – i.e. blue might indicate sadness. Tone can help to communicate a sense of distance (items that are further away generally appear lighter – due to ‘atmospheric perspective’). Both tone and colour can be used to create contrast within an artwork, attracting the term, viewer’s attention and helping to essay conclusion create focal areas. Alternatively, both tone and colour can be used to create harmonious, peaceful non-contrasting areas. Rhymes Essay Writing. Use of light and shadow or warm and conclusion, cool might also be an important area to discuss.
Texture can be real (the result of brush strokes, irregularities in steps to writing, materials, and the application of a range of materials) or implied…i.e. a surface that is made to on poverty conclusion looktextured. As with the linguistic essay, other visual elements, texture should be integrated so that it balances and becomes an aesthetically pleasing addition to an artwork. Surface qualities – along with other detailed areas and intricate patterns – are only able to be appreciated fully when viewed in person. It should be noted here that students should not submit reams of text explaining how certain visual elements affect artworks in general, but rather use this knowledge to write informed analysis about the artworks in question. Here is another example by Nikau Hindin, discussing the use of line in paintings by Kelcy Taratoa. This text was accompanied by essay, diagrams illustrating the linear elements in the artwork. …Taratoa uses strong angular forms that create diagonal perspective lines. These lines are called ‘leading lines’ and direct us to the focal point of king paper outline this painting, which is a portrait of Taratoa. They also lead our eyes past him and make us look at the background. This helps to convey Taratoa’s message that one’s identity is linked to social circumstance, upbringing (background) and popular culture.
Street markings form white lines and also draw our attention to the focal point. Street markings represent paths and therefore they may be paths to finding and constructing ones identity. Essay. They create a sense of movement and highlight the direction one’s eyes should travel within the essay, painting. The street markings in ‘Episode 007’ are curvaceous which creates movement. The curvy lines mirror the organic forms of the superhero’s muscular body, creating a visual link. Essay Conclusion. In ‘Episode 0010’ the nursery rhymes essay writing, repetition of line of the zebra crossing creates a sense of rhythm and leads us to the portrait of Taratoa in the left corner. Horizontal lines are repeated in the background of the painting to unite separate parts of the painting. As well as the aesthetic qualities discussed above, most students also include sections where they analyse artwork in terms of materials, processes, stylistic influences, techniques (use of media) . For some, this is the primary focus of the Personal Study. This might include analysis of the way an essay on poverty, artist has applied paint to a canvas (mark-making, brush strokes), the sequence of building up layers of comparison statement paint over a prepared ground, or the sequence of events involved in creating a graphic design: from conceptual sketches, development of ideas, construction in Photoshop, through to proofing, paper selection and final printing. On Poverty Conclusion. It might involve discussion about the way a composition is planned and designed and linguistic essay, then the various processes that are undertaken in its completion.
It might include cultural contexts and stylistic influences from other artists. In any sections of the Personal Study which are dedicated to essay on poverty conclusion process and technique, it is important to note (as mentioned above) that the a good thesis with essay i will, examiners do not want the regurgitation of essay long, technical processes, but rather would like to see personal observations about easy to writing an analytical essay, how processes effect and influence the artwork that has been created. In all analysis of artwork, whether this involves discussion of composition, aesthetic qualities, cultural contexts, use of media, or approach to conclusion a theme, it is essay, important that students move beyond simple observations and essay on poverty conclusion, add perceptive, personal insight. For example, if a student notices that colour has been used to create strong contrast in certain areas of an artwork, they might follow this with a detailed and thoughtful assumption about a good begins with, why this is the case: for example, perhaps the contrast was created deliberately to on poverty draw attention to a focal point in nursery rhymes essay writing, the artwork, helping the artist to help convey thematic ideas. These personal insights could be backed up by earlier research, confirmed or suggested by the artist, or might be educated assumptions made by the student, based upon their own responses and personal interaction with the artwork. Some final recommendations are included below: ‘Analysis of artwork’ does not mean ‘description of artwork’ . Analysis means taking an artwork apart (thinking about it in terms of individual elements, such as line, or colour or technique), analysing these individually and/or in terms of how they relate to one another, and making personal observations and judgements, connecting this to the theme or focus of the assignment.
Saying “I like this” or “I don’t like this” without any further explanation or justification is not analysis . Writing should be carefully integrated with the images , so that it is clear which text relates to which images (this will be discussed more in the subsequent post). Alice Ham, a Year 13 student at ACG Parnell College (awarded 100% for her Personal Study) has produced some excellent analysis of essay conclusion artwork by steps to writing an analytical, Liam Gerrard: In most works (the exception usually applies to those done in commission) the focus of the essay, piece is centred, surrounded by empty space and never grounded through shadow or the like. This is another way in which Gerrard plays with commonly held opinions. Typically, a most aesthetically pleasing composition will follow the rule of term paper thirds – a well known ‘rule’ that correlates to the focus of artworks being offset within the composition, and the entire image being visually divided into 3 sections. On Poverty Conclusion. Liam has little care for this standardised rule, yet his compositions are visually pleasing all the same. King Arthur Research Paper Outline. I believe this could be because of the negative space, there is essay conclusion, no overcrowding and it allows the viewer to a good thesis begins essay i will focus on the subject. I also think this space is played upon in the display of the artwork. Conclusion. Galleries in general will have white or very light coloured walls so as not to distract from what is on display. By placing these white canvases on the white walls, hung without obvious framing, the good contrast, artwork is allowed to ‘flow’ into the viewer’s world, there is no line of essay conclusion separation.
This forces the viewer to a good thesis begins with essay study Gerrard’s pieces, and perhaps consider the personal message they address for the viewer in everyday life. Analysis of artwork within an A Level Art Personal Study by Alice Ham. Some of the text above has been reproduced here to aid ease of reading: The expression on the pig’s face is perhaps what would draw the viewer into this picture the most. It directly contradicts the essay conclusion, gruesome depiction of decapitation and appears almost to be laughing. This work like most of leo lionni paper Gerrard’s others is a single object centred on a stark white background. The amount of empty space in on poverty, this picture is nursery, very eye catching and directs the on poverty, viewer’s vision inwards, there is no chance of distraction by details in essay writing, a menial part of the work. Once again Gerrard uses charcoal in his personal style, leaving the artwork in on poverty, black and white. This lack of colour is cold, it presents the reality of the grisly scene without the embellishment of colours. This does not allow the good thesis statement, audience to be caught up in what is ‘pretty’ but forces them to take in every details in it’s highly realistic, and on poverty, perhaps disturbing, state.
The shock factor of this piece is emphasised ten- fold by the sheer size. It cannot be realised until you view this piece in reality, but being dwarfed looking up into a pig’s head captured mid laugh brings upon you a bizarre sense of steps to writing fascination. 9. Explain the relationship to Coursework (if appropriate) As explained in the previous post about essay on poverty conclusion, topic selection, it is no longer necessary that the Personal Study relate to a student’s Coursework project. If there is a strong relationship, however, students may wish to include a section in their Personal Study where relevant comparisons are made with their Coursework project. The maximum word count for CIE Art Design Personal Studies is essay, 3,500 words.
This is a maximum and fewer words is more than appropriate (especially in primarily visual studies). If a student is slightly over the word count, this is unlikely to be an issue (it is conclusion, rare that examiners would know your exact word count, as no-one is likely to count every word in a project from start to finish); however, if a student is significantly over the word limit, this is obvious and a problem, running the risk that the examiners will run out of time (or enthusiasm) to a good essay i will read your project in its entirety. Almost all cases of word count breaches come from students who have attempted to bulk up their study with unnecessary information from second-hand sources. Essay. If you are encroaching the linguistic, word limit, you should immediately ensure that you have not included supplementary research material or unnecessary information summarised from textbooks. Essay On Poverty Conclusion. If you are still battling with the word count and research paper, inclusion of material from second-hand sources is not an issue, you should re-edit your project, eliminating waffle, and ensuring you communicate succinctly. I encourage teachers to locate and essay on poverty conclusion, print the excerpts from Personal Studies that are included in nursery, the 9704 Standards booklet on the CIE Teachers’ password protected site, which can be downloaded as a PDF document from the A Level Art Design page. This document is essay on poverty, invaluable. Finally, we are actively looking for more examples of high achieving Personal Studies to share on the Student Art Guide. If you or someone you know someone who excelled in this Component, please read our submission guidelines for more information.
If you found this information helpful, you may wish to read the previous article in this series: How to select a great A2 Art Personal Study Topic or our overview of the CIE A Level Art: Personal Study. This article was written by Amiria Gale. Good Comparison Thesis. Amiria has been a teacher of essay Art Design and a Curriculum Co-ordinator for seven years, responsible for the course design and assessment of Art and Design work in two high-achieving Auckland schools. Amiria has a Bachelor of Architectural Studies, Bachelor of paper Architecture (First Class Honours) and a Graduate Diploma of Teaching. She is a CIE Accredited Art Design Coursework Assessor. Follow Student Art Guide on Pinterest. Join over 15,000 people who receive our free newsletter.
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Adiposity and cancer at major anatomical sites: umbrella review of the literature. Essay On Poverty. Objective To evaluate the strength and steps to writing validity of the evidence for on poverty conclusion the association between adiposity and risk of developing or dying from cancer. Design Umbrella review of systematic reviews and meta-analyses. Data sources PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and manual screening of retrieved references. Eligibility criteria Systematic reviews or meta-analyses of observational studies that evaluated the association between indices of adiposity and risk of developing or dying from cancer. Data synthesis Primary analysis focused on cohort studies exploring associations for continuous measures of adiposity.
The evidence was graded into comparison contrast thesis strong, highly suggestive, suggestive, or weak after applying criteria that included the statistical significance of the random effects summary estimate and conclusion of the largest study in linguistic essay, a meta-analysis, the number of cancer cases, heterogeneity between studies, 95% prediction intervals, small study effects, excess significance bias, and sensitivity analysis with credibility ceilings. Conclusion. Results 204 meta-analyses investigated associations between seven indices of linguistic essay, adiposity and developing or dying from 36 primary cancers and their subtypes. Of the 95 meta-analyses that included cohort studies and used a continuous scale to measure adiposity, only 12 (13%) associations for nine cancers were supported by on poverty, strong evidence. An increase in body mass index was associated with a higher risk of developing oesophageal adenocarcinoma; colon and rectal cancer in leo lionni term paper, men; biliary tract system and pancreatic cancer; endometrial cancer in premenopausal women; kidney cancer; and multiple myeloma. Weight gain and waist to hip circumference ratio were associated with higher risks of postmenopausal breast cancer in women who have never used hormone replacement therapy and endometrial cancer, respectively. The increase in the risk of developing cancer for essay every 5 kg/m 2 increase in good comparison thesis statement, body mass index ranged from essay, 9% (relative risk 1.09, 95% confidence interval 1.06 to 1.13) for rectal cancer among men to 56% (1.56, 1.34 to 1.81) for biliary tract system cancer.
The risk of postmenopausal breast cancer among women who have never used HRT increased by 11% for each 5 kg of weight gain in adulthood (1.11, 1.09 to 1.13), and the risk of endometrial cancer increased by 21% for each 0.1 increase in waist to hip ratio (1.21, 1.13 to 1.29). Five additional associations were supported by strong evidence when categorical measures of contrast statement, adiposity were included: weight gain with colorectal cancer; body mass index with gallbladder, gastric cardia, and ovarian cancer; and multiple myeloma mortality. Essay Conclusion. Conclusions Although the association of adiposity with cancer risk has been extensively studied, associations for to writing an analytical essay only 11 cancers (oesophageal adenocarcinoma, multiple myeloma, and cancers of the gastric cardia, colon, rectum, biliary tract system, pancreas, breast, endometrium, ovary, and essay on poverty kidney) were supported by strong evidence. Other associations could be genuine, but substantial uncertainty remains. Obesity is becoming one of the biggest problems in public health; evidence on paper, the strength of the associated risks may allow finer selection of those at higher risk of essay, cancer, who could be targeted for personalised prevention strategies. Cancer is a leading cause of death worldwide, with an estimated 12.7 million new cases and 7.6 million deaths from cancer annually.1 Excess body weight is associated with an rhymes writing, increased risk of developing and dying from many diseases, including cancer, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease.2 Obesity has become a major public health challenge3; its prevalence worldwide has more than doubled among women and essay on poverty tripled among men in the past four decades.4 The number of overweight and obese people has risen from approximately 857 million in rhymes, 1980 to 2.1 billion in conclusion, 2013.5. Several meta-analyses support the link between obesity and term paper cancer, but substantial heterogeneity exists between studies.6 The reported associations may be causal, but they may also be flawed, as inherent study biases such as residual confounding and on poverty selective reporting of positive results may exaggerate the effect of obesity on cancer.78910 A recent umbrella review found that, despite strong claims of a statistically significant association between type 2 diabetes and several cancers, only a fraction (14%) of the 27 studied associations were supported by robust evidence, without any potential bias.11. To summarise and evaluate the existing evidence and thesis statement appraise its quality, we performed an umbrella review of essay, systematic reviews and meta-analyses that investigated the association between adiposity indices and risk of developing or dying from cancer. Umbrella reviews systematically appraise the evidence on an entire topic across many meta-analyses of multiple putative risk factors on multiple outcomes.1112131415161718.
We searched PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews from inception to May 2015 for systematic reviews or meta-analyses that investigated the arthur association between adiposity indices and risk of developing or dying from any cancer using a predefined search algorithm (see the essay conclusion supplementary file for details of the algorithm). Adiposity indices were body mass index, waist circumference, hip circumference, waist to hip ratio, weight, weight gain, and weight loss from bariatric surgery. We hand searched the linguistic references of the retrieved systematic reviews and meta-analyses and the proceedings of relevant conferences for articles missed by the electronic search and essay conclusion unpublished data. Good Comparison Thesis Statement. We included systematic reviews and meta-analyses of observational epidemiological studies in essay conclusion, humans that assessed continuous or categorical measures of adiposity. Linguistic Essay. We excluded studies in which physical activity, height, or prenatal factors (such as birth weight or maternal obesity during pregnancy) were the on poverty exposures of interest and rhymes those in which cancer incidence or mortality were not the outcomes of interest. We excluded meta-analyses of prognostic studies that investigated cancer survival or other outcomes among patients with cancer and meta-analyses that did not include comprehensive data from on poverty, individual studies—such as relative risks, 95% confidence intervals, number of cases and with i will controls, or total population. When we found more than one meta-analysis on the same association between exposure and outcome, we included the one with the largest number of on poverty, primary studies to avoid duplication. We subsequently examined whether the summary estimates showed concordance between the comparison thesis included and conclusion duplicate meta-analyses. We extracted the name of the first author, year of publication, outcome, and exposure from each eligible systematic review or meta-analysis. Statement With In This Essay. From each individual study in a meta-analysis, we extracted the first author, year of on poverty conclusion, publication, epidemiological design, number of cases and controls in case-control studies or total population in thesis, cohort studies, maximally adjusted relative risk (odds ratio in case-control studies and hazard ratio or standardised incidence or mortality ratio in cohort studies) and 95% confidence intervals. Two investigators (IK, MK) independently searched the literature, assessed the eligibility of the retrieved papers, and on poverty conclusion extracted the nursery rhymes writing data.
Disagreements were resolved by essay, discussion with a third investigator (KT). Estimation of summary effect —For each exposure and outcome pair, we calculated the summary effect and the 95% confidence interval using fixed and random effects methods.19. King Outline. Assessment of conclusion, heterogeneity —The heterogeneity between studies was assessed with Cochran’s Q test20 and nursery writing the I 2 statistic.21 Substantial inconsistency could reflect either genuine heterogeneity between studies or bias. To assess the uncertainty around heterogeneity estimates, we calculated 95% confidence intervals.22. Estimation of prediction intervals —To further account for heterogeneity between studies we calculated 95% prediction intervals for the summary random effect estimates, which represent the range in which the effect estimates of future studies will lie.23. Assessment of essay on poverty conclusion, small study effects —We examined whether smaller studies gave higher risk estimates than larger studies, which is an king paper outline, indication of publication bias, true heterogeneity, or chance.1124 Indication of small study effects was based on the Egger’s regression asymmetry test (P?0.10) and on poverty whether the random effects summary estimate was larger than the point estimate of the largest study in the meta-analysis. Rhymes. Evaluation of on poverty conclusion, excess significance —We assessed excess significance bias by evaluating whether the observed number of studies with nominally statistically significant results (“positive” studies, P0.05) in the published literature was different from the expected number of studies with statistically significant results.25 The expected number of statistically significant studies in essay, each meta-analysis was calculated from the sum of the statistical power estimates for each component study using an algorithm from a non-central t distribution.2627 The power estimates of each component study depend on the plausible effect size for the tested association, which was assumed to be the conclusion effect of the largest study (that is, the smallest standard error) in each meta-analysis.28 Sensitivity analyses were conducted using the summary fixed and king arthur research paper outline random effects estimates as alternative plausible effect sizes. Excess significance for on poverty individual meta-analyses was determined at P?0.10.25. Credibility ceilings —We used credibility ceilings, a sensitivity analysis tool, to account for potential methodological limitations of observational studies that might lead to spurious precision of combined effect estimates.29 The main assumption of this method is that every observational study has a probability c (credibility ceiling) that the true effect size is in arthur research, a different direction from the one suggested by the point estimate. Essay Conclusion. The pooled effect size and the heterogeneity between studies were re-estimated using a wide range of credibility ceiling values.2930. Leo Lionni Paper. The associations between measures of adiposity and cancer were categorised into strong, highly suggestive, suggestive, or weak depending on the strength and validity of the evidence.131518 A strong association was claimed when the P value of the random effects meta-analysis was smaller than 10 ?6 , a threshold that might substantially reduce false positive findings313233 if the meta-analysis has more than 1000 cancer cases, the largest study in the meta-analysis is nominally statistically significant (P0.05), the I 2 statistic of heterogeneity between studies is on poverty conclusion, smaller than 50%, the 95% prediction intervals excludes the null value, small study effects or excess significance bias are not indicated, and the association survives a credibility ceiling of at least 10%.
The association was considered highly suggestive if P10 ?6 , the meta-analysis had more than 1000 cases, and the largest study in nursery, the meta-analysis was nominally statistically significant. On Poverty. The criteria for suggestive were: random effects P10 ?3 and the meta-analysis had more than 1000 cases. All other associations with a nominally statistically significant P value for the random effects meta-analysis were deemed to good contrast thesis statement provide weak evidence. The primary analysis in on poverty, this umbrella review focused on contrast thesis statement, cohort studies using continuous measures of adiposity, which was considered a more valid and standardised way of presenting and synthesising individual study estimates than using categorical measures. Sensitivity analyses were conducted using case-control studies and on poverty conclusion categorical measures. All statistical analyses were performed using Stata version 13 (College Station, TX),34 and all P values were two tailed. A Good Begins In This. No patients were involved in setting the on poverty conclusion research question or outcome measures, nor were they involved in developing plans for design or implementation of the study.
No patients were asked to advise on interpretation or writing up on comparison contrast thesis statement, results. The results will be disseminated to the general public through public presentations and the authors’ involvement in different charities. Characteristics of the meta-analyses. Overall, 49 eligible papers were identified that included a total of on poverty, 204 meta-analyses. These meta-analyses summarised 2179 individual study estimates from 507 unique cohort or case-control studies (fig 1 ? ).35363738394041424344454647484950515253545556575859606162636465666768697071727374757677787980818283 Of the 507 unique studies, 371 (73.2%) had a cohort design, 134 (26.4%) were case-control studies, and two (0.4%) were cross sectional studies. A median of 7 (range 2-72) study estimates were combined for each meta-analysis. The median number of nursery rhymes writing, cases and conclusion population or controls in each meta-analysis was 5645 and 1 766 389, respectively. A total of 177 meta-analyses had at least 1000 cancer cases. The 204 meta-analyses included associations between seven indices of adiposity (body mass index, waist circumference, hip circumference, waist to arthur research outline hip ratio, weight, weight gain, and weight loss through bariatric surgery) and the incidence (n=196) or mortality (n=8) from cancer at essay on poverty, 36 anatomical sites and by subtypes. Paper. A total of 194 meta-analyses included cohort studies (see supplementary tables 1 and 2).
Of these, 95 used a continuous scale to measure adiposity (for example, body mass index in adults or at around age 20 per 5 kg/m 2 , waist circumference per 10 cm, hip circumference per 10 cm, waist to hip ratio per 0.1, weight per essay conclusion 5 kg, and weight gain per 1 kg or 5 kg). Contrast Thesis. These 95 meta-analyses studied 28 different cancer sites or subtypes and essay on poverty included 818 individual study estimates, with body mass index in adults being investigated most frequently (n=57 meta-analyses). We identified more than one published meta-analysis with the same exposure and outcome pair for 11 cancers. Easy Steps To Writing An Analytical Essay. All duplicate meta-analyses showed agreement on the direction, magnitude, and on poverty conclusion statistical significance of the summary associations (see supplementary table 3). When we used a threshold of P0.05, the summary fixed effects estimates were significant in 76 of the 95 meta-analyses (80%) and the summary random effects were significant in 72 (76%) (see supplementary table 1 and supplementary figures 1-28). At a stricter threshold of P0.001, 66 (69%) and 59 (62%) meta-analyses produced significant summary results using the fixed and random effects models, respectively. At P10 ?6 , 54 (57%) and 35 (37%) meta-analyses were significant, respectively. Of those 35 meta-analyses, 31 found an increased risk of cancer with higher adiposity for research outline oesophageal adenocarcinoma, multiple myeloma, and cancers of the colon, rectum, liver, biliary tract system (cancers of on poverty, gallbladder, extrahepatic bile duct, and ampulla of Vater), pancreas, postmenopausal breast, endometrium, and kidney. Four of the 35 meta-analyses indicated an inverse association for oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma and term paper lung cancer. The magnitude of the observed summary random effect estimates ranged from 0.57 to 1.90; 61% of the estimates lay between 0.80 and essay on poverty conclusion 1.20 (fig 2 ? ). In meta-analyses with small variances a trend of summary effects towards 1.00 was observed. The largest study of thesis statement i will, each meta-analysis showed a nominally statistically significant association in 65 meta-analyses (68%), and the relative risks of the largest studies were more conservative (closer to null) than the essay conclusion summary random effects in 53 (56%) meta-analyses.
Fig 2 Association of meta-analysis summary effect sizes with inverse of the variance. The summary estimates were similar between men and research outline women for eight of conclusion, 11 cancers (oesophageal adenocarcinoma, oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma, multiple myeloma, leukaemia, and gastric, lung, kidney, and thyroid cancers). However, the linguistic incidence of colon and rectal cancer was higher per 5 kg/m 2 increase of essay, body mass index in men (relative risk 1.30, 95% confidence interval 1.25 to 1.35) and arthur outline 1.09 (1.06 to conclusion 1.13), respectively) than in women (1.12 (1.06 to 1.17) and term paper 1.02 (0.99 to conclusion 1.05), respectively). This was also true for other adiposity indices. Moreover, body mass index was associated with an increased risk of melanoma in men (relative risk per nursery writing 5 kg/m 2 1.17, 1.05 to 1.30) but not in women (0.96, 0.93 to 1.00). ?he Q test was significant at P?0.10 in 42 of 95 meta-analyses (44%) (see supplementary table 2). Twenty meta-analyses (21%) showed considerable heterogeneity (I 2 =50-75%) and essay conclusion 15 meta-analyses (16%) showed substantial heterogeneity (I 2 75%) for essay some adiposity indices and several cancers (oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma; colon, liver, lung, endometrial, prostate, and thyroid cancers; melanoma; and leukaemia). We further assessed the uncertainty of the summary effects by calculating 95% prediction intervals; the null value was excluded in only 27 associations. Thirteen meta-analyses had evidence indicating small study effects, but only seven included 10 or more studies and therefore had enough statistical power for the Egger’s test to adequately identify presence of conclusion, small study effects (colon, liver, lung, ovarian, and advanced prostate cancer; see supplementary table 2). Supplementary figures 1 to 28 show the funnel plots for each cancer site. Nursery Essay. Nineteen meta-analyses had evidence of excess significance bias for some adiposity indices using the largest study estimate as the essay conclusion plausible effect size (colon, rectal, liver, pancreatic, endometrial, ovarian, prostate, advanced prostate, and comparison thesis statement kidney cancer; supplementary table 2).
Using summary fixed or random effects estimates as plausible effect sizes gave similar results. Essay Conclusion. A credibility ceiling of easy steps to writing, 0% corresponds to the random effects model calculation. Of the 95 meta-analyses, 72 (76%) retained nominal statistical significance (P0.05) with a credibility ceiling of 5%. Fifty (53%), 33 (35%), and 19 (20%) meta-analyses remained statistically significant with ceilings of 10%, 15%, and essay on poverty 20%, respectively. Heterogeneity between studies gradually decreased with increasing ceilings. With a ceiling of 10%, no meta-analyses of cohort studies with continuous exposure gave an I 2 estimate larger than 50% (supplementary table 4). We explored whether the linguistic essay reported associations between adiposity and developing or dying from cancer were supported by strong, highly suggestive, suggestive, or weak evidence (table 1 ? ). We found that 77% of the essay on poverty 95 meta-analyses presented at least weak evidence (P0.05 for the summary random effects).
Supplementary table 5 shows these associations in cohort studies using continuous measures of adiposity (also see supplementary table 6 for associations using categorical measures of adiposity in cohort studies and supplementary table 7 for arthur paper all associations regardless of study type or exposure metric). Summary of evidence grading for essay on poverty conclusion meta-analyses associating continuous measures of easy steps, obesity and risk of on poverty conclusion, cancer—cohort studies only. Risk refers to essay cancer incidence unless otherwise stated. Only 13% of meta-analyses (12 of 95) were supported by strong evidence. They summarised data on body mass index (n=10), waist to hip ratio (n=1), and essay on poverty conclusion weight gain (n=1). An increase in body mass index was associated with a higher risk of developing oesophageal adenocarcinoma; colon and rectal cancer in men; biliary tract system and pancreatic cancer; endometrial cancer in premenopausal women; kidney cancer; and multiple myeloma. Easy Steps To Writing Essay. Weight gain and essay conclusion waist to hip circumference ratio were associated with higher risks of postmenopausal breast cancer in paper outline, women who have never used hormone replacement therapy and endometrial cancer, respectively.
The increase in the risk of developing cancer for every 5 kg/m 2 increase in body mass index ranged from 9% (relative risk 1.09, 95% confidence interval 1.06 to 1.13) for colorectal cancer among men to 56% (1.56, 1.34 to conclusion 1.81) for biliary tract system cancer. The risk of postmenopausal breast cancer among women who have never used HRT increased by 11% for each 5 kg of research paper, weight gain (1.11, 1.09 to essay conclusion 1.13), and the risk of endometrial cancer increased by 21% for each 0.1 increase in good, waist to hip ratio (1.21, 1.13 to 1.29). Seventeen meta-analyses (18%) were supported by highly suggestive evidence, and on poverty conclusion they found positive associations for colon (with body mass index and waist circumference), liver (with body mass index), postmenopausal breast (with body mass index), total endometrial (with body mass index in good comparison contrast, adults and at around age 20, waist circumference, weight, and essay conclusion weight gain), postmenopausal, type I and thesis statement i will type II endometrial (with body mass index), and kidney cancer (with body mass index). Inverse associations were found for body mass index in adults with oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma (overall and in on poverty, women) and lung cancer (overall and in men). Twenty four meta-analyses (25%) were supported by suggestive evidence for an association, and linguistic 19 meta-analyses (20%) were supported by weak evidence. The evidence was graded similarly in essay, the 194 meta-analyses of cohort studies that assessed continuous and categorical measures of adiposity (supplementary table 6). Five additional associations were supported by strong evidence: weight gain with incidence of colorectal cancer, body mass index with incidence of gallbladder, gastric cardia, and ovarian cancers, and mortality from multiple myeloma. When both cohort and case-control studies were assessed for continuous and categorical measures of adiposity (supplementary table 7), two additional associations were supported by strong evidence: body mass index and risk of melanoma and meningioma, both of which were judged as weak associations when only cohort studies were evaluated.
The strong evidence for an association between body mass index and incidence of biliary tract system cancerwas downgraded to suggestive evidence when both case-control and cohort studies were evaluated. King Outline. We reviewed 204 meta-analyses to evaluate the current evidence for associations between seven adiposity indices and the risk of developing or dying from 36 primary cancers and their subtypes. Twelve associations, stemming from cohort studies using continuous measures of adiposity, were supported by strong evidence, inferred by strongly statistically significant results and no suggestion of essay on poverty, bias. These associations were primarily between body mass index and malignancies of digestive organs (oesophageal adenocarcinoma and cancers of the leo lionni term colorectum (in men only), biliary tract system, and pancreas), hormone related cancers (such as postmenopausal breast in women who have never used HRT), premenopausal and overall endometrial cancer, kidney cancer, and multiple myeloma. Five additional associations were supported by strong evidence when categorical measures of adiposity were used: weight gain with risk of colorectal cancer risk and body mass index with risk of gallbladder, gastric cardia, and conclusion ovarian cancer, and comparison statement mortality from multiple myeloma. On Poverty Conclusion. The effect of obesity on the incidence and mortality of cancer is well recognised66284 and was evident in our umbrella review, with approximately 77% of the included meta-analyses reporting a nominally statistically significant summary random effects estimate.
Although the reported associations are plausibly accurate and potentially causal, the risk of reporting, selection, and other inherent biases may overestimate the suggested associations, as shown in other recently published umbrella reviews in term, cancer epidemiology.111327 The extent to which the literature is affected by such biases is essay conclusion, difficult to prove definitively. We used statistical tests and sensitivity analyses to a good begins with in this essay i will look for evidence of bias. When lower P value thresholds (P10 ?6 ) were used, the proportion of significant associations decreased to 37%. Large heterogeneity (I 2 ?50%) was observed in 37% of the meta-analyses. When we calculated the 95% prediction intervals, which further account for heterogeneity, we found that the null value was excluded in on poverty, only about one third of the associations. Moreover, some meta-analyses had evidence of small study effects or excess significance bias. Most meta-analyses (53%) preserved their statistical significance with a 10% credibility ceiling, but only one in arthur, five preserved significance at a ceiling of 20%, indicating that many associations between adiposity and on poverty cancer remain uncertain. Our grading of the evidence largely agrees with systematic analyses of the literature performed by the World Cancer Research Fund (WCRF) and the International Agency for king arthur paper Research on Cancer (IARC).68485 The WCRF currently lists seven cancers for which the evidence supports a convincing causal relationship with obesity (oesophageal adenocarcinoma and cancers of the pancreas, colorectum, postmenopausal breast, endometrium, kidney, and liver). We also found strong evidence that obesity increases the essay conclusion risk of these cancers, except for liver cancer, for which the evidence was considered highly suggestive because of small study effects, excess significance bias, and nursery essay substantial heterogeneity between studies. The association between obesity and five more malignancies (gallbladder, stomach cardia, ovarian, advanced prostate, and premenopausal breast cancer) was graded as probably causal by essay conclusion, WCRF and received lower evidence grades in our main analysis using only a good with in this, continuous measures of adiposity.
IARC found sufficient evidence to support the association between excess body fat and 13 of 24 cancer sites (oesophagus (adenocarcinoma), gastric cardia, colorectum, liver, gallbladder, pancreas, postmenopausal breast, endometrium, ovary, kidney, meningioma, thyroid, and multiple myeloma).84 Our results are similar to those of the IARC report for most cancers, except for on poverty gastric cardia, liver, ovarian, meningioma and thyroid cancers. Arthur Research Paper Outline. These cancers received lower than strong evidence grades in our main analysis, owing to small numbers of essay conclusion, cancer cases, very large heterogeneity between studies, or evidence of easy steps to writing, small study effects and excess significance bias. Essay On Poverty. However, the associations between adiposity and risk of gastric cardia and easy steps to writing an analytical essay ovarian cancer were judged to be supported with strong evidence when we evaluated categorical measures of essay conclusion, adiposity. Similarly, evidence for nursery essay an association between adiposity and risk of meningioma was considered strong when case-control studies were included in essay, the evaluation. Several methods exist for rating evidence, but they are inconsistent and allow some degree of arbitrariness.86 The WCRF and IARC used expert groups and criteria similar to Bradford Hill criteria to assess the rhymes association between obesity and essay on poverty risk of 17 and 24 primary cancers, respectively, whereas we assessed the statement begins in this robustness of the evidence using sensitivity analyses and statistical tests to evaluate 36 primary cancers and their subtypes, defined by anatomical location, histology, and receptor status.
We also explored associations by on poverty, potential effect modifiers (eg, sex, menopausal status, smoking status, and use of HRT). Our criteria for grading evidence should not be considered causal criteria, especially when used individually, but we think that they are useful for identifying biases when used together.12. Most of the paper associations between adiposity indices and endometrial cancer were supported by strong or highly suggestive evidence. In particular, the association between waist to hip ratio and risk of total endometrial cancer was supported by essay on poverty, strong evidence, indicating that central obesity, which is good comparison, linked to conclusion hyperinsulinaemia and type 2 diabetes, has a major role in the development of this disease. Strong evidence also supported the association between body mass index and leo lionni paper premenopausal endometrial cancer. We found the on poverty conclusion associations between body mass index in adults or at around age 20, waist circumference, weight, and weight gain and total endometrial cancer, and between body mass index and easy an analytical postmenopausal type I and II endometrial cancer to be highly suggestive owing to substantial heterogeneity between studies and potential for excess significance bias. These results were in agreement with the WCRF and IARC, which did not provide separate ratings for menopausal status or histological subtype of disease.8487 The difference in evidence ratings between premenopausal and postmenopausal endometrial cancer is probably related to essay conclusion heterogeneity caused by use of HRT among postmenopausal women.88 We found that the associations between body mass index or weight gain and postmenopausal endometrial cancer were statistically significantly stronger in never users compared with ever users of HRT, but the relevant meta-analyses included only 2-6 studies and had fewer than 1000 cancer cases, so the evidence was deemed weak. The WCRF found that the associations between waist circumference or waist to hip ratio and total endometrial cancer were probably causal,87 which largely agreed with our findings. We found strong evidence to support the association between weight gain in adulthood and postmenopausal breast cancer among women who have never used HRT, yielding an 11% higher risk per 5 kg of weight gain.
We found highly suggestive evidence to support the positive association of king research outline, body mass index with postmenopausal breast cancer, irrespective of essay on poverty conclusion, HRT. Weight gain may be a better metric than body mass index for measuring the dynamic nature of adiposity during adulthood, when obesity becomes central and has more metabolic effects.49 Another reason for the lower grading of the arthur research paper outline evidence for body mass index was the large heterogeneity between studies,62 which could at essay, least partially be explained by leo lionni term, a potential interaction with HRT use. Some cohort studies have found a positive association between body mass index and postmenopausal breast cancer only among women who have never used HRT,8990 but we did not capture this potential interaction because published meta-analyses have not performed this subgroup analysis.6278 The evidence for an association between adiposity indices and premenopausal breast cancer was weaker and only reached suggestive evidence for an inverse association with body mass index in a meta-analysis of essay, 20 cohort studies. These results largely agree with the WCRF and IARC findings of a convincing causal positive association between adiposity and postmenopausal breast cancer8491 and a probable causal inverse association for easy steps an analytical essay premenopausal disease.91 Two recent Mendelian randomisation studies found that a higher body mass index in essay on poverty conclusion, adults was associated with a lower risk of essay, postmenopausal breast cancer, contradicting the epidemiological evidence.9293 This may be due to the genetic risk score for body mass index in on poverty conclusion, adults being a stronger determinant of early compared with later life body mass index; epidemiological studies have found inverse associations between body mass index in childhood and both premenopausal and good statement postmenopausal breast cancer.9495 The positive association between body mass index in conclusion, adults and postmenopausal breast cancer found in epidemiological studies may be driven by linguistic, weight gain in adulthood. Essay Conclusion. We found strong evidence to linguistic essay support the association between weight gain in adults and postmenopausal breast cancer, but weight gain is on poverty conclusion, probably linked to environmental factors that are not captured by genetic risk factors.96 Moreover, some evidence exists that these associations may differ according to easy steps to writing an analytical oestrogen and progesterone receptor status of the tumour (supplementary tables 6 and 7),6897 but large investigations in this area are lacking. The association between body mass index and colon cancer was supported by on poverty conclusion, strong evidence in a good begins in this i will, men and suggestive evidence in women. Twenty four cohorts investigated the association in essay conclusion, men, totalling a 30% higher risk of colon cancer for each 5 kg/m 2 increase in linguistic essay, body mass index. The risk was 12% higher for each 5 kg/m 2 increase in body mass index among women in a meta-analysis of 20 cohorts that showed substantial heterogeneity and evidence of small study effects and excess significance bias. The association between body mass index and rectal cancer in on poverty, men was supported by strong evidence, but with a summary relative risk considerably smaller than for colon cancer (1.09 v 1.30). We found no association between body mass index and rectal cancer in linguistic, women.
The evidence for most of the other adiposity indices was suggestive, as few studies have investigated these associations. Essay. The insulin signalling pathway is a possible mechanism underlying the association between obesity and colorectal cancer in men.98 The increased concentrations of circulating insulin induced by adiposity are higher among men than women,99 and men are more prone to abdominal fatness than women.100 Furthermore, endogenous and exogenous oestrogens have been associated with protective effects against colorectal cancer among women, which might explain why the association of adiposity with colorectal cancer is stronger in men than in women.101102 Two Mendelian randomisation studies found statistically significant positive associations between adult body mass index and colorectal cancer but did not perform analyses by good contrast, sex.92103. We found that higher body mass index was associated with an on poverty, increased risk of oesophageal adenocarcinoma, and king arthur this was supported by essay, strong evidence. We found an inverse association for leo lionni term oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma, which was supported by highly suggestive evidence due to considerable heterogeneity between studies. Similar summary associations were found by the WCRF and IARC, which concluded that adiposity convincingly increased the risk of oesophageal adenocarcinoma.84104 A Mendelian randomisation study supports this association.105 Oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma has stronger associations with smoking and alcohol consumption than oesophageal adenocarcinoma,106 but we were unable to on poverty capture the potential residual confounding or effect modification of king research, smoking and alcohol in the associations between adiposity and essay conclusion oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma because the published meta-analysis did not report these subgroup analyses.62. We found an inverse association between body mass index and lung cancer that was supported by highly suggestive evidence but had substantial heterogeneity between studies and evidence of small study effects. When we investigated this association by smoking status, we found an inverse association between body mass index and lung cancer among smokers, which was supported by suggestive evidence.
We found a non-significant association among non-smokers. These results may be due to residual confounding, reverse causation, or effect modification by smoking, which led the WCRF and IARC to grade this evidence as inadequate.84107 Two recent Mendelian randomisation studies found that body mass index was statistically significantly associated with an increased risk of squamous and easy steps to writing an analytical essay small cell lung cancer but had a borderline significant inverse association with lung adenocarcinoma.92108 One of the Mendelian randomisation studies found a statistically significant inverse association between body mass index and total lung cancer among never smokers and a null association in essay, ever smokers,108 which contradicts the epidemiological evidence. However, these analyses were underpowered. King Research Paper. Future large prospective studies should evaluate associations according to smoking status among different disease subtypes. Furthermore, we found that the associations between body mass index and multiple myeloma and cancers of the biliary tract system, pancreas, and kidney were supported by strong evidence. The WCRF and IARC ratings were similar, except the WCRF did not study multiple myeloma.8485 The associations for essay less common malignancies are supported by limited data and show substantial heterogeneity between studies; we need prospective studies to better characterise these associations. Our review relied on previously published meta-analyses and the literature searches performed by the authors of those meta-analyses. Some studies may have been missed, although this is unlikely to have influenced our findings because our assessment of duplicate meta-analyses on the same exposure-outcome associations gave similar summary results.
Some of the meta-analyses that used continuous measures of term, adiposity were published as long ago as 2008, which may mean that we didn’t include the most recent evidence. However, we found that the evidence grading for recently published meta-analyses investigating the association of categorical terms of body mass index with the same cancers was similar. We evaluated all study specific results that were reported in the meta-analyses (for example, primary cancers, cancer subtypes, sex, menopausal status, smoking status, and HRT use), but we may have missed other subanalyses that were not reported with sufficient study specific data. Assessing the quality of the primary studies included in the meta-analyses was beyond the scope of essay conclusion, this umbrella review. King Paper. Finally, the statistical tests we used to assess bias do not prove its definitive presence or its exact source. However, our estimates are likely to be conservative, as a negative test does not exclude the potential for bias. Moreover, our evidence grading was not sensitive to the use of 95% prediction intervals, excess significance tests, or credibility ceilings, because when we consecutively removed these criteria from the quality of evidence algorithm, the resulting inference remained the same. The association between obesity and risk of developing or dying from cancer has been extensively studied.
We found strong evidence to support the positive association between obesity and 11 of the 36 cancer sites and subtypes that we examined, predominantly comprising cancers of the digestive organs and hormone related malignancies in women. Substantial uncertainty remains for the other cancers. To draw firmer conclusions we need prospective studies and large consortiums with better assessment of the changing nature of body fatness and with comprehensive standardised reporting of analyses. Essay On Poverty Conclusion. As obesity becomes one of the greatest public health problems worldwide, evidence of the strength of the associations between obesity and cancer may allow finer selection of people at high risk, who could be selected for personalised primary and secondary prevention strategies. What is already known on this topic.
Cancer is a leading cause of death worldwide, and the prevalence of obesity has more than doubled over the past 40 years. Numerous meta-analyses support the link between excess body weight and contrast thesis statement increased risk of essay on poverty conclusion, developing and dying from several types of cancer. The reported associations may be causal for some malignancies, but they may be flawed owing to inherent biases that exaggerate the effect of obesity on cancer incidence and essay mortality. Conclusion. Strong evidence supported the association between obesity and only 11 of 36 cancer sites and subtypes, predominantly comprising cancers of digestive organs and hormone related malignancies in women. Other associations could be genuine, but substantial uncertainty remains.
Contributors: MK, PMH, EP, and rhymes KKT conceived and designed the essay on poverty conclusion study. IK, MK, and KT acquired and collated the data. IK, MK, GM, and KKT analysed the data. All authors drafted and critically revised the manuscript for important intellectual content and gave final approval of the version to rhymes be published. MK and IK contributed equally to the manuscript (joint first authors). MK is the essay guarantor. Funding: This work was supported by Genesis Research Trust (Garfield Weston Foundation, P63522 to begins with essay MK); Sigrid Juselius Fellowship (P52483 to IK and MK); World Cancer Research Fund International Regular Grant Programme (2014/1180 to KKT); Ovarian Cancer Action (PS5827 and PSA601to MG and MK); the Imperial Experimental Cancer Medicine Centre, the Cancer Research UK Imperial Centre, Imperial Healthcare NHS Trust NIHR BRC (P45272:MK). On Poverty. None of the funders had any influence on the study design; in the collection, analysis, and interpretation of data; in the writing of the report; and in the decision to submit the a good begins with article for publication. Competing interests: All authors have completed the ICMJE uniform disclosure form at on poverty conclusion, www.icmje.org/coi_disclosure.pdf and declare: no support from a good begins i will, any organisation for essay on poverty the submitted work; no financial relationships with any organisations that might have an leo lionni, interest in the submitted work in the previous three years; no other relationships or activities that could appear to have influenced the submitted work. Ethical approval: Not required.
Data sharing: No additional data available. Transparency: The lead author (MK) affirms that the manuscript is an honest, accurate, and transparent account of the study being reported; that no important aspects of the study have been omitted; and that any discrepancies from the study as planned have been explained. This is an Open Access article distributed in accordance with the terms of the essay on poverty conclusion Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY 4.0) license, which permits others to distribute, remix, adapt and build upon this work, for commercial use, provided the original work is properly cited. Writing. See: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ Download this article to citation manager. Essay. BibTeX (win mac)Download EndNote (tagged)Download EndNote 8 (xml)Download RefWorks Tagged (win mac)Download RIS (win only)Download MedlarsDownload. If you are unable to import citations, please contact technical support for your product directly (links go to essay external sites):
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Poverty essay conclusion
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