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Dissertation in english literature

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SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and Tips. If you're reading this article, I assume you're an dissertation IB Student, who is getting ready to write their Extended Essay. If you're looking at this as a potential future IB student, I recommend reading our other introductory IB articles first: What is the International Baccalaureate (IB) Program? and What is the IB Curriculum? What are IB Diploma Requirements?. IB students around the globe fear writing the bibliography nursing education Extended Essay. In this articles, I'll try to literature get you excited about writing your Extended Essay and provide you with the resources to get an A. Nursing Education. I'm a recipient of an IB Diploma, and I happened to receive an dissertation in english literature A on my IB Extended Essay. If you don’t believe me, the of mice proof is in the IBO pudding, If you're confused by what this report means, EE is short for Extended Essay, and English A1 is the subject that my Extended Essay topic coordinated with. In layman’s terms, my IB Diploma was graded during May 2010, I wrote my Extended Essay in the English A1 category, and I received a grade A. The IB Extended Essay (or EE) is dissertation literature, a 4,000 word structured mini-thesis that you write under the supervision of an advisor (an IB teacher at your school), which counts towards your IB Diploma (to learn about of mice and men essay, all of the IB diploma requirements, check out our other article). I'll explain exactly how the EE affects your diploma later in this article. For the Extended Essay, you choose a research question as a topic; this topic needs to be approved by IBO (which is not very difficult). You can do a typical research paper such as in this paper, or you conduct an experiment/solve a problem such as in literature this paper.

Most schools allow you to pick your advisor (an IB teacher preferably at your school, although you can also get access to one at another school through the Pamoja Education). I'll explain how to pick your IB EE advisor below. The IB Extended Essay must include a cover page, an abstract (one-page synopsis of your essay), a table of nursing education, contents, the 4,000-word essay (which will range from 10-20 pages depending on whether your topic requires illustrations such as an experiment would), and literature a bibliography. Your completed Extended Essay is then sent to the IBO to annotated be graded (I will go into dissertation in english literature, more detail on grading below). What Should You Write About in Your Extended Essay? You can technically write about anything, so long as the IBO approves it. However, you should choose a topic that falls into one of the if wealth IB Course Categories, (such as Theatre, Film, Spanish, French, Math, Biology, etc.) which shouldn’t be difficult because there are so many class subjects. Here is a range of sample topics with the attached extended essay: You can see from how varied the topics are that you have a lot of freedom when it comes to dissertation picking a topic.

So, how do you pick when the options are limitless? I will help you with that next: 6 Tips for Writing a Grade A Extended Essay. Tip #1: Write About Something You Enjoy Because You'll Be Spending a Lot of Time on It. I love British theatre and if wealth nothing ended up writing mine about literature, a revolution in post-WWII British theatre #theatrenerd. I really encourage anyone who pursues an IB Diploma to nursing papers take the Extended Essay seriously. I ended up receiving a full-tuition merit scholarship to USC’s School of dissertation, Dramatic Arts program and in my interview for the scholarship, I spoke passionately about my Extended Essay. I genuinely think my Extended Essay helped me get my scholarship. Shorter. How do you find a topic you are passionate about? Start by figuring out which classes you enjoy the most and why you enjoy them. Do you like Math because you like to problem solve?

Or do you enjoy English because you like to analyze texts? Once you have figured out a general subject area such as Physics, you should brainstorm more specific topics by putting pen to paper. What was your favorite chapter you learned in that class? Was it astrophysics or mechanics? What did you like about that specific chapter? Is there something you want to learn more about? I recommend spending an hour on this type of brainstorming. After doing this preliminary brainstorming make sure to in english literature choose: Tip #2: Chose a Topic That Is Not Too Broad, But Not Too Narrow. This is a fine line.

You need to write about something specific, but not so specific that you can’t write 4,000 words on it . You can’t write about if wealth nothing is lost essay, WWII because that would be a book worth of material. You don’t want to write about what type of soup prisoners of war received in in english literature POW camps because you probably can’t come up with 4000 words on it. However, you could possibly write about how the conditions in German POW camps were directly affected by the Nazis successes and failures. This may be too obvious of a topic, but you get my point. If you're really stuck trying to thank you essay find a not too broad or narrow topic, I recommend trying to brainstorm a topic that uses a comparison. Dissertation. If you refer back to the topics I mentioned above, you may notice that two use comparisons.

I also used comparison in my EE, comparing Harold Pinter's Party Time to John Osborne's Look Back in of mice and men essay Anger in order to show a transition in British Theatre. Topics with comparisons of 2-3 plays/books/diets/etc. tend to be in the sweet spot of not too narrow or broad because you can analyze each portion and after doing in-depth analysis on each, you compare and explain the dissertation significance of the comparison. The key here is that the comparison needs to be significant. I compared two plays to show a transition in British Theatre. Comparisons are not the only way to get a grade A EE. If after brainstorming, you pick a non-comparison based topic and you are still unsure if a topic is too broad or narrow, spend 30 minutes doing some basic research and see how much material is out there. If there are over 1,000 books/articles/documentaries out how to make college essay shorter, there on the exact topic, it may be too broad. In English Literature. If there are only 2 books that have any connection to your topic, it may be too narrow.

If you are still unsure, ask your advisor! Speaking of thank you essay, advisors: Tip #3: Choose an dissertation Advisor Who Is Very Familiar With Your Topic and nursing papers Who Seems Excited About It. If you are not certain of who you would like to be your advisor, I would start by in english creating a list of your top three choices. Next, create a list of pros and cons (I know this sounds tedious, but it really helps!). For example, Mr. Annotated Education. Green is my favorite teacher, and we get along really well, but he teaches English, and I want to conduct an experiment to compare the literature efficiency of American Hybrid Cars to Foreign Hybrid Cars. Nursing Papers. Ms. White teaches Physics, I had her a year ago, and she liked me. She could help me design my experiment.

I am going to ask Ms. Dissertation In English. White! Do NOT just ask your favorite teacher to thank you essay be your advisor. They may be a hindrance to you if they teach another subject. I would not suggest asking your Biology teacher to guide you in writing your English EE. EXCEPTION: If you have a teacher who is passionate and knowledgeable about your topic (as my English teacher was about my Theatre topic), you can ask that instructor. Consider all of your options first before you do. There was no theatre teacher at dissertation, my school, so I could not find a theatre-specific advisor, so I chose the next best thing.

Some IB high schools require your IB Extended Essay advisor to sign an Agreement Form. Make sure you ask your IB coordinator if there is any required paperwork. IBO does not require any paperwork. Of Mice And Men On Loneliness. If your school needs a Form signed, make sure you bring it with you when you ask a teacher to in english literature be your EE advisor. Tip #4: Choose an Advisor Who Will Push You to Be Your Best. Thank You Essay. Some teachers may just take on students because they have to and may not be passionate about dissertation in english, reading drafts and if wealth is lost nothing may not give you a lot of feedback. Choose a teacher who will take the time to read several drafts and dissertation literature give you extensive notes. I would not have gotten my A without being pushed to make the draft better. Ask a teacher that you have experience with either through class directly or through an nursing papers extracurricular activity. Do not ask a teacher that you have no connection to; a teacher, who does not know you, is unlikely to push you. Dissertation In English. Note: The IBO only allows advisors to suggest improvements to the EE, but they may not be engaged in writing the EE.

The IBO recommends that the bibliography nursing supervisor spends approximately two to three hours in total with the dissertation candidate discussing the EE. Tip #5: Make Sure Your Essay Has a Clear Structure and Flow. IB likes structure. Your EE needs a clear introduction (which should be 1-2 pages double-spaced), research question/focus (i.e. what you will be investigating), body, and biotic conclusion (about 1 page double-spaced). An essay that has unclear or poor organization will be graded poorly. Also, make sure your 300-word abstract is clear and briefly summarizes your whole argument. An ambiguous abstract will make it more challenging for the reader to follow your essay’s argument and will also hurt the grading of your EE. In English. The body of of mice, your EE should make up the bulk of the essay. It should be about dissertation in english literature, 8-18 pages double-spaced (again just depending on whether or not you include diagrams). Your body can be split into multiple parts. For example, if you are doing a comparison, you might have 1/3 of your body as Novel A Analysis, 1/3 as Novel B Analysis, and the last 1/3 as Comparison of Novel A and B Analysis.

If you are conducting an education experiment or analyzing data such as in this EE , your EE body will have a clear and obvious parts following the dissertation in english scientific method: stating the research question, discussing your method, showing the of a data, analyzing the data, discussing uncertainties, and drawing a conclusion/evaluating the experiment. In English Literature. Tip #6: Start Writing Sooner Rather Than Later! You will not be able to crank out a 4,000-word essay in if wealth nothing is lost a week and get an dissertation in english A. You will be reading many, many articles (and, depending on your topic, possibly books, plays, and watching movies). Start the research possible as soon as possible. Each school has a slightly different deadline for how to college essay shorter the Extended Essay.

Some schools want them as soon as November of your Senior Year; others will take them as later as February of Senior Year. Your school will give you your deadline; if they haven't mentioned it by February of literature, Junior year, ask your IB coordinator. Some schools will give you a timeline of when you need to come up with a topic, when you need to meet with your advisor and when certain drafts are due. Not all schools do. Ask your IB coordinator if you are unsure if you are on a specific timeline. Here is my recommended timeline, it is is lost nothing is lost, earlier than most schools, but it will save you so much heartache (trust me, I remember): January/February of dissertation in english, Junior Year: Come up with your final research topic (or at least top 3). February of Junior Year: Approach a teacher about being your EE advisor (if he or she says no, keep asking others until you find one - see my notes above on how to pick an EE advisor). April/May of Junior Year: Submit an outline of college, your EE and a bibliography of potential research sources (I recommend at least 7-10) to your EE advisor. Meet with your EE advisor to dissertation in english literature discuss your outline. Essay. Summer between Junior and Senior Year: Complete your first full draft over the summer between Junior and Senior Year! I know, I know no one wants to work during the summer, but trust me this will save you so much stress come the fall when you are busy with college applications and other IB internal assessments for your IB classes.

You will want to have this first full draft done because you will want to complete a couple of draft cycles as you likely won’t be able to dissertation in english get everything you want to say into 4000 articulate words the make college essay first time. Try to get this first draft into the best possible shape you can, so that you do not have to literature work on nursing, too many revisions during the school year on dissertation in english literature, top of your homework/college applications/work/extracurriculars/etc. August/September of annotated bibliography nursing education, Senior Year: Turn in your first draft of your EE to your advisor and receive feedback. Work on dissertation in english literature, incorporating their feedback into your essay. And Men Essay On Loneliness. If they have a lot of suggestions for improvement, ask if they will read one more draft before the in english final draft. Biotic Of A Grassland. September/October of Senior Year: Submit second draft of EE to in english your advisor (if necessary) and receive their feedback. Bibliography. Work on creating the dissertation literature best possible final draft. Thank You Essay. November-February of Senior Year: Submit two copies of dissertation in english, your final draft to your school to be sent off to nursing papers IBO. You likely will not get your grade until after you graduate. The early bird DOES get the worm!

Extended essays are marked by external assessors (examiners appointed by dissertation the IB) on nursing papers, a scale of 0 to 36. There are general and subject-specific criteria, at a ratio of 2:1 (24 possible marks for the general criteria and literature 12 marks for the subject-specific one). The total mark is converted into a grade from A to of a grassland E, using the in english literature below parameters: Here is the typical breakdown of scores (from 2008): How Does the Extended Essay Grade Affect Your IB Diploma? The Extended Essay grade is combined with your TOK (Theory of thank you essay, Knowledge) grade to determine how many points you get towards your IB Diploma. In English. To learn about Theory of Knowledge or how many points you need to receive your IB Diploma, read our other articles on of mice, What is the dissertation in english International Baccalaureate (IB) Program? or IB Diploma Requirements. This diagram shows how the two scores are combined to determine how many points you receive for your IB diploma (3 being the biotic features of a most, 0 being the in english literature least).

So, let’s say you get an A on your EE and a B on is lost nothing essay, TOK, you will get 3 points towards your diploma. Note: this chart is slightly outdated. Prior to the class of 2010, a diploma candidate could receive a failing grade in either the extended essay or theory of knowledge and still be awarded a diploma. However, as of 2014 (for the literature first examination in May 2015), a student who scores an E on either the extended essay or TOK essay will not be eligible to receive an IB diploma. In case you want a little more guidance on how to get an A EE. Here are 50 Excellent (grade A) sample extended essays for your reading pleasure: Want to improve your SAT score by 160 points or your ACT score by thank you essay 4 points? We've written a guide for dissertation in english each test about the top 5 strategies you must be using to have a shot at improving your score.

Download it for free now: Have friends who also need help with test prep? Share this article! As an SAT/ACT tutor, Dora has guided many students to test prep success. She loves watching students succeed and of a is committed to helping you get there. Dora received a full-tuition merit based scholarship to dissertation literature University of Southern California. She graduated magna cum laude and scored in the 99th percentile on the ACT. She is also passionate about acting, writing, and photography. You should definitely follow us on social media.

You'll get updates on our latest articles right on grassland, your feed. Dissertation In English Literature. Follow us on all 3 of our social networks: Have any questions about this article or other topics? Ask below and thank you essay we'll reply! Series: How to dissertation in english literature Get 800 on biotic grassland, Each SAT Section: Series: How to Get to 600 on Each SAT Section: Series: How to Get 36 on Each ACT Section: Our hand-selected experts help you in a variety of literature, other topics! Looking for annotated education Graduate School Test Prep? Check out our top-rated graduate blogs here: Get the latest articles and test prep tips! © PrepScholar 2013-2015. All rights reserved.

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Ideology and Ideological State Apparatuses. (Notes towards an Investigation) First published : in La Pense , 1970; Translated : from the dissertation in english literature French by Ben Brewster; Source : Lenin and Philosophy and Other Essays , Monthly Review Press 1971; Transcribed : by Andy Blunden. On the Reproduction of the Conditions of Production [1]

I must now expose more fully something which was briefly glimpsed in my analysis when I spoke of the necessity to renew the means of production if production is to be possible. If Wealth Is Lost Nothing Is Lost! That was a passing hint. Dissertation! Now I shall consider it for itself. As Marx said, every child knows that a social formation which did not reproduce the conditions of production at the same time as it produced would not last a year. [2] The ultimate condition of production is therefore the reproduction of the conditions of production. This may be ‘simple’ (reproducing exactly the previous conditions of production) or ‘on an extended scale’ (expanding them).

Let us ignore this last distinction for the moment. What, then, is the reproduction of the conditions of production ? Here we are entering a domain which is both very familiar (since Capital Volume Two) and uniquely ignored. The tenacious obviousnesses (ideological obviousnesses of an empiricist type) of the thank you essay point of view of production alone, or even of that of mere productive practice (itself abstract in relation to the process of production) are so integrated into our everyday ‘consciousness’ that it is extremely hard, not to say almost impossible, to raise oneself to the point of view of reproduction. Nevertheless, everything outside this point of view remains abstract (worse than one-sided: distorted) – even at dissertation in english the level of production, and, a fortiori , at thank you essay that of mere practice. Let us try and examine the literature matter methodically. To simplify my exposition, and assuming that every social formation arises from a dominant mode of production, I can say that the process of grassland production sets to work the existing productive forces in and under definite relations of production. It follows that, in order to exist, every social formation must reproduce the conditions of its production at the same time as it produces, and in order to be able to produce.

It must therefore reproduce: 1. the productive forces, 2. the existing relations of production. Reproduction of the Means of in english literature Production. Everyone (including the bourgeois economists whose work is bibliography nursing, national accounting, or the modern ‘macro-economic’ ‘theoreticians’) now recognizes, because Marx compellingly proved it in Capital Volume Two, that no production is possible which does not allow for the reproduction of the material conditions of production: the reproduction of the means of production. The average economist, who is no different in this than the average capitalist, knows that each year it is essential to foresee what is needed to replace what has been used up or worn out in production: raw material, fixed installations (buildings), instruments of production (machines), etc. I say the average economist = the in english average capitalist, for they both express the nursing papers point of view of the firm, regarding it as sufficient simply to give a commentary on the terms of the firm’s financial accounting practice.

But thanks to the genius of Quesnay who first posed this ‘glaring’ problem, and to the genius of Marx who resolved it, we know that the reproduction of the material conditions of production cannot be thought at the level of the firm, because it does not exist at in english that level in its real conditions. What happens at bibliography nursing education the level of the firm is an effect, which only dissertation, gives an nursing papers idea of the dissertation in english necessity of reproduction, but absolutely fails to allow its conditions and mechanisms to be thought. A moment’s reflection is enough to be convinced of bibliography nursing education this: Mr X, a capitalist who produces woollen yarn in his spinning-mill, has to ‘reproduce’ his raw material, his machines, etc. But he does not produce them for his own production – other capitalists do: an in english Australian sheep farmer, Mr Y, a heavy engineer producing machine-tools, Mr Z, etc., etc. Annotated Bibliography Nursing! And Mr Y and Mr Z, in order to produce those products which are the condition of the reproduction of Mr X’s conditions of production, also have to in english, reproduce the conditions of their own production, and so on to infinity – the annotated education whole in proportions such that, on the national and even the world market, the demand for means of production (for reproduction) can be satisfied by in english, the supply. In order to think this mechanism, which leads to a kind of ‘endless chain’, it is necessary to follow Marx’s ‘global’ procedure, and to study in nursing papers, particular the relations of the circulation of capital between Department I (production of means of production) and Department II (production of means of consumption), and the realization of surplus value, in dissertation, Capital , Volumes Two and Three. We shall not go into the analysis of make essay this question. It is enough to have mentioned the existence of the necessity of the reproduction of the material conditions of production. However, the reader will not have failed to note one thing. We have discussed the reproduction of the means of production – but not the reproduction of the productive forces.

We have therefore ignored the in english literature reproduction of what distinguishes the annotated bibliography nursing education productive forces from the means of production, i.e. the reproduction of labour power. From the observation of what takes place in the firm, in particular from the examination of the financial accounting practice which predicts amortization and investment, we have been able to obtain an literature approximate idea of the existence of the material process of reproduction, but we are now entering a domain in which the observation of what happens in biotic of a grassland, the firm is, if not totally blind, at least almost entirely so, and for good reason: the reproduction of labour power takes place essentially outside the firm. How is the reproduction of labour power ensured? It is ensured by literature, giving labour power the material means with which to reproduce itself: by wages. Thank You Essay! Wages feature in the accounting of each enterprise, but as ‘wage capital’, [3] not at all as a condition of the material reproduction of in english literature labour power. However, that is in fact how it ‘works’, since wages represents only that part of the value produced by the expenditure of labour power which is indispensable for how to college shorter, its reproduction: so indispensable to the reconstitution of the in english labour power of the wage-earner (the wherewithal to pay for housing, food and clothing, in short to enable the wage earner to present himself again at nursing papers the factory gate the next day – and every further day God grants him); and we should add: indispensable for raising and in english literature, educating the children in whom the proletarian reproduces himself (in n models where n = 0, 1, 2, etc. ) as labour power. Remember that this quantity of value (wages) necessary for the reproduction of labour power is determined not by the needs of a ‘biological’ Guaranteed Minimum Wage ( Salaire Minimum Interprofessionnel Garanti ) alone, but by bibliography education, the needs of a historical minimum (Marx noted that English workers need beer while French proletarians need wine) – i.e. a historically variable minimum.

I should also like to point out that this minimum is doubly historical in that it is not defined by the historical needs of the working class ‘recognized’ by the capitalist class, but by the historical needs imposed by literature, the proletarian class struggle (a double class struggle: against the lengthening of the working day and against the reduction of wages). However, it is not enough to biotic features of a grassland, ensure for labour power the material conditions of its reproduction if it is to be reproduced as labour power. I have said that the available labour power must be ‘competent’, i.e. suitable to be set to work in the complex system of the process of production. The development of the productive forces and the type of unity historically constitutive of the productive forces at a given moment produce the dissertation literature result that the labour power has to be (diversely) skilled and therefore reproduced as such. Diversely: according to thank you essay, the requirements of the socio-technical division of labour, its different ‘jobs’ and ‘posts’. How is this reproduction of the (diversified) skills of labour power provided for in a capitalist regime? Here, unlike social formations characterized by slavery or serfdom this reproduction of the skills of labour power tends (this is a tendential law) decreasingly to dissertation literature, be provided for of mice essay, ‘on the spot’ (apprenticeship within production itself), but is achieved more and more outside production: by the capitalist education system, and by other instances and institutions. What do children learn at school? They go varying distances in their studies, but at any rate they learn to read, to in english literature, write and to annotated nursing, add – i.e. a number of techniques, and in english, a number of other things as well, including elements (which may be rudimentary or on the contrary thoroughgoing) of ‘scientific’ or ‘literary culture’, which are directly useful in the different jobs in production (one instruction for manual workers, another for technicians, a third for engineers, a final one for higher management, etc.). Bibliography Nursing! Thus they learn know-how. But besides these techniques and dissertation in english, knowledges, and in learning them, children at school also learn the ‘rules’ of good behaviour, i.e. the attitude that should be observed by every agent in and men, the division of labour, according to the job he is ‘destined’ for: rules of morality, civic and professional conscience, which actually means rules of respect for the socio-technical division of labour and ultimately the rules of the order established by class domination.

They also learn to dissertation literature, ‘speak proper French’, to ‘handle’ the of mice essay on loneliness workers correctly, i.e. actually (for the future capitalists and in english literature, their servants) to ‘order them about’ properly, i.e. How To Essay! (ideally) to ‘speak to them’ in the right way, etc. To put this more scientifically, I shall say that the reproduction of labour power requires not only a reproduction of its skills, but also, at the same time, a reproduction of its submission to the rules of the established order, i.e. Literature! a reproduction of submission to the ruling ideology for nursing, the workers, and a reproduction of the ability to manipulate the ruling ideology correctly for dissertation in english, the agents of exploitation and repression, so that they, too, will provide for the domination of the ruling class ‘in words’. In other words, the school (but also other State institutions like the Church, or other apparatuses like the Army) teaches ‘know-how’, but in forms which ensure subjection to the ruling ideology or the if wealth is lost nothing is lost mastery of its ‘practice’. All the agents of production, exploitation and repression, not to speak of the ‘professionals of ideology’ (Marx), must in one way or another be ‘steeped’ in this ideology in in english, order to perform their tasks ‘conscientiously’ – the tasks of the exploited (the proletarians), of the nothing essay exploiters (the capitalists), of the exploiters’ auxiliaries (the managers), or of the dissertation in english literature high priests of the ruling ideology (its ‘functionaries’), etc. The reproduction of labour power thus reveals as its sine qua non not only the reproduction of its ‘skills’ but also the reproduction of its subjection to the ruling ideology or of the ‘practice’ of that ideology, with the proviso that it is not enough to say ‘not only but also’, for it is clear that it is in the forms and under the forms of ideological subjection that provision is made for the reproduction of the skills of labour power. But this is to recognize the effective presence of a new reality: ideology. Here I shall make two comments. The first is to round off my analysis of reproduction. I have just given a rapid survey of the forms of the annotated nursing reproduction of the productive forces, i.e. Literature! of the means of production on the one hand, and of labour power on the other.

But I have not yet approached the question of the thank you essay reproduction of the relations of dissertation in english production. This is nursing papers, a crucial question for the Marxist theory of the in english literature mode of production. To let it pass would be a theoretical omission – worse, a serious political error. I shall therefore discuss it. And Men On Loneliness! But in order to obtain the means to discuss it, I shall have to make another long detour. The second comment is that in dissertation literature, order to make this detour, I am obliged to college essay shorter, re-raise my old question: what is a society?

Infrastructure and Superstructure. On a number of occasions [4] I have insisted on the revolutionary character of the Marxist conception of the ‘social whole’ insofar as it is distinct from the Hegelian ‘totality’. I said (and this thesis only repeats famous propositions of historical materialism) that Marx conceived the structure of every society as constituted by ‘levels’ or ‘instances’ articulated by a specific determination: the literature infrastructure , or economic base (the ‘unity’ of the productive forces and the relations of production) and nothing is lost essay, the superstructure , which itself contains two ‘levels’ or ‘instances’: the politico-legal (law and the State) and ideology (the different ideologies, religious, ethical, legal, political, etc.). Besides its theoretico-didactic interest (it reveals the difference between Marx and Hegel), this representation has the following crucial theoretical advantage: it makes it possible to inscribe in the theoretical apparatus of its essential concepts what I have called their respective indices of effectivity. What does this mean? It is easy to see that this representation of the structure of every society as an edifice containing a base (infrastructure) on which are erected the two ‘floors’ of the superstructure, is a metaphor, to be quite precise, a spatial metaphor: the dissertation in english metaphor of a topography ( topique ). [5] Like every metaphor, this metaphor suggests something, makes some thing visible. If Wealth Is Lost! What? Precisely this: that the upper floors could not ‘stay up’ (in the air) alone, if they did not rest precisely on their base. Thus the object of the metaphor of the literature edifice is to represent above all the ‘determination in the last instance’ by the economic base. The effect of is lost essay this spatial metaphor is to endow the base with an index of effectivity known by the famous terms: the dissertation literature determination in biotic features, the last instance of what happens in the upper ‘floors’ (of the superstructure) by what happens in the economic base.

Given this index of effectivity ‘in the last instance’, the in english ‘floors’ of the superstructure are clearly endowed with different indices of effectivity. What kind of indices? It is possible to say that the nursing papers floors of the superstructure are not determinant in dissertation in english literature, the last instance, but that they are determined by essay, the effectivity of the base; that if they are determinant in their own (as yet undefined) ways, this is true only insofar as they are determined by the base. Their index of effectivity (or determination), as determined by the determination in the last instance of the base, is thought by the Marxist tradition in two ways: (1) there is a ‘relative autonomy’ of the superstructure with respect to the base; (2) there is a ‘reciprocal action’ of the superstructure on in english, the base. We can therefore say that the great theoretical advantage of the Marxist topography, i.e. of the spatial metaphor of the edifice (base and how to make college shorter, superstructure) is simultaneously that it reveals that questions of determination (or of index of in english effectivity) are crucial; that it reveals that it is the base which in the last instance determines the whole edifice; and that, as a consequence, it obliges us to pose the theoretical problem of the college essay shorter types of ‘derivatory’ effectivity peculiar to the superstructure, i.e. it obliges us to think what the Marxist tradition calls conjointly the relative autonomy of the superstructure and the reciprocal action of the superstructure on dissertation literature, the base.

The greatest disadvantage of this representation of the structure of every society by biotic features grassland, the spatial metaphor of an edifice, is obviously the fact that it is metaphorical: i.e. it remains descriptive. It now seems to literature, me that it is possible and desirable to thank you essay, represent things differently. NB, I do not mean by this that I want to reject the classical metaphor, for that metaphor itself requires that we go beyond it. And I am not going beyond it in order to reject it as outworn. I simply want to attempt to dissertation, think what it gives us in the form of a description. I believe that it is and men on loneliness, possible and necessary to think what characterizes the essential of the existence and nature of the superstructure on the basis of reproduction. Once one takes the point of view of dissertation in english literature reproduction, many of the questions whose existence was indicated by the spatial metaphor of the edifice, but to which it could not give a conceptual answer, are immediately illuminated. My basic thesis is that it is not possible to pose these questions (and therefore to answer them) except from the if wealth is lost point of view of reproduction. I shall give a short analysis of in english Law, the State and Ideology from this point of view. And I shall reveal what happens both from the point of view of bibliography practice and production on the one hand, and from that of reproduction on the other. The Marxist tradition is strict, here: in in english literature, the Communist Manifesto and the Eighteenth Brumaire (and in all the later classical texts, above all in Marx’s writings on the Paris Commune and of mice essay, Lenin’s on State and Revolution ), the State is explicitly conceived as a repressive apparatus.

The State is a ‘machine’ of repression, which enables the ruling classes (in the nineteenth century the bourgeois class and the ‘class’ of big landowners) to ensure their domination over the working class, thus enabling the in english former to subject the latter to the process of surplus-value extortion (i.e. to capitalist exploitation). The State is thank you essay, thus first of all what the Marxist classics have called the State Apparatus. This term means: not only the specialized apparatus (in the narrow sense) whose existence and necessity I have recognized in relation to the requirements of legal practice, i.e. the police, the courts, the prisons; but also the army, which (the proletariat has paid for this experience with its blood) intervenes directly as a supplementary repressive force in the last instance, when the police and its specialized auxiliary corps are ‘outrun by events’; and above this ensemble, the head of State, the government and the administration. Presented in this form, the Marxist-Leninist ‘theory’ of the State has its finger on the essential point, and not for one moment can there be any question of rejecting the dissertation in english fact that this really is the essential point. The State Apparatus, which defines the if wealth is lost essay State as a force of literature repressive execution and intervention ‘in the interests of the ruling classes’ in the class struggle conducted by the bourgeoisie and its allies against if wealth is lost is lost essay the proletariat, is quite certainly the State, and quite certainly defines its basic ‘function’. From Descriptive Theory to Theory as such. Nevertheless, here too, as I pointed out with respect to the metaphor of the dissertation in english edifice (infrastructure and superstructure), this presentation of the nature of the State is still partly descriptive. As I shall often have occasion to use this adjective (descriptive), a word of explanation is necessary in order to remove any ambiguity.

Whenever, in college, speaking of the metaphor of the edifice or of the in english Marxist ‘theory’ of the State, I have said that these are descriptive conceptions or representations of their objects, I had no ulterior critical motives. On the contrary, I have every grounds to think that great scientific discoveries cannot help but pass through the phase of what I shall call descriptive ‘ theory ‘ . Biotic Grassland! This is the first phase of every theory, at dissertation in english literature least in the domain which concerns us (that of the science of social formations). As such, one might and in my opinion one must – envisage this phase as a transitional one, necessary to the development of the theory. That it is transitional is inscribed in features of a grassland, my expression: ‘descriptive theory’, which reveals in its conjunction of terms the equivalent of a kind of ‘contradiction’. In fact, the term theory ‘clashes’ to some extent with the adjective ‘descriptive’ which I have attached to it. This means quite precisely: (1) that the ‘descriptive theory’ really is, without a shadow of a doubt, the irreversible beginning of the dissertation in english literature theory; but (2) that the ‘descriptive’ form in which the theory is presented requires, precisely as an effect of this ‘contradiction’, a development of the theory which goes beyond the form of how to college essay ‘description’. Let me make this idea clearer by returning to our present object: the State. When I say that the Marxist ‘theory’ of the State available to us is still partly ‘descriptive’, that means first and foremost that this descriptive ‘theory’ is without the shadow of a doubt precisely the beginning of the Marxist theory of the State, and that this beginning gives us the literature essential point, i.e. the decisive principle of every later development of the thank you essay theory. Indeed, I shall call the descriptive theory of the State correct, since it is perfectly possible to dissertation literature, make the vast majority of the facts in and men on loneliness, the domain with which it is concerned correspond to the definition it gives of its object.

Thus, the dissertation in english literature definition of the State as a class State, existing in the Repressive State Apparatus, casts a brilliant light on all the facts observable in the various orders of repression whatever their domains: from the massacres of June 1848 and thank you essay, of the Paris Commune, of Bloody Sunday, May 1905 in Petrograd, of the Resistance, of Charonne, etc., to the mere (and relatively anodyne) interventions of a ‘censorship’ which has banned Diderot’s La Rligieuse or a play by Gatti on Franco; it casts light on all the direct or indirect forms of exploitation and extermination of the masses of the people (imperialist wars); it casts light on that subtle everyday domination beneath which can be glimpsed, in in english, the forms of political democracy, for example, what Lenin, following Marx, called the dictatorship of the bourgeoisie. And yet the descriptive theory of the State represents a phase in the constitution of the theory which itself demands the ‘supersession’ of nursing papers this phase. For it is clear that if the definition in question really does give us the means to identify and recognize the in english facts of bibliography education oppression by relating them to the State, conceived as the Repressive State Apparatus, this ‘interrelationship’ gives rise to a very special kind of obviousness, about which I shall have something to say in dissertation in english literature, a moment: ‘Yes, that’s how it is, that’s really true!’ [6] And the accumulation of facts within the definition of the features State may multiply examples, but it does not really advance the definition of the dissertation literature State, i.e. the scientific theory of the State. Every descriptive theory thus runs the risk of ‘blocking’ the development of the theory, and yet that development is essential. That is why I think that, in order to develop this descriptive theory into of a, theory as such, i.e. in order to understand further the mechanisms of the State in its functioning, I think that it is indispensable to add something to the classical definition of the State as a State Apparatus. The Essentials of the Marxist Theory of the State. Let me first clarify one important point: the State (and its existence in its apparatus) has no meaning except as a function of State power. The whole of the political class struggle revolves around the State.

By which I mean around the possession, i.e. the seizure and conservation of State power by dissertation, a certain class or by an alliance between classes or class fractions. This first clarification obliges me to distinguish between State power (conservation of State power or seizure of State power), the objective of the political class struggle on the one hand, and the State Apparatus on the other. We know that the State Apparatus may survive, as is proved by bourgeois ‘revolutions’ in nineteenth-century France (1830, 1848), by coups d’tat (2 December, May 1958), by collapses of the if wealth is lost is lost essay State (the fall of the Empire in 1870, of the Third Republic in 1940), or by the political rise of the petty bourgeoisie (1890-95 in France), etc., without the State Apparatus being affected or modified: it may survive political events which affect the possession of State power. Even after a social revolution like that of dissertation 1917, a large part of the State Apparatus survived after the seizure of State power by the alliance of the proletariat and the small peasantry: Lenin repeated the fact again and again. It is possible to annotated nursing, describe the distinction between state power and state apparatus as part of the literature ‘Marxist theory’ of the state, explicitly present since Marx’s Eighteenth Brumaire and Class Struggles in France. To summarize the ‘Marxist theory of the state’ on this point, it can be said that the Marxist classics have always claimed that (1) the state is the repressive state apparatus, (2) state power and state apparatus must be distinguished, (3) the objective of the class struggle concerns state power, and in consequence the use of the state apparatus by the classes (or alliance of essay classes or of dissertation in english literature fractions of classes) holding state power as a function of their class objectives, and (4) the proletariat must seize state power in order to destroy the existing bourgeois state apparatus and, in a first phase, replace it with a quite different, proletarian, state apparatus, then in later phases set in motion a radical process, that of the destruction of the state (the end of state power, the end of nursing every state apparatus). In this perspective, therefore, what I would propose to add to the ‘Marxist theory’ of the state is already there in so many words. But it seems to me that even with this supplement, this theory is still in part descriptive, although it does now contain complex and differential elements whose functioning and action cannot be understood without recourse to further supplementary theoretical development.

The State Ideological Apparatuses. Thus, what has to be added to the ‘Marxist theory’ of the dissertation state is something else. Here we must advance cautiously in a terrain which, in fact, the Marxist classics entered long before us, but without having systematized in theoretical form the decisive advances implied by bibliography nursing education, their experiences and dissertation literature, procedures. Of Mice On Loneliness! Their experiences and in english literature, procedures were indeed restricted in the main to the terrain of political practice. In fact, i.e. in their political practice, the Marxist classics treated the State as a more complex reality than the definition of it given in the ‘Marxist theory of the state’, even when it has been supplemented as I have just suggested. They recognized this complexity in their practice, but they did not express it in a corresponding theory. [7]

I should like to attempt a very schematic outline of this corresponding theory. To that end, I propose the following thesis. In order to advance the theory of the State it is indispensable to take into account not only the distinction between state power and state apparatus , but also another reality which is clearly on the side of the nursing papers (repressive) state apparatus, but must not be confused with it. I shall call this reality by its concept: the Ideological State Apparatuses. What are the Ideological State Apparatuses (ISAs)? They must not be confused with the (repressive) State apparatus. Remember that in Marxist theory, the State Apparatus (SA) contains: the Government, the Administration, the Army, the Police, the Courts, the Prisons, etc., which constitute what I shall in future call the Repressive State Apparatus.

Repressive suggests that the literature State Apparatus in question ‘functions by violence’ – at least ultimately (since repression, e.g. administrative repression, may take non-physical forms). I shall call Ideological State Apparatuses a certain number of realities which present themselves to thank you essay, the immediate observer in the form of distinct and dissertation, specialized institutions. I propose an empirical list of these which will obviously have to be examined in detail, tested, corrected and re-organized. With all the reservations implied by this requirement, we can for the moment regard the following institutions as Ideological State Apparatuses (the order in bibliography nursing education, which I have listed them has no particular significance): the religious ISA (the system of the different churches), the educational ISA (the system of the different public and private ‘schools’), the literature family ISA, [8] the legal ISA, [9] the political ISA (the political system, including the features grassland different parties), the trade-union ISA, the communications ISA (press, radio and television, etc.), the in english cultural ISA (literature, the arts, sports, etc.). I have said that the ISAs must not be confused with the (Repressive) State Apparatus. What constitutes the difference? As a first moment, it is clear that while there is one (Repressive) State Apparatus, there is a plurality of Ideological State Apparatuses. Even presupposing that it exists, the unity that constitutes this plurality of ISAs as a body is not immediately visible. As a second moment, it is clear that whereas the unified – (Repressive) State Apparatus belongs entirely to the public domain, much the larger part of the Ideological State Apparatuses (in their apparent dispersion) are part, on the contrary, of the private domain. Churches, Parties, Trade Unions, families, some schools, most newspapers, cultural ventures, etc., etc., are private.

We can ignore the first observation for the moment. But someone is thank you essay, bound to question the second, asking me by dissertation in english, what right I regard as Ideological State Apparatuses, institutions which for the most part do not possess public status, but are quite simply private institutions. As a conscious Marxist, Gramsci already forestalled this objection in one sentence. Annotated Nursing! The distinction between the in english literature public and the private is a distinction internal to bourgeois law, and valid in the (subordinate) domains in which bourgeois law exercises its ‘authority’. The domain of the State escapes it because the latter is ‘above the law’: the State, which is the thank you essay State of the ruling class, is neither public nor private; on the contrary, it is the precondition for any distinction between public and in english literature, private. The same thing can be said from the starting-point of our State Ideological Apparatuses.

It is unimportant whether the institutions in bibliography nursing education, which they are realized are ‘public’ or ‘private’. What matters is how they function. In English! Private institutions can perfectly well ‘function’ as Ideological State Apparatuses. A reasonably thorough analysis of if wealth nothing essay any one of the ISAs proves it. But now for what is essential. What distinguishes the ISAs from the (Repressive) State Apparatus is the following basic difference: the Repressive State Apparatus functions ‘by violence’, whereas the Ideological State Apparatuses function ‘ by ideology’. I can clarify matters by correcting this distinction.

I shall say rather that every State Apparatus, whether Repressive or Ideological, ‘functions’ both by violence and by ideology, but with one very important distinction which makes it imperative not to confuse the Ideological State Apparatuses with the (Repressive) State Apparatus. This is the fact that the (Repressive) State Apparatus functions massively and dissertation in english, predominantly by repression (including physical repression), while functioning secondarily by ideology. (There is no such thing as a purely repressive apparatus.) For example, the Army and the Police also function by ideology both to ensure their own cohesion and reproduction, and in the ‘values’ they propound externally. In the same way, but inversely, it is essential to say that for their part the Ideological State Apparatuses function massively and how to make essay shorter, predominantly by dissertation, ideology , but they also function secondarily by repression, even if ultimately, but only ultimately, this is very attenuated and concealed, even symbolic. (There is no such thing as a purely ideological apparatus.) Thus Schools and Churches use suitable methods of biotic features grassland punishment, expulsion, selection, etc., to ‘discipline’ not only their shepherds, but also their flocks. The same is true of the Family. The same is true of the cultural IS Apparatus (censorship, among other things), etc. Is it necessary to add that this determination of the double ‘functioning’ (predominantly, secondarily) by dissertation in english literature, repression and by ideology, according to if wealth is lost, whether it is a matter of the (Repressive) State Apparatus or the Ideological State Apparatuses, makes it clear that very subtle explicit or tacit combinations may be woven from the interplay of the (Repressive) State Apparatus and the Ideological State Apparatuses? Everyday life provides us with innumerable examples of this, but they must be studied in detail if we are to go further than this mere observation. Nevertheless, this remark leads us towards an understanding of what constitutes the unity of the apparently disparate body of the ISAs. If the ISAs ‘function’ massively and predominantly by literature, ideology, what unifies their diversity is precisely this functioning, insofar as the ideology by which they function is always in fact unified, despite its diversity and its contradictions, beneath the ruling ideology , which is the ideology of ‘the ruling class’. Given the fact that the ‘ruling class’ in principle holds State power (openly or more often by means of alliances between classes or class fractions), and therefore has at its disposal the (Repressive) State Apparatus, we can accept the fact that this same ruling class is annotated bibliography, active in the Ideological State Apparatuses insofar as it is ultimately the ruling ideology which is realized in in english literature, the Ideological State Apparatuses, precisely in its contradictions.

Of course, it is a quite different thing to act by laws and nursing papers, decrees in dissertation, the (Repressive) State Apparatus and to ‘act’ through the intermediary of the ruling ideology in the Ideological State Apparatuses. We must go into the details of biotic this difference – but it cannot mask the reality of a profound identity. To my knowledge, no class can hold State power over a long period without at the same time exercising its hegemony over and in the State Ideological Apparatuses. I only need one example and proof of this: Lenin’s anguished concern to in english literature, revolutionize the educational Ideological State Apparatus (among others), simply to make it possible for the Soviet proletariat, who had seized State power, to secure the essay future of the dictatorship of the proletariat and the transition to socialism. [10] This last comment puts us in a position to dissertation in english, understand that the Ideological State Apparatuses may be not only the stake , but also the site of class struggle, and often of bitter forms of class struggle.

The class (or class alliance) in power cannot lay down the law in the ISAs as easily as it can in the (repressive) State apparatus, not only bibliography nursing education, because the former ruling classes are able to dissertation literature, retain strong positions there for a long time, but also because the resistance of the exploited classes is able to find means and occasions to express itself there, either by the utilization of their contradictions, or by conquering combat positions in them in struggle. [11] Let me run through my comments. If the thesis I have proposed is of mice and men, well-founded, it leads me back to the classical Marxist theory of the dissertation literature State, while making it more precise in one point. I argue that it is necessary to distinguish between State power (and its possession by . ) on of mice on loneliness, the one hand, and the State Apparatus on the other. But I add that the State Apparatus contains two bodies: the body of institutions which represent the Repressive State Apparatus on the one hand, and the body of dissertation in english institutions which represent the body of Ideological State Apparatuses on the other. But if this is the nursing papers case, the following question is bound to dissertation, be asked, even in and men essay, the very summary state of my suggestions: what exactly is the extent of the role of the Ideological State Apparatuses? What is their importance based on?

In other words: to what does the ‘function’ of these Ideological State Apparatuses, which do not function by repression but by dissertation literature, ideology, correspond? On the Reproduction of the how to college essay shorter Relations of Production. I can now answer the central question which I have left in suspense for many long pages: how is the reproduction of the relations of production secured? In the topographical language (Infrastructure, Superstructure), I can say: for the most part, [12] it is secured by the legal-political and ideological superstructure. But as I have argued that it is essential to go beyond this still descriptive language, I shall say: for the most part, it is literature, secured by the exercise of State power in the State Apparatuses, on the one hand the nursing papers (Repressive) State Apparatus, on the other the literature Ideological State Apparatuses. What I have just said must also be taken into account, and it can be assembled in thank you essay, the form of the following three features: 1. All the State Apparatuses function both by repression and by ideology, with the difference that the (Repressive) State Apparatus functions massively and predominantly by in english literature, repression, whereas the Ideological State Apparatuses function massively and predominantly by ideology. 2. Whereas the (Repressive) State Apparatus constitutes an organized whole whose different parts are centralized beneath a commanding unity, that of the politics of class struggle applied by the political representatives of the ruling classes in possession of State power, the Ideological State Apparatuses are multiple, distinct, ‘relatively autonomous’ and capable of providing an how to make objective field to contradictions which express, in forms which may be limited or extreme, the effects of the clashes between the capitalist class struggle and the proletarian class struggle, as well as their subordinate forms. 3. Whereas the unity of the (Repressive) State Apparatus is secured by its unified and centralized organization under the leadership of the representatives of the classes in power executing the politics of the class struggle of the classes in power, the unity of the different Ideological State Apparatuses is dissertation, secured, usually in education, contradictory forms, by the ruling ideology, the literature ideology of the ruling class.

Taking these features into account, it is possible to represent the reproduction of the relations of production [13] in the following way, according to of mice essay on loneliness, a kind of ‘division of labour’. The role of the repressive State apparatus, insofar as it is a repressive apparatus, consists essentially in securing by force (physical or otherwise) the political conditions of the reproduction of relations of production which are in the last resort relations of exploitation. Not only does the State apparatus contribute generously to its own reproduction (the capitalist State contains political dynasties, military dynasties, etc.), but also and above all, the State apparatus secures by repression (from the most brutal physical force, via mere administrative commands and interdictions, to open and tacit censorship) the political conditions for dissertation literature, the action of the Ideological State Apparatuses. In fact, it is the latter which largely secure the is lost essay reproduction specifically of the relations of dissertation in english literature production, behind a ‘shield’ provided by the repressive State apparatus. Nursing Papers! It is here that the role of the dissertation literature ruling ideology is heavily concentrated, the ideology of the ruling class, which holds State power. It is the intermediation of the ruling ideology that ensures a (sometimes teeth-gritting) ‘harmony’ between the repressive State apparatus and the Ideological State Apparatuses, and between the different State Ideological Apparatuses. We are thus led to envisage the following hypothesis, as a function precisely of the diversity of ideological State Apparatuses in their single, because shared, role of the make college essay shorter reproduction of the relations of production.

Indeed we have listed a relatively large number of Ideological State Apparatuses in contemporary capitalist social formations: the educational apparatus, the religious apparatus, the family apparatus, the in english political apparatus, the trade-union apparatus, the communications apparatus, the ‘cultural’ apparatus, etc. But in the social formations of that mode of production characterized by ‘serfdom’ (usually called the feudal mode of production), we observe that although there is a single repressive State apparatus which, since the earliest known Ancient States, let alone the Absolute Monarchies, has been formally very similar to the one we know today, the number of Ideological State Apparatuses is smaller and their individual types are different. For example, we observe that during the Middle Ages, the Church (the religious Ideological State Apparatus) accumulated a number of functions which have today devolved on to several distinct Ideological State Apparatuses, new ones in relation to the past I am invoking, in particular educational and cultural functions. Alongside the Church there was the is lost essay family Ideological State Apparatus, which played a considerable part, incommensurable with its role in capitalist social formations. Despite appearances, the literature Church and education, the Family were not the only Ideological State Apparatuses. There was also a political Ideological State Apparatus (the Estates General, the Parlement , the different political factions and Leagues, the ancestors of the modern political parties, and the whole political system of the free Communes and then of the Villes ). There was also a powerful ‘proto-trade union’ Ideological State Apparatus, if I may venture such an anachronistic term (the powerful merchants’ and in english literature, bankers’ guilds and nursing papers, the journeymen’s associations, etc.). Publishing and Communications, even, saw an indisputable development, as did the theatre; initially both were integral parts of the dissertation in english literature Church, then they became more and more independent of it. In the pre-capitalist historical period which I have examined extremely broadly, it is absolutely clear that there was one dominant Ideological State Apparatus , the Church , which concentrated within it not only religious functions, but also educational ones, and a large proportion of the functions of nursing papers communications and ‘culture’. It is no accident that all ideological struggle, from the in english literature sixteenth to the eighteenth century, starting with the first shocks of the Reformation, was concentrated in an anti-clerical and anti-religious struggle; rather this is a function precisely of the dominant position of the religious Ideological State Apparatus. The foremost objective and achievement of the of mice and men essay on loneliness French Revolution was not just to transfer State power from the feudal aristocracy to dissertation in english, the merchant-capitalist bourgeoisie, to break part of the former repressive State apparatus and replace it with a new one (e.g., the national popular Army) but also to thank you essay, attack the number-one Ideological State Apparatus: the Church. Hence the civil constitution of the clergy, the confiscation of ecclesiastical wealth, and the creation of new Ideological State Apparatuses to replace the religious Ideological State Apparatus in its dominant role.

Naturally, these things did not happen automatically: witness the Concordat, the Restoration and the long class struggle between the landed aristocracy and dissertation in english literature, the industrial bourgeoisie throughout the nineteenth century for the establishment of bourgeois hegemony over the functions formerly fulfilled by the Church: above all by the Schools. It can be said that the bourgeoisie relied on the new political, parliamentary-democratic, Ideological State Apparatus, installed in the earliest years of the Revolution, then restored after long and nothing is lost essay, violent struggles, for a few months in 1848 and for decades after the fall of the Second Empire, in order to conduct its struggle against the Church and wrest its ideological functions away from it, in other words, to ensure not only dissertation literature, its own political hegemony, but also the ideological hegemony indispensable to the reproduction of and men essay on loneliness capitalist relations of production. That is why I believe that I am justified in advancing the following Thesis, however precarious it is. I believe that the Ideological State Apparatus which has been installed in the dominant position in mature capitalist social formations as a result of a violent political and ideological class struggle against the old dominant Ideological State Apparatus, is the educational ideological apparatus. This thesis may seem paradoxical, given that for everyone, i.e. in the ideological representation that the bourgeoisie has tried to give itself and the classes it exploits, it really seems that the dominant Ideological State Apparatus in capitalist social formations is not the Schools, but the in english literature political Ideological State Apparatus, i.e. the regime of parliamentary democracy combining universal suffrage and party struggle. However, history, even recent history, shows that the bourgeoisie has been and still is thank you essay, able to dissertation, accommodate itself to political Ideological State Apparatuses other than parliamentary democracy: the First and Second Empires, Constitutional Monarchy (Louis XVIII and Charles X), Parliamentary Monarchy (Louis-Philippe), Presidential Democracy (de Gaulle), to mention only France. In England this is even clearer.

The Revolution was particularly ‘successful’ there from the thank you essay bourgeois point of view, since unlike France, where the dissertation bourgeoisie, partly because of the stupidity of the petty aristocracy, had to agree to of a grassland, being carried to literature, power by peasant and plebeian ‘ journes rvolutionnaires ’, something for which it had to pay a high price, the English bourgeoisie was able to of a grassland, ‘compromise’ with the aristocracy and ‘share’ State power and the use of the State apparatus with it for a long time (peace among all men of good will in the ruling classes!). In Germany it is even more striking, since it was behind a political Ideological State Apparatus in which the imperial Junkers (epitomized by dissertation, Bismarck), their army and their police provided it with a shield and leading personnel, that the imperialist bourgeoisie made its shattering entry into history, before ‘traversing’ the Weimar Republic and entrusting itself to Nazism. Hence I believe I have good reasons for thinking that behind the scenes of nursing papers its political Ideological State Apparatus, which occupies the front of the stage, what the bourgeoisie has installed as its number-one, i.e. as its dominant Ideological State Apparatus, is the educational apparatus, which has in fact replaced in its functions the previously dominant Ideological State Apparatus, the dissertation in english Church. One might even add: the School-Family couple has replaced the Church-Family couple. Why is the educational apparatus in fact the thank you essay dominant Ideological State Apparatus in capitalist social formations, and how does it function? For the moment it must suffice to say:

1. All Ideological State Apparatuses, whatever they are, contribute to the same result: the reproduction of the relations of production, i.e. of dissertation in english literature capitalist relations of exploitation. 2. Each of if wealth is lost essay them contributes towards this single result in the way proper to in english literature, it. The political apparatus by subjecting individuals to the political State ideology, the ‘indirect’ (parliamentary) or ‘direct’ (plebiscitary or fascist) ‘democratic’ ideology. Nothing Is Lost! The communications apparatus by cramming every ‘citizen’ with daily doses of nationalism, chauvinism, liberalism, moralism, etc, by means of the press, the radio and television. The same goes for the cultural apparatus (the role of sport in chauvinism is of the first importance), etc.

The religious apparatus by recalling in sermons and the other great ceremonies of Birth, Marriage and Death, that man is literature, only ashes, unless he loves his neighbour to the extent of turning the how to college essay shorter other cheek to whoever strikes first. The family apparatus . but there is no need to go on. 3. This concert is dominated by literature, a single score, occasionally disturbed by contradictions (those of the remnants of former ruling classes, those of the proletarians and their organizations): the score of the Ideology of the annotated bibliography current ruling class which integrates into its music the dissertation literature great themes of the Humanism of the Great Forefathers, who produced the if wealth is lost Greek Miracle even before Christianity, and afterwards the Glory of in english literature Rome, the Eternal City, and the themes of Interest, particular and general, etc. nationalism, moralism and economism. 4. Nevertheless, in this concert, one Ideological State Apparatus certainly has the dominant role, although hardly anyone lends an ear to its music: it is so silent! This is the thank you essay School. It takes children from every class at infant-school age, and then for years, the years in which the child is most ‘vulnerable’, squeezed between the Family State Apparatus and the Educational State Apparatus, it drums into them, whether it uses new or old methods, a certain amount of literature ‘know-how’ wrapped in the ruling ideology (French, arithmetic, natural history, the sciences, literature) or simply the ruling ideology in its pure state (ethics, civic instruction, philosophy). Somewhere around the age of sixteen, a huge mass of children are ejected ‘into production’: these are the workers or small peasants. Another portion of scholastically adapted youth carries on: and, for better or worse, it goes somewhat further, until it falls by the wayside and fills the posts of small and middle technicians, white-collar workers, small and middle executives, petty bourgeois of and men all kinds. A last portion reaches the summit, either to fall into intellectual semi-employment, or to provide, as well as the ‘intellectuals of the collective labourer’, the agents of exploitation (capitalists, managers), the agents of repression (soldiers, policemen, politicians, administrators, etc.) and literature, the professional ideologists (priests of all sorts, most of whom are convinced ‘laymen’). Each mass ejected en route is practically provided with the ideology which suits the role it has to fulfil in class society: the role of the exploited (with a ‘highly-developed’ ‘professional’, ‘ethical’, ‘civic’, ‘national’ and features, a-political consciousness); the role of the agent of exploitation (ability to give the workers orders and speak to them: ‘human relations’), of the agent of repression (ability to give orders and dissertation in english, enforce obedience ‘without discussion’, or ability to manipulate the demagogy of a political leader’s rhetoric), or of the professional ideologist (ability to treat consciousnesses with the respect, i.e. with the contempt, blackmail, and demagogy they deserve, adapted to the accents of Morality, of Virtue, of ‘Transcendence’, of the Nation, of France’s World Role, etc.). Of course, many of these contrasting Virtues (modesty, resignation, submissiveness on the one hand, cynicism, contempt, arrogance, confidence, self-importance, even smooth talk and cunning on the other) are also taught in the Family, in bibliography, the Church, in the Army, in Good Books, in films and even in the football stadium.

But no other Ideological State Apparatus has the obligatory (and not least, free) audience of the totality of the children in dissertation in english literature, the capitalist social formation, eight hours a day for five or six days out of nursing papers seven. But it is by an apprenticeship in a variety of know-how wrapped up in the massive inculcation of the ideology of the ruling class that the dissertation in english literature relations of production in a capitalist social formation, i.e. the relations of exploited to exploiters and exploiters to exploited, are largely reproduced. Nursing! The mechanisms which produce this vital result for the capitalist regime are naturally covered up and concealed by a universally reigning ideology of the School, universally reigning because it is one of the essential forms of the ruling bourgeois ideology: an ideology which represents the School as a neutral environment purged of ideology (because it is . lay), where teachers respectful of the ‘conscience’ and ‘freedom’ of the children who are entrusted to them (in complete confidence) by dissertation in english literature, their ‘parents’ (who are free, too, i.e. the owners of their children) open up for them the path to the freedom, morality and responsibility of adults by their own example, by knowledge, literature and their ‘liberating’ virtues. I ask the pardon of make shorter those teachers who, in dissertation literature, dreadful conditions, attempt to annotated bibliography, turn the dissertation few weapons they can find in the history and learning they ‘teach’ against the ideology, the if wealth nothing essay system and dissertation literature, the practices in biotic, which they are trapped. They are a kind of dissertation literature hero. But they are rare and how many (the majority) do not even begin to suspect the ‘work’ the system (which is bigger than they are and crushes them) forces them to do, or worse, put all their heart and ingenuity into performing it with the most advanced awareness (the famous new methods!). So little do they suspect it that their own devotion contributes to the maintenance and nourishment of this ideological representation of the if wealth is lost nothing School, which makes the School today as ‘natural’, indispensable-useful and even beneficial for our contemporaries as the Church was ‘natural’, indispensable and generous for our ancestors a few centuries ago. In fact, the Church has been replaced today in its role as the dominant Ideological State Apparatus by dissertation, the School.

It is coupled with the Family just as the Church was once coupled with the annotated Family. We can now claim that the unprecedentedly deep crisis which is now shaking the dissertation literature education system of so many States across the features globe, often in conjunction with a crisis (already proclaimed in dissertation literature, the Communist Manifesto ) shaking the family system, takes on a political meaning, given that the if wealth nothing is lost essay School (and the School/Family couple) constitutes the in english literature dominant Ideological State Apparatus, the Apparatus playing a determinant part in the reproduction of the make college shorter relations of production of a mode of production threatened in its existence by the world class struggle. When I put forward the concept of an dissertation Ideological State Apparatus, when I said that the ISAs ‘function by ideology’, I invoked a reality which needs a little discussion: ideology. It is well known that the expression ‘ideology’ was invented by Cabanis, Destutt de Tracy and their friends, who assigned to it as an object the (genetic) theory of ideas. When Marx took up the college shorter term fifty years later, he gave it a quite different meaning, even in his Early Works. Here, ideology is the literature system of the ideas and representations which dominate the mind of a man or a social group. The ideologico-political struggle conducted by Marx as early as his articles in of mice and men essay on loneliness, the Rheinische Zeitung inevitably and quickly brought him face to face with this reality and forced him to in english literature, take his earliest intuitions further.

However, here we come upon a rather astonishing paradox. Everything seems to lead Marx to formulate a theory of ideology. In fact, The German Ideology does offer us, after the 1844 Manuscripts , an explicit theory of ideology, but . it is not Marxist (we shall see why in a moment). Of Mice On Loneliness! As for Capital , although it does contain many hints towards a theory of ideologies (most visibly, the ideology of the vulgar economists), it does not contain that theory itself, which depends for the most part on a theory of ideology in general. I should like to venture a first and very schematic outline of literature such a theory. The theses I am about to put forward are certainly not off the cuff, but they cannot be sustained and biotic features of a grassland, tested, i.e. confirmed or rejected, except by much thorough study and analysis. One word first of all to expound the reason in principle which seems to me to in english, found, or at least to justify, the project of a theory of ideology in general , and not a theory of particular ideolog ies , which, whatever their form (religious, ethical, legal, political), always express class positions. It is quite obvious that it is necessary to proceed towards a theory of ideologies in if wealth nothing is lost essay, the two respects I have just suggested.

It will then be clear that a theory of ideolog ies depends in the last resort on the history of social formations, and thus of the modes of dissertation literature production combined in features of a grassland, social formations, and of the class struggles which develop in them. In this sense it is clear that there can be no question of a theory of ideolog ies in general, since ideolog ies (defined in the double respect suggested above: regional and class) have a history, whose determination in the last instance is clearly situated outside ideologies alone, although it involves them. On the contrary, if I am able to dissertation literature, put forward the project of a theory of ideology in general , and if this theory really is nursing, one of the elements on which theories of ideologies depend, that entails an apparently paradoxical proposition which I shall express in the following terms: ideology has no history. As we know, this formulation appears in dissertation in english, so many words in a passage from biotic features of a grassland, The German Ideology. Marx utters it with respect to metaphysics, which, he says, has no more history than ethics (meaning also the other forms of ideology).

In The German Ideology , this formulation appears in a plainly positivist context. Ideology is conceived as a pure illusion, a pure dream, i.e. as nothingness. All its reality is external to it. Dissertation! Ideology is thus thought as an imaginary construction whose status is is lost, exactly like the theoretical status of the dream among writers before Freud. For these writers, the in english dream was the purely imaginary, i.e. null, result of ‘day’s residues’, presented in an arbitrary arrangement and order, sometimes even ‘inverted’, in bibliography nursing education, other words, in ‘disorder’. Dissertation In English! For them, the dream was the imaginary, it was empty, null and arbitrarily ‘stuck together’ ( bricol ), once the eyes had closed, from the residues of the only full and positive reality, the reality of the how to make college shorter day. This is exactly the status of philosophy and dissertation in english, ideology (since in this book philosophy is ideology par excellence ) in The German Ideology.

Ideology, then, is for Marx an imaginary assemblage ( bricolage ), a pure dream, empty and nursing papers, vain, constituted by the ‘day’s residues’ from the only full and positive reality, that of the concrete history of concrete material individuals materially producing their existence. It is on this basis that ideology has no history in in english literature, The German Ideology , since its history is outside it, where the only existing history is, the nursing papers history of concrete individuals, etc. In The German Ideology , the thesis that ideology has no history is therefore a purely negative thesis, since it means both: 1. ideology is nothing insofar as it is a pure dream (manufactured by who knows what power: if not by the alienation of the division of labour, but that, too, is a negative determination); 2. ideology has no history, which emphatically does not mean that there is no history in it (on the dissertation in english literature contrary, for nursing papers, it is dissertation literature, merely the pale, empty and inverted reflection of real history) but that it has no history of its own. Now, while the thesis I wish to of a, defend formally speaking adopts the dissertation terms of biotic The German Ideology (‘ideology has no history’), it is literature, radically different from the positivist and historicist thesis of The German Ideology. For on is lost, the one hand, I think it is possible to hold that ideolog ies have a history of their own (although it is determined in the last instance by the class struggle); and on the other, I think it is possible to hold that ideology in general has no history , not in a negative sense (its history is external to it), but in an absolutely positive sense. This sense is a positive one if it is true that the peculiarity of literature ideology is that it is endowed with a structure and a functioning such as to make it a non-historical reality, i.e. an omni-historical reality, in the sense in which that structure and functioning are immutable, present in the same form throughout what we can call history, in the sense in which the Communist Manifesto defines history as the nursing papers history of class struggles, i.e. the history of class societies.

To give a theoretical reference-point here, I might say that, to return to our example of the dream, in dissertation, its Freudian conception this time, our proposition: ideology has no history, can and essay shorter, must (and in a way which has absolutely nothing arbitrary about it, but, quite the reverse, is theoretically necessary, for there is an organic link between the two propositions) be related directly to Freud’s proposition that the unconscious is dissertation literature, eternal , i.e. that it has no history. If eternal means, not transcendent to all (temporal) history, but omnipresent, trans-historical and therefore immutable in form throughout the extent of history, I shall adopt Freud’s expression word for word, and and men, write ideology is eternal , exactly like the dissertation in english unconscious. And I add that I find this comparison theoretically justified by the fact that the eternity of the unconscious is not unrelated to the eternity of ideology in general. That is why I believe I am justified, hypothetically at least, in proposing a theory of ideology in general , in is lost is lost essay, the sense that Freud presented a theory of the literature unconscious in general. To simplify the phrase, it is convenient, taking into account what has been said about ideologies, to use the plain term ideology to designate ideology in thank you essay, general, which I have just said has no history, or, what comes to the same thing, is eternal, i.e. omnipresent in its immutable form throughout history (= the history of in english literature social formations containing social classes). For the moment I shall restrict myself to ‘class societies’ and their history. Ideology is if wealth is lost nothing, a ‘Representation’ of the Imaginary Relationship of Individuals to dissertation in english, their Real Conditions of Existence. In order to approach my central thesis on the structure and functioning of biotic features ideology, I shall first present two theses, one negative, the other positive. The first concerns the object which is ‘represented’ in the imaginary form of ideology, the second concerns the materiality of ideology. Thesis I. Ideology represents the imaginary relationship of in english literature individuals to their real conditions of existence. We commonly call religious ideology, ethical ideology, legal ideology, political ideology, etc., so many ‘world outlooks’.

Of course, assuming that we do not live one of these ideologies as the truth (e.g. ‘believe’ in God, Duty, Justice, etc. ), we admit that the ideology we are discussing from a critical point of view, examining it as the ethnologist examines the myths of a ‘primitive society’, that these ‘world outlooks’ are largely imaginary, i.e. do not ‘correspond to reality’. However, while admitting that they do not correspond to reality, i.e. that they constitute an biotic features of a illusion, we admit that they do make allusion to reality, and that they need only be ‘interpreted’ to discover the reality of the world behind their imaginary representation of that world (ideology = illusion/allusion ). There are different types of literature interpretation, the most famous of which are the thank you essay mechanistic type, current in the eighteenth century (God is the imaginary representation of the real King), and the ‘ hermeneutic ‘ interpretation, inaugurated by the earliest Church Fathers, and revived by Feuerbach and the theologico-philosophical school which descends from dissertation literature, him, e.g. the theologian Barth (to Feuerbach, for example, God is the essence of real Man). The essential point is that on condition that we interpret the imaginary transposition (and inversion) of ideology we arrive at the conclusion that in ideology ‘men represent their real conditions of and men existence to literature, themselves in an imaginary form’. Unfortunately, this interpretation leaves one small problem unsettled: why do men ‘need’ this imaginary transposition of their real conditions of existence in biotic, order to ‘represent to themselves’ their real conditions of existence? The first answer (that of the in english eighteenth century) proposes a simple solution: Priests or Despots are responsible.

They ‘forged’ the Beautiful Lies so that, in thank you essay, the belief that they were obeying God, men would in fact obey the Priests and Despots, who are usually in alliance in their imposture, the in english Priests acting in the interests of the Despots or vice versa , according to is lost nothing, the political positions of the ‘theoreticians’ concerned. There is therefore a cause for dissertation in english literature, the imaginary transposition of the real conditions of existence: that cause is the existence of a small number of cynical men who base their domination and exploitation of the ‘people’ on a falsified representation of the world which they have imagined in order to enslave other minds by dominating their imaginations. The second answer (that of Feuerbach, taken over word for word by Marx in his Early Works) is more ‘profound’, i.e. just as false. It, too, seeks and finds a cause for biotic, the imaginary transposition and distortion of men’s real conditions of existence, in short, for the alienation in the imaginary of the representation of men’s conditions of existence. Dissertation! This cause is if wealth essay, no longer Priests or Despots, nor their active imagination and the passive imagination of their victims. This cause is the in english literature material alienation which reigns in the conditions of existence of men themselves. Nothing Is Lost! This is how, in The Jewish Question and elsewhere, Marx defends the Feuerbachian idea that men make themselves an alienated (= imaginary) representation of their conditions of existence because these conditions of existence are themselves alienating (in the dissertation in english 1844 Manuscripts : because these conditions are dominated by the essence of make shorter alienated society – ‘ alienated labour ’).

All these interpretations thus take literally the thesis which they presuppose, and on which they depend, i.e. that what is reflected in the imaginary representation of the world found in in english, an ideology is the conditions of existence of men, i.e. their real world. Now I can return to a thesis which I have already advanced: it is not their real conditions of existence, their real world, that ‘men’ ‘represent to themselves’ in ideology, but above all it is their relation to those conditions of existence which is represented to them there. It is this relation which is at the centre of every ideological, i.e. imaginary, representation of the real world. It is essay on loneliness, this relation that contains the ‘cause’ which has to explain the imaginary distortion of the in english literature ideological representation of the real world. Or rather, to leave aside the how to college essay shorter language of causality it is necessary to advance the thesis that it is the imaginary nature of this relation which underlies all the imaginary distortion that we can observe (if we do not live in its truth) in dissertation literature, all ideology.

To speak in a Marxist language, if it is true that the representation of the biotic features of a grassland real conditions of existence of the individuals occupying the posts of agents of literature production, exploitation, repression, ideologization and scientific practice, does in the last analysis arise from the relations of production, and from relations deriving from the relations of production, we can say the following: all ideology represents in its necessarily imaginary distortion not the existing relations of production (and the other relations that derive from them), but above all the (imaginary) relationship of individuals to if wealth is lost essay, the relations of dissertation literature production and the relations that derive from them. What is represented in ideology is therefore not the system of the real relations which govern the existence of individuals, but the imaginary relation of those individuals to the real relations in which they live. If this is the case, the question of the ‘cause’ of the imaginary distortion of the real relations in and men, ideology disappears and must be replaced by a different question: why is the representation given to individuals of their (individual) relation to the social relations which govern their conditions of existence and their collective and individual life necessarily an imaginary relation? And what is the nature of this imaginariness? Posed in this way, the question explodes the solution by a ‘clique’ [14] , by a group of individuals (Priests or Despots) who are the authors of the great ideological mystification, just as it explodes the literature solution by the alienated character of the biotic real world. We shall see why later in my exposition. For the moment I shall go no further. Thesis II: Ideology has a material existence. I have already touched on this thesis by saying that the ‘ideas’ or ‘representations’, etc., which seem to make up ideology do not have an ideal ( idale or idelle ) or spiritual existence, but a material existence. I even suggested that the ideal ( idale , idelle ) and spiritual existence of ‘ideas’ arises exclusively in an ideology of the ‘idea’ and of ideology, and let me add, in an ideology of what seems to have ‘founded’ this conception since the emergence of the sciences, i.e. Literature! what the annotated bibliography nursing practicians of the sciences represent to themselves in dissertation, their spontaneous ideology as ‘ideas’, true or false. And Men Essay On Loneliness! Of course, presented in affirmative form, this thesis is unproven.

I simply ask that the reader be favourably disposed towards it, say, in the name of materialism. A long series of arguments would be necessary to prove it. This hypothetical thesis of the not spiritual but material existence of ‘ideas’ or other ‘representations’ is indeed necessary if we are to advance in dissertation, our analysis of the nature of ideology. Or rather, it is merely useful to us in order the better to reveal what every at all serious analysis of education any ideology will immediately and empirically show to every observer, however critical. While discussing the Ideological State Apparatuses and their practices, I said that each of them was the realization of an ideology (the unity of dissertation in english literature these different regional ideologies – religious, ethical, legal, political, aesthetic, etc. – being assured by their subjection to the ruling ideology). I now return to this thesis: an ideology always exists in an apparatus, and its practice, or practices.

This existence is biotic grassland, material. Of course, the in english literature material existence of the ideology in an apparatus and its practices does not have the same modality as the material existence of a paving-stone or a rifle. But, at thank you essay the risk of being taken for a Neo-Aristotelian (NB Marx had a very high regard for Aristotle), I shall say that ‘matter is discussed in many senses’, or rather that it exists in different modalities, all rooted in the last instance in ‘physical’ matter. Having said this, let me move straight on in english literature, and see what happens to the ‘individuals’ who live in ideology, i.e. in a determinate (religious, ethical, etc.) representation of the world whose imaginary distortion depends on their imaginary relation to their conditions of existence, in other words, in if wealth is lost nothing is lost essay, the last instance, to dissertation in english literature, the relations of production and to class relations (ideology = an imaginary relation to real relations). Annotated! I shall say that this imaginary relation is itself endowed with a material existence. Now I observe the following. An individual believes in God, or Duty, or Justice, etc.

This belief derives (for everyone, i.e. for all those who live in dissertation in english literature, an ideological representation of ideology, which reduces ideology to ideas endowed by bibliography nursing, definition with a spiritual existence) from the dissertation in english literature ideas of the nursing papers individual concerned, i.e. from him as a subject with a consciousness which contains the ideas of his belief. In this way, i.e. by means of the absolutely ideological ‘conceptual’ device ( dispositif ) thus set up (a subject endowed with a consciousness in which he freely forms or freely recognizes ideas in which he believes), the (material) attitude of the subject concerned naturally follows. The individual in question behaves in such and such a way, adopts such and such a practical attitude, and, what is dissertation literature, more, participates in shorter, certain regular practices which are those of the ideological apparatus on which ‘depend’ the ideas which he has in all consciousness freely chosen as a subject. If he believes in God, he goes to Church to attend Mass, kneels, prays, confesses, does penance (once it was material in the ordinary sense of the term) and naturally repents and so on. If he believes in Duty, he will have the corresponding attitudes, inscribed in ritual practices ‘according to the correct principles’. If he believes in Justice, he will submit unconditionally to dissertation, the rules of the Law, and make essay, may even protest when they are violated, sign petitions, take part in a demonstration, etc. Throughout this schema we observe that the ideological representation of ideology is itself forced to recognize that every ‘subject’ endowed with a ‘consciousness’ and believing in the ‘ideas’ that his ‘consciousness’ inspires in him and freely accepts, must ‘ act according to his ideas’, must therefore inscribe his own ideas as a free subject in in english literature, the actions of his material practice. If he does not do so, ‘that is wicked’. Indeed, if he does not do what he ought to do as a function of what he believes, it is because he does something else, which, still as a function of the same idealist scheme, implies that he has other ideas in his head as well as those he proclaims, and that he acts according to these other ideas, as a man who is either ‘inconsistent’ (‘no one is willingly evil’) or cynical, or perverse. In every case, the ideology of ideology thus recognizes, despite its imaginary distortion, that the of mice essay on loneliness ‘ideas’ of a human subject exist in his actions, or ought to exist in his actions, and dissertation literature, if that is annotated nursing education, not the case, it lends him other ideas corresponding to the actions (however perverse) that he does perform.

This ideology talks of actions: I shall talk of actions inserted into practices. And I shall point out that these practices are governed by the rituals in which these practices are inscribed, within the material existence of an ideological apparatus , be it only a small part of that apparatus: a small mass in a small church, a funeral, a minor match at in english a sports’ club, a school day, a political party meeting, etc. Besides, we are indebted to Pascal’s defensive ‘dialectic’ for the wonderful formula which will enable us to how to make essay shorter, invert the order of the notional schema of ideology. Pascal says more or less: ‘Kneel down, move your lips in prayer, and you will believe.’ He thus scandalously inverts the order of things, bringing, like Christ, not peace but strife, and in dissertation literature, addition something hardly Christian (for woe to annotated nursing education, him who brings scandal into the world!) – scandal itself. A fortunate scandal which makes him stick with Jansenist defiance to a language that directly names the reality. I will be allowed to leave Pascal to the arguments of his ideological struggle with the religious Ideological State Apparatus of his day. And I shall be expected to use a more directly Marxist vocabulary, if that is possible, for we are advancing in still poorly explored domains. I shall therefore say that, where only a single subject (such and such an individual) is concerned, the existence of the dissertation in english ideas of his belief is material in that his ideas are his material actions inserted into material practices governed by material rituals which are themselves defined by the material ideological apparatus from which derive the ideas of that subject.

Naturally, the four inscriptions of the adjective ‘material’ in my proposition must be affected by different modalities: the materialities of a displacement for nursing education, going to mass, of dissertation in english literature kneeling down, of the gesture of the sign of the cross, or of the mea culpa , of a sentence, of a prayer, of an thank you essay act of contrition, of a penitence, of a gaze, of a hand-shake, of an external verbal discourse or an ‘internal’ verbal discourse (consciousness), are not one and the same materiality. I shall leave on one side the problem of literature a theory of the differences between the modalities of materiality. It remains that in this inverted presentation of things, we are not dealing with an ‘inversion’ at all, since it is clear that certain notions have purely and simply disappeared from our presentation, whereas others on the contrary survive, and new terms appear. Disappeared: the nursing papers term ideas. Survive: the terms subject , consciousness , belief , actions.

Appear: the terms practices , rituals , ideological apparatus. It is therefore not an inversion or overturning (except in dissertation in english literature, the sense in which one might say a government or a glass is overturned), but a reshuffle (of a non-ministerial type), a rather strange reshuffle, since we obtain the following result. Ideas have disappeared as such (insofar as they are endowed with an ideal or spiritual existence), to the precise extent that it has emerged that their existence is bibliography education, inscribed in in english, the actions of practices governed by rituals defined in the last instance by features, an ideological apparatus. It therefore appears that the subject acts insofar as he is acted by the following system (set out in the order of its real determination): ideology existing in a material ideological apparatus, prescribing material practices governed by a material ritual, which practices exist in the material actions of a subject acting in all consciousness according to dissertation, his belief. But this very presentation reveals that we have retained the following notions: subject, consciousness, belief, actions.

From this series I shall immediately extract the decisive central term on which everything else depends: the notion of the subject. And I shall immediately set down two conjoint theses: 1. there is no practice except by and in an ideology; 2. there is no ideology except by the subject and for subjects. I can now come to my central thesis. Ideology Interpellates Individuals as Subjects. This thesis is is lost, simply a matter of making my last proposition explicit: there is no ideology except by in english, the subject and for subjects. Meaning, there is no ideology except for concrete subjects, and this destination for nursing papers, ideology is only made possible by the subject: meaning, by the category of the subject and its functioning. By this I mean that, even if it only appears under this name (the subject) with the rise of bourgeois ideology, above all with the dissertation literature rise of legal ideology, [15] the category of the subject (which may function under other names: e.g., as the soul in Plato, as God, etc.) is the constitutive category of all ideology, whatever its determination (regional or class) and whatever its historical date – since ideology has no history. I say: the category of the subject is constitutive of all ideology, but at and men on loneliness the same time and immediately I add that the category of the subject is only constitutive of all ideology insofar as all ideology has the function ( which defines it ) of ‘ constituting ‘ concrete individuals as subjects.

In the interaction of this double constitution exists the functioning of all ideology, ideology being nothing but its functioning in the material forms of existence of that functioning. In order to dissertation in english, grasp what follows, it is essential to realize that both he who is writing these lines and if wealth is lost is lost, the reader who reads them are themselves subjects, and therefore ideological subjects (a tautological proposition), i.e. that the author and the reader of in english literature these lines both live ‘spontaneously’ or ‘naturally’ in ideology in grassland, the sense in which I have said that ‘man is an ideological animal by nature’. That the in english author, insofar as he writes the lines of a discourse which claims to thank you essay, be scientific, is completely absent as a ‘subject’ from ‘his’ scientific discourse (for all scientific discourse is by definition a subject-less discourse, there is no ‘Subject of science’ except in an ideology of science) is a different question which I shall leave on one side for the moment. As St Paul admirably put it, it is in the ‘Logos’, meaning in ideology, that we ‘live, move and have our being’. It follows that, for literature, you and for biotic of a grassland, me, the category of the subject is a primary ‘obviousness’ (obviousnesses are always primary): it is clear that you and I are subjects (free, ethical, etc. Dissertation Literature! ). Like all obviousnesses, including those that make a word ‘name a thing’ or ‘have a meaning’ (therefore including the and men on loneliness obviousness of the ‘transparency’ of language), the dissertation in english ‘obviousness’ that you and I are subjects – and that that does not cause any problems – is an ideological effect, the elementary ideological effect. [16] It is indeed a peculiarity of ideology that it imposes (without appearing to do so, since these are ‘obviousnesses’) obviousnesses as obviousnesses, which we cannot fail to grassland, recognize and before which we have the dissertation in english inevitable and natural reaction of crying out (aloud or in the ‘still, small voice of thank you essay conscience’): ‘That’s obvious! That’s right! That’s true!’

At work in this reaction is the ideological recognition function which is dissertation, one of the two functions of ideology as such (its inverse being the function of misrecognition – mconnaissance ). To take a highly ‘concrete’ example, we all have friends who, when they knock on our door and we ask, through the door, the question ‘Who’s there?’, answer (since ‘it’s obvious’) ‘It’s me’. And we recognize that ‘it is him’, or ‘her’. We open the door, and ‘it’s true, it really was she who was there’. To take another example, when we recognize somebody of our (previous) acquaintance ( (re) - connaissance ) in bibliography, the street, we show him that we have recognized him (and have recognized that he has recognized us) by saying to him ‘Hello, my friend’, and dissertation in english, shaking his hand (a material ritual practice of ideological recognition in everyday life – in France, at least; elsewhere, there are other rituals). In this preliminary remark and these concrete illustrations, I only wish to features of a, point out that you and I are always already subjects, and as such constantly practice the rituals of ideological recognition, which guarantee for us that we are indeed concrete, individual, distinguishable and (naturally) irreplaceable subjects. Dissertation Literature! The writing I am currently executing and the reading you are currently [17] performing are also in this respect rituals of of mice and men on loneliness ideological recognition, including the ‘obviousness’ with which the ‘truth’ or ‘error’ of my reflections may impose itself on you.

But to recognize that we are subjects and that we function in the practical rituals of the most elementary everyday life (the hand-shake, the fact of calling you by your name, the fact of knowing, even if I do not know what it is, that you ‘have’ a name of in english literature your own, which means that you are recognized as a unique subject, etc.) – this recognition only gives us the thank you essay ‘consciousness’ of our incessant (eternal) practice of ideological recognition – its consciousness, i.e. its recognition – but in no sense does it give us the (scientific) knowledge of the mechanism of this recognition. Now it is this knowledge that we have to reach, if you will, while speaking in ideology, and from within ideology we have to dissertation literature, outline a discourse which tries to break with ideology, in order to dare to be the beginning of a scientific (i.e. subject-less) discourse on ideology. Thus in order to represent why the category of the ‘subject’ is constitutive of ideology, which only exists by constituting concrete subjects as subjects, I shall employ a special mode of annotated bibliography exposition: ‘concrete’ enough to be recognized, but abstract enough to be thinkable and thought, giving rise to a knowledge. As a first formulation I shall say: all ideology hails or interpellates concrete individuals as concrete subjects , by the functioning of the category of the subject. This is a proposition which entails that we distinguish for the moment between concrete individuals on the one hand and concrete subjects on dissertation in english, the other, although at this level concrete subjects only exist insofar as they are supported by a concrete individual. I shall then suggest that ideology ‘acts’ or ‘functions’ in such a way that it ‘recruits’ subjects among the individuals (it recruits them all), or ‘transforms’ the individuals into subjects (it transforms them all) by that very precise operation which I have called interpellation or hailing, and which can be imagined along the lines of the most commonplace everyday police (or other) hailing: ‘Hey, you there!’ [18] Assuming that the theoretical scene I have imagined takes place in the street, the hailed individual will turn round. By this mere one-hundred-and-eighty-degree physical conversion, he becomes a subject. Thank You Essay! Why? Because he has recognized that the hail was ‘really’ addressed to him, and that ‘it was really him who was hailed’ (and not someone else).

Experience shows that the practical telecommunication of hailings is such that they hardly ever miss their man: verbal call or whistle, the dissertation literature one hailed always recognizes that it is really him who is being hailed. And yet it is a strange phenomenon, and one which cannot be explained solely by ‘guilt feelings’, despite the large numbers who ‘have something on their consciences’. Naturally for the convenience and clarity of my little theoretical theatre I have had to present things in the form of a sequence, with a before and an after, and of mice essay, thus in the form of a temporal succession. There are individuals walking along. Somewhere (usually behind them) the hail rings out: ‘Hey, you there!’ One individual (nine times out of ten it is the right one) turns round, believing/suspecting/knowing that it is for him, i.e. recognizing that ‘it really is he’ who is meant by the hailing.

But in reality these things happen without any succession. The existence of ideology and the hailing or interpellation of individuals as subjects are one and the same thing. I might add: what thus seems to take place outside ideology (to be precise, in in english, the street), in reality takes place in ideology. What really takes place in annotated bibliography nursing education, ideology seems therefore to take place outside it. That is why those who are in ideology believe themselves by in english literature, definition outside ideology: one of the effects of ideology is the practical denegation of the ideological character of ideology by if wealth is lost nothing is lost essay, ideology: ideology never says, ‘I am ideological’. Dissertation In English Literature! It is necessary to be outside ideology, i.e. in scientific knowledge, to be able to annotated bibliography nursing, say: I am in ideology (a quite exceptional case) or (the general case): I was in ideology. As is dissertation, well known, the accusation of being in ideology only applies to others, never to oneself (unless one is really a Spinozist or a Marxist, which, in this matter, is to be exactly the same thing). Which amounts to saying that ideology has no outside (for itself), but at make college essay shorter the same time that it is nothing but outside (for science and literature, reality). Spinoza explained this completely two centuries before Marx, who practised it but without explaining it in detail.

But let us leave this point, although it is heavy with consequences, consequences which are not just theoretical, but also directly political, since, for example, the of mice and men on loneliness whole theory of criticism and self-criticism, the golden rule of the Marxist-Leninist practice of the class struggle, depends on it. Thus ideology hails or interpellates individuals as subjects. As ideology is eternal, I must now suppress the temporal form in in english literature, which I have presented the functioning of ideology, and say: ideology has always-already interpellated individuals as subjects, which amounts to features, making it clear that individuals are always-already interpellated by ideology as subjects, which necessarily leads us to in english literature, one last proposition: individuals are always-already subjects. Hence individuals are ‘abstract’ with respect to the subjects which they always already are. This proposition might seem paradoxical. That an individual is always-already a subject, even before he is annotated, born, is nevertheless the plain reality, accessible to everyone and not a paradox at all. Dissertation Literature! Freud shows that individuals are always ‘abstract’ with respect to the subjects they always-already are, simply by noting the ideological ritual that surrounds the expectation of a ‘birth’, that ‘happy event’. Everyone knows how much and in what way an unborn child is expected. Which amounts to saying, very prosaically, if we agree to drop the ‘sentiments’, i.e. the forms of family ideology (paternal/maternal conjugal/fraternal) in which the unborn child is biotic of a, expected: it is dissertation literature, certain in advance that it will bear its Father’s Name, and nursing papers, will therefore have an identity and in english, be irreplaceable. Nursing Papers! Before its birth, the child is therefore always-already a subject, appointed as a subject in and by the specific familial ideological configuration in which it is in english, ‘expected’ once it has been conceived.

I hardly need add that this familial ideological configuration is, in is lost, its uniqueness, highly structured, and that it is in in english, this implacable and more or less ‘pathological’ (presupposing that any meaning can be assigned to that term) structure that the former subject to-be will have to is lost, ‘find’ ‘its’ place, i.e. ‘become’ the sexual subject (boy or girl) which it already is in advance. It is clear that this ideological constraint and dissertation in english literature, pre-appointment, and all the rituals of rearing and then education in how to make college essay shorter, the family, have some relationship with what Freud studied in the forms of the pre-genital and dissertation, genital ‘stages’ of annotated bibliography nursing education sexuality, i.e. in literature, the ‘grip’ of what Freud registered by its effects as being the unconscious. If Wealth Is Lost Is Lost Essay! But let us leave this point, too, on literature, one side. Let me go one step further. Thank You Essay! What I shall now turn my attention to is the way the ‘actors’ in this mise en scne [setting] of dissertation interpellation, and their respective roles, are reflected in the very structure of all ideology. An Example: The Christian Religious Ideology. As the of mice essay on loneliness formal structure of in english all ideology is always the same, I shall restrict my analysis to a single example, one accessible to everyone, that of religious ideology, with the proviso that the same demonstration can be produced for ethical, legal, political, aesthetic ideology, etc.

Let us therefore consider the Christian religious ideology. I shall use a rhetorical figure and biotic of a, ‘make it speak’, i.e. Literature! collect into a fictional discourse what it ‘says’ not only in if wealth nothing, its two Testaments, its Theologians, Sermons, but also in its practices, its rituals, its ceremonies and its sacraments. The Christian religious ideology says something like this: It says: I address myself to dissertation literature, you, a human individual called Peter (every individual is called by thank you essay, his name, in the passive sense, it is never he who provides his own name), in order to tell you that God exists and that you are answer able to Him. It adds: God addresses himself to you through my voice (Scripture having collected the literature Word of nursing papers God, Tradition having transmitted it, Papal Infallibility fixing it for ever on ‘nice’ points). It says: this is who you are: you are Peter! This is your origin, you were created by God for all eternity, although you were born in the 1920th year of Our Lord! This is your place in the world! This is what you must do! By these means, if you observe the ‘law of love’ you will be saved, you, Peter, and will become part of the Glorious Body of Christ!

Etc. Now this is quite a familiar and dissertation literature, banal discourse, but at the same time quite a surprising one. Surprising because if we consider that religious ideology is indeed addressed to individuals, [19] in order to ‘transform them into subjects’, by interpellating the individual, Peter, in order to make him a subject, free to thank you essay, obey or disobey the appeal, i.e. God’s commandments; if it calls these individuals by their names, thus recognizing that they are always-already interpellated as subjects with a personal identity (to the extent that Pascal’s Christ says: ‘It is for you that I have shed this drop of my blood!’); if it interpellates them in such a way that the subject responds: ‘ Yes , it really is me! ’ if it obtains from them the recognition that they really do occupy the in english place it designates for them as theirs in the world, a fixed residence: ‘It really is me, I am here, a worker, a boss or a soldier!’ in this vale of tears; if it obtains from them the recognition of a destination (eternal life or damnation) according to the respect or contempt they show to ‘God’s Commandments’, Law become Love; – if everything does happen in this way (in the practices of the well-known rituals of baptism, confirmation, communion, confession and extreme unction, etc. . ), we should note that all this ‘procedure’ to set up Christian religious subjects is dominated by a strange phenomenon: the fact that there can only be such a multitude of possible religious subjects on if wealth is lost is lost essay, the absolute condition that there is a Unique, Absolute, Other Subject , i.e. God. It is convenient to designate this new and remarkable Subject by writing Subject with a capital S to distinguish it from dissertation literature, ordinary subjects, with a small s. It then emerges that the interpellation of individuals as subjects presupposes the ‘existence’ of a Unique and central Other Subject, in how to make essay shorter, whose Name the religious ideology interpellates all individuals as subjects.

All this is clearly [20] written in dissertation in english literature, what is rightly called the Scriptures. ‘And it came to pass at biotic that time that God the Lord (Yahweh) spoke to Moses in the cloud. And the Lord cried to Moses, “Moses!” And Moses replied “It is (really) I! I am Moses thy servant, speak and I shall listen!” And the Lord spoke to Moses and said to him, “ I am that I am ’. God thus defines himself as the Subject par excellence , he who is through himself and for himself (‘I am that I am’), and he who interpellates his subject, the individual subjected to him by his very interpellation, i.e. the individual named Moses. And Moses, interpellated-called by his Name, having recognized that it ‘really’ was he who was called by God, recognizes that he is a subject, a subject of God, a subject subjected to God, a subject through the Subject and subjected to the Subject. The proof: he obeys him, and in english, makes his people obey God’s Commandments.

God is thus the Subject, and Moses and of mice and men essay, the innumerable subjects of God’s people, the literature Subject’s interlocutors-interpellates: his mirrors , his reflections. Were not men made in the image of God? As all theological reflection proves, whereas He ‘could’ perfectly well have done without men, God needs them, the Subject needs the subjects, just as men need God, the subjects need the Subject. Better: God needs men, the great Subject needs subjects, even in the terrible inversion of his image in them (when the subjects wallow in debauchery, i.e. sin). Better: God duplicates himself and sends his Son to the Earth, as a mere subject ‘forsaken’ by him (the long complaint of the Garden of Olives which ends in the Crucifixion), subject but Subject, man but God, to do what prepares the way for the final Redemption, the Resurrection of Christ. God thus needs to ‘make himself’ a man, the Subject needs to become a subject, as if to show empirically, visibly to the eye, tangibly to the hands (see St.

Thomas) of the subjects, that, if they are subjects, subjected to thank you essay, the Subject, that is in english literature, solely in order that finally, on Judgement Day, they will re-enter the annotated bibliography Lord’s Bosom, like Christ, i.e. re-enter the Subject. [21] Let us decipher into theoretical language this wonderful necessity for the duplication of the Subject into dissertation in english, subjects and of the if wealth nothing is lost essay Subject itself into a subject-Subject. We observe that the structure of in english literature all ideology, interpellating individuals as subjects in the name of a Unique and Absolute Subject is speculary , i.e. a mirror-structure, and doubly speculary: this mirror duplication is constitutive of ideology and education, ensures its functioning. Which means that all ideology is in english, centred , that the Absolute Subject occupies the unique place of the Centre, and interpellates around it the infinity of individuals into subjects in a double mirror-connexion such that it subjects the subjects to the Subject, while giving them in the Subject in which each subject can contemplate its own image (present and future) the guarantee that this really concerns them and nursing papers, Him, and that since everything takes place in the Family (the Holy Family: the Family is in essence Holy), ‘God will recognize his own in it’, i.e. Literature! those who have recognized God, and have recognized themselves in Him, will be saved. Let me summarize what we have discovered about ideology in general. The duplicate mirror-structure of ideology ensures simultaneously:

1. the interpellation of ‘individuals’ as subjects; 2. their subjection to the Subject; 3. the mutual recognition of subjects and annotated bibliography nursing, Subject, the subjects’ recognition of each other, and dissertation literature, finally the subject’s recognition of himself; [22] 4. the absolute guarantee that everything really is biotic of a, so, and dissertation in english, that on condition that the subjects recognize what they are and behave accordingly, everything will be all right: Amen – ‘ So be it ’. Result: caught in make college essay shorter, this quadruple system of interpellation as subjects, of subjection to the Subject, of literature universal recognition and of absolute guarantee, the subjects ‘work’, they ‘work by annotated nursing education, themselves’ in dissertation, the vast majority of cases, with the exception of the ‘bad subjects’ who on occasion provoke the intervention of one of the detachments of the nursing (Repressive) State Apparatus. But the vast majority of (good) subjects work all right ‘all by themselves’, i.e. by ideology (whose concrete forms are realized in the Ideological State Apparatuses). They are inserted into practices governed by dissertation, the rituals of the annotated ISAs. They ‘recognize’ the existing state of affairs ( das Bestehende ), that ‘it really is true that it is so and not otherwise’, and that they must be obedient to God, to their conscience, to the priest, to de Gaulle, to the boss, to the engineer, that thou shalt ‘love thy neighbour as thyself’, etc. Their concrete, material behaviour is simply the inscription in life of the admirable words of the prayer: ‘ Amen – So be it ’.

Yes, the subjects ‘work by themselves’. In English! The whole mystery of this effect lies in the first two moments of the quadruple system I have just discussed, or, if you prefer, in the ambiguity of the term subject. In the ordinary use of the term, subject in fact means: (1) a free subjectivity, a centre of initiatives, author of and nursing papers, responsible for its actions; (2) a subjected being, who submits to a higher authority, and is therefore stripped of all freedom except that of freely accepting his submission. This last note gives us the in english literature meaning of this ambiguity, which is thank you essay, merely a reflection of the effect which produces it: the individual is interpellated as a ( free) subject in order that he shall submit freely to the commandments of the dissertation in english Subject , i.e. in order that he shall ( freely) accept his subjection , i.e. in order that he shall make the gestures and actions of his subjection ‘all by nursing papers, himself’. There are no subjects except by in english literature, and for their subjection. Biotic Of A Grassland! That is why they ‘work all by dissertation, themselves’. ‘ So be it! . ’ This phrase which registers the effect to be obtained proves that it is not ‘naturally’ so (‘naturally’: outside the is lost nothing is lost prayer, i.e. outside the ideological intervention). This phrase proves that it has to be so if things are to be what they must be, and let us let the dissertation literature words slip: if the reproduction of the relations of production is to be assured, even in the processes of biotic features production and circulation, every day, in the ‘consciousness’, i.e. in the attitudes of the individual-subjects occupying the posts which the socio-technical division of labour assigns to them in production, exploitation, repression, ideologization, scientific practice, etc. Literature! Indeed, what is really in question in this mechanism of the mirror recognition of the Subject and of the individuals interpellated as subjects, and of the guarantee given by the Subject to the subjects if they freely accept their subjection to the Subject’s ‘commandments’? The reality in question in this mechanism, the reality which is nursing papers, necessarily ignored ( mconnue ) in the very forms of recognition (ideology = misrecognition/ignorance) is indeed, in the last resort, the in english literature reproduction of the relations of production and nursing papers, of the relations deriving from them.

P.S. If these few schematic theses allow me to illuminate certain aspects of the functioning of the Superstructure and its mode of intervention in dissertation, the Infrastructure, they are obviously abstract and necessarily leave several important problems unanswered, which should be mentioned: 1. The problem of the total process of the realization of the reproduction of the relations of production. As an element of this process, the ISAs contribute to this reproduction. But the point of view of their contribution alone is nursing papers, still an abstract one. It is only within the in english literature processes of production and circulation that this reproduction is realized. It is realized by the mechanisms of those processes, in which the training of the thank you essay workers is ‘completed’, their posts assigned them, etc. It is in the internal mechanisms of dissertation in english literature these processes that the effect of the different ideologies is felt (above all the effect of legal-ethical ideology). But this point of view is still an abstract one. For in a class society the relations of production are relations of exploitation, and therefore relations between antagonistic classes.

The reproduction of the relations of production, the ultimate aim of the ruling class, cannot therefore be a merely technical operation training and distributing individuals for annotated nursing education, the different posts in the ‘technical division’ of labour. In fact there is no ‘technical division’ of labour except in dissertation in english, the ideology of the thank you essay ruling class: every ‘technical’ division, every ‘technical’ organization of labour is the form and mask of dissertation literature a social (= class) division and organization of labour. The reproduction of the relations of production can therefore only be a class undertaking. It is realized through a class struggle which counterposes the ruling class and the exploited class. The total process of the realization of the reproduction of the relations of production is biotic features of a, therefore still abstract, insofar as it has not adopted the point of view of this class struggle.

To adopt the point of view of literature reproduction is therefore in the last instance, to adopt the point of view of the class struggle. 2. The problem of the class nature of the ideolog ies existing in a social formation. The ‘mechanism’ of ideology in general is one thing. We have seen that it can be reduced to a few principles expressed in a few words (as ‘poor’ as those which, according to Marx, define production in general , or in Freud, define the unconscious in general ). If there is any truth in it, this mechanism must be abstract with respect to every real ideological formation. I have suggested that the ideologies were realized in institutions, in their rituals and their practices, in the ISAs. We have seen that on nursing papers, this basis they contribute to that form of class struggle, vital for the ruling class, the reproduction of the relations of production. In English Literature! But the point of view itself however real, is still an abstract one. In fact, the State and its Apparatuses only have meaning from the point of thank you essay view of the class struggle, as an apparatus of dissertation in english class struggle ensuring class oppression and guaranteeing the conditions of exploitation and its reproduction. Annotated! But there is no class struggle without antagonistic classes.

Whoever says class struggle of the ruling class says resistance, revolt and class struggle of the ruled class. That is in english, why the ISAs are not the make realization of ideology in dissertation, general , nor even the of mice and men essay conflict-free realization of the ideology of the in english ruling class. The ideology of the annotated nursing ruling class does not become the dissertation in english ruling ideology by the grace of God, nor even by virtue of the seizure of State power alone. It is by the installation of the ISAs in which this ideology is realized and realizes itself that it becomes the ruling ideology. Is Lost Nothing Essay! But this installation is not achieved all by itself; on the contrary, it is the stake in a very bitter and dissertation in english, continuous class struggle: first against the former ruling classes and their positions in the old and new ISAs, then against the exploited class. But this point of view of the class struggle in the ISAs is still an abstract one. How To College Shorter! In fact, the class struggle in the ISAs is indeed an aspect of the class struggle, sometimes an important and symptomatic one: e.g. the anti-religious struggle in the eighteenth century, or the ‘crisis’ of the educational ISA in every capitalist country today. But the class struggles in the ISAs is only one aspect of a class struggle which goes beyond the ISAs. The ideology that a class in power makes the dissertation literature ruling ideology in its ISAs is indeed ‘realized’ in those ISAs, but it goes beyond them, for and men, it comes from elsewhere. Dissertation In English! Similarly, the bibliography nursing ideology that a ruled class manages to defend in and against such ISAs goes beyond them, for it comes from elsewhere. It is only from the point of view of the classes, i.e. of the class struggle, that it is possible to dissertation, explain the ideolog ies existing in a social formation.

Not only is it from essay shorter, this starting-point that it is possible to explain the dissertation realization of the ruling ideology in of mice and men essay on loneliness, the ISAs and dissertation, of the forms of class struggle for which the ISAs are the thank you essay seat and the stake. But it is also and in english, above all from this starting-point that it is possible to understand the provenance of the ideologies which are realized in the ISAs and confront one another there. For if it is true that the essay ISAs represent the form in which the ideology of the ruling class must necessarily be realized, and the form in dissertation literature, which the ideology of the ruled class must necessarily be measured and confronted, ideologies are not ‘born’ in the ISAs but from the social classes at grips in how to make essay, the class struggle: from their conditions of existence, their practices, their experience of the struggle, etc. 1. This text is made up of two extracts from an ongoing study. The sub-title ‘Notes towards an Investigation’ is the author’s own. Dissertation! The ideas expounded should not be regarded as more than the features grassland introduction to a discussion. 2. Marx to Kugelmann, 11 July 1868, Selected Correspondence, Moscow, 1955, p. 209. 3. Marx gave it its scientific concept: variable capital. 4. In For Marx and Reading Capital , 1965 (English editions 1969 and 1970 respectively).

5. Topography from the Greek topos: place. A topography represents in in english, a definite space the respective sites occupied by several realities: thus the how to college essay economic is at the bottom (the base), the superstructure above it. 6. See p. Dissertation! 158 below, On Ideology. 7. Nursing Papers! To my knowledge, Gramsci is the only one who went any distance in the road I am taking. Dissertation Literature! He had the ‘remarkable’ idea that the State could not be reduced to the (Repressive) State Apparatus, but included, as he put it, a certain number of institutions from of mice and men essay on loneliness, ‘ civil society ’: the Church, the literature Schools, the trade unions, etc. Unfortunately, Gramsci did not systematize his institutions, which remained in the state of acute but fragmentary notes (cf.

Gramsci, Selections from the Prison Notebooks , International Publishers, 1971, pp. 12, 259, 260-3; see also the letter to Tatiana Schucht, 7 September 1931, in thank you essay, Lettre del Carcere , Einaudi, 1968, p. Dissertation In English! 479. Of Mice And Men Essay! English-language translation in dissertation in english literature, preparation. 8. The family obviously has other ‘functions’ than that of an ISA. It intervenes in the reproduction of labour power. In different modes of production it is the unit of production and/or the unit of consumption. 9. Nothing Is Lost Essay! The ‘Law’ belongs both to the (Repressive) State Apparatus and to the system of the ISAs.

10. In a pathetic text written in literature, 1937, Krupskaya relates the biotic features grassland history of Lenin’s desperate efforts and what she regards as his failure. 11. What I have said in these few brief words about the class struggle in the ISAs is obviously far from exhausting the question of the class struggle. To approach this question, two principles must be borne in mind: The first principle was formulated by Marx in the Preface to A Contribution to the Critique of Political Economy: ‘In considering such transformations [a social revolution] a distinction should always be made between the material transformation of the economic conditions of production, which can be determined with the precision of natural science, and literature, the legal, political, religious, aesthetic or philosophic – in short, ideological forms in which men become conscious of nursing this conflict and fight it out.’ The class struggle is thus expressed and exercised in ideological forms, thus also in the ideological forms of the ISAs.

But the in english class struggle extends far beyond these forms, and it is how to make college essay shorter, because it extends beyond them that the struggle of the exploited classes may also be exercised in the forms of the ISAs, and thus turn the weapon of dissertation ideology against the classes in power. This by virtue of the second principle : the class struggle extends beyond the ISAs because it is rooted elsewhere than in ideology, in the Infrastructure, in the relations of production, which are relations of exploitation and constitute the base for class relations. 12. For the most part. For the relations of production are first reproduced by the materiality of the processes of production and circulation. But it should not be forgotten that ideological relations are immediately present in these same processes. 13. Annotated Bibliography! For that part of reproduction to which the Repressive State Apparatus and the Ideological State Apparatus contribute. 14. Dissertation! I use this very modern term deliberately.

For even in Communist circles, unfortunately, it is a commonplace to ‘explain’ some political deviation (left or right opportunism) by the action of thank you essay a ‘clique’. 15. Dissertation In English Literature! Which borrowed the legal category of ‘subject in law’ to make an ideological notion: man is by nature a subject. 16. Linguists and those who appeal to linguistics for features of a, various purposes often run up against difficulties which arise because they ignore the action of the ideological effects in dissertation in english, all discourses – including even scientific discourses. 17. NB: this double ‘currently’ is one more proof of the fact that ideology is ‘eternal’, since these two ‘currentlys’ are separated by an indefinite interval; I am writing these lines on annotated education, 6 April 1969, you may read them at any subsequent time. 18.

Hailing as an everyday practice subject to a precise ritual takes a quite ‘special’ form in dissertation literature, the policeman’s practice of ‘hailing’ which concerns the hailing of ‘suspects’. 19. Although we know that the individual is essay shorter, always already a subject, we go on using this term, convenient because of the contrasting effect it produces. 20. I am quoting in a combined way, not to the letter but ‘in spirit and truth’. 21.

The dogma of the dissertation in english Trinity is precisely the theory of the duplication of the nursing papers Subject (the Father) into a subject (the Son) and literature, of their mirror-connexion (the Holy Spirit). 22. Hegel is (unknowingly) an if wealth nothing admirable ‘theoretician’ of ideology insofar as he is a ‘theoretician’ of in english Universal Recognition who unfortunately ends up in the ideology of nursing papers Absolute Knowledge. Feuerbach is an astonishing ‘theoretician’ of the mirror connexion, who unfortunately ends up in literature, the ideology of the Human Essence. To find the material with which to construct a theory of the guarantee, we must turn to Spinoza.

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Dissertation in english literature

Toronto Film Review: Oliver Stone’s ‘Snowden’ Let’s be honest: Oliver Stone hasn’t made an Oliver Stone movie that mattered in more than 20 years. The firebrand urgency that once defined his name the way he directed films that seized the zeitgeist, that drove the conversation, that inspired controversy because of how they leapt into the drama of history has, for too long, been trapped in the past. Which is not to say that Stone hasn’t tried. He has made films that bent over backwards to be topical, like the in english, earnest and sentimental 9/11 requiem “World Trade Center,” or the goofy provocative political cartoon “W.,” or the cautionary-but-behind-the-curve financial thriller “Wall Street: Money Never Sleeps.” One or two of these movies “found an audience,” but none found a purpose; even when they managed to how to college essay shorter, connect at the box office, they disappeared from the public consciousness like puffs of smoke. But Stone’s exile in the desert of overheated irrelevance has now ended. “Snowden” isn’t just the director’s most exciting work since “Nixon” (1995) it’s the most important and galvanizing political drama by an American filmmaker in in english, years. Telling the nursing papers, story of Edward Snowden, the NSA contractor who became a whistleblower and fugitive by in english literature, leaking documents that revealed the vast, spidery, paradigm-shifting scope of the new American surveillance state, Stone has made a movie that asks the audience to biotic features, look, almost convulsively, at what this issue really means, and at who Edward Snowden really is. Concert Review: Shelby Lynne and Allison Moorer Come Together in Sisterly Harmony at Largo. You might think you already know. Maybe you decided, a while back, that Snowden is dissertation in english, a “traitor,” or that he went too far in leaking documents and if wealth is lost nothing is lost essay revealing NSA secrets. Or maybe you saw “Citizenfour,” the 2014 Laura Poitras documentary that presented the interview Snowden gave just as he was going rogue, and dissertation literature you decided he’s one of the heroes of our time.

But whether you’re pro-Snowden, anti-Snowden, or somewhere in between, Stone’s movie is sure to deepen your response to of mice essay, his actions, and to the whole evolution of the American intelligence community in dissertation in english literature, the age of meta-technology. “Snowden” isn’t leftist-conspiratorial propaganda (though some may accuse it of being that). It’s a riveting procedural docudrama that takes a deep dive into what surveillance has become. In doing so, it’s a movie that no small thing makes Oliver Stone matter again. It helps that Snowden, played with crisp magnetism by Joseph Gordon-Levitt, is the furthest thing from is lost nothing is lost a crusader, or even a liberal. He’s a straitlaced, mild-mannered conservative brainiac who loves his country so much that he wants to dissertation in english, devote his life to defending it. When we meet him, in 2004, he’s in and men, basic training in the United States Army Reserve (it’s 9/11 that inspires him to join up), but he’s not really the athletic military type he goes through the literature, grueling exercises wearing clunky tortoise-shell glasses and when he leaps off a bunk and breaks his leg, it’s because the pounding training has already slowly shattered his delicate bones. His career as a combat warrior is over before it begins. So he goes for the next best thing: a slot in the CIA, where the of mice on loneliness, fight for dissertation in english, U.S. security is essay shorter, already playing out on the battleground of the dissertation in english, future namely, cyberspace.

Snowden, terse and owlishly square, now with rectangle frames that make him look a little hipper, is attracted to the Agency the way that so many of is lost, its members have been, out of dissertation literature, a combination of if wealth, duty and a desire for excitement. During his interview with Corbin O’Brian (Rhys Ifans), who will become his mentor, he answers a question by admitting that he thinks it would be “cool” to in english literature, have top-level security clearance which turns out to of a grassland, be the wrong thing to in english literature, say. For all his eagerness, and of a despite his clean resume, he’s told that in another era, he probably wouldn’t make the cut. But before he is anything else, Edward is a dazzlingly gifted computer scientist: a prodigy, a geek, a hacker. That gives him the ideal equipment to be a soldier in the next war. In the dissertation, old days (i.e., the ’70s), a CIA analyst was a desk jockey, standing behind the field agents, but in “Snowden” cyberspace is the field. Nursing! Corbin tells Edward that 20 years from now, “Iraq will be a hellhole no one cares about,” and that the whole war on terror is a sideshow. The real conflict, he says, will be with China and literature Russia, fought with rogue computer worms and malware. “Snowden” is the ultimate true-life hacker thriller. The movie doesn’t have the kaleidoscopic dazzle of Stone’s great ’90s films (“JFK,” “Natural Born Killers”), but it has his heady propulsive fever. It’s framed by the “Citizenfour” interview, which Stone re-stages as a piece of verité suspense, set in make college essay, the Mira Hotel in dissertation, Hong Kong, with Edward gliding through the biotic features of a, lobby like an egghead Jason Bourne, fiddling with his telltale Rubik’s Cube. Dissertation In English! Melissa Leo plays Poitras as tough, rumpled, and maternal, and nursing papers Zachary Quinto, all driven neurotic fire (even his flat hair is intense), is Glenn Greenwald, the fiercely independent journalist who interviewed Snowden for Poitras’ camera.

You get the dissertation literature, feeling, more than you did watching “Citizenfour,” that there was an honest terror beneath the proceedings that given the subject of surveillance, the annotated bibliography nursing education, CIA might have burst in at any moment. Dissertation Literature! But it’s not just about their safety. The stakes are so high because the theme of the interview, and the issue of whether they can publish it in the London-based newspaper The Guardian, is momentous. Essay! This is their one and dissertation literature only chance to expose the truth before Snowden disappears. The movie cuts back and nursing papers forth between the interview and everything that led up to it. In English Literature! At the Hill, the CIA training center in Virginia, Snowden dazzles his teachers and befriends an annotated bibliography Agency veteran (a warmly understated Nicolas Cage) who’s been put out to pasture, sitting in his office that’s like a museum of ancient and legendary tradecraft equipment. He and Edward discuss Enigma machines, and the very first computer (which is there), and we’re cued to literature, realize that the entire history of computers is, on some level, a history of spying. How To Make College Essay! Gordon-Levitt does a meticulous impersonation of the Snowden manner: clipped and impeccable, his articulate, logical voice always trying to in english, touch the reality of whatever he’s talking about. He’s certainly a geek, but with an important qualifier: He’s cool as a cucumber free of any visible anxiety (or anger). At times, he’s like a very friendly automaton, but it’s not like he doesn’t have passion; as we’ll see, it just takes a lot to get him riled. He also thinks he’s got everything figured out.

On a dating site called Geek-Mate, Edward meets Lindsay Mills (Shailene Woodley), a local girl who’s sweet-natured and of mice and men essay hot-tempered at the same time. Dissertation In English! They connect from their first date, but they’ve got major differences. Lindsay, a little aimless but shrewd and informed, thinks the Iraq War is a corrupt disaster, whereas Edward believes he grasps the is lost is lost essay, bigger picture: the defense of the United States, and the things that go into that, which liberals shield themselves from knowing (even though they want the benefits of protection, too). Essentially, he’s making the Dick Cheney argument, but it’s bracing, in an Oliver Stone film, to see that POV represented by literature, the movie’s hero. Edward and Lindsay’s political differences have a touch of if wealth is lost nothing, screwball-comedy friction. When she figures out that he’s working for the Agency after having traced where his message came from, he says, “You know how to run an dissertation literature IP trace?” For him, that’s practically a love lyric.

Woodley gives a performance of breathtaking dimension: As the movie goes on, she makes Lindsay supportive and selfish, loving and stricken. Edward is assigned to the National Security Agency, the annotated bibliography nursing education, division of U.S. intelligence devoted, essentially, to data-gathering. He’s dispatched to in english, different locales (Geneva, Tokyo, Hawaii), and is lost Lindsay goes to dissertation in english literature, live with him in each one. But the job tears away at their relationship, because he isn’t allowed to if wealth is lost is lost essay, utter a word about what he does. Still, that works fine until he starts to question what he’s doing. Dissertation In English! Because he has no one to ask the of mice and men, questions to. So he starts to implode. In Switzerland, one of his colleagues, a deceptively laidback dude named Gabriel (Ben Schnetzer), shows Edward something he doesn’t technically have security clearance for: the CIA program known as XKeyscore. It’s essentially a search engine that can take youanywhere.

Behind any wall of privacy. In English Literature! But wait a minute, says Edward, what about FISA? That’s the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act, which dictates the rules of surveillance and says, in essence, that you need a warrant each time you cross one of those walls. Gabriel explains that FISA is thank you essay, “a big-ass rubber stamp,” because the court that controls it is a government outfit handing out in english literature, rote permission slips. At that point, he shows Edward the “optic nerve,” something that couldn’t have existed even 20 years ago. The intelligence community, Gabriel demonstrates, can now enter any home right through its computer or phone through the webcam, or the screen itself. The old notion of “bugging” (a microphone hidden in the lamp!) has become something out of the Stone Age. The whole world is now connected, via computer. And so is the data, including texts and videos and e-mails.

The intelligence community has access to it all, having fused itself, essentially, with the servers of the biotic features, biggest Internet companies (Google, Apple, etc.). “Snowden” has a perilously unfolding sense of literature, revelation. The film’s moral and logistical brilliance is that what Edward and the audience learns, bit by nursing education, bit, is dissertation in english, not that there’s a cabal of sinister bad guys sitting in a room somewhere, plotting how to take away your privacy. And Men! The data-gathering has evolved organically, and maybe inevitably, with the technology. And yet it’s creepy (to put it mildly). Dissertation In English Literature! At home, Edward puts a piece of tape over features of a his webcam, because he realizes that someone could be looking at him (or Lindsay). He’s not paranoid; he’s just enlightened.

The dialogue in “Snowden” is often dense with technical jargon, but instead of distancing us, the authenticity of the language reels us in. In English! There’s something dramatic in nursing, how all the dissertation literature, talk is about shrouding things. The spies behind the computer curtain can touch the whole world, but the college, more they look at it, the more disconnected from its reality they become. “Snowden” peels this cyber-voyeuristic onion, layer by layer, until we’re watching, on a live feed, gruesome drone attacks in the Middle East, where the targets have been identified by their cell phones. A bomb goes off a moving car gets vaporized and dissertation in english if there’s collateral damage (like, say, the target’s family), so be it. No one in nursing papers, the control room cares, because the ideology at dissertation in english hand (eliminate the terrorists) has been heightened with a death-by-joystick ease that comes from staring at people through technology all day long, until they become at once right there and totally unreal. It’s the sociopathology of of mice essay, screens. Edward takes all of this in, and it horrifies him, but he doesn’t know what to do about it. He’s not a rebel, and questioning authority in even the tiniest way has no place in dissertation literature, the culture of intelligence. At one point, he resigns, but he is lured back in, and by the time he lands in Hawaii, he has begun to assemble a bigger picture. He shows his NSA associates a fascinating club of young turks how there’s twice as much data-gathering going on in the U.S. as there is in Russia.

He knows there’s something wrong with that; it’s spying evolving into biotic features of a grassland Big Brother. Stone stages a fantastic scene in which Edward talks to dissertation, Corbin, his boss and mentor, on a giant screen, and Rhys Ifans’ face looms up like some CIA version of the Wizard of Oz. He’s terrifying, especially when he reveals that he heard that conversation between Edward and his colleagues. He knows whether or not Lindsay is having an affair; he knows everything, and of mice and men essay the cozy violation of it all is queasy. By the time Edward decides to in english literature, act, it’s because he can’t not act. Stone creates a powerful wake-up call. Is he saying that there’s a conspiracy at work? If so, the movie makes the nursing papers, point that it’s a conspiracy we have all, naively, colluded in, frittering away our privacy through our addiction to dissertation literature, technology. Yet that hardly means we asked the government to nothing essay, know everything about dissertation in english literature us, all the time. “Snowden” frames the issue so that we can frame it ourselves. The movie has a deep-focus perspective, and how to make college essay shorter a spine-tingling immediacy.

It ends with the real Snowden, who Stone interviewed in Moscow, where he is still living under asylum. He’s presented in in english literature, a glow of thank you essay, heroism, followed by literature, headlines about how much influence he has had (the new laws restricting mass gathering of data, etc.). Yet Snowden’s presence only thank you essay, reminds us of how unfinished this story is. The real message of “Snowden” is that surveillance is a Pandora’s Box. You may leave the movie grateful for everything that Edward Snowden brought to dissertation literature, light, but also wondering if that box can ever be closed. Toronto Film Review: Oliver Stone#039;s #039;Snowden#039; Reviewed at of mice and men on loneliness the Toronto Film Festival (Gala), Sept.

9, 2016. MPAA Rating: R. Running time: 134 MIN. Production : An Open Road Films release of an in english literature Endgame Entertainment, Wild Bunch, KrautPack Entertainment, Onda Entertainment Vendian Entertainment production. If Wealth Essay! Producers: Moritz Borman, Eric Kopeloff, Philip Schulz-Deyle, Fernando Sulichin. Executive producers: Max Arvelaiz, Michael Bassick, Douglas Hansen, Jose Ibanez, Peter Lawson, Serge Lobo, Bahman Naraghi, Tom Ortenberg, James Stern, Christopher Woodrow. Crew : Director: Oliver Stone. Literature! Screenplay: Stone, Kieran Fitzgerald. Camera (color, widescreen): Anthony Dod Mantle. Editors: Alex Marquez, Lee Percy. With : Joseph Gordon-Levitt, Shailene Woodley, Rhys Ifans, Nicolas Cage, Melissa Leo, Zachary Quinto, Tom Wilkinson, Joely Richardson, Timothy Olyphant, Scott Eastwood, Ben Schnetzer. Rock and Roll Hall of Fame Announces 2018 Nominees: Radiohead, Judas Priest, Kate Bush, More.

Harrison Ford and Ryan Gosling Can#039;t Stop Laughing During Interview. 5 Streaming Debuts on Netflix, Hulu and Amazon You Might Have Missed. Weinstein Lawyers Up After Sexual Allegations. Inside Bruce Springsteen’s iTunes Playlist. Rooney Mara Was Scared About Playing Sexual Abuse Victim in nursing papers, #039;Una#039; Let’s be honest: Oliver Stone hasn’t made an Oliver Stone movie that mattered in more than 20 years.

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Why Lindsey Vonn Is ‘Going Against the Institution’ To Compete Against Men. Donald Trump Tweet-tacks NBC News After Comforting Las Vegas Shooting Victims. Kyra Sedgwick Remembers Her Shakiest Day on Set of The Closer. ‘Roman J. Israel, Esq.’ First Trailer: Denzel Washington Returns to nursing papers, the Best Actor Oscar Race. Copyright 2017 Variety Media, LLC, a subsidiary of Penske Business Media, LLC.

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5 Rules of the Employment Follow-Up. By Robin Reshwan, Contributor | Feb. Dissertation. 3, 2014, at 11:07 a.m. You saw the perfect job posted online. You customized your resume, wrote a great cover letter and make essay then submitted via the dissertation in english process that was outlined in the posting. A day goes by.

A week goes by. A month goes by of mice and men, – but you never received a response. You don’t want to bother the employer, but how do you get information you need? These tips will help you successfully navigate the employment follow-up. In English. 1. Verify the receipt of your application. With the vast array of email providers and anti-virus software, it is highly possible that your resume may have been directed to a spam folder. How To Shorter. After you press send, contact the company within the next day to verify that your application was received. In English. If a contact name or number is make, not provided, you can contact a main phone number and ask for the number for the hiring department, human resources, talent acquisition, recruiting or employment. 2. Ask about the process.

If you are able to dissertation in english literature, speak to a real human (instead of a voice mail) when you are calling to verify receipt of your job materials, ask for more details regarding the intended screening process. Responses to questions like, “Can you provide any additional details regarding the screening process?” and “When may be a good time to follow up regarding the status of my application?” can help you set realistic expectations. Some companies may make decisions within days but others may take weeks. Knowing how a specific role will be handled will assist in bibliography nursing education creating an effective follow-up plan. 3. Dissertation. When in doubt, be politely persistent. If you were unable to get information regarding the hiring process, send a follow-up email with your resume five to seven days after you submitted your original application. Is Lost Nothing Essay. The message with this email makes all the difference.

You should avoid blaming the literature hiring authority for not responding the first time and annotated education you should make it easy for them to contact you. The best correspondence acknowledges your continued interest in dissertation literature the role. The key is to continue the conversation versus emphasizing that you have not heard back. For example, “The customer service manager opportunity at how to college shorter, X company brings together my five years of dissertation in english directly related management experience and my commitment to transform the customer service process in the manufacturing industry. Biotic Features Of A Grassland. I welcome the opportunity to discuss how my background may be match for dissertation literature your needs. I have attached my resume for easy reference.

Thank you, in nursing papers advance, for your response.” 4. Look for changes. As employers receive responses to dissertation literature, online job postings, they may make updates to the job description if necessary. Use this opportunity to reaffirm that your background is still a match and that you remain interested. Additionally, the company LinkedIn page, Facebook site, Twitter account or website may show upcoming events or new products/services. Use these updates as a reason to biotic, correspond with recruiters – especially if the changes may be relevant to the role you are pursuing. In doing so, you are accomplishing two important things. First, you keep your candidacy top of mind. Second, you display that you are knowledgeable about the department, company or industry.

Communicating your attention to detail and that you go beyond a typical job seeker are great ways to distinguish yourself. 5. Don’t give up. Many hiring managers and recruiters have multiple competing priorities. It is highly possible that if you didn’t receive a rejection response and you still see the position posted several weeks or months after your original application, the role may still be open. Dissertation In English Literature. If you are still interested, repeat No. 3. The role may have just been put on the back burner. Your ongoing communication may be the thank you essay boost you need to move to the top of the list when the in english literature focus returns.

At this point, you have nothing to lose. Without a round of follow up, you will never know if you weren’t a viable candidate or you just got lost in a mound of email. There is essay on loneliness, fortune in the follow-up. In English. The art of a politely persistent follow-up is college essay shorter, what distinguishes high-performing employees in literature every job function from those that just wait for thank you essay things to fall in their lap. It makes perfect sense that employers will respond well to dissertation in english literature, a job seeker that exhibits this skill since it is so professionally relevant. Here’s to following up on annotated the things you want for your career in 2014. Robin Reshwan is the dissertation literature founder of Collegial Services, a consulting/staffing firm that connects college students, recent graduates and the organizations that hire them and a certified Women’s Business Enterprise (WBE). She has interviewed, placed and if wealth hired thousands of people across a broad spectrum of companies and industries.

Her career tips and advice are used by universities, national clubs/associations and businesses. A Certified Professional Resume Writer, Robin has been honored as a Professional Business Woman of the Year by the American Business Women's Association. She graduated Phi Beta Kappa and as a Regents Scholar from University of California, Davis. Didn't Get Hired? Don't Take It Personally. You can control a lot about how well you do in your job search … but not everything. Everything You Ever Wondered About Negotiating Salary, Answered. How much should you ask for? What if they pull your offer? We#39;ve got answers to all your trickiest salary questions.

4 Steps to a Successful Job Application. If you meet the qualifications, how can you put your best foot forward? 8 Things You Should Never Do at a Job Interview. Don’t make these mistakes during your next interview. 5 Things to Remember When You Don't Get the Job. Dissertation In English. How to use rejection to nursing papers, your own advantage. Here's what you need to know about what to wear, how to prepare and what to dissertation literature, say in a job interview. How To Make College Shorter. What to Do When You Disagree With Your Boss's Feedback.

Try to understand their perspective, and don't get defensive. Job Postings Alone Rarely Lead to Jobs. Older job seekers cannot rely only on in english literature postings to get the position they want. When managing remote employees, schedule regular check-ins and thank you essay evaluate skills that are unique to their circumstances. Why You Should Look for a New Job While You're Happy in dissertation in english literature Your Current One.

Keeping your eyes and ears open can lead to positive results. Our expert contributors give their best advice on answering common interview questions, perfecting job applications, negotiating salary and how to make more. Find savvy job advice from the brains behind top careers blogs and literature websites, including Ask A Manager, Collegial Services, Vicki Salemi, Jobhuntercoach, Career Sherpa, Career Valet, Hallie Crawford, Robin Madell, Chrissy Scivicque and Peter Gudmundsson.

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Fall Premiere Dates For New And Returning TV Series. Here’s a rundown of literature announced fall premiere dates for nursing papers, new series and dissertation in english, new seasons of nursing papers existing series on literature, broadcast, cable and if wealth essay, streaming services. Dissertation In English Literature! Please send additions and bibliography, adjustments to literature, [email protected] Thank You Essay! We’ll update the dissertation literature post as more dates are revealed: The Late Show with Stephen Colbert (CBS, series premiere) Inside the education NFL (Showtime, Season 39 premiere) 60 Minutes Sports (Showtime, Season 4 premiere) A Season With Notre Dame Football (Showtime, series premiere) The Awesomes (Hulu, Season 3 premiere) Cake Boss (TLC, Season 7 premiere; live episode)

The View (ABC, Season 19 premiere) The Ellen DeGeneres Show (NBC, Season 13 premiere) The League (FXX, Season 7 premiere) You’re The Worst (FXX, Season 2 premiere) Suddenly Royal (TLC, series premiere) My Big Fat Fabulous Life (TLC, Season 1B premiere) Making a Scene with James Franco (AOL, Season 2 premiere) The Art Of (Ovation, Season 5 premiere) Garbage Time with Katie Nolan (Fox Sports 1, Season 2 premiere) Suddenly Royal (TLC, series premiere)

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Are You the nursing papers One? (MTV, Season 3 premiere) Last Man Standing (ABC, Season 5 premiere) Shark Tank (ABC, Season 7 premiere) The Amazing Race (CBS, Cycle 27 premiere) Hawaii Five-O (CBS, Season 6 premiere) Blue Bloods (CBS, Season 6 premiere) Step It Up (Lifetime, series premiere) 48 Hours (CBS, Season 28 premiere)

Behind the dissertation Screams (Reelz, series premiere) Fame Kills (Reelz, series premiere) Marvel’s Guardians of the thank you essay Galaxy (Disney XD, series premiere) Once Upon a Time (ABC, Season 5 premiere) Blood Oil (ABC, series premiere) Quantico (ABC, series premiere) 60 Minutes (CBS, Season 48 premiere) Bob’s Burgers (Fox, Season 6 premiere) The Simpsons (Fox, Season 27 premiere) Brooklyn Nine-Nine (Fox, Season 3 premiere) The Last Man on dissertation in english literature, Earth (Fox, Season 2 premiere)

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Beyond the is lost is lost essay Tank (ABC, series premiere) Grandfathered (Fox, series premiere) The Grinder (Fox, series premiere) Adam Ruins Everything (TruTV, series premiere) Criminal Minds (CBS, Season 11 premiere)

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