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The other paris by mavis gallant essay

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Mavis gallant the other paris essays - …

Annotated Bibliography Writing Service. Many young people experience stress due to a large load and big amount of assignments, abstracts, course works, descriptive essays and tons of other academic works that they receive daily, and not many can cope with these tasks. And last thing you want to do after finishing your essay is writing an annotated bibliography. Modern students face numerous questions in the course of the other gallant studying. What is the contest real estate, distinctive feature of the MLA and APA citation style?

Does the first line need to be indented? What is an optimal text length? What format and style to follow? What to do if you need to write a paper but can’t do it yourself? The most obvious solution is to get consulted by your professor or scientific instructor, but what to do if you have already consulted with someone but lack time or knowledge to complete the task? There is one more solution!

You can search for a reliable and paris essay professional writer, who uses original writing methods, or specialized writing service where you can buy a high-quality paper. What Kind Of Academic Assistance Do Our Services Provide? Writing services are Internet-based companies that are engaged in the distribution of academic help. As a rule, a professional service employs a bunch of qualified writers who can cope with any college work, be it a descriptive or controversy essay, research paper, dissertation or other paper. When a student reaches out such service with a request “please, write my paper for the perks a wallflower essay questions, me”, he or she places an order request, and a company finds a suitable person, who is expert in the required field of study. EduBirdie.com is one of such services. We have vast experience in academic assistance, and our company has gained reputation for a trustworthy service throughout the years of our existence. Being one of the paris, leading companies that are engaged in the distribution of academic help, we give our clients a number of contest real estate undeniable benefits. Our annotated bibliography writing service is created to help college and university students reach their academic goals and boost their performance. We offer a broad range of the other essay services.

Our specialists can assist you at any stage of the process. They can help you: to conduct an in-depth research and find valid sources, to formulate a proper thesis, to write any part of contest estate your assignment (or the whole paper) for you, to create properly structured annotated bibliographies, to proofread , edit and polish your work! EduBirdie.com hires only specialists that are engaged in the delivery of the other paris by mavis gallant high-quality academic assistance, and too many i's essay we had already gained flawless reputation as a reliable and professional assistant. What makes us a good choice for paris by mavis, you? High-quality at affordable prices. I's Essay. If you are looking for a place to buy annotation or academic work of excellent quality EduBirdie.com is just for you because our team strives to provide only premium quality academic works. At the the other paris by mavis gallant essay, same time, prices for to blame for the of the cold, our assistance are lower than on many similar sites and thus, is affordable for anyone who needs help! Experienced writers. The Other Paris Gallant. Our experts are educated and skilful people.

In addition to essay, the fact that writers are forbidden to use aboriginal writing methods, it is also worth noting that they all are native speakers with university degrees! How To Write An Annotated Bibliography? For some students writing an by mavis essay annotated bibliography is the biggest challenge. Good. Why? Because the majority of young people simply don’t know what types of sources to include and what citation format to the other paris gallant, use. Good. First of paris gallant essay all, you have to know the definition of annotated bibliography.

Bibliography or annotated bibliography is not the writing, same as works cited page - this is the first mistake that many students make. In fact, while works cited page is a simple list of sources that should inform a reader about what sources the author used to create his work, the bibliography is a list of each reference source that summarizes, evaluates and the other paris gallant draws conclusions from them. As a rule, an too many i's essay annotation is created by MLA or APA formats, sometimes an annotation may also be designed in Chicago style, but this happens in rare cases, so we offer you to review the rules of two main formats. MLA annotated bibliography. A modern language association citation style is one of the the other gallant essay, most commonly used ones; however, official MLA Handbook doesn’t provide guidelines for good extended, creating an annotated reference page. Still, if your professor requires you to write an annotated bibliography in MLA style, here are a few tips to keep in mind: Use double spaces. Adjust your bibliographic list to alphabetical order by author’s name. If you don’t know the author’s name, list sources by titles. Italicize titles of scholarly journal articles and books. But if you are creating annotations for essays, short stories or books’ chapters put their titles in the other paris essay quotation marks. The first line of i's essay every source has to be indented.

APA annotated bibliography. American psychological association or APA style is another one very popular format of citations. Gallant Essay. You can easily find an official handout, which summarizes all the rules and requirements of this style on the Internet. Annotations in more to blame for the start this form also require you to by mavis gallant, summarize and assess every source. Such an annotation includes the following information: name of the author of the source, date when the source was last edited, its web address or number of real pages. The main distinctive feature is format of this page. You have to review a guidelines given by your teacher, or find them on the Internet, and paris gallant essay ensure that you structure your annotations in a proper manner, following all the more for the start of the cold, rules, setting correct spaces, etc. What Structure Annotations May Have? All students know that different types of paris by mavis gallant essay work have quite similar structure.

No matter if you have to create abstracts, research works, descriptive or ACT essays, the structure will be almost the same: Introduction short paragraph that introduces readers to the topic and too many contains thesis statement and hypothesis. Essay. Main part. The main body of any text usually consists of several parts. Each paragraph of this section must present an argument that supports your hypothesis stated in intro, explains the problem and extended offers solutions. Conclusion. Paris. In this part of the text, a student reminds every argument and concludes it.

The main goal of this section is to essay of school, highlight critical messages and paris by mavis draw one or a few logical conclusions that confirm or deny your thesis statement. However, the structure of essay contest estate bibliographies may differ. Thus, you must ensure that you read and understood all the requirements of your teacher and use the required writing methods to structure it properly. Where To Look For Examples Of Bibliographies? Not all students are ready to pay for their works. And even in the other paris by mavis this case, our team can assist you. At our service, you can not only request help with creating citations for your annotation page but also find many useful citation information and sample annotations! Thus, if you are looking for a high-quality sample of citations for annotated bibliographies in PDF format that are designed in accordance with a right format and style then EduBirdie.com is a good source for you! Choosing a good topic is too many, a key to creating a successful work. Your whole research will be based on the theme you choose unless you are creating an ACT paper. Thus, if the selected theme is too complicated, it will be harder to complete this task.

Before selecting a theme for your work, you must carefully read the given guidelines. The Other By Mavis Gallant Essay. In this matter, everything depends on the course that you are studying. Extended Essay. If you are performing an ACT essay, as a rule, a theme will be given to you. The Other Gallant. In this case, you will not have a possibility to choose another theme, but you have to too many i's essay, carefully review the gallant essay, requirements to real, ACT essays and strictly follow them. In other cases, you have a chance to choose the subject of the other gallant your work yourself. We advise you to approach this process seriously. Start a discussion around a certain problem.

Works that are based on essay a controversy always draw attention. By Mavis Gallant. Such themes make people think, defend their opinion and come to logical conclusions. Choose a theme that wasn’t fully studied yet, for example; you can explore aboriginal healing methods, evaluate them and offer new solutions. What Subjects Require An Annotation? Creating an annotation page is usually required when you are working on a more complex work. For example, a simple essay will not require you to include annotations, but if you are writing a dissertation, research or course work on serious subjects like Medicine, History, Economics and other you will have to include this page.

Why? Annotation is intended to explain to the reader why chosen sources are relevant and of the cold war essay important to the other, your work. Email for customers: No matter what type of essay you need, we’ll get it written, so let’s get started. Placing your order is totally free. Place new orders and track progress on current orders anytime and anywhere.

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Bibliometrics, Citation And Citation Analysis. Chapter 3: Bibliometrics, Citation and Citation Analysis. Dr. Ranganathan S. R. (1969) coined the term 'Librametry' and presented his concept in ASLIB conference held at Leamington Spa. He used the term to include statistical approaches to study library and its services.

However, the practice of the other paris by mavis, using quantitative method to measure information sources were made even before Dr. Ranganathan but under different terms or without any particular term but 'Statistical Analysis' was in contest real estate common use before the term Librametry. Cole and Eales (1917) graphically mapped the literature and called this method of analysis as 'Statistical analysis'. Hulme (1923) studied the literature and called it 'statistical bibliography', but the terms were found to be clumsy as it could easily be mistaken. Later the the other by mavis, term was coined as bibliometrics by who was more to blame start cold Pritchard (1969). 3.2 Different Terminologies in Use:- Many attempts have been made to define the by mavis essay, term bibliometrics and i's essay, its analogous terms since the by mavis gallant, use of the term 'statistical bibliography' by Hulme (1923), and according to him 'the purpose of statistical bibliography is to throw light on essay contest estate, the process of written communication and the nature and course of development of a discipline (in so far as this is the other gallant displayed through written communication) by means of counting and analyzing its various facets of written communication'. Raising (1962), in writing model essays his article clearly defined the paris gallant, term statistical bibliography as 'the assembling and interpretation of statistics relating to books and periodicals to toefl essays demonstrate historical movements and to determine national and universal research, use of books and journal, and to the other essay ascertain in many local situations the general use of books and journals'. Extended Essay? This definition is also treated as one of the the other gallant essay, classical definitions of bibliometrics. The term Bibliometrics was first coined by Pritchard (1969) in preference to essay contest real estate existing terminology 'statistical bibliography' as he felt there is paris essay fair likelihood to misinterpret it as bibliometrical methods to books and other media of too many i's essay, communication'. By Mavis Gallant Essay? According to extended Fairthorne (1969), statistical bibliography was 'Quantitative treatment of the other by mavis, properties of who was to blame start cold war essay, recorded discourse and behaviour appertaining to the other paris by mavis gallant essay it'.

British Standard Glossary (1976) of documentation explained the term bibliometrics as 'the study of use of documents and patterns of publication in which mathematical and statistical methods have been applied' which is basically similar to Pritchard's original definition of bibliometrics. Hawkins (1977), in his on-line bibliometrics study interpreted bibliometrics term as 'The quantitative analysis of the bibliographic features of a body of good, literature'. Paris? Nicholas and Ritchie (1978), in who was for the of the cold their books entitled 'Literature on paris, Bibliometrics' opined that bibliometrics provided information about the structure of knowledge and how it is communicated? They further added that bibliometrics studies fall mainly into two broad groups, describing characteristics or features of a literature (descriptive studies) and those examining the relationship formed between the components of literature (behavioural studies). More recently Plotter (1981) had defined bibliometrics as 'the study and measurement of the publication patterns of all forms of written communication and their authorship'. Schrader (1981), has also tried to define the i's essay, term in a more simplified manner and stated that bibliometrics is 'the scientific study of the other by mavis, recorded discourse.' Broadus (1987b) presented a historical overview of various definitions of bibliometrics and proposed an alternative definition for bibliometrics. According to him, bibliometrics is the quantitative study of physically published units or of bibliographic units or of surrogates of too many, either.

More explicitly Sengupta (1990), defines the term as 'organization, classification and quantitative evaluations along with their authorship by mathematical and the other paris by mavis gallant, statistical calculus'. A more elaborate concept of bibliometrics has been recently explained by Egghe (2000), as 'development and application of mathematical models and techniques to all aspects of communications.' From these definitions it is concluded that statistical bibliography is replaced by bibliometrics and it means study of measurement of the publication patterns of all forms of written communication and their authorship by means of who was war essay, using citation studies. 3.3 What is Bibliometrics? The term 'bibliometrics' was first used by Pritchard (1969) in by mavis essay his article 'Statistical Bibliography or Bibliometrics' published in the 'Journal of Documentation'. 'Biblio' means book and 'Metric' means a scale or measure. For The Start Of The Cold War Essay? Bibliometric means application of paris by mavis essay, statistical studies in library and information science. According to Pritchard (1969), bibliometrics is defined as 'the application of mathematics and statistical methods to books and other media of communication.' Potter (1981) defines bibliometrics as 'the study and measurement of the publication pattern of all forms of written communication and their author'. In Bibliometrics and Librametry as an the perks of being a wallflower area in which studies 'information process and paris by mavis, information handling in essay contest estate libraries and information canters by quantitatively analyzing the characteristics and behaviour of by mavis gallant essay, documents, library staff, and library users.' The study of bibliometrics and Librametry include bibliometric distribution, citation analysis, library use studies, etc. It is also a quantitative study of literatures as reflected in bibliographies.

Bibliometrics is the use of quantitative analysis and statistics to describe patterns of publication within a given field or body of literature. Bibliometrics is a set of methods to quantitatively analyze scientific and technological literature (Bellis 2009). The commonly used bibliometric methods are citation analysis and content analysis. Content analysis or textual analysis is a methodology used in the social sciences for studying the content of communication. For The Start Cold War Essay? Earl Babbie (2010) defines it as the study of recorded human communications, such as books, websites, paintings and laws. According to Farooq Joubish (2011), content analysis is considered a scholarly methodology in the humanities by the other paris by mavis gallant essay which texts are studied as to authorship, authenticity, or meaning.

Later subject includes were philology, hermeneutics, and semiotics. Too Many I's Essay? Lasswell (1951, p.525 ) formulated the core questions of content analysis and stated that 'Who says what, to whom, why, to what extent and with what effect? Ole Holsti (1969) offers a broad definition of the other paris by mavis essay, content analysis as any technique for making inferences by objectively and systematically identifying specified characteristics of messages. Kimberly (2002) offers a six-part definition of too many, content analysis:Content analysis is a summarizing, quantitative analysis of the other by mavis, messages that relies on the scientific method (including attention to the perks essay objectivity, inter subjectivity, a priori design, reliability, validity, generalisability, replicability, and hypothesis testing) and is not limited as to the types of variables that may be measured or the context in which the messages are created or presented. Garfield (1983) and Richard (2010) defined citation analysis as 'the examination of the frequency, patterns, and graphs of citations in articles and books'. Content analysis uses citations in scholarly works to establish links to other works or other researchers.

Citation analysis is one of the most widely used methods of bibliometrics. Martyn (1976), defined citation analysis as, 'Analysis of the the other paris essay, citations or references or both which forms of part of the too many i's essay, scholarly publication.' According to Baughman (1974), 'Citation study is a systematic enquiry into gallant the structural properties of the literature of the subject' he explains that the contest real estate, structure of literature is of a good quality. Bibliometric method is the other by mavis essay most often used in the field of library and information science; as well it has an equal applicability in other areas also. In fact, in many research fields use of bibliometric methods is carried out to explore the impact of their field, the impact of a set of researchers, or the impact of a particular paper etc. Bibliometrics are now used in quantitative research assessment exercises of academic output (Henderson et al 2009). The UK government is considering using bibliometrics as a possible auxiliary tool in its Research Excellence Framework, a process which may assess the quality of the research output of UK universities and on the basis of the assessment results, allocate research funding (http://www.ref.ac.uk/) Bibliometric methods have been used to trace relationships amongst academic journal citations.

Citation analysis, which involves examining an item's referring documents, is used in searching for materials and analyzing their merit. Citation indices, such as Institute for Scientific Information's Web of Science, allow users to contest real search forward in time from a known article to more recent publications which cite the known item. Today citation analysis tools are easily available to compute various impact measures for scholars based on data from paris gallant essay citation indices. These have various applications, from the identification of expert referees to review papers and grant proposals, to providing transparent data in support of academic merit review, tenure, and promotion decisions. Nicholas (1978) in his article 'Literature and Bibliometrics' explained the importance of citation analysis and its applications in LIS. He pointed out war essay, that information scientists and librarians use citation analysis to gallant essay quantitatively assess the core journal titles and watershed publications(less used or border lined publications) in particular disciplines; interrelationships between authors from different institutions and schools of thought; and on importance education, related data about the academia.

Some more pragmatic applications of this information includes the planning of paris gallant essay, retrospective bibliographies, finding the age of material used in a discipline (Half life) , and comparison between use of recent publications versus older ones, comparing the coverage of secondary services which can help publishers gauge their achievements and competition, and can aid librarians in evaluating the effectiveness of their stock. There are also some limitations to the value of citation data. Who Was For The Of The? They are often incomplete or biased; data has been largely collected manually (which is by mavis gallant essay expensive), though citation indexes can also be used; incorrect citing of sources occurs continually; thus, further investigation is required to who was to blame start of the cold war essay truly understand the rationale behind citing to allow it to be confidently applied. Thus it is revealed that bibliometric method is very useful to analyze the impact of essay, literature in any subject areas and in essay LIS it is useful to decide the policies for different activities like acquisition, organization, stacking, introduction of new service, ranking of periodicals, half life of literature in any subject discipline formatting and collection development policies and related policies etc. 3.4 Laws of Bibliometrics:- The three most commonly used laws in bibliometrics are. 1) Bradford's Law of Scatter: - which describes how the literature of a subject area is distributed in its journals and which forms the basis for calculating how many journals contain a certain percentage of published articles? 2) Lotka's Law of Scientific Productivity: - A formula for measuring / predicting the productivity of scientific researchers. 3) Zipf's Law of the other gallant essay, Word Occurrence: - which describes the frequency of the appearance of certain words or more specifically, suggests that people are more likely to essay select and the other gallant essay, use familiar rather than unfamiliar words. Among all these three laws, Bradford's Law is for the cold war essay more useful to LIS professionals and the other paris by mavis gallant essay, related to toefl writing citation analysis.

3.4.1 Bradford's Law of Scatter:- Bradford (1934), pointed out paris by mavis essay, that if scientific journals are arranged in order of decreasing productivity of articles on too many, a given subject, they may be divided into a nucleus of periodicals more particularly devoted to the subject and several groups and the other paris by mavis essay, zones containing the same number of articles as the nucleus when the number of periodicals in the nucleus and succeeding zones will be 1: n: n2. Bradford's Law states that journals in a single field can be divided into toefl model essays three parts, each containing the gallant, same number of articles: * A core of journals on the subject, relatively few in number, that produces approximately one-third of all the articles; * A second zone, containing the same number of articles as the first, but a greater number of journals, and. * A third zone, containing the same number of articles as the second, but a still greater number of journals. The mathematical relationship of the number of journals core to the first zone is a constant n and to the second zone the relationship is n. Bradford expressed this relationship as 1 : n : n. Bradford formulated his law after studying a bibliography of geophysics, covering 326 journals in the field. He discovered that 9 journals contained 429 articles, 59 contained 499 articles, and 258 contained 404 articles.

So it took 9 journals to contribute one-third of the articles, 5 times of 9, or 45, to who was more to blame for the start produce the next third, and the other essay, 5 times 5 times 9, or 225, to produce the last third. Education? Bradford's Law serves as a general guideline to librarians in the other determining the number of core journals in any given field. More To Blame For The Start Of The Cold? Bradford's Law is not statistically accurate, but it is still commonly used as a general rule of thumb. 3.4.2 What is Citation:- Citation is a reference to a published or unpublished source (not always the original source). More precisely, a citation is an abbreviated alphanumeric expression (e.g. Newell84) embedded in the body of an intellectual work that denotes an entry in the bibliographic references section of the the other paris by mavis, work for the purpose of acknowledging the relevance of the works of of being a wallflower essay, others to the topic of discussion at the other essay the spot where the citation appears. Generally the combination of both the in-body citation and the bibliographic entry constitutes what is commonly thought of as a citation (whereas bibliographic entries by themselves are not). A prime purpose of a citation is intellectual honesty to attribute prior or unoriginal work and ideas to the correct sources and to allow the reader to determine independently whether the referenced material supports the author's argument in the claimed way. 3.4.3 What is Reference:- Reference is essay estate derived from Middle English referren, from Middle French rfrer, from paris gallant Latin referre, to carry back, formed from the prefix re- and ferre, to bear.

A large number of essay real, words derived from the other gallant this root, including referee, reference, referendum, all retaining the toefl writing, basic meaning of the original Latin as a point, place or source of origin. A referee is the provider of this source of origin, and a referent is the possessor of the source of the other paris essay, origin, whether it is knowledge, matter or energy. Because of its meaning, the word reference is used in every sphere of human knowledge, adopting shades of meaning particular to the contexts in which it is used. References can take on many forms, including: a thought, a sensory perception that is audible (onomatopoeia), visual (text), olfactory, or tactile, emotional state, relationship with other, space-time coordinate, symbolic or alpha-numeric, a physical object or an energy projection; but, other concrete and abstract contexts exist as methods of defining references within the scope of the various fields that require an origin, point of departure, or an original form. This includes methods that intentionally hide the reference from some observers, as in cryptography.

Citations are measured to find the different use patterns like author, chronology, geography, subject, forms etc in LIS. An essential part of research papers, particularly in science is the list of references indicating towards prior publications. Ziman (1968) has rightly indicated 'a scientific paper does not stand alone; it is embedded in the literature of the subject'. Similarly Nann (1976) defines 'A reference is the acknowledgement that one document gives to another; a citation is the acknowledgement that one document receives from another'. Malin (1968) says 'A citation implies a relationship between a part or the whole of the cited document and a part or the whole of the citing document.' From these statements of stalwarts it is very clear that citation has an importance while publishing scientific or research communications. It is who was more to blame for the of the cold must to cite the author from which data is used. The Other By Mavis Gallant? The research activity built on citing papers and using previous knowledge.

The use of citation and its study reveals many concepts useful for developing libraries properly. Toefl? Citation analysis is the area of by mavis, bibliometrics which deals with the study of extended, their relationships which might be useful for the other by mavis bridging research. Weinstock (1974) identified reasons for citing and too many i's essay, quoting references in research study as under. 1. Giving homage to pioneers. 2. Giving credit for related works (Homage to Press.) 3. Identifying methodology, equipment etc. 4. Providing background reading.

5. Correcting one's own work. 6. Correcting the work of others. 7. Criticizing previous work and adding quality and innovation. 8. Substantiating claims. 9. Alerting to forthcoming work. 10. Providing leads to poorly disseminated or poorly indexed or uncited work. 11. Authenticating data and classes of fact-physical constants etc. 12.

Identifying original publications in which an idea or concept was discussed. 13. Identifying original publication or other work describing a concept or term (e.g.HODGKIN'S Disease Pareto's Law, Friedel-Crafts reaction etc.) 14. Disclaiming work or ideas of others. By Mavis Essay? (Negative Claims)

15. Disputing priority claims of others. (Negative Homage) Apart from these points references appended in the research study is valid indicator of its significance. The facts stated in the research needs to be supported by toefl earlier citations (studies) and there is always a relation between citing theses or book or an article indicating similarity of the research. 3.4.4 Importance of Citations:- Ziman (1968), Price (1968), Narin (1976), Marin (1968) had opened that citations plays an important role in research. Father they added that scientific paper or scientific research does not go alone, but it is embedded in the subject of literature, as a reference (citation) which is acknowledgement for the use of the other by mavis gallant, information by the another author who cites in his writing. The relation of cited and citing document stating 'a citation implies relationship between a part or the whole of the cited document and a part or the whole of the citing document.' Citation analysis is the area dealing with the bibliometrics and deals with study of essay, relationship of cited and citing document and such studies are essential to the other gallant essay track the scholarly development in any subject field.

3.5 Citation Analysis:- When one author cites another author, a relationship is good essay established. Citation analysis uses citations in scholarly works to establish links. Many different links can be ascertained, such as links between authors, between scholarly works, between journals, between fields, or even between countries. Citations both from and to paris by mavis essay a certain document may be studied.

One very common use of good extended, citation analysis is to determine the impact of a single author on a given field by counting the number of by mavis, times the author has been cited by others. One possible drawback of this approach is that authors may be citing the single author in a wallflower essay a negative context (saying that the author doesn't know what s/he's talking about (Osareh 1996). 3.5.1 Co-citation Coupling:- Co-citation coupling is a method used to establish a subject similarity between two documents. If papers A and B are both cited by paper C, they may be said to be related to one another, even though they don't directly cite each other. By Mavis? If papers A and B are both cited by many other papers, they have a stronger relationship. The more papers they are cited by, the stronger their relationship is. 3.5.2 Bibliographic Coupling:- Bibliographic coupling operates on a similar principle, but in a way it is the mirror image of co-citation coupling. Bibliographic coupling links two papers that cite the same articles, so that if papers A and B both cite paper C, they may be said to be related, even though they don't directly cite each other. The more papers they both cite, the stronger their relationship is.

3.6 Reasons to conduct Bibliometric Studies:- Historically bibliometric methods have been used to essay trace relationships amongst academic journal citations. The Other Paris By Mavis Essay? The bibliometric research uses various methods of citation analysis in order to establish relationships between authors or their work. The Bibliometric studies are conducted to identify the peers, social change and the core journal, etc. indexing and Thesaurus, research, formulating search strategies in case of automated system, comparative assessment of the secondary services, Bibliographic control, preparation of retrospective bibliographic and library Management. Collection development includes planning, implementation and evaluation of collections (Baughman, 1977): Planning is to map information needs, to develop aims and make decisions about priorities. Knowledge about the structure of a subject field and about the information resources used in essay the field is needed for planning the collection. Bibliometric methods such as citation analysis, bibliographic coupling, co-word analysis and co-citation analysis can be used to map the knowledge structure and the use of the other gallant, literature.

Implementation of the collection includes library routines, communication and information provision. A working indexing language, which reflects the toefl, modern terminology, is needed to organise the collection. Knowledge about the important themes in a field gives a base for developing the terminology. These themes are based on the knowledge structure received by bibliometric methods. The Other Paris? Collection Evaluation is analysis and assessment of the collection according to its aim and functions. Too Many? Different bibliometric methods such as citation analysis, analysis of the scattering of articles to journals and analysis of the by mavis gallant, obsolescence of literature are used for the perks a wallflower essay this purpose. Application of bibliometric research identified by Wallace (1989), indicated that the paris by mavis, use is for developing libraries.

- Improving the bibliographic control of literature. - Identifying a core literature especially journals. - Classifying a literature. - Tracing the spread of ideas and growth of a literature. - Improving the efficiency of essay of school education, information handling services. - Predicting publishing trends and needs. - Describing patterns of book use by patrons. - Developing and evaluating library collections. 3.7 Strengths of Bibliometrics as a Research Approach:- Bibliometric studies are useful and have a quantitative base. The method helps analysis status and strength is in: ' Methods are objective and repeatable.

' Results have a wide range of paris by mavis essay, potential practical value. ' Does not require human subject interaction. ' High reliability in data that are collected unobtrusively, from the published record, and can be easily replicated by others. 3.7.1 Limitations of bibliometrics as a research approach:- Following few limitations of the study are observed by. Results are only valid to extent that citations are assumed to represent significant link between citing and essay education, cited documents.

' Technical issues related to essay data obtained from citation indexes and bibliographies. ' Variations and on importance of school education, misspelling of author names, authors with same name, incomplete coverage of non-English publications. 3.8 Application of Bradford's Law in Library and Information Science Research:- Bradford's law is used to solve problems in journal collection management as well as resource development in paris gallant essay any libraries. The basic concept is to conduct Bradford analyses of journals i.e. to sort the journals in Bradford zones and thus identify which belong to the core and which does not.

Any Bradford analysis involves three steps. 1. Identify many or all items (usually articles) published in this field; 2. I's Essay? List the sources (usually journals) that publish the articles (or items) in rank order beginning with the source that produces the most items; 3. While retaining the order of the sources, divide this list into groups (or zones) so that the number of items produced by each group of sources is about the same. The 'most obvious potentials' of Bradford analyses are: ' Defining the core. ' The law of diminishing returns. ' Calculation of cost based on various coverage. ' Setting priorities among journals. Bradford's law is used to solve practical problems related to information seeking and retrieval. An automatic option for sorting the output from online searches of journal literature, which he argued would help online users. 'Computerized sorting of the other, hits by the journals in which they appear, and essay, then of journals, high to low, by the number of hits appearing in each'. Special libraries and the other essay, information officers make good use of data generated using bibliometric techniques in selecting and maintaining collections of the most needed serials.

Bradford's law, Lotka's law, Zipf's law, and citation analysis have contributed to the effective operation of special libraries' From the various studies it is analysed major thrust areas of research in Library and Information Science are using application of bibliometrics and the reasons are: 1. Identify the quantum and structure literature on a specific subject during a particular period. 2. Extended Essay? Examine the growth literature output in a subject during a period of time. 3. Identify the the other by mavis gallant essay, source and country-wise distribution of model essays, research literature in a particular subject. 4. Compare and measure the growth rate of literature on a particular subject in various countries. 5. Analyze the authorship pattern of the other gallant essay, literature on a particular subject published from various countries. 6. I's Essay? Analyze the degree of single versus multiple author publication and study the paris, trend in i's essay authorship pattern. 7. Apply Lotka's authorship productivity concepts on the frequency distribution of authorship productivity.

8. Track the development of research literature on a particular subject and its language of publication during the period of coverage and analyze the trend in the language of publication. 9. Study the the other by mavis essay, language of the publication in the context of quantum of pages. 10. Study the frequency distribution of applications in the context of country-wise breakdown. 11. Analyze quantitatively the annual literature output on good essay, a specific subject. 12.

Identify the variety of research publication on a particular subject. 13. Analyze the essay, trend among the essays, various types of publication. The recent developments and methods used and by mavis gallant essay, developed the techniques: 3.8.1 The impact factor:- The impact factor, often abbreviated as IF, is a measure reflecting the average number of citations to essay education articles published in science and social science journals. It is frequently used as a proxy for the relative importance of a journal within its field. In case of journals with higher impact factors deemed to be more important than those of lower ones. By Mavis? The impact factor was devised by Eugene Garfield, the founder of the Institute for writing model essays Scientific Information (ISI), now part of Thomson Reuters.

Impact factors are calculated yearly for those journals that are indexed in Thomson Reuters Journal Citation Reports and listed in . In a given year, the impact factor of a journal is the essay, average number of citations received per paper published in that journal during the two preceding years.[ For example, if a journal has an impact factor of 3 in 2008, then its papers published in 2006 and 2007 received 3 citations each on too many, average in 2008. The 2008 impact factor of a journal would be calculated as follows, 2008 impact factors are actually published in 2009; they cannot be calculated until all of the 2008 publications have been processed by the indexing agency. A = the number of times articles published in 2006 and 2007 were cited by indexed journals during 2008. B = the total number of citable items published by that journal in 2006 and essay, 2007. (Citable items are usually articles, reviews, proceedings, or notes; not editorials or Letters-to-the-Editor.) 2008 impact factor = A/B. If is of school used by by mavis gallant many libraries as a tool for selecting Journals for subscription, similarly researcher try to contribute in using it journals for of being essay questions credits. New journals, which are indexed from their first published issue, will receive an impact factor after two years of indexing; in this case, the citations to by mavis gallant the year prior to Volume 1, and the number of articles published in the year prior to Volume 1 are known zero values. Journals that are indexed starting with a volume other than the first volume will not get an impact factor until they have been indexed for three years. Annuals and other irregular publications sometimes publish no items in a particular year, affecting the count. The impact factor relates to a specific time period; it is possible to calculate it for any desired period, and the Journal Citation Reports (JCR) also includes a 5-year impact factor.

The JCR shows rankings of journals by extended impact factor, by discipline such as organic chemistry or psychiatry. The terminology used later and becomes popular is Infometrics which covers: The h-index is an index that attempts to measure both the productivity and impact of the published work of by mavis essay, a scientist or scholar. Toefl? The index is the other by mavis gallant essay based on the set of the contest, scientist's most cited papers and the number of citations that they have received in other publications. Essay? The index can also be applied to the productivity and impact of a group of scientists, such as a department or university or country. Writing? The index was suggested by Jorge E. Hirsch, a physicist, as a tool for determining theoretical physicists' relative quality and is sometimes called the Hirsch index or Hirsch number. The h-index can be manually determined using citation databases or using automatic tools. Subscription-based databases such as Scopus and the Web of the other gallant, Knowledge provide automated calculators. Harzing's (2011) Publish or Perish program calculates the h-index based on Google Scholar entries.

In July 2011 Google trialed a tool which allows a limited number of scholars to keep track of extended, their own citations and also produces a h-index and an i10-index (Google Scholar Blog, 2011), the I10 index indicates the number of academic papers an author has written that have at least ten citations from others. It was introduced in July 2011 by Google as part of their work on Google scholar. A search engine dedicated to gallant academic and toefl writing model, related papers. Each database is likely to produce a study different h for the same scholar, because of different coverage: Google Scholar has more citations than Scopus and Web of Science but the smaller citation collections tend to be more accurate. In addition, specific databases, such as the paris essay, Stanford Physics Information Retrieval System (SPIRES) can automatically calculate h-index for researchers working in High Energy Physics. Infometrics is the study of quantitative aspects of information. This includes the production, dissemination and use of all forms of information, regardless of its form or origin. As such, infometrics encompasses the fields of. ' Scientometrics, which studies quantitative aspects of essay of school education, science; ' Webometrics, which studies quantitative aspects of the World Wide Web; ' Cybermetrics, which is similar to webometrics, but broadens its definition to include electronic resources; ' Bibliometrics, which studies quantitative aspects of recorded information. Scientometrics and the other essay, webometrics are the latest methods.

Scientometrics covers quantitative fashion of the development of science and the perks questions, of the by mavis gallant essay, mechanism of scientific research. ' Emphasizes investigations in which the development of science and of the mechanism of scientific research is studied by essay means of (statistical) mathematical methods. ' Publishes original studies, short communications, preliminary reports, review papers, letters to the editor and book reviews on scientometrics. ' Includes the Journal of the other by mavis gallant, Research Communication Studies. Scientometrics is extended concerned with the quantitative features and characteristics of paris essay, science and scientific research. Emphasis is placed on investigations in which the development and mechanism of science are studied by statistical mathematical methods. The journal publishes original studies, short communications, and model, preliminary reports, and review papers, letters to the editor and book reviews on scientometrics. Due to its fully interdisciplinary character, the journal is indispensable to research workers and research administrators. It provides valuable assistance to librarians and documentalists in central scientific agencies, ministries, research institutes and laboratories.

Scientometrics includes the Journal of Research Communication Studies. Consequently its aims and scope cover that of the latter, namely, to bring the results of such investigations together in one place. Bibliometrics and scientometrics are two closely related approaches to measuring scientific publications and science in general, respectively. Paris By Mavis? In practice, much of the work that falls under this header involves various types of citation analysis, which looks at how scholars cite one another in publications. Essay Questions? This data can show quite a bit about networks of scholars and scholarly communication, links between scholars, and paris by mavis, the development of areas of i's essay, knowledge over time. Bibliometrics are also one of the key ways of measuring the impact of scholarly publications. If an article is published in a journal with a high impact factor, which is determined in part by the number of citations to the other by mavis gallant essay articles within a particular journal, this raises the publishing profile of the author. The number of citations to that article over time is also a key measure of the productivity and essay contest real estate, the impact of that scholar. Essay? These techniques are very well developed for traditional citations among journal articles, but are much less clear for more to blame for the start of the new types of outputs, including data sets, websites, and digitized collections.

For items such as these, when researchers have used the materials to support their publications, they often don't have clear methods available to them to cite the material. Many of the style guides do not have clear guidance for how to paris gallant essay cite a database, for instance, or whether to cite a digitized resource in a way to identify its digital location, or that cites the who was more to blame for the war essay, original item, whether or not the researcher actually consulted it. 3.9.2 Webometrics (Cyber metrics):- The concept of webometrics is based on bibliometrics, because like the bibliometrics study, one can measure the different quantitative aspect of the web in webometrics study. Secondly it is based on the other by mavis, Infometrics. The Infometrics study is such type of study, which measures the quantitative aspect of any type of information and through webometrics study one can get the information about web (web site). Who Was To Blame For The Start Cold War Essay? That's why the above phrase is used.

The science of webometrics (also Cyber metrics) tries to measure the by mavis, World Wide Web to get knowledge about the number and types of hyperlinks, structure of the World Wide Web and who was start cold, usage patterns. According to Bjrneborn and by mavis gallant, Ingwersen (2004), the definition of webometrics is the study of the quantitative aspects of the construction and use of information resources, structures and technologies on the Web drawing on bibliometric and Infometrics approaches. The term webometrics was first coined by Almind and Ingwersen (1997). Essay On Importance Education? A second definition of webometrics has also been introduced as the study of web-based content with primarily quantitative methods for social science research goals using techniques that are not specific to one field of study (Thelwall, 2009), which emphasizes the development of applied methods for use in the wider social sciences. The purpose of this alternative definition was to help and publicize appropriate methods outside the the other paris essay, information science discipline rather than to replace the original definition within information science. Similar scientific fields are bibliometrics, infometrics, scientometrics, virtual ethnography, and web mining. One relatively straightforward measure is the Web Impact Factor (WIF) introduced by Ingwersen (1998). The WIF measure may be defined as the real, number of web pages in a web site receiving links from other web sites, divided by the number of paris gallant essay, web pages published in the site that are accessible to the perks essay the crawler. However the use of WIF has been disregarded due to the mathematical artifacts derived from power law distributions of the other, these variables.

Other similar indicators using size of the institution instead of number of the perks a wallflower, web pages have been proved more useful. Paris By Mavis Essay? There is one electronic journal, Cyber metrics published since 1997 by the Spanish National Research Council that is devoted entirely to this discipline. Cyber metrics is a branch of knowledge which employs mathematical and statistical techniques of quantity web sites or their components and concepts, measure their growth, stability, propagation, and use examines the authenticity of content, establish laws governing these factors, studies the who was more for the of the, efficiency of cyber information services and systems, services and products and assesses the paris by mavis gallant, impact of cyber age on society. Citations in scholarly works are used to establish links to good extended other works. It is one of the most widely used methods of bibliometrics and studies reference to and from documents Gooden (2001). The benefit of bibliometrics and citation analysis is expressed by Van Raan (2003), which is reinforced by the studies (Lal and Panda, 1996, Aksnes 2006) that have used this method of research enquiry to evaluate a library collection. Paris Gallant Essay? Citation analysis reveals interesting information about knowledge producers in terms their information seeking behaviour and usage of various information sources. It can highlight the of school, familiarity, awareness and usage of knowledge producers regarding the online and print information sources. Citation analysis examines the the other by mavis essay, frequency, patterns and graphs of citations in articles and books (Garfield, 1983). This chapter satisfy the objective set for the study i.e. 'To study the significance of citations as well as citation study and bibliometrics'. Good? This chapter elaborates the the other paris by mavis, detailed study of citations, reference, need of citation study and laws etc.

' Aksnes, D.W. (2006), Citation rates and perceptions of scientific contribution. Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, 57(2), p.169-185. ' Bellis, De Nicola (2009). Bibliometrics and citation analysis: from the Science citation index to Cybermetrics. Scarecrow Press, p.417. ISBN 0-8108-6713-3. Located at http://books.google.com/books/about/Bibliometrics_and_citation_analysis.html?id=ma4YjaKyM9cC accessed on 23.08.2011.

' Bhughman J C (1974), A structural analysis of the literature of sociology, Library Quarterly, Vol. 44 (Oct), p.293-308. ' Birger Hjrland and Jeppe Nicolaisen 'Bradford's Law of Scattering: Ambiguities in the Concept of good, Subject Royal School of Library and Information Science, Birketinget 6, DK-2300 Copenhagen S., Denmark @db.dk. ' Bradford, S.C. Sources of the other essay, information on specific subjects. Too Many I's Essay? Engineering, 1934, 137 (3550), p.85-86. ' British Standards Institution. British standards of documentation terms. BSI; London; 1976, p.7. ' Broadus R N (1987a), early approaches to bibliometrics, journal of the American society for information science, 38, p.127-129.

' Cole, F J and Eales Nellie B (1917), the history of comparative anatomy: a statistical analysis of the literature, Science Progress (11), p.578-596. ' Earl Babbie (2010), the practice of social research, 10th edition, Wadsworth, Thomson Learning Inc., ISBN 0-534-62029-9. ' Egghe L (2000), Lectures Potter, W G (1981) Introduction to the other by mavis Bibliometrics. Library Trends Vol 30, p.5. ' Egghe L (2000). On Importance Of School? A heuristic study of the first-citation distribution. Scientometrics 48(3), p.345-359. ' Fairthorne, R. A. (1969), Empirical hyperbolic distributions (Bradford-Zipf-Mandelbrot) for the other paris by mavis gallant essay bibliometric description and prediction, Journal of Documentation, 25, p.319'343. ' Fairthrone R A (1969), Empirical hyperbolic distributions for bibliometric description and prediction, Journal of Documentation, 25, p.319. ' Farooq Joubish and Ashraf Khurram (2011), outlook on some concepts in the curriculum of social studies, World Applied Science Journal 12(9), p.1374-1377. The Perks Essay Questions? ISSN 1818-4952.

' Garfield, E (1974), Citation Indexing: Its theory and application in science, Technology and Humanities, New York, Wiley, ' Garfield, E. (1983). Citation Indexing - Its Theory and Application in Science, Technology and Humanities. Philadelphia: ISI Press. Retrieved November 4, 2011 from Located at http://garfield.library.upenn.edu/ci/contents.pdf. The Other? accessed on good, 12.04.2011. ' Garfield, E.(1983) Citation Indexing - Its Theory and Application in the other paris by mavis Science, Technology and Humanities Philadelphia's Press. ' Gooden, A.M. (2001). Citation analysis of chemistry doctoral dissertations: An Ohio State University case study. The Perks Of Being A Wallflower Questions? Retrieved October 13, 2008 Located at http://www.istl.org/01-fall/refereed.html accessed on the other by mavis gallant essay, 27.12.2011. ' Google scholar blog (2011), Google scholar citations open to all, Google. Located at http//en.wikipedia.ogr/wiki/I10-index accessed on essay questions, 03.09.2011.

' Hawkins D T (1977), Unconventional uses of paris by mavis, on-line information retrieval system on line British metric studies. Journal of who was to blame of the cold war essay, American society for information science, 28(1), p.13-18. ' Henderson, M., Shurville, S. and Fernstrom, K. (2009). The quantitative crunch: the impact of bibliometric research quality assessment exercises on academic development at small conferences, Campus-Wide Information Systems, Vol 26, No. 3, p.149'167.

' Henderson, M., Shurville, S. and essay, Fernstrom, K. Essay Contest Real Estate? (2009). Paris? The quantitative crunch: the impact of bibliometric research quality assessment exercises on academic development at small conferences, Campus-Wide Information Systems, Vol 26, No. 3, p.149'167. ' Higher Education Funding Council for England, Located at http://www.hefce.ac.uk/Research/ref/. and http://www.ref.ac.uk/ accessed on 12th May 2012. ' Hjreppe, P (1982), Supplement to bibliography bibliometrics and citation indexing, 4, p.241-273. ' Hjreppe, R (1980), a bibliography of bibliometrics an dictation indexing and analysis, Royal institute of Technology library, Stockholm, Sweden. Located at http://www.gslis.utexas.edu/ palmquis/courses/biblio.html#Laws and http://www.netugc.com/librametric-bibliometric-scientometrics-informetrics accessed on 25.08.2012. ' Hulme, E.W. (1923), Statistical Bibliography in Relation to the Growth of Modern Civilization, Grafton, London. p9. ' Kannappanavar, B U (1991), Citation analysis of the essay contest, doctoral dissertation in library and information science accepted by the universities in Karnataka, Karnataka University, Dharwad, p. 88. (Ph.

D Thesis) ' Lal, A., Panda, S (1996). Research in plant pathology: A bibliometric analysis. Library Science with a Slant to the other essay Documentation and Information Studies, 33(3), p.135-147. ' Lasswell Harold (1951), the analysis of political behavior: An empirical approach, Rautledge, London, p.525. ' Lotka A J (1926), the frequency distribution of scientific productivity, Journal of the essay on importance of school education, Washington Academy of Sciences, Vol. 16 (12), p.317-323. ' Malin M V (1968), the science citation index: A new concept in the other paris Indexing, Library trends, Vol.

16, p. 376. ' Martin, M U (1968), Science citation index: A new concept in indexing, Library Trends, Vol. 16, p.376. ' Martyn L A (1976), Use studies in library planning, Library Trends 24(30). ' Nann F et al (1976), Evaluative bibliometrics: The use of publications and citation analysis in estate the evaluation of scientific activity, cherry Hill, N J, Computer Horizon Inc, p.334-337.

' Narin, Francis and the other paris by mavis essay, et. Al. (1976), evaluative bibliometrics: the use of publication and citation analysis in the evaluation of scientific activity, Cherry Hill, New Jercy, Computer Horizon Inc. p.334-337. ' Neuendorf, Kimberly A. (2002), the Content Analysis Guidebook Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications. ' Nicholas, David and Maureen Ritchie (1978), Literature and Bibliometrics London: Clive Bingley, p.28-29. ' Nicholas, David and Maureen Ritchie (1978). Literature and essay, Bibliometrics London: Clive Bingley, p.12-28. ' Ole R. Gallant Essay? Holsti (1969(, Content Analysis for the Social Sciences and Humanities. Essay? Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley. ' Potter W G (1981), Introduction to bibliometrics, Library Trends, Vol. The Other Gallant? 30, p.5. ' Pritchard A (1969), Statistical bibliography an interim bibliography, New Western Polytechnic school of Librarianship, London.

' Pritchard A (1969), statistical bibliography; an more to blame for the of the cold war essay interim bibliography, North-western polytechnic, school of Librarianship, p.60. ' Pritchard, A and Witting, G R (1960), Bibliometrics: A bibliography and index (1874-1959), Aaih Books, Westford, ' Raising L (1962), Statistical bibliography in the health sciences, Bulletin the the other paris by mavis gallant essay, medical library Association, 50, p.450-461. ' Ranganathan S. R. (1969) Librametry and its scope. DRTC Seminar (7) paper DA Bangalore: DRTC, ISI and essay, Sarada Ranganathan Endowment of Library Science. Reprinted in : JISSI : The International Journal of the other, Scientometrics and who was more to blame for the of the, Infometrics; Vol.1, No.1 (1995), p.15-21. (ISSN-0971-6696) ' Rubin, Richard (2010). Foundations of library and information science (3rd ed.). New York: Neal-Schuman Publishers. ISBN 978-1-55570-690-6. Accessed at http://books.google.com/books?id=Pk1TSAAACAAJ accessed on the other by mavis essay, 09.02.2012. ' Von Sara Ungern-Sternberg Applications in teaching bibliometrics, PhD, Senior lecturer, Abo Akademi University, Department of too many i's essay, Library and by mavis, Information Science, FINLAND. ' Schrader, Alvin M. (1981) Teaching Bibliometrics, Library Trends 30, p.151-172.

' Sengupta I N (1990), Bibliometrics and its application in information science and libraries, Atlantic, New Delhi, p.256. ' Swapna Kumar Patra and Prakash Chand (2006), 'Library and Information science Research in India: a Bibliometric Study' Annals of Library and Information Studies, Vol 53, December, p.219-223. ' Van Raan, A.F.J. (2003). The use of bibliometric analysis in research performance assessment and the perks a wallflower questions, monitoring of interdisciplinary scientific developments. Technikfolgenabschatzung, Theories und Praxis/ Technology Assessment- Theory and Practice, 12(1), p.20-29. ' Weinstock M (1974), Citation Index, Encyclopedia of library and information science, Vol.5, New York, Dekker, p.19. ' Ziman John M (1968), Public knowledge: An essay concerning the social dimension of by mavis gallant essay, science, Cambridge, Cambridge university press, p.58. ' Zipf, G. K. (1949) 'Human Behavior and the Principle of Least Effort' Reading, MA: Addison- Wesley Publishing co, p.34. Chapter 4: Progress of Education and Research in LIS. Chapter/ Section Description Pages.

4.1 Introduction 104. 4.2 LIS Education : Global Overview 104. 4.3 Library and Information Science Education in India 105. 4.4 Historical Development 107. 4.5 Present Scenario of LIS Education in India 108. 4.6 Objectives of Library and Information Science Education 109. 4.7 Levels of Education 110. 4.8 First Course of Library Science in India (Certificate, Diploma and Training Courses) 112. 4.9 Post Graduate Diploma Courses 113. 4.10 Degree Courses 114.

4.11 Documentation Research and Training Centre (DRTC) 114. 4.12 Five Year Integrated Course in LIS 115. 4.13 Present Status of toefl writing essays, LIS Education in India 115. 4.14 Specialization 116. 4.15 Syllabus 116. 4.16 ICT as an paris gallant Integral Part 116.

4,17 Practical Exposure 117. 4.18 Problems with Present LIS Education and Research 117. 4.19 LIS Research in India 117. 4.20 LIS Research: Global Overview 119. 4.21 Research Trend in Indian Universities 128. Chapter 4: Progress of who was to blame cold war essay, Education and Research in LIS.

Higher education in each country has its own unique form of system and by mavis, varies from too many streams or branches of knowledge. Higher education is imparted by universities and in the other by mavis gallant colleges having equal facilities. Academics in higher education plays an essay important role in making the society strong as stated different policies are adopted in different countries similarly LIS is a specific subject discipline which support in all educational branches through library systems. Schools of the other by mavis gallant essay, library science provide useful professional education universally and good, develop library and the other paris, information professionals to manage the libraries efficiently. The LIS schools have more emphasis towards developing technical and managerial skills through the LIS education. More War Essay? Following paragraphs briefly narrated the status of LIS education. 4.2 LIS Education: Global Overview:

Tsuji et al (2006), pointed out it in his study that the main theme in LIS education Japan was developed qualified librarians (Shisho) and assistant librarians (Shisho-ho) for public libraries and as well as qualified teacher librarian (shisho-kyouyu) for school libraries. There is no formal education system for academic and special libraries. In education field life line learning, library management, information reference service, information retrieval, library organization, copy right, information literacy etc. were more focused. Wilson (2012), in his article 'Fifty years of LIS education' in USA and conducted a survey of research productivity and paris by mavis gallant essay, LIS educators during the period 1959-2008. Author narrated the progress of LIS education in USA and i's essay, stated that prior to 1960s practicing librarians were teaching LIS education according to syllabus and the other gallant, examination conducted by library associations and i's essay, similar status was also in Australia and Library Association Australia (now Australia library and information association (ALIA) was taking care of the education system.. By Mavis Essay? Latter LIS education moved to higher education institute since 1980. Chu (2006) in his paper 'Curricula of LIS programs in the USA: A content analysis' in which the syllabi was reviewed by author from 45 ALA accredited LIS master programs in USA.

This study brought to the notice that more elective courses offered in LIS education in USA, while number of too many, core requirement is reduced to few. Author has also pointed that 10% of the LIS courses in USA are designed in such a way to deal will emerging subject and latest development in the field of LIS. Thus subjects covered in the syllabus deals with knowledge organization, reference and by mavis gallant, information sources services, management, research in LIS, ICT, collection development, information use etc. As indicated by author in USA education system is giving more emphasis on elective subject like ICT, librarianship, resources and services, technical services etc. to manage latest situation. Now LIS courses clusters were introduced, which covers: - Information seeking behaviour. - Digital publishing etc.

4.3 Library and toefl writing model essays, Information Science Education in India:- LIS education in India is completing a century of its existence during the period progress have been achieved in developing LIS education to the other by mavis gallant tune with current practices. Radhakrishanan Commission, Kothari Commission, National Knowledge Commission, UGC, NAAC put more efforts in education sector including LIS by establishing advisory commission for on importance education libraries, national policy for the other by mavis gallant essay library etc. Writing Essays? Curriculum Development Commission (CDC) continues grading and upgraded of by mavis, LIS education in India. The progress from certificate courses to research level through regular and distance mode took leading developing education in India (Joshi, 2010). There has been enormous growth in education and to blame of the cold, higher education around the by mavis gallant essay, globe. Every country worth its name and has developed a system of education and infrastructure to educate its people, and India is no exception.

There has been a fast growth in institution of higher education since the dawn of twentieth century and more particularly, after India attained independence in 1947. The new India started its development program to achieve the new educational, cultural and economic objectives at on importance of school education the national level. Such developments at these institutions contributed to the development of more libraries, which in turn had to accept new responsibilities to the other essay meet society's changing needs and demands. Libraries are recognized to play an important role in education, scientific research and social-economic development of a country. Writing Model? This envisages the the other paris by mavis gallant essay, need for professionally qualified personnel to manage and run the libraries and information centres effectively and efficiently. In order to feed the growing number of libraries, more trained library professionals were needed. Who Was Of The War Essay? For this purpose, library science departments started springing up, and library science developed into a distinct field of specialization with its own normative principles, theories, techniques, and gallant, practices that were deemed sufficient to meet the growing dimensions of library services. Handling of recorded knowledge in modern libraries has given birth to the functional aspects of collecting, organizing and promoting the use of of being essay questions, reading materials relevant to the users through information transfer activities. These activities, no doubt, assist in defining the spectrum of studies for the other gallant essay librarianship. Extended Essay? The basic tenet of LIS education is to provide balanced training, integrating theory with practical exercises, and to cover all aspects of professional work with equal emphasis embracing new frontier of librarianship.

LIS education aims at providing trained manpower to manage different types of libraries, information and documentation centres which, over a period of time have undergone changes in the other paris by mavis essay terms of needs, functions, types and range of a wallflower essay, services offered as well as tools and techniques being used when offering the services. The Other By Mavis? Research in essay questions library and information science in India is not deep rooted. In the beginning it was in the form of a trial and error method. It was Padamashree S R Ranganathan (1889-1972) father of library science who lifted trail librarianship to the level of a science with the formulation of laws of library science, and establishment library schools and research centres. He even graded them as normative principles, fundamental laws, canons, principles and paris by mavis gallant essay, postulates. Of Being? Ranganathan cut new grounds and blazed new practices in library and information science initially by solo research. This is evidence from the published literature that Ranganathan era's is characterized by a period of the other paris by mavis essay, intellectual contribution to the library and information science, particularly library classification. The root of the library and of being a wallflower questions, information science research in India were off shoots from the country first LIS intellectual workshop (i.e., Department of Library and Information Science, University of Delhi) instituted by Dr S R Ranganathan a day of library science profession in India in paris by mavis essay 1946. The first research degree in start of the cold the library and information science in the country and even in by mavis essay the commonwealth countries was awarded by the University of Delhi in 1957 to D B Krishna Rao for his thesis 'Facet Analysis and Depth Classification of Agriculture' under the supervision of Dr. S R Ranganathan.

4.4 Historical Development:- The modern period in to blame start of the cold war essay the history of education for librarianship began in the mid-1800s as librarians around the world recognized that systematic education and training were required so that proper order could be brought to by mavis gallant essay the collections that had been growing in all libraries. The need for professionally qualified personnel to manage these libraries effectively and efficiently was duly recognized during the first half of the present and consequently, the library education programme had been started at several places much before Independence. The history of the education of library science in India may be traced far back as the year of contest real, 1911 with the paris essay, starting of a short term training programme in library science in the Baroda State, under the patronage of Maharaja Sayajirao Gaikwad of Baroda, who, impressed by the splendid work done by public libraries in the West, secured the services of an American librarian Mr. W. A. Borden as Director of the State Library Department. Mr. Bordon had been a pupil of Mr. Melvil Dewey, who established the first library school in the Columbia College, New York in too many i's essay 1887. In 1915, another student of Dewey, Mr. Paris By Mavis Gallant Essay? A Dickenson, the then librarian of Punjab University, Lahore started a three months apprentice training programme for working librarians.

Before Independence, only five universities namely the Andhra University, Banaras Hindu University, Calcutta University and Madras University were offering diploma course in library science. Library education was given a new status and writing essays, design by Professor S. R. Ranganathan in gallant 1920, when the first systematic programme in library education was started under the auspices of the extended, Madras Library Association in paris by mavis collaboration with the essay contest estate, Madras University. This library school was subsequently taken over by the Madras University in 1931 and in 1937 the course was converted into Postgraduate (PG) Diploma in Library Science. By Mavis Essay? This was the good extended, first diploma programme in Library Science in India. University of Delhi was the first university to establish a full-fledged Department of Library Science just before independence in 1946, and started admitting students to the PG Diploma in 1947. In 1951, the diploma was changed to Master in Library Science (M.Lib.Sc). Later, between 1956 to 1959, six new LIS departments were established at Aligarh Muslim University, M.S.University of Baroda, Nagpur University, Osmania University, Pune University and Vikram University. Since 1960s, the number of the other by mavis, LIS departments has continued to increase.

After Independence the the perks of being essay, stimulus for the growth and development of libraries and library science education has come from the paris by mavis gallant, progress in and extension of education, scientific research and programmes of socio-economic development which started in 1951 with the commencement of the First Five-Year Plan. As a result of these developments, Library and Information Science today is a well-recognized discipline of study and research at the post-graduate level in more than hundred universities in the country. Contest Real Estate? The Baroda and Nagpur universities started training course in gallant library science in 1956 and the Vikram University in 1957. 4.5 Present scenario of LIS Education in India:- Since its inception decades ago, LIS education has grown and developed into a full-fledged multi-disciplinary subject. LIS courses at bachelors, masters and research level are being impacted by different institutions ' university departments, colleges, library associations and specialized institutions. There are now 96 universities in India imparting Library and Information Science education as independent departments in different levels. The list is shown in appendix. Apart from these departments, there are also specialized RD organizations imparting library and information science education. Worth mentioning is the two years Associateship in Documentation and Information Science (ADIS) imparted by Documentation Research and Training Institute (DRTC), Indian Statistical Institute, Bangalore (Karnataka) and National Institute of i's essay, Science Communication and Information Resources (NISCAIR) formerly INSDOC, New Delhi which is the other gallant essay equivalent to of school Mater degree of Library and by mavis gallant essay, Information Science (LIS). In addition to, these universities/departments there are several other open universities imparting library education as distance education.

The professional associations such as Delhi Library Association (DLA) and the polytechnic institutions throughout the essay of school education, country are also imparting LIS education as lower level such as Certificate/Diploma in Library and Information Science. With the realization of the by mavis gallant essay, importance of higher education and research, research in Library education is more to blame of the cold not lagging behind like other disciplines. The University Grants Commission (UGC) and paris gallant essay, the Indian Council of Social Science Research (ICSSR) are promoting to research activity in library and information science by awarding scholarships to extended research and doctoral students. 4.6 Objectives of Library and Information Science Education:- The goal of library and information science education is the preparation of personnel for the task of successful performance at different levels of competence in different types of libraries with an insight into gallant the role of these libraries in a fast changing society. It should impart a thorough grounding in the perks essay the intellectual foundations of the profession and competence in by mavis essay the technical and technological skills required for contest their day-to-day practice in different positions. In other words, education for library and the other by mavis essay, information science should be both knowledge and theory oriented task or practice oriented. The two aspects of theory and practice blend harmoniously in a sound programme of library and essay on importance of school education, information science education because on this aspects LIS education depend the effectiveness and success of the programme. In achieving this objective the methods of by mavis gallant essay, teaching and evaluation employed are as important as the quality of the faculty. The main objectives of LIS profession are to provide training for building up leadership qualities among the LIS profession develop knowledge on the latest techniques of information storage, transfer and retrieval of information help to acquire necessary skills in handling information, accessing and application of electronic resources, tools and media; and help to know the latest developments in the Information Technology (IT) To sum up, the too many, basic aims of library and information science education may be as follows. ' To develop necessary technical skills; ' To develop administrative skills; ' To develop service orientation; ' To develop thorough knowledge of various sources of information, necessary to give traditional and modern library services.

' To develop professional awareness. 4.7 Levels of Education:- Out of the 96 university departments, 56 departments conduct one-year Bachelors degree and one year Masters Degree in Library and Information Science at the postgraduate level. Thirteen of these universities conduct two years integrated Masters Degree in Library Science. These programme further leads to M.Phil. and PhD levels. The levels of paris by mavis gallant essay, LIS education in India are discussed as follows in brief: 1.7.1 Certificate/Diploma in Library Science (C/D. Real Estate? Lib. Sc.):- Many polytechnic colleges, schools and Library Associations impart the low level of library science courses in India having duration of six months to one year.

The basic qualification for the other paris gallant these courses is 10+2. This course prepares students for low level professional positions in libraries such as Library Attendant, Library Clerk, etc. 1.7.2 Bachelor of good, Library and Information Science (BLIS) after any graduation:- This is a one-year post graduate degree course. The basic eligibility is a three years degree from any discipline. This course prepares students for junior professional positions at all types of libraries and they perform technical libraries. 1.7.3 Master of Library and Information Science (MLIS):- In the early 19th Century, young people learned librarianship by working under the more experienced practitioners.

But, gradually the tasks performed by librarians became more complex and more dependent on technology. As a result, the study of paris essay, library science has moved from the work-setting to professional schools in Universities. The first ever library school was started by Melvil Dewey in USA in 1887 at Columbia College (now Columbia University). In 1889 the programme moved to the New York State Library in Albany when Dewey became the Director there. The success of the perks essay questions, Dewey's training programme and paris by mavis, the publication of writing essays, Training for Library Service, a book by the economist Charles Williamson in 1923, led other universities, institutes of technology, and large public libraries to establish their own professional degree programmes in library science. Master of Library and paris essay, Information Science is imparted as a one-year post graduate degree course in some universities while in some, it is conducted as a two years integrated course. Many universities which offered one year BLISc and MLISc courses are now switching to toefl writing essays two years integrated MLIS course in the line of other masters degree courses. The North East Hill University (NEHU), RTM Nagpur, Punjab University Chandigarh, Karnataka University, Dharwad, etc are now offering two years MLISc course.

This course trains persons for senior professional position in the other paris essay libraries, documentation centres and/or information centres and teachers as well. 1.7.4 Associateship in Documentation and Information Science (ADIS):- The Documentation Research and Training Centre (DRTC), Bangalore (Karnataka) offers two years Associateship in Documentation and Information Science (Now know as Master of Science in Information Science). The National Institute of Science Communication And Information Resources (NISCAIR), New Delhi , formerly INSDOC also impart two years documentation programme i.e., Associateship in Documentation (AID) after graduation. The course offered by the DRTC and NISCAIR have upper age on the courses as offered by the university departments in the perks of being essay questions terms of paris by mavis gallant essay, ICT syllabus and intake of the enrolments.

1.7.5 Master of Philosophy in Library and Information Science (M.Phil):- In Library and Information Science prepares a student for further advanced research in essay LIS. The basic eligibility for paris admission for this programme is minimum 55% MLISc or any equivalent degree recognized by the UGC. Who Was More Start War Essay? With candidates having more qualifications are being preferred for superior position, many students are opting for M.Phil. Courses to better equip them for better positions and develop research activity. 1.7.6 Doctor of Philosophy of Library and Information Science:- This is an advanced level of the other by mavis gallant essay, research programme being offered after the completion of MLISc or M.Phil. The general aim of a research degree, whether M.Phil. or Ph.D. is to provide training in doing research as well as to develop in the candidate a critical and analytical process of thinking with the extended essay, purpose that they would be able to provide leadership in the profession. The Other By Mavis Essay? They would also be able to help librarians and information scientists to develop techniques and skills required to contest estate meet their requirements of the fast changing society. They should be able to identify the needs, set objectives, identify and analyze the problems and paris by mavis gallant, find appropriate solutions.

They would also be in the perks a wallflower questions a position to participate in the planning, organization and implementation of programmes at various levels. 1.8 First Course of Library Science in India(Certificate, Diploma and Training courses):- In India the existence of in service training was initiated by John Macfarlane, the first librarian of the Imperial Library (Now National Library) at Calcutta from the other gallant 1901-06, as mentioned in some reports. In subsequent years, the training programme was opened to the staff of other libraries and even those interested in librarianship who deals with books and toefl writing model, other documents. 1.8.1 Baroda School:- In 1911, Sayajirao Gaikwad (1862-1939), the ruler of Baroda state called the American librarian Mr. William Allenson Borden (1853-1931), a disciple of Melvil Dewey to create a cadre of men for the newly established libraries in paris essay the state library system. In 1912, he initiated the first training school in good extended library education in India.

In 1913, another training class for working librarians of town libraries was started. These classes continued even after the departure of Borden. 1.8.2 Lahore School:- In 1912, the Punjab University called another librarian Mr. Asa Don Dickinson (1876'1960) from USA.

He started the second educational course of three month duration in library science in the year 1915. Paris Gallant? This happens to be the first university course in India. Mr. Asa Don Dickinson later becomes the Librarian of Panjab University, Lahore (now Pakistan) during 1915'1916. 1.8.3 Andhra Desha:- The Andhra Desha Library Association (founded in 1914) started conducting 'training classes for the library workers' at who was more start cold war essay Vijayawada in 1920. The classes covered a module on running adult education classes in addition to the other paris gallant library technique.

1.8.4 Mysore State:- In 1920, a course for the training of librarians was conducted at Bangalore under the 'program of library development' initiated by more for the start cold war essay the then Dewan of the other essay, Mysore Mr. M. Visweswaraya. 1.8.5 Madras Library Association:- A summer school for college librarians and lecturers in charge of college libraries in Madras was held in 1928 and repeated in 1930. The Madras Library Association also organized a regular certificate course in library science from 1929. Essay Real Estate? Then in 1931, University of Madras took up the training course of MALA in 1931 and started offering the course on paris essay, a regular basis. 1.8.6 Andhra University:- Andhra University started a certificate course in 1935, which was letter abandoned. 1.8.7 Imperial Library, Calcutta:-

The Imperial library, Calcutta started a training class under the supervision of its librarian Mr. K. M. Asudulah in 1935. It was a full time regular Diploma course in librarianship at writing model essays the Imperial Library, Calcutta (now National Library, Kolkata). It continued till 1946. 4.9 Post Graduate Diploma courses:- University of Madras, in 1937, introduced a one year Post Graduate Diploma course in place of the the other by mavis gallant, certificate course of three month duration. This was the first P G Diploma in library science in India. The second university to start a post graduate diploma course was the Banaras Hindu University in 1942.

University of Bombay initiated a diploma course similar to real estate Banaras Hindu University in 1943. Essay? A training course for the staff working in various government organizations was started in 1953. This course was recognized as equivalent to the university diploma courses. 4.10 Degree Courses:- In 1947, Aligarh Muslim University started B.Lib.

Science Course for the first time in the country. University of Delhi was the first university to establish a full fledged Department of Library Science in 1946. It also instituted the first post diploma degree course in 1948. In 1949, the structure was changed. The programme of Master of more for the start cold war essay, Library Science was introduced as a two year course with the first year leading to paris gallant Bachelor of Library Science.

In between 1956-59, six new LIS departments were established at Aligarh Muslim University, MS University of Baroda, Nagpur University, Osmania University, Pune University and Vikram University. In 1960, Madras University replaced its full time one year diploma course to B.Lib.Sc. Too Many I's Essay? Degree course. Paris Essay? By mid 1960, many other universities had fallen in the line of university of too many i's essay, Madras following the recommendation of Review Committee Report of the other paris by mavis gallant, UGC in introducing different degree courses. The Government Polytechnique for women, Ambala, Bangalore, Chandigarh, Delhi, Jullandhur, and Rourkela started post matric (class X) diploma courses of two years duration in late 1960s. 4.11 Documentation Research and Training Centre (DRTC):- In 1962, Dr.

S. R. Ranganathan established Documentation Research and Training Centre at Bangalore. Previously DRTC courses were of 14 month duration which was later on moved to two years programme. INSDOC conducted a short term course for Asian Documentalists in more to blame start cold 1963. In 1964, it started a one year post graduate course in Documentation and Reprography leading to 'Associateship in Documentation and Reprography'. In 1977, the programme was renamed as 'Associateship in Information Science (AIS)'. On September 30, 2002, INSDOC merged with the National Institute of Science Communication (NISCOM) and paris by mavis essay, was renamed as National Institute of Science Communication And Information Resources (NISCAIR). Who Was More For The Start Cold? At present, it is conducting 'Courses in the other paris essay Information Science'. The DRTC and NISCAIR concentrate on the training of professionals for special and industrial libraries and information centres. On Importance Of School? Their course contents are biased toward information science and technology.

The programme of these two institutes are class apart from other similar programmes offered by various institutes. In India advanced professional education has remained attached to universities, though there are some regional library associations conducting certificate courses of paris essay, a few months duration and women polytechnics offering post-masters two year diplomas in library science to train paraprofessionals. At present, about 107 institutions, mostly university colleges and polytechnics, have library science education courses. Out of these, M. Lib. I. Too Many? Sc. course is being offered by more than 75 universities. 4.12 Five Year Integrated Course in LIS:- In 2010, University of Calcutta introduces five year integrated course in Library and Information Science and thus becomes the first university to launch such course in LIS domain. The entry qualification for this course was set at Higher Secondary (10+2) in Arts / Science or Commerce. By Mavis Gallant Essay? Launching of this course will force the learners to choose the LIS by choice and not by chance.

It will again help the too many, students to grasp and understand the contents for the other LIS in too many a better and exhaustive way. 4.13 Present Status of LIS Education in India:- Only few departments and associations now provide Certificate Courses in Library and Information Science (CLIS) and Diploma in Library and Information Science (DLIS). The Other By Mavis Essay? The others provide BLISc and MLISc courses. In most of the universities, the extended essay, prerequisite for admission into the Bachelor or Master degree course in Library and Information Science is 10+2+3 years of education from any faculty (arts, science, commerce etc). The majority of the universities generally conduct two separate courses for the Bachelor's degree followed by the Master of Library and paris by mavis gallant, Information Science of one year (or two semesters) duration each. In recent years, some institutions have offered two years of integrated courses of four semester duration.

The University of Calcutta went a step ahead and who was more to blame start cold war essay, introduced five years integrated course in LIS with entry qualification as 10 +2. Similarly IGNOU and YCMOU are also playing major role in imparting LIS education along with deemed and formal universities. Students in most schools of library and information science have the opportunity to develop at least some degree of specialization. Some may take advanced courses in particular library functions, such as reference work, while others may take courses related to a particular type of library, such as a course in medical librarianship or public librarianship or academic librarianship. In simple, there are many different courses available in LIS. It makes the professionals available to work at all levels of library irrespective of type, structure and function.

The University Grants Commission (UGC), from time to time recommended the broader outlines of courses of Library and the other paris essay, Information Science. The latest effort has been through a UGC Curriculum Development Committee (1993). The UGC and other higher bodies now give emphasis to semester system rather than annual system, and credit-based rather than marks-based system. Every university being autonomous is free to more for the cold frame its own course of studies, and syllabi of many universities / schools are quite modernized. All programmes to educate librarians share certain characteristics. The Other Paris Gallant? Programmes typically offer courses in the history of books and librarianship to give students a background in the profession's past. It also includes courses in knowledge organization (classification, cataloguing, bibliography, indexing abstracting, Metadata, semantic syntactic analysis, controlled vocabularies, etc.), collection development (acquisition), information seeking behaviors of users, search strategies, library services (dissemination of the acquired library materials, reference), and management of the collection (preservation conservation of documents). It also includes contents related to scholarly communication (bibliometrics, Infometrics, scientometrics, webometrics), digital libraries and ICT. 4.16 ICT as an Integral Part:-

Technology is entering in a very big way in every sector and in LIS where it has been used extensively to store and retrieve information in essay different forms and structures. This new dimension is reflected in the course structure of almost all universities that provides courses in LIS. The courses include topics that impart new skill in organizing web resources, and providing web-based services. 4.17 Practical Exposure:- All courses provide scope of practical knowledge rather than restricting to only theory. Even some universities make it compulsory for their learners to undergo some apprenticeship before practicing the the other paris by mavis gallant essay, librarianship. 4.18 Problems with Present LIS Education and Research:- 4.18.1 Limited Accommodation Capacity:- All universities which provide Library and Information Science courses witness a great flow of learners.

But they are able to accommodate only a limited number of such desired students. 4.18.2 A Very Competitive Entrance Examination:- In most of the universities, students desire to essay questions study the the other by mavis, LIS has to go through a very competitive entrance examination for admission. 4.18.3 Limitation as a Professional Subject:- LIS is a professional course and so it has the limitations of any other professional courses. The non-inclusion of writing essays, Library and Information Science in the other by mavis gallant UPSC, Civil Service / State Public Service Commission examination, SET / SLET is a very common. The other problems include lack of a standard cohesive syllabus of LIS and contest, low level of awareness among the general people about this course. 4.19 LIS Research in India:- The LIS research briefly means the collection and paris gallant, analysis of original data on a problem of librarianship, done within the library school according to scientific and scholarly standard. Research in extended this connection broadly includes investigation, studies, surveys, academic work at the doctoral, post doctoral and research staff level, It also includes in house or action research by practicing librarians, information personnel and the other, documentalists, etc. The aim of research in LIS, like any other discipline is to contribute towards the advancement of subject and contribution to the existing knowledge.

4.19.1 Dr. S. R. Ranganathan's Effort:- The era of LIS research in India started with S. R. Ranganathans efforts. He performed individual research for several years. His works that lead to some of the fundamental and theoretical principles have dominated the research activities for five decades. His idea of classification and cataloguing becomes the area of research in different library schools all over the world. The library and academic community of those days, even today also respect him as a pioneer researcher in LIS. Some of his worth notable contributions are. a) Five laws of library science. b) Colon Classification.

c) Prolegomena to library classification. d) Classified Catalogue Code. e) Documentation and its facets. f) Library administration, etc. In India research activity to reflect in two programs. 4.19.2 M. Phil Programme:- i) University of Delhi:- University of Delhi was the first to introduce M. Phil programme in Library and Information Science in 1980. Today more than 11 universities offer the M.Phil programme. Essay? The duration of the other paris by mavis gallant, M. Phil programme in almost all universities in this country is one year.

4.19.3 PhD Programme:- i) University of Delhi:- The credit for introducing the doctoral degree programme in library science in India goes to Dr. On Importance? S. R. Ranganathan (1892'1972). In 1951, he started PhD program in Delhi University in 1958. The university offered first doctoral degree in Library science to D. B. Krishan Rao for his 'Facet Analysis and Depth Classification of Agriculture' under the guidance of Dr. S. R. Ranganathan.

In 1977, Panjab University, Chandigarh offered the second Ph.D. Today more than 125 Universities in India have Ph.D. research facilities. ii) Documentation Research and Training Centre (DRTC):- In 1962, Dr. S. R. The Other Paris Essay? Ranganathan established Documentation Research and who was more war essay, Training Centre at Bangalore. Since its inception, it has been carrying out research studies on documentation and related areas. iii) Library Associations:-

The contribution of library association of India towards research activities is negligible but they restrict their activities in the field of the other by mavis essay, publication of journals, organization of seminars, conferences and workshop, etc. for making ground to do research in on importance LIS. By Mavis Essay? IATLIS, NASSDOC, ILA, IASLIC are the mentionable among them. iv) Funding of LIS Research in the perks essay questions India:- The University Grants Commission (UGC) is promoting LIS research by gallant awarding different kinds of fellowships to the students. Indian Council of Social Science Research (ICSSR) and Defence Scientific Information and Documentation Centre (DESIDOC) are also promoting LIS research programme by awarding scholarship to good extended doctoral students. v) D.Litt Programme:-

In 1992, Utkal University, Bhubaneswar awarded D.Litt. to Dr. B. B. Shukla. It claimed to be the first such degree in library science all over the world.(Kumar, 1998) 4.20 LIS Research : Global Overview:- Rochester and Vakkari (2003) conducted various national studies of different countries to analyse the trends in LIS research at global scenario and record the research trends in gallant LIS research at global level based on the analysis.

The different national studies in research were conducted by these two authors as an assignment of IFLA project during 1997-1998 and compared national and international trends in LIS research and recorded the development in contest real research. The countries covered in by mavis the analysis were basically European countries Japan, China, UK, USA etc. The analytical study conducted and results reported by IFLA provided a descriptive account of research conducted in various prominent countries of the world. The author's analysis on the research activity and broad subject in which prominent research covered during the period 1965-1995 indicated that the major focus in on importance education LIS research at International level was concentrated mainly of the following topics. 1. Information storage and retrieval (87) 2. Paris By Mavis Gallant? Library and information services (77) 3. Information seeking behavior (8) 4. Essay Real Estate? Other LIS topics (25) Thus out of the other by mavis essay, 197 research studies it was reflected that ISR, LIS services and ISB were in prominent areas. Though these are common during the too many i's essay, period the trend was almost similar in other countries also.

European countries covering Finland, Spain etc had research activity in library services, information seeking behaviour, information services and retrieval where as in UK the same situation was reported. In Spain 1995 LIS degrees were recognized as academic degrees in universities. Information science research took leading position in European countries. The research trends in paris essay Australia reflected in too many i's essay LIS services, information seeking and history were more prominent (74). In China principals in LIS , LIS services, information industry were the major research areas, were more considered but library and the other, information services area was more popular. The most popular sub topics on which research was conducted more during 1965-1995 in China were : ' Library management and administration.

In China during the period 1979-1985 it was known as revolver phase of the perks of being a wallflower, LIS research, 1986-1990 flourishing phase and 1991 onward developing stage and information service, library education were the prominent areas. A comparative study conducted Vakkari (1996) for paris essay LIS research in Scandinavia countries like Denmark, Finland, Sweden, Norway; Spain etc. also reflected European trends in LIS research. Thus it was reflected that major countries noted below during this period involved more in research concentration at broad information topics. It was found that research at international level had orientation towards solving information problems. In LIS many authors reviewed the research methods used by LIS scholars for conducting effective research and noticed that the among the different methods in which descriptive research covering survey (66), historical conceptual research element (79) as well as discussions, mathematical methods, literature review were the prominent methods. In UK, LIS research was examined by Layzell Ward (1998) and pointed out the research trends and informed that research output was low initially and increased latter after establishment of library association which setup research committee 1946 and from 1960 Government funding made available for LIS research.

Since the on importance, establishment of British Library 1994 the the other essay, growth in research gradually increased after 1980 and information technology, information storage and retrieval become more popular topics. From the above global study it is noticed that LIS research progress was slow and different topics were grouped in to three areas based in traditional practices and since 1990 area were shifted towards modernization covering : 1. Toefl Essays? Library history: Library profession, Library administration, Library education, Analysis of libraries, Publishing and book industries. 2. Library and information services: Circulation, Collection development, Information and seeking behavior, User education. 3. Information storage and retrieval: Cataloguing, classification and the other by mavis gallant essay, indexing, Information retrieval, Bibliographic databases. 4. Information seeking behavior: Methods of information dissemination, Information sources, Information seeking behavior in different subject, Information use, Information management. 5. Scientific and professional communication: Scientific publication, Citation pattern and structures, Methods of communication.

At the end of 2001 centre for information research at more for the start cold war essay university of central England, Birmingham examines the research landscape in LIS domain. They have reviewed LIS research 2002-2005 and the other paris by mavis gallant essay, recorded potential gaps in LIS research activities. The survey using questioners covered LIS organizations links public library, universities libraries, schools and writing essays, colleges, government libraries etc. the survey was focused on core areas in LIS. The centre reported that in LIS research domain may be local regional, national and international have a practice or academic focus. Hayns et. al (2000), pointed out that strategic research, basic research, exploratory research, action research, applied research are the major types of research. Paris By Mavis Gallant? Strategic research deals with practical applications, basic research relate to of school theoretical investigation and helps in understanding principals of information management where as exploratory research generate new ideas with practical applications. Applied research creates applications or products as well as transferable knowledge. Action research covers findings solutions to problems at work places worked of different services in 1984 Stewert felt that research area in LIS. This covers resources and services, new technologies, management of change, library services, staff skills, literacy, staff motivations etc. thus the prominent areas in LIS research was predicted was information retrieval, library co-operation, digital resources, information services, preservation and access to knowledge, information providers, public library etc. Till 1995 prominent research was conducted in above areas using different research methods for conducting research in LIS like, historical method, survey method, qualitative, evaluation, action (case) research method, content analysis, citation analysis, bibliometric methods, secondary analysis (Literature review) and experimental research, bibliographic methods etc. The data collection techniques used by researcher while conducting the study during 1965-1995 mainly covers questioner, observation, interview, content analysis, citation analysis, historical resources analysis and secondary analysis.

In UK research conducted mainly in the area public library, library management, user studies, technical processing, information storage and retrieval etc. (Meadows 1994, 1995). Peritz (1977) conducted a study in which analysed research articles published in the other by mavis gallant essay 39 core journals published during the period 1950-1975 from LIS to find out the essay on importance of school education, publishing trends in the stream. Author analysed about 900 journals articles and recorded the research trends. The Other By Mavis Gallant Essay? Similar study was also performed by Atkins (1988) and he analysed subject trends in LIS research carried out during the period 1975-1984 using questionnaire. The purpose of the author in a wallflower essay conducting this study was to find past, present and future trends in LIS research. The Other? Atkins in his study presented a table indicating popularity of the too many, subject in the other by mavis which research articles were publish and real estate, these were treated as a base to conduct LIS research. The areas isolated by paris him are : 1. Library management. 2. Essay Contest? Information retrieval.

5. Public library. 6. Library automation. 7. Library history. 8. Library finance. 9. Collection development. 10. Information services. 15. Citation studies. 16. Special libraries. 17. Research libraries. 18. Library education. 19. University library. 20. The Other By Mavis? Library building. 21. Special collection. 22. National library. 23. Library security.

The author opined that in good extended developed countries till 1980 traditional concept were considered and since 1980 emphasis was given on by mavis gallant, latest trends related topics which were in currency like databases, ICT applications. The growth of OCLC, RLIN and WLN gave more attention towards research in the advanced topics and modernization, automation, database developments etc were considered more by the researcher. 'Citation analysis' was the subject area proved more popular and reported more studies as compared to other topics in LIS, due to its applications in the field to real estate manage libraries and provide better services to users and the other paris by mavis, uses in library at its highest potential. Mcnicol and Nankivell (2003), in their study 'The LIS research landscape: A review and prognosis' conducted a survey of research in LIS covering the period in two parts 1997-2002 and 2002-2005. The comparative analysis of the study leads to find out trends in research in who was more to blame for the start of the cold war essay LIS. This study highlighted LIS research landscape to identify trends and analysis as well as the gaps in research.

Slewart (1984) in his study prepared a research agenda and indicated few research areas in LIS which are not yet considered. 1. Resources utility and user and services requirement. 2. New technologies. 3. Management change. 4. Library services. 7. Retraining staff. 8. Restructuring libraries. Sumsion (1994), also focused on the following research topics and also opined that there is a need to work on the current development to get the quicker solution . 1. The Other By Mavis? Library principals. 2. Identify trends.

3. New user needs. 4. Too Many? New type of services. Pluse and Prythech (1996), studied and the other paris by mavis essay, analysed LIS research conducted during 1990-1996 and identified few prospective areas like: 1. Operational management. 2. Standards and benchmarking. 3. Use of internet. 5. Staffing pattern. Few authors pointed out areas of research conducted in UK, USA during period 1996-2002 after a study and reported few of the prominent areas considered more in developed countries are: 1. Information retrieval. 2. Information skill. 4. The Perks Of Being? Professional development.

7. LIS education. 8. User development. 9. Electronic services. Thus research conducted in developed countries during 1996-2002 indicated increasing trends and it was highest since 2001. Further while indicating future research development themes for research activities suggested were, 1. The Other By Mavis Gallant Essay? Electronic information. 2. The Perks Of Being A Wallflower Essay Questions? Information policy. 3. Multimedia policy. 4. By Mavis Gallant Essay? LIS education.

5. Business information. Electronic resources and information services based on to blame for the start war essay, digital media is the need of the time including internet resource management. Few prominent subjects presented to undertake future studies are: 1. Impact of digital resources. 2. Gallant Essay? Digital library development. 3. ICT and school library. 4. Use of electronic resources.

5. Community building. 6. Controlled vocabulary. 7. Information searching. 10. Semantic web and controlled terminologies. The editorial of library and information science research (1997), in which research agenda beyond 2000 was highlighted by Burke and others and focused the areas in LIS research before 1997 and next bilinear were also highlighted. Information seeking and information retrieval, storage and preservation technology, information quality was covered more. Too Many? The opinion of editorial board covers the major topics like economics, manage rising cost of journals, electronic publishing, information retrieval, internets and its impact on libraries, bibliographic information resources, library services, quality information services, information need/assessment, managing organizational change due to application of information technology, digital information services, web technology, value added information services are the major core areas to be looked in to 2000 onwards.

Samdani (2011), in his article narrated the status of doctoral research in LIS in the other by mavis essay Pakistan and appended the views indicating the LIS research was started in the perks of being questions 1967 from university of Karachi. In Pakistan seven universities and the other by mavis gallant essay, one private university is offering doctoral research programme in LIS. During 1967-1971 only five candidates admitted for research program and only one i.e. M A H Chishti completed his thesis and awarded degree in 1981 entitled 'Islamic libraries (749 AD-1257 AD)'. In 1992 second PhD degree was awarded to Nasim Fatima under the guidance of Dr. Jamil Jalibi from university of Karachi entitled 'cataloguing and standardization of Urdu manuscripts'. The third degree awarded to Munira Ansari in 2005 entitled 'Information needs and information seeking behaviour of the i's essay, media practitioners in the other by mavis gallant Pakistan'.

The fourth degree awarded to Shamshad Ahmed in 2009 for entitled 'A study of library and archival record in directorate of writing model essays, Sindh archives Karachi'. The ongoing research activity involve 13 candidates in research programme and their topics are information generating and handling, health science libraries, news paper library, digital library, library and information science education curriculum, reference and information sources etc. By Mavis Gallant? It is review that university of Karachi four PhD degrees awarded and 13 ongoing PhD research work. From university of Panjab, Lahor initiated doctoral research program in 1971. Too Many? First degree awarded in 2004 and second degree awarded in 2005. The topics were funding model in library and collection management in libraries, at present till 2009, three students have submitted the the other paris by mavis essay, thesis.

In university of Sindh research programme started in 2001 first degree awarded in 2005 and presently four students have registered for ongoing research program and their topics school libraries, college librarianship, user survey/user satisfaction, digital libraries etc. Toefl Writing Model Essays? From Islamia University started doctoral program in 1986 and first degree awarded in 1991 for university library and presently three students have registered for PhD ongoing research program. From university of gallant, Balochistan only one candidate having registered in 2003. The Perks Questions? University of Peshawar, Urdu university of Karachi, Hamdard University, Karachi research has been reflected only at initial stage. The Other Paris By Mavis Essay? It is thus reported that 19 PhD degrees in LIS were awarded during 1964-2010. From foreign university thus 1964-2010, 28 PhD degrees were awarded in 46 years duration, almost single degree in a twice year. During 2004-2010 total ten PhD were declared and more for the start war essay, this is the real contribution of Pakistan. The topics were covered academic library, collection management, library education, classification, cataloguing, library funding, school library, university library, user education etc. as compared Indian progress is excellent. Miwa (2011), in his article trends in Japanese LIS education is highlighted in by mavis gallant which more trace was given on LIS education to maintain quality. The problem areas indentified were public library, academic library, special library, research activities, ICT, professional system etc. it has also same educational pattern followed in essay of school education India i.e. any bachelor degree, bachelor degree in LIS, master degree and doctoral in LIS. In Sri Lanka (Chamani 2008), the major research covered till 2008 were library professional, library history, publishing, LIS education, Information system, information storage and retrieval, information seeking behaviour etc.

The review of LIS research in the other paris essay different countries highlighted that till 2005 almost traditional research was focused more but since 2005 more research is covering latest trends in the profession. From the review of India the who was start cold war essay, same picture is reported except the ICT and technology based research initiated since 2009 onwards. 4.21 Research trend in Indian Universities: The research activity in Indian universities is gathering momentum as there is a greater demand for the research in the discipline. During the recent past, quite a number of paris, research activities have been carried out in the universities and research institutions in various parts of the world. In India, due to the establishment of University Grants Commission (UGC), AICTE and other similar bodies and their active support, many students are caring out M. Phil. and extended, PhD degrees. During pre-independence, there were only few doctorate degree holders, but after independence the research output increased drastically in every field. In India about 125 universities and research institutions are offering PhD programs in LIS. Many researchers made an effort to collect data from different universities and the other paris by mavis gallant essay, analyzed it to fix the research productivity of the various universities in India (Chandrashekara 2009). The credit for the formal institution of the doctoral degree program in library science in on importance India goes undeniably to Dr. S.R.

Ranganathan (1892'1972). In 1951, he started library science education at the University of Delhi. The University of Delhi awarded the first de jure degree in library science in 1957 to D.B. Krishan Rao who worked on 'faceted classification for agriculture'(Chandrashekara 2009, Gupta 2010). Doctoral research remained in the wilderness when Ranganathan shifted to the other gallant Delhi in 1955. The Perks Questions? In 1960s and 1970s some doctorates in library related topics were earned by library professionals under the guidance and supervision of faculties belonging to the disciplines such as sociology, history, law, economics, management, and the like. The purpose of reviving and furthering doctoral research facilities was assumed by J. Paris By Mavis Gallant Essay? S. Sharma (1924'1993), the the perks of being essay, then university librarian and head of the library science department of the Panjab University, Chandigarh.

Under his guidance, the second de jure (de jure means devoting something and someone) Ph.D. in library science was awarded in 1977 after a gap of two decades. Many universities followed with mostly individual efforts and the other paris by mavis, enthusiasm and doctoral research raised since 1980s and gradual improvement in facilities paved ways for India to maintain its third world leadership in library research and library literature. PhD programs thereafter, mushroomed even despite the lack of facilities or adherence to the perks standards (Satija 1999, Gupta 2010). Chandrashekara (2009) collected the data from various authorized sources for the degrees awarded in Indian universities from 1957 to 2008 in LIS discipline and analyzed in proper manner in his paper. His results indicated that during the period 1957 to paris 2008 about 802 theses were submitted and awarded the degrees to the researchers. From his analysis it is very clear that LIS researches gained momentum since 1991 to 2008 and on an average degree awarded per year were 36 and from 1957 to 1990 only 8 per annum average degrees were awarded. The drastic change is reported since 2003 onwards and on an average 43 degrees were awarded per extended essay, year in Indian universities. Even author had grouped decennial growth of research degrees awarded in Indian universities.

The trends resulted from the data presentation indicated that the real growth starts from 1980 to 2008 and during 1950 to 1979 only 15 degrees were awarded. The analysis of the other essay, degrees awarded in toefl writing essays different states and arranging them the top 10 states in India conducted LIS research are Karnataka (169), AP (96), MP (80), MS (58), West Bengal (56), Punjab (45), Orissa (43), UP(42), Rajasthan (41), TN (31) and other states contribution is (141). The analysis made by by mavis gallant essay Chandrashekara and Ramashesh (2009) regarding the essay, research conducted in India during the period 1957-2008 and found that research activity in Karnataka state is leading and Maharashtra is ranked at 4th position. The library and information science deals with all aspects of information and knowledge which includes acquisition of materials, classification and gallant essay, cataloguing, searching tools, information retrieval, library services, preservation and conservation of documents and so on. The library and information science closely related to all other subjects. It forms its own foundation by taking the help of some other subjects. Too Many? Dr.

S. R. Ranganathan is a pioneer in the field of the other by mavis essay, Library and Information Science in the world and India in particular. He contributed in almost all aspects of the library science. Nowadays many university and colleges provides different courses in Library and Information and its related subjects. It ranges from certificate course to PhD. Good Extended? The research trends indicated the the other by mavis gallant, growth at global level and of being essay, also in India. This chapter satisfies the objective 'To study research growth and research trends in the other paris by mavis LIS and compare it with current developments in LIS'.

This chapter summarizes the progress in LIS education, LIS research at good extended essay global and national level. ' Asundi, A Y and the other gallant essay, Karisiddappa C R (2007) Library and Information Science Education in education India: International perspective with special reference to Developing Countries. DESIDOC Bulletin of Information Technology Vol. 27(2) March, p.5-11. ' Atkins Stephen E (1988), Subject trends in library and information science research, 1975-1984, Library Trends, Spring, p. 633-658. ' Barman Badan (2012), Library and information science education, Accessed at http://www.netugc.com/library-and-information-science-education-in-india dated on 14.04.2012.

' Burke R M and others (1998), A research agenda beyond 2000, Library and information science research, Vol. The Other Paris By Mavis? 19(3), p. Essay Real? 209-216. ' Chamani G (2008), library and information science research literature in Sri Lanka: A bibliometric study, journal of the university librarians association of Sri Lanka, Vol. 12. ' Chandrashekara, M and Ramasesh, C P (2009) Library and Information Science Research in India. The Other Gallant Essay? Asia Pacific Conference on LIS education and of school, practice, p.530-537. ' Gupta, D K and Bhardwaj, K (2010) Library Management Research in Indian Universities. Annals of Library and Information Studies. Vol. 57(Dec), p.333-338.

' Higgins, S E(2007) LIS education and paris essay, research area for developing countries. 5th International CALIBER. Punjab University Chandigarh. 8-10 Feb. ' Jarvelin, K. and P. Vakkari. 1993. The evolution of i's essay, library and information science 1965-1985: a content analysis of journal articles. Information Processing and Management, 29(1): 129-144.

' Joshi Manoj K (2010), Library and the other paris by mavis gallant, information science education in India: Some government initiatives, DESIDOC journal of who was more start war essay, library and information technology, Vol. The Other Paris By Mavis? 30(5), Sept., p 67-73. ' Kumar PSG (1998), Doctoral studies in library and information science in India: A study, DESIDOC Bulletin of information technology, vol.18(1), p5-9. ' Layzell Ward (1998), Layzell Ward, P. (1997). The nature of UK research literature: Some thoughts arising from a bibliometric study. IFLA General Conference in Copenhagen, 1997. Library Theory and Research Section Open Forum paper accessed at http://ifla.queenslibrary.org/IV/ifla63/63rocm.htm accessed on 12.06.2012. ' McNicol; Sarah and Nankivell, Clare (2003) LIS Researchers and Practitioners: a Research Culture, Library and Information Research News 26(83), pp. 10-16. ' Miwa M et. al. Writing Model? (2011), Global LIS: An effort to describe trends in Japanese LIS education for global collaboration, Asia Pacific conference on Library information education and practice 2011.

' Naukri24 (2012), Library and information science education in India, Accessed at http://www.news24online.com/Library-and-Information-Science-Education-in-India--Options,-Opportunities-and-Places_career24_23.aspx accessed on 14.04.2012. ' Peritz (1981), the methods of library science research: some results from a bibliometric survey, Library Research2, p. 251-268. ' Pluse, John M., and Prythech, Ray (1996), Research in the other paris by mavis gallant essay Public Libraries, Final Report of the Project on of being a wallflower questions, Research in Public Libraries, British Library Research and Innovation Report 8, London: BLRIC. ' Rath, P (2010) Information and communication technology - Application in higher education with special reference to by mavis gallant north Eastern region. Located at www.caluniv.ac.in/news/prabhakar.doc accessed on 23.07.2011. ' Rochester Maxine, and Vakkari, Pertti (1998), 'International LIS research: A Comparison of National Trends', IFLA Journal 24(3), pp. 166-175. ' Rochester Maxine K (1995), Library and information science research in Australia 1985-1994. A content analysis of research articles in the Australian Academic and Research Libraries 26, p. Extended Essay? 163-170. ' Rochester Maxine K and gallant essay, Vakkari Pertti (2003), International library and information science research: A comparison of national trends, IFLA professional reports, Nr.

82. ' Samdani R A and Bhatti R (2011), doctoral research in LIS by Pakistani professionals: An analysis, Library philosophy and the perks of being questions, practice, accessed on http://inillibunl.edu/lpp accessed at 25.02.2012. ' Sumsion John (1994) strategic research areas and possible research models for UK public libraries, Library Review, Vol. 43(4), p 7-26. ' Tsuji Keita, Yoshida Yuko and the other essay, Miva M (2006) Survey on i's essay, faculty of Library and Information Science education in Japan, Graduate school of library, Information and Media Studies, University of Tsukuba, 2-3, Kasuga, Tsukuba-shi, Ibaraki 305-8550. If this essay isn't quite what you're looking for, why not order your own custom Science essay, dissertation or piece of coursework that answers your exact question? There are UK writers just like me on hand, waiting to help you. Each of us is qualified to the other paris gallant a high level in who was more for the war essay our area of expertise, and we can write you a fully researched, fully referenced complete original answer to your essay question. Just complete our simple order form and by mavis essay, you could have your customised Science work in more for the start of the cold war essay your email box, in as little as 3 hours. This Science essay was submitted to us by a student in order to paris gallant help you with your studies.

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Final Reflection – A Reflection on the other paris by mavis, Assignments. The first large assignment for education, this class was defining “new media and writing” in any “form and by mavis, medium” of our choosing. To be perfectly honest, this was extremely intimidating for me. I am not overly used to who was cold war essay, any form other than writing, but I also recognized that it probably wouldn’t be enough to just spurn out paris some kind of essay and call it a day. I ended up trying of the perks a multimedia blog post – and as that is what I am choosing for the open medium reflection, you can see I haven’t changed all that much.

The core difference between the two choices, though, is that before, I didn’t feel like I had a choice. I needed to do something with writing, and rather desperately tried to paris by mavis, come up with a way for multimedia to essay questions, work. Now, I truly considered several other choices – video, vlog, picture – before deciding that this honestly would probably be the best medium for me. It will give me an opportunity to describe what I have done and how it worked to further my knowledge in a lengthy format, while being able to gallant essay, show the examples. I am still not per se comfortable with using these other ways with the best of their technological and rhetorical capabilities, but now I could at essay contest estate least try. The other thing worth mentioning is the rhetorical differences of writing an essay and writing a blog that I learned in this class. Paris? For one, it is far more informal; I just used “things” and “just” in a final output, and more to blame for the start cold war essay, I won’t edit it out. My voice as the rhetor is supposed to paris gallant, be more welcoming, more open, and more conversational. It’s a new format I haven’t had all that much experience with, but it is interesting to try to too many, write ideas down in paris by mavis gallant essay a conversational way. Creating ethos is i's essay, a bit more difficult, but it is far easier to the other by mavis essay, create the pathos (in a sense of who was more start cold camaraderie) in this type of medium.

Citing is also a bit easier in paris gallant this medium; I just could link to my sources, instead of pouring over style formats (and still probably getting portions wrong – Thanks, APA). Onto the composition! I am not overly proud of this one, which was undoubtedly reflected in the grade. The core problem comes with ‘my’ definition of new media, which is going with the dictionary. While I still agree with my overall point, that “the reason definitions exist is to too many, make communicative experiences as clear and the other paris by mavis, concise as possible, ” and essay contest real, that the thousands of different, possibly too academic, definitions seem a little “pointless,” I know do recognize the value of trying to give at the other gallant least some distinction to these terms. Digital and electronic media seems tied to works that you can only who was for the start, create with a digital interface, such as pictures, video, blogs, etc. Multimedia is the other paris by mavis, connected to media that is who was for the start cold, multimodal; that term in itself refers to works that use two or more mediums to gallant, create it.

New media, then, seems to be the all encompassing term for all of these distinctions and more – works that have a rhetorical point that were created in a digital, or electronic, medium. While I still feel that it can be confusing with the mass amounts of definitions out there, and academia’s time can probably be better spent making projects using these terms instead of defining them, there does seem to be worth in a more nuanced academic understanding. Thus, when a teacher tells me to create a “multimodal digital project,” I know that it must use digital means with several different types of media; this is different than making a simply “new media project,” where a simple blog post could suffice. My older definition of writing was “alphabetic symbols that are put to a chosen medium in a manner that conveys meaning to an audience consuming it.” Reading back, my main issue with the new definitions of writing was that it encompassed all of essay real estate media, instead of just alphabetic writing. I actually still agree with this (while recognizing I am in the minority, now). To me, there is paris, worth in making distinctions between what you are doing. These invariably cross over in multimodal works, but you can “write” while you “video edit” and put in essay real estate “drawings.” It seems counterintuitive to the other paris by mavis, be trying to defining multimedia, multimodal, new media, electronic media, digital media, etc., to its most ridiculously nuanced definition while letting writing suddenly take the good, widest, most encompassing definition of all. The Other By Mavis? Also, there is a cultural understanding with this; in a different class, if they tell me to “write a review of this movie,” and I turn in a vlog, I will fail, plain and i's essay, simple. It seems pointless to the other, renew my definition of it for one singular class, when I will be using the cultural understanding for my entire life.

Being said, I understand what Morey was talking about here. I feel “composition” works much better than “writing” for on importance, this new understanding. The rhetorical techniques experiment was undoubtedly my favorite, because it was with terms that I have known before and have worked with countless times. For this assignment, we had a Rhetorical Techniques Worksheet that had several different terms defined. We then had to illustrate two in some multimedia way. Usually, these open-ended projects extremely frustrate me – but with this, I had several ideas all at once. The frustrating thing about this major is that, when learning rhetoric, they usually only the other gallant essay, ask you to apply it in some form of writing – if they ask you to apply it all. Toefl? I have found that, most of the time, we’re asked to the other by mavis gallant essay, “analyze” people’s rhetoric, which is fine – but sometimes, it is the perks of being, fun to create your own.

I ended up choosing juxtaposition, which is something I have been familiar with from my numerous high school and college English, Art, and Writing classes. The Other Paris By Mavis Gallant? I decided to apply it to music, since that was the medium that I was most uncomfortable. Music is not my forte; I quit piano, guitar, voice, acting, and choir in who was to blame of the cold my (surprisingly long, unsurprisingly bad) musical career. Paris Gallant? I had never before edited music, and essay contest estate, thought that the only reason one would do so would be to DJ. Using Audacity was a bit of a humbling experience, as well as a exercise in frustration. The program was difficult; I am far more used to programs that cost a good deal of money (a product of my brother being technologically savvy and buying many different types of software), and I was thus extremely frustrated by its simplistic interface. I knew what I wanted to do, but making it do it? I eventually learned how to cut the tracks, but never did figure out how to overlay them or put them on the same track (which I originally wanted). It was also a bit frustrating to try to make my purpose known in this medium.

I deliberately chose not to talk about outwardly say my purpose, since it seemed a bit like cheating. But describing that it was a juxtaposition, that it was from these movies, that it was showing the the other paris essay, evolution of sound – that wasn’t something that I found easy at all in just a sound medium. If it was video, I could have written it in a title card. In a vlog, I could have introduced it. I ended up almost just completely ignoring that portion, hoping it was rather obvious, since most already knew Harry Potter, and with the title of the toefl writing essays, project. By Mavis Gallant? It made me consider the mediums in which we create these – I had decided to use sound cloud because it seemed like an obvious choice to just make it music, but another probably would have worked better to get across my point.

Audio probably works better for a podcast format, where the too many i's essay, purpose can be directly stated, than just a musical example. The second composition was my adaption of the other by mavis Pride and Prejudice. This was probably the easiest – and most fun – project I did for the entire class. A Wallflower Questions? I am well acquainted with Pride and Prejudice, and I did a similar adaption project for AP Lit (same facebook mode, using As I Lay Dying). It was fun to the other paris gallant, create, and the remediation actually contains a lot of i's essay ethos, but only with the paris gallant, more you know of Pride and Prejudice. For instance, all the pictures of the characters are from a singular adaption of PP (Lizzie Bennet Diaries); Emily was the only one in class that had seen it, and the composition thus had meant a lot more to more for the start of the cold, her. There are quotes that are from specific adaptions, such as “I’ve been thinking about the pleasure a pair of fine eyes in the face of paris by mavis gallant a pretty woman can bestow,” and essay contest real estate, “I am more than tolerable” (The book and the other by mavis, the 1995 adoption, respectively). Even the amount of likes usually are referencing something – though I don’t exactly remember what now. The point being, the composition is essay of school, understandable even if you don’t know the work that well.

But the more you know, the more my ethos and knowledge about PP become noticeable, which makes it one of my better pieces, I believe. The only portion of this work that I am uncomfortable with is the (attempted) humor. I am not sure how well it succeeded; I tried to copy that which I see on by mavis, the Internet (since I am not a funny person, let’s be honest), but I not sure I was able to mimic it well. This technique is essay questions, one I always struggle with, and paris gallant essay, usually avoid, but it was a bit easier in a detached medium such as this; I didn’t get to see people as they were reading it. If the humor failed, I could be (possibly willfully) ignorant of it from across the too many i's essay, room. The medium itself isn’t one that would work for much other than a class project; can you imagine making a fake Facebook profile for a company? But the techniques themselves are applicable to almost every mode available, and that is the take away. This particular one was daunting to me, since I have done very little with photography, and the other paris gallant essay, less with photoshop. I have only taken one art class in my life, and it was a history class, so I had no idea the best way to toefl writing model essays, create a picture to get across a point.

As you may notice, I have never chosen that as my go-to mode when the form is open, because I think it is undoubtedly the hardest. Without text, it is difficult to get across the nuances of your meaning, and it is the easiest to the other paris essay, misinterpret. There are skills to make it easier, but none that I know, and more to blame cold, none that are fool proof. I went to paris gallant essay, my brother for help (he has an art degree), and of being a wallflower questions, he helped me mostly with the functional goals and ethos. He showed me how to the other paris gallant essay, make an entirely white background, add lighting to make the shadows go away, and how to position the books so they are the most visually appealing.

It was harder than expected, really hitting home the who was more to blame cold war essay, point to me that using pictures to the other by mavis essay, prove a point is essay education, probably more something to leave to the professionals; not that I would never use this medium, but I’d have to study it far more intensely than a two week project. The Other Paris Essay? I may understand how to make the essay, rhetorical goals work, but functionally, I was lost. After we took the essay, photo, he showed me how to toefl model, play around on photoshop to make the background more appealing. The Other By Mavis? We then surfed through the Internet to find symbols that could represent college and amazon; college proved far more difficult, and we chose one that was more particular to essay contest real, my audience (OU students). The Other By Mavis Gallant? The symbols worked as anchoring devices, but without text, which I was pleased with. In the essay of school education, end, though, this project relied far more on knowledge I didn’t really have through rhetoric classes. Pictures can be useful, and in the other paris by mavis gallant the hands of of school a master they could be worth a thousand words, but they remain something I still would never use in a project where I choose the medium. This was, in no uncertain terms, my least favorite project for this class. As aforementioned, I have never done audio work before, and thus never used an audio maker. This one was incredibly frustrating; shall I make a list of everything that I wanted to do, and functionally never figured out how to do? Cut my voice into different tracks, to give more time for the audio examples.

Cut my voice into different tracks so the audio examples wouldn’t play over my voice. Re-record several sections of my voice-over that didn’t turn out the other paris by mavis gallant essay as well as others, and paste them in. Use specifically timed snippets of every song. Change the volume of every snippet. And more! Keep in mind these are what I remember more than a month after the the perks of being a wallflower essay, fact. I did everything I could; I asked people from class for help, I asked the Internet, I watched tutorial videos, but I never could figure out how to do the aforementioned.

We had to use Audacity for this one, which was such a never-ending form of frustration, because I know how to gallant, do all of the above on my Apple program. I played around, but I ended up with this project, which I am still dissatisfied with. I wanted to who was more to blame for the cold, re-do it for paris by mavis essay, a re-grade, but I still couldn’t figure out how to the perks a wallflower essay questions, fix it. I don’t know why Audacity caused me so much trouble, but it hit home an paris gallant essay, important lesson – use technology for which you are comfortable, if you have a choice. The project itself is an attempt to be a succinct explanation of an complex concept, and I’m not sure how well I do it.

Every time I have played it for someone, they seem to miss the core element; it is a piece of music that is a direct link to a character. My partners in the group workshop all missed this element, and all of their advice was tied to writing essays, what they thought it was saying, thus making all their advice unusable. I probably should have emphasized that by saying it first, or emphasizing it with a drum or something, but it still went by essay, unnoticed. I also ran into toefl writing essays the unexpected problem of people not having seen my examples. By Mavis? My partners in group work had not seen Jaws, Coraline, M, Psycho, Ides of March, or Up. Good? This was very surprising to me; I have seen all these movies so many times that I thought they were just normal films everyone had seen, and essay, it threw me for the perks essay, a loop.

I couldn’t pick any different ones by gallant essay, that time, because I would have to restart the too many, entire thing. Next time I create something based on the other paris by mavis gallant essay, implied audience’s knowledge, I should probably choose pieces that are even more mainstream (such as Star Wars and Harry Potter), or at least introduce the pieces better in model the composition. The final video was a lot of fun. I had decided on by mavis, my topic far before we even started the project, and thus began collecting some of the pictures. I did run upon more for the start cold the unexpected problem of the other their being far too many protests to actually use in the project. Kairotically, I knew I wanted to use ones that were in the past year, to make it seem all the more pressing.

I decided to cut out riots, and just use protests of more than 1000 people, hoping that’d slim it down. It still didn’t. The Perks Essay Questions? I was faced with either being incomplete, or really boring my audience with far too many dates. I actually considered only doing revolutions (complete over-throws of the government), but there were only about 15, which sort of diminished the point I was trying to make (that there were hundreds of protests this year, and the other by mavis essay, people have only heard of Ferguson). I then considered doing all of writing them in a very quick, cut transition montage, but then people wouldn’t be able to see the by mavis gallant, place it occurred (my other main goal – to show that this was happening worldwide, but people only seem to know it locally). I ended up choosing the education, largest protests and revolutions of the gallant, year; I then faced the problem of distinctioning the revolutions from the protests. I ended up choosing color to do so, thinking it was a technique I had never used and really made the revolutions stand out (since these were supposed to stand out, since they were the complete overthrow of the governmental system into estate new control. America has had one in over two hundred years, so they really aren’t that common, and there being so many in the past year is the other paris by mavis gallant essay, rather astonishing). This unfortunately backfired into my grade, but it did make me think about how I should incorporate color in the future, so it is more subtle, but still visible. I spent a lot of time on this project. I wanted to toefl writing, incorporate as many rhetorical techniques as I could, since that was something I had largely ignored for the other projects.

I tried a montage (with the photos), juxtaposition (with color and the bouncy nature of the song), visual narrative (they went in order of by mavis gallant essay when they occurred), anchorage (with the places and why they happened), jump cut and fade, sequence, color, action (I really tried not to make it boring, and keep it moving, while still being understandable), and remediation. Above all, though, was my attempt at musical rhetoric. Essay Estate? As I’ve mentioned several times, I’ve failed at musical rhetoric in this class before. I put a lot of time in choosing my song, though (unfortunately), the rhetoric is essay, hard get if one doesn’t know the song. I mistakenly thought it was more popular than it was (one person in our class knew it; again, Emily, thanks!).

It is “Do You Hear the People Sing” for Les Miserables. First and foremost, this song is about revolution. One has to pay attention to the lyrics, but it is about people of the public coming together to revolt against governmental corruption and unfairness. This is exactly what protesting is, so it perfectly fits. Who Was More For The Start Cold? Unlike most revolution songs, it specifically says the public must come together to make it stop. It also a very upbeat song, which ties to its place in the other paris by mavis gallant essay the musical. In Les Mis, they are singing this song while trying to contest, convince the people to revolt with them. It is to gallant essay, get people interested in who was more for the start cold revolution, to persuade them to paris by mavis essay, “join and stand.” The song is thus rhetorical in nature, which makes it perfect for this class. Beyond that, though, I wanted to get across the implied point that this song is about the rebellion of to blame for the start war essay 1832 in France, and it is still relevant.

When I chose it, I was thinking about how the fact that it is still applicable means there should be revolutions and protests going on by mavis, – we shouldn’t still be fighting the battles that were pertinent when slavery was still widespread. It is supposed to thus be motivational by lyrics and by who was for the of the war essay, nature, but I am not sure how well this worked. More technically, this project was difficult to the other paris essay, do. Finding the photos and good extended essay, videos was a pain I hope never to have to do again. I wanted to paris gallant essay, photos that went on and off from showing the scale of the who was more to blame for the of the cold war essay, revolution (thus aerial shots) and the violence (thus those of the people dying, and the other by mavis gallant essay, the fire). Real Estate? I then ran into the problem of adding more protests to the other paris by mavis gallant essay, make it fit with the time, so that became off as it went on. Also, many of who was to blame start cold them didn’t have that many photos, especially with the smaller countries. Paris Gallant? One, the Lesotho revolution, had one only photo on contest estate, Google images.

The videos also were a problem, since almost all of them were filmed on phones, and thus the the other paris by mavis, quality was absolutely terrible. I did my best, but rarely could I findo one over 240p. It was a constant pain to be putting in that many photographs and trying to succinctly describe what they were about, when they happened, while keeping them in time with the music. The project succeeds rhetorically in a way that the other projects don’t, I think. Essay On Importance Of School? It relies very heavily on all four rhetorical points – ethos (with it looking professional), logos (with all the dates and reasons for the revolutions), pathos (the music and violent nature of the images), and kairos (with them all being relevant, and with Ferguson still being in the news). Also, I tried several new techniques, which was fun to try to incorporate. It may not have been my best grade, but it is the one I am most proud of. I learned a lot about the creation of video (mostly from the try and fail method), and I think I could possibly make something similar again and have fun with it. This mode is also my favorite – you can get so much across.

The video itself shows what is going on the other paris by mavis, (through video or pictures), the text can anchor or describe, voice-over can get across what wouldn’t work in who was more to blame for the start war essay text, and music can further get across a mood. It is rather difficult to do properly, making ethos harder to attain, but it also is by paris gallant essay, far the most descriptive, making it my favorite mode, and then one I will probably take with me. The projects in this class taught me less of how to make things in different mediums, and more showed me why. We never had tutorials of contest real estate how to use photoshop, video editors, audio editors, etc., but still had make compositions within them. This being the case, the projects aren’t professional and would never see the light of day for a job, but we were still able to see how each medium would work to get across our points.

When choosing our subject for each medium, we really had to consider how each functionally works, and how those functions can create our rhetorical point. Some would literally not work for paris by mavis, some points. I honestly don’t think I could remake any of my projects in a different medium and still have them work, save the audio and purely visual ones. Speaking of, this class showed me how difficult audio and visual is to work with. Visual compositions rely far too much on the audience for my comfort; it is up to how they interpret it, so the of school, point must be very clear.

Doing this only by mavis gallant essay, with symbols and objects is far harder than I expected, and too many i's essay, will thus be something I probably shy away from. Audio is the other paris gallant, slightly better, since it is just text coming from your throat, but it is more difficult in terms of writing model audience. While writing can be almost any length, and it is read the by mavis, same from all screens, audio really can’t be more than 3 minutes without losing the audience. The voice has to be recorded well, and the voice has to more to blame for the start, be clear with the paris by mavis gallant essay, right inflections. It is another set of worries added on, which makes it a rather difficult medium if one is not versed in model essays it. Video is sort of the best of all worlds, being able to show and by mavis gallant essay, tell – which makes the rhetorical devices way easier to use, instead of imply. The practice with all the mediums gave a clearer image of when and why to use each one, and toefl, possibly a little skill in the how to create them. EXTRA POST: MAC vs PC for paris by mavis essay, a WRT Major. My friend, classmate, and fellow blogger, Emily Christenson and I have argued about Mac vs PC multiple times over the semester.

It’s not a foreign argument to any millennial. You’ve heard it all before: And etcetera etcetera etcetera. While Emily stands firmly on the PC/Windows side, I stand more on essay on importance, the Apple side, but with my foot sometimes toeing the line. I get the the other paris by mavis essay, Windows arguments – truly, I do. Mac is expensive – probably far too expensive for good, the product. More software is programmed for Windows, by far. Mac isn’t intuitive or overly user friendly.

Did I mention it’s expensive? As a WRT major who spends most of the other by mavis gallant her class life on toefl writing model, a laptop, I have to wonder – which one is truly better for by mavis essay, our major? Before I make my argument for Mac, there is who was to blame for the start of the cold, a caveat: this is based on the other, the assumption that money isn’t a huge object. If it is, then I’d probably go for a netbook, to be honest. Alright, so, Macs.

To start with, that list I had in model essays the beginning, there is a core element in all the comparisons: Mac was in all of them. The others varied: Windows, Samsung, Amazon, etc. You have to give Apple their due credit – they’ve created good products for almost every techological use. Even if you’re not a fan, you have to acknowledge that there is by mavis gallant, something there, even if you don’t get it. So, moving on to the WRT major. We spend the too many i's essay, majority of our studies reading, writing, and creating multimedia – probably in that order. Paris By Mavis? For reading: If it’s PDFs, it doesn’t matter what type of computer you use, probably. But as for eBooks, that’s a firm Mac. Unless you have a kindle, Windows doesn’t really have an option. Apple’s iBooks is actually quite nice; you can organize your books by writing essays, collections, authors, categories, or a personal list. By Mavis Gallant Essay? it shows a nice view of the book cover, which you can then sort. Their book store is expansive.

You can change font, font size, you can search, annotate, highlight, and bookmark. Also, if you just download any book off the internet (not from essay education their store), it will still open within iBooks. Check for Apple. So, then, Writing. This one is actually quite simple. The Other Paris? You can do this on anything.

You could open up Gmail and make a document. You could download the essay estate, free Open Office. You can download Microsoft Office on both Windows and Apple (and I can vouch for Apple’s word being just as good – it’s basically the exact same thing with different commands). All of Apple’s projects save in any format, including Microsoft, so that doesn’t matter. So, basically, buy your favorite on whatever you have. That brings us to software (in relation to what we use for class. If you’re a gamer, this is irrelevant, buy a Windows). This one is undoubtably Apple’s.

Microsoft’s programs are fairly terrible, and even Windows’ enthusiasts will admit that. The Other Paris By Mavis Gallant? Windows Movie Maker versus iMovie is almost a joke question, the former being so rudimentary that it is more fit for the perks essay, elementary school than college. The Other Paris Essay? The photo editing program on Apple is rather similar to that on Windows, but it does have more options for editing. Not many more, but more. Apple also has garage band, an good extended, audio editor that Windows does not have an equivalent for. Photo Booth is also nice – you can do audio, image, or video capture, which I have used for every multimedia project in this class. So, software, check for Apple. I am going to the other by mavis essay, go ahead and too many, give the check of reliability to Apple. The Other Paris Gallant? They are literally designed to ward off viruses, worms and trojans – and it shows, since I have had this laptop for essay on importance, 2 years and never once had any issue, and I have no anti-virus software. I have never had an Apple overheat, shut off randomly, blue screen, battery die, break, or freeze. In two years.

I don’t understand people who say Apple’s are breakable – I’ve never once had an issue, so I’m thinking maybe they are assuming it’ll be a Nokia, and treating it as such. My brother also had Mac for five years in his college career, the same Mac, and the other paris gallant, never once had it die. The Perks Of Being? He only got rid of it because it was on loan from the University. It still worked in perfect condition (though the charger did die once. They are replaceable for $20). People complain about Apple not being intuitive, and not understanding how to work it. The Other Essay? That is model essays, understandable, but my answer to that is: learn. Once you get working with Apple, you will figure it out. It is a different system, yes, but it unarguably is easier to navigate and use once you get used to it.

This is the other by mavis essay, a personal opinion, of course, but I find Apple’s interface quite a lot nicer as well. The swipe/back option is useful, the too many, bookmarking option is way more in-depth, the paris gallant essay, window opener is nice to contest, navigate, etc. If you’re complaining that you don’t feel like learning a better system because it is hard – well, that’s sort of what college is. Not to mention the fact that most of the the other by mavis gallant, WRT classrooms have Apple’s. You’ll have to use them anyway, so why not actually learn how to use it properly? It’s all personal preference, and I totally will nod to on importance of school, the price difference – but if you have the choice, I’d go for Apple for an WRT major. Paris By Mavis Gallant? It’ll certainly make your life easier on video projects, I’ll tell you that.

Hong Kong: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QEPi2_qV0oA. Create informative piece on how many protests happened this year. Make a video that caters to an audience that cares about world issues; likely college aged. Use musical juxtaposition with the upbeat music against horror images. The Perks Of Being Essay Questions? Place text over both pictures and video that is readable Use jump cuts Use anchorage on the photos Keep the cuts with the rhythm with the song Keep it in the 3 minute mark. Reflection on Video Peer Review. I received several helpful comments on my video. Most importantly, I need to fix the sound, since I had to fix that as they were watching. They said the music was effective, and the clips were good. Adam suggested I find some of the more violent clips, which I have been searching for.

They also suggested changing the 2014 text to months, since the year has already been stated. They said audience and message were clear, which I was very grateful for, since I was worried those may be implied. I am planning on by mavis essay, remixing the too many i's essay, sound, since it is too quiet in several places and too loud in others. I am going to make the clips at the beginning shorter, and add more. I will change the pictures at the other essay the end to include the month instead of the year, and put them in order. Good Essay? I am planning on revising exactly how long each picture takes, because that’s a bit too inconsistent. I also need to add credits, which I guess I will do in a scrolling end screen, though I am not completely sold on that idea yet. My goals are evolving slightly, though most of paris by mavis gallant essay them stay the good extended essay, same. I still want to figure out how to the other paris essay, do sound mixing within a video player. Too Many I's Essay? I also did figure out by mavis essay text overlay, and am fairly pleased with how that turned out. Essay Real? Though the video has been a pain to paris, put together, I am slightly worried that I need to work more with the technical aspects.

The video won’t work with weird transitions, though; cut definitely is best. I don’t think split screen or color changes would be effective either. I need to i's essay, re-read the wheel and see what I can do that would work within the the other paris by mavis essay, video. Playing around with different transitions. The in class practice, where I (attempts to) change the hue, saturation, and color of too many i's essay a picture on iMovie. So, I luckily have a brother going into film production.

He’s currently at the Motion Picture Institute, and comes home with a lot of stories – because of my particular interest, a lot have to do with scripts. His side is a lot more broad than Morey’s; Morey is more concerned with the how, and I’ve learned the why. Apparently, movie production companies only make 1/3 of all the movies submitted to them, and they purchase 5000-6000 scripts a year. My brother’s script professor says she has made comfortable living off selling one script a year, and none of them have ever been made into movies. Basically, for them to want to buy it, you have to. 1. Make sure it is properly formatted, using Final Draft Pro software, and paris, using Morey’s techniques. 2. Make sure it is grammatically correct. 3. Don’t use adverbs. The Perks A Wallflower Essay Questions? Actors take it personally, as if you’re saying they can’t act. 4. Mail it to a production company. It does take a bit more than that – you have to be talented, of paris essay course.

And you have to completely, totally understand the the perks essay questions, formatting. Just having the paris by mavis essay, proper software and a very brief overview by a book where this is not its actual topic is not enough. But it is enough to get me thinking about taking a script class at Oakland. I don’t actually have any experience writing scripts, or even stories, really, but it’s something that can be segued into toefl model essays with these types of classes, I think. Paris By Mavis Essay? It’s easier than actually being a director, actor, or production member, at very least.

As we’ve seen, actually making the video is far harder than writing a video.