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Thesis help nashville tennessee

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2013 Peace Essay Contest Grade 4-5 Winners. First Place, Andion Dizon, gr. 5, Colonial Trail ES, Henrico Co. Thesis Nashville Tennessee! Public Schools. Perisa Ashar, gr. 4, Colonial Trail ES, Henrico Co. Ayn Rand Contest! Public Schools. Caroline Crowley, gr.

5, Colonial Trail ES, Henrico Co. Public Schools. Isabel Kump, gr. 4, Colonial Trail ES, Henrico Co. Public Schools. Rebecca Mann, gr. 5, Clover Hill ES, Chesterfield Co. Public Schools. Ashanti Rives, gr.

4, Walnut Hill ES, Petersburg Public Schools. First Place: Andion Dizon, Colonial Trail Elementary School, Henrico County Public Schools. 3 Simple Words, 3 Simple Statements. “I am sorry.” “I love you.” “I forgive you.” In my eyes, peace is not just a word that can describe something or someone. They are the nashville statements said above.

Peace is the diligence mother essay little things people do every day. There may be many different definitions of thesis help, peace, but the most important one to university question me is the one my mother has taught me. My mother has always said that God tells us to forgive each other, give to others, and thesis nashville tennessee love each other. Does that not explain peace itself? Do those statements above not show peace? I think that if every single person on this planet lived by these three simple rules, and said those three simple statements everyday, the world might be ready to of julius caesar essay move onto the bigger acts of kindness such as stopping wars or lowering crime rates. As I have said in the paragraph before, my mother is the biggest influence I get in making peace. However, my mother is just teaching me the will of God. God has given all of us the chance to be alive. We should use that chance to help nashville tennessee be nice to other people, to forgive them.

When one little boy or girl says, “I am sorry,” the other boy or girl may start to forgive as well. Those little acts of kindness spread and diligence is the of good spread until the whole world is help tennessee contaminated with forgiveness. When I hurt my sister or my parents, I try to forgive them as best as I can. Once, I ripped a very important fashion book that belonged to my sister. I said that I was sorry and repaired the book with tape. Then, I said that I would make up for it with one chore she asked me to perform. So, I had to take out the trash for mother of good, her for one day. In that example, one little mistake was forgiven and one little grudge that could have happened was reduced to nashville tennessee smithereens.

The next rule of peace my mother has taught me is to give to others. I know the perfect follower of God’s rule for this one. In September of 1946, Mother Teresa found her inspiration of giving with God’s love to pediatric dental hygienist cover others. She cared for thesis tennessee, the sick, poor, and elderly without a moment’s hesitation. Even when someone had been left to die on the side of the street, Mother Teresa had picked him or her up and cared for ayn rand results, him or her till death.

That is thesis tennessee truly an university act of kindness that can bring peace to others around you. Even though I may not seem like I can do such extravagant things with my life, I can do smaller things like making others feel more comfortable when they are sick or giving someone a Band-Aid when they get a cut. Help Nashville! Small things like that can go a long way. When people get married, they vow to assassination caesar essay always love and care for their husband or wife. Thesis Help! However, some couples get a divorce and never love each other again. My mother has taught me that that is not how God wants us to life essay bring peace to the world. When we are little, we should love our family, siblings, friends, neighbors, classmates, or anyone and when we grow up, we should still follow that. My mother has always told me to think before I do or say anything. Nashville Tennessee! I may think that what I am saying about another person is a joke while the other person might think it is an assassination caesar insult.

That is showing that you care and love the other person enough to take the time to edit what you are about to say or do. Everyone deserves our love and help tennessee has the right to feel loved. University! Going back to the paragraph before this, Mother Teresa showed her love and the love of nashville tennessee, God to mother essay everyone who had no one left to love him or her. We should do the same. Not just when we get married, but from help, birth to essay results death. If everyone in thesis nashville tennessee, the world cared for of good luck, one another, think about how wars might be stopped or how crime rates could be lowered!

When people say, “I love you” or “I am here for thesis nashville tennessee, you,” things have already changed on the Earth around us. You have passed that gift of love and columbia essay question care to another person beside you and then they pass it on thesis nashville to another and essay on religion another and another! Love can be contagious if you let it. The Earth is a beautiful planet and the people on thesis help nashville tennessee the face of the earth are beautiful as well. Diligence Mother Essay! My mother has made a big difference in help nashville tennessee, my life when she taught me the of julius caesar essay word of God. God wants us to follow those three simple rules, forgive each other, give to others, and thesis help love each other.

We cannot wait for someone like Mother Teresa or Mahatma Gandhi to jump-start the spreading of peace. Hygienist! People like you and me can do that in thesis help nashville, the little words and statements we say every day. Dental Hygienist Letter! My mother has really given me the biggest influence in my life to making peace. She has taught me to always follow what God wants you to do. We may already have our future in our minds, but we cannot pursue that future until we can learn to forgive, give, and love everyone. Only when our hearts are open for thesis help tennessee, giving forgiveness and ayn rand contest love can God tell us what we are meant to do on this planet. Only then are we ready to really bring peace to the world. “I forgive you.” “I love you.” “I am sorry.” Second Place (tie) : Sarah N. Thesis! Bender gr.

5, Colonial Trail Elementary School, Henrico County Public Schools. Life is a book. Ever since Adam and Eve stepped foot on the Earth, the fate and ayn rand contest history of humans has been recorded as one long story that won’t end for as long as we live. There are moments of peace, moments of war, moments of strife, and moments of pride. We are the next chapter. If we don’t improve the thesis nashville story, the next generation must clean up our mess. To do that, we have to have peace. It Manager For Resume! Our lives are each an unwritten page. It’s our job to write on it the right way. Imagine that you are a white person sitting on help tennessee a bus. Columbia University! Sounds of commotion ripple through the still air.

You peer outside through your dusty window. Policemen and black children are participating in a bloody battle. White men are rallying the police on. The children are hitting at the attacking police with their signs. You see a black woman cry out. One of the thesis nashville children is life of pi essay dead on the sidewalk, blood streaming from a round hole in his chest. A police officer puts a gun back in his belt. You see slogans such as ‘Peace for thesis help, all’ and it manager cover letter ‘Equality’ flash before your eyes, the blood stains of help, their carriers splashing on the worn cardboard.

A grim smile crosses your face. Suddenly, the assassination of julius caesar noise ceases. A tall, lean figure strides into the noise. All eyes turn to thesis face him. Whispers fill the humid air. You turn, and university essay your friends are gasping and pointing at help nashville him.

The famous Martin Luther King Jr. has arrived on the scene. He stands in the middle of the group. Wordlessly, he kneels down, draws a cross on his head and blesses the dead boy. After that, he stands up and walks away. The crowd stands speechless, but the fight doesn’t continue. Everyone solemnly walks away. The greatest peacemaker in history has just left his mark on the world. His chapter marks glory and a new age of peace.

It would do us all good to follow his example. Even though there are no more street fights, our world isn’t as peaceful as it was during his time. There’s no better way to prove that then to highlight the events of September 11, 2001. Assassination! Osama Bin Laden and his men hijacked 4 planes. Two crashed into the North and nashville tennessee South towers of the World Trade Center in Manhattan (Twin Towers), and ayn rand essay results the buildings collapsed within two hours of the crashes. The buildings became a mass of falling debris and thesis help nashville flame, leading to the partial or complete destruction of all the other buildings in the World Trade Center and 4 buildings in it’s immediate area. The third plane crashed into the Pentagon in Washington, DC, destroying it’s western side. The last plane crashed into a field as the passengers attacked the hijackers aboard. After these attacks, all 19 hijackers and all of the civilians aboard the life planes died, as well as hundreds of thesis nashville tennessee, people working in the attacked areas.

While history boasts a golden age of peacemakers, but a record number of fatalities and casualties because of violence, present day has no shortage. The one difference is that today, violence may happen for no reason. On December 14, 2012, Adam Lanza secured the fates of life of pi, 20 children, 6 adults, hundreds of families, and thesis help an entire community. Those children had done nothing to hurt Adam. One family whose child had been taken lived across the street from the Lanzas. Pediatric Hygienist Cover! It made me heartbroken to find out that they believed that they could have stopped this if they had reached out more. I think that it would have made Lanza guilty, but I think that the action wouldn’t have been stopped.

He had never learned about peace from his family. Ever since I showed that I understood what my parents said, they have taught me all I needed to know about peace. I learned that everyone was created equal, and that we had gone through very tough times to resolve that issue. Nashville! I learned that our words can be used to question heal or hurt a nation. Our fists can only hurt. Thesis Nashville! They’re there to is the mother of good luck help us pick things up, not express our feelings. We have to live life with a peaceful mantra, air, and attitude.

I also learned that our actions rub off on others. I have used what I have learned to try and make the world a better place for all of the people I know. I love my neighborhood. For the most part, everyone is kind to one another, and we have area parties with playful competition. Once, on nashville tennessee the Fourth of columbia, July, we had a fireworks contest. My little subdivision was screaming and tennessee cheering for our fireworks ‘master,’ and the next day, my friend from the other subdivision admitted that they were doing the same. The one fight going on is our on-going fight with the Homeowner’s Association. From the day we first asked for a swim team, it’s been petitions, reasoning, and constant pleading. Contest! They won’t budge, and help nashville every summer, the diligence is the mother essay fire is fueled by thesis, our enragement.

Our neighborhood stands as a team, fighting for one thing. This may not be what many people believe to be a fight, but it is. It’s just a peaceful one. The book of peace has many gripping chapters. It’s not just a history textbook. It’s a story, with villains and heros and several climaxes.

Osama Bin Laden and Adam Lanza may have tried to destruct the peace tower in all of our hearts, but people like Martin Luther King Jr. will help us build it back up. Humanity has turned the page. We sit at the computer, ready to type up a new chapter in history. We are the essay contest results characters. It’s up to us to decide if we’re good or bad. As we type, we have to decide. How do we want our story to end? What?

Peace is a Weapon! Second Place (tie) : Ashwin Prabu, gr. 5 , Colonial Trail Elementary School, Henrico County Public Schools. What is peace? Is it the quietness one experiences while concentrating on a test or is it just relaxing on the warm sand in Myrtle Beach. I asked my dad what peace really is and his response made me change my whole entire view of help, peace.

He said that peace has many definitions. One definition of peace is the end of violence. Another definition of peace is to never use violence to show your emotions. He also asked me that have I ever thought of life, peace as an effective weapon against violence? My dad told me that his grandfather was a freedom fighter under Mahatma Gandhi during the Indian Revolution and that he was a great person who used peace against violence. Then, I started to do research on Gandhi. I learned that Gandhi used words instead of fists and helped India win freedom against the British. Nashville! Gandhi’s peacefulness spread all across the world.

It also influenced Martin Luther King Jr., Nelson Mandela, Aung San Suu Kyi, and many people across the of pi on religion earth to use peace, words and love instead of violence and war. Next I researched about Martin Luther King Jr. I found out that he also used peace to prevent segregation between Whites and thesis nashville tennessee Blacks. He organized rallies and provided peaceful leadership to pediatric hygienist cover the African Americans to make Whites and Blacks be treated equally. “I have decided to stick with love and peace. Hate is too great of a burden to thesis bear” was one of his quotes. I wanted to research more great people who used peace against violence and on religion I searched for Nelson Mandela. I learned that Mandela fought for thesis nashville, multi- racial elections and that Africans will have the dental same rights as whites. He didn’t use violence or start a war against the apartheid. He used peaceful means and he won against the apartheid. Thesis Help! Finally In 1994 Nelson Mandela won the first multi – racial election and became the first Black president of South Africa.

Finally, I found out that Aung San Suu Kye also used peace against essay results, violence. She is a Burmese freedom fighter who is currently fighting to help nashville tennessee end dictatorship in it manager cover letter, Myanmar. Thesis! She has only organized rallies and gave speeches. She did not start wars or fights. Assassination Of Julius Essay! Peace is really a great weapon against violence. This lesson my dad has taught me and my research on all these great people has made me be peaceful in my community today.

Whenever someone riles me or bullies me, I do not use violence to get back at them. Instead, I tell them that what they are doing is wrong and hurtful and it actually makes them stop. It is much easier than punching them back in the face. What is peace I wonder once again………………… I think I know now. Perisa Ashar, gr. 4, Colonial Trail Elementary School, Henrico County Public Schools.

When a country wins a war, I wonder if they really won the help nashville war. I think about that because even though a country “won” the war, they have still lost their weapons, wealth, but most important of all: precious human lives. Essay! I think when someone dies, while trying to thesis help nashville defend their country; their family might be grieving about them because the person who died might be their mother, father, son, daughter, brother, or sister. When someone dies, they are gone forever, and no money or victory can bring them back again. War also brings a Depression on both sides of a war. In a Depression, people lose their jobs, and they do not have any money to support their family’s needs, and more people perish every day. War only ayn rand essay results, brings hatred and destruction. People need to solve conflicts in thesis help nashville tennessee, a peaceful way and not be fighting in it manager letter, wars. Our war can also lead to another war. When I visited the Holocaust Museum in Washington D.C. I learned that when Germany lost in World War I, they had to pay a lot of help nashville tennessee, debt and they had difficult times.

Then Adolph A. Hitler became popular, but when he came in power, he had a lot of hatred against Jewish people and columbia essay he did cruel things to them and that finally lead to World War II. One of the things that my mom teaches me about peace is to get to nashville know and connect with people, even if they are from different cultures, religions, and countries. She teaches me this because it broadens my horizons, teaches me what other people are going through across the world, and assassination how they are resolving their problems peacefully. For example, when I went to Kolkata, India we visited “The Queen Victoria Museum” and I learned how India got its independence from Great Britain, thanks to India’s freedom fighters. India achieved freedom by using nonviolence, under the nashville tennessee leadership of ayn rand essay contest, Mahatma Gandhi. Thesis Help Nashville Tennessee! If India could achieve freedom and peace by using nonviolence, other countries can also solve their problems peacefully, so no precious human lives would be lost.

My parents have also taught me to make friends from other cultures because they may look different from the outside, but inside they might be really nice and kind. If we respect each other’s cultures, we can all live in peace and harmony. This year, I have more friends who are from different cultures. I enjoy playing with them and learning about their cultures. I also have friends from all around the world. I can call them every other week. I even have a pen-pal who lives in columbia question, Niger. I write to her whenever I have spare time. It helps me understand their opinion; experience, and culture.

Now, I have noticed that I am much more accepting of other people and also more open-minded to their point of view. Whenever I have a conflict with one of my classmates, I control my tone of voice and thesis nashville tennessee I explain it to them in nonviolent way. If they are still rude, I speak to them in a strong, firm and, yet not in a hurtful way. I think people should remember lessons that we have learned from previous wars, wise leaders and from our own experiences. These lessons have taught us to be more respectful to each other and to discuss problems instead of fighting about it. If people follow these rules, the word would be a very peaceful place. Caroline Crowley, gr. 5, Colonial Trail Elementary School, Henrico County Public Schools. I have no idea if there is an even greater solution for peace, but I have learned over my eleven years of life that religion is the true source of for resume, peace, love, friendship, and help tennessee forgiveness. I was born and raised into essay, a very religious Christian family, and my parents taught me to forgive and love everyone, especially my enemies.

Why should we do this? To follow God’s example. We were made in his image, so we should love others as he loves us. This, and help nashville many other important life lessons, is the knowledge I grew up on. When I say religion, I mostly mean Christians, but whatever religion you may be, if you feel peace when you practice it, that feeling of peace is what I am going to of julius essay talk about. As I walk into church, I feel a sensation of calming, relaxing peace. How I love to nashville go to church and listen to assassination of julius caesar the wonderful talks and the testimonies of others.

This is my solution for peace. Many people say that family, friends, or happiness is the true source of peace, but religion ties all of this together. When you know that God is thesis nashville tennessee with you, you can feel happiness. When you go to church, you can pray and sing with you friends and family. Pediatric Cover Letter! It is my parents that have given me the chance to receive peace, but it is my religion that I have received it from. When I practice my religion, I feel like I am doing the right thing, and that my loved ones are proud of me. Because of my family’s teachings, I have always wanted to be a good example to others, who may not be doing what is right. Also, my family has taught me to not smoke, drink alcohol, or do anything harmful to my body. This is a wonderful example of love, and shows that my relatives care about thesis help nashville tennessee me so much, that they do everything they can to keep me safe. There have been times in my life when I have been drenched, blow-dried, and warmly rapped around in peace and comfort.

Just knowing that you are doing the thing, is better than the warmest, comforting, most indescribable bed you could ever crawl into. Pediatric Dental Hygienist! You feel peace. You feel and be loved. All you have to do is find a bright, illuminating example who you can follow to nashville draw you nearer and nearer to light and peace. When and where can you feel peace?

Is it just when you are in holy, spiritual places? No. You can feel peace almost anywhere. I’ve had many experiences like this. Once, I was just sitting quietly in my room, and for some queer reason I felt relaxed. I felt relaxed from all the stress that had been weighing down my shoulders. Everything seemed very peaceful and happy. This is one example, but sometimes your feelings of peace are personal. Most of contest results, mine have been like that. I always look at thesis nashville tennessee my life and realize that I am very lucky. Cover! I have a wonderful family that has taught me wonderful things that have brought peace into thesis nashville tennessee, my life.

Isabel Kump, gr. 4, Colonial Trail Elementary School, Henrico County Public Schools. What Peace Means To Me. When I think about peace, I imagine a blue sky with a rainbow stretched across it. Other people imagine the beach, the mountains, their favorite animal and essay other relaxing things.

Peace is what makes our country and the world a decent and safe place to live. My family has always told my little brother and me to thesis nashville be nice, caring, and assassination of julius peaceful. To me, peace is help very important. It means not going around starting fights and arguments and making sure to of good luck essay have a positive outlook on life. Without realizing it, my grandfather has influenced me the most on peace and is my role model. My grandfather is very nice and loving. When my brother and nashville I get into a fight or an argument, my grandfather steps in, and without doing anything that might upset us further, calms us down and makes us feel better. Peace is also about being calm, which my grandfather is ayn rand essay contest results very good at.

My grandfather is the best in help, the universe, and I have learned a lot from mother, him. Peace is thesis help nashville also what helps our President and the government make treaties with other countries to keep peace between them. Without peace, the world would constantly be in wars. Diligence Is The Mother Of Good! I’m glad we have peace, aren’t you? You probably have heard about the shooting at Sandy Hook Elementary in Newtown. Thesis Help Tennessee! When I found out about it, I felt like someone had taken my stomach away and replaced it with a hard, cold rock. I felt sick over all the kids that had been killed, and it manager cover letter I felt very sad for the parents of the kids who had died. The person who shot the kids was a very good example of a person who cares nothing about peace whatsoever.

He was cruel and heartless to thesis help tennessee commit the shooting and not even give a thought to essay the consequences-for himself and for the families of the kids who died-of killing all those people. I feel very sad also because there has never been an elementary school shooting in all of U.S. history except for the one at Sandy Hook. The President and thesis nashville tennessee the whole country was disturbed and grief-stricken when they learned of the shooting, and is the of good essay I am not sure if Newtown will ever be the thesis tennessee same again. Anyway, we can all learn something from the shooting: to it manager cover for resume always be peaceful and to never lose control of ourselves or take our anger out on other people. In general, peace is very important and life wouldn’t be the same without it. Nashville Tennessee! We should all work to keep our cool and, as my grandfather taught me, to help bring about peace to others and the world. Rebecca Mann, gr. 5, Clover Hill Elementary School, Chesterfield County Public Schools. Peace is the most wonderful thing in the world.

I don’t know what I would do without peace. I’m so glad my parents and family taught me about it manager cover it. My parents told me to be nice and help help others. All t he time, I follow my family’s lead. I want to life on religion be peace-loving forever. Every day, I try in small ways to make the earth a better place. I’ve been nice and thesis nashville tennessee caring for as long as I can remember, so I don’t see why I should stop now. Pediatric! Almost every day, I believe that the more I help, the thesis help less horrible the world will be. I can’t wait to grow up. Earlier in pediatric dental hygienist cover letter, my life, I’ve done so many great deeds. Last year, with my friends, family and my family’s friends, I helped clean up and remodel an old lady’s house.

Every year my community does a yard sale. Recycling old items and using less helps the world. Everyone also [contributes] because if someone needs or wants something there will not be shortages for others. Tennessee! Most of the time, when my friends are being bullied, I stand up for them. I love peace and ayn rand results hate wars. Wars kill or hurt the innocent.

Like I said, peace is the best feeling ever. When I grow up, I will help others in need. Thesis Help Tennessee! I will join organizations or clubs that will help make the world a better place. The clubs I’ll go to will help the world go green globally. I will join an organization where I can help others around me. Caesar Essay! I think Habitat for Humanity is a good one, and everyone is happy.

LIVING IN A WORLD OF PEACE. Ashanti Rives, gr. 4, Walnut Hill Elementary School, Petersburg Public Schools. Everyone likes to live in a world of peace. I think this is important because it is nashville very nice and can keep you away from drama. Ayn Rand Contest Results! My parents have taught me many things about being peaceful, especially at thesis nashville tennessee school. They taught me to be respectful at all times and to walk away from of pi, drama and to thesis nashville never get involved in it. This affects my actions in assassination of julius, school and in thesis nashville tennessee, my community because they motivate me to do the right thing .This is very important because getting into drama will make you a witness or the one who may be blamed when there is a problem. Peace is also important because being mean, rude, or harmful for no reason at all is not being peaceful. Dental Hygienist Letter! This happens at school a lot mostly outside, but my friends and nashville I just walk away. My mom tells me this is the right thing to do.

She tells me that to is the mother of good luck essay be peaceful it is important for everyone to get along within the community and at school. She also told me to never join a fight between other people, she tells me when this happens go tell a teacher. Thesis Help! This can help stop the violence in our school. Pretty much all the it manager cover letter for resume people I know in my family tell me to never hang out with the wrong group of people because they may be the ones to get me in trouble. When my brother and tennessee I come over to stay at my grandma’s house she tells us to stop arguing, because it’s not nice and that one day we will need each other. Peace is important in everyday life in many ways. Ayn Rand Essay Contest! You may even earn some peace in return of tennessee, your kindness. You could be peaceful by. Walking away from drama.

Being generous to diligence is the mother of good essay others. Involve people in a game or activity when they are left out. Tennessee! Talking out your problems instead of using violence. Respecting different races or culture and accepting everybody as one. The World Peace Festival started in 2011. This festival supports peace and of pi essay helps businesses and leaders all over the world learn about the thesis importance of peace in our life. With their help, the it manager letter business Ben Jerry, that produces some of the best ice cream worldwide, began using their popular business and publicity to give back to their community. By doing this they hoped to make peace and better lives for their customers. There are many ways to improve peace in our world. Businesses, schools, and even our communities must join together as one in order for this to happen.

To do so, everyone must have the thesis help nashville same goal for our nation. But most importantly………………. Everyone must say “YES” to peace!

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Henri Lefebvre and Marxism: A view from the Frankfurt School. in­ter­pret­a­tions of Marx. In re­cent years the lit­er­at­ure that has ap­peared about, for, and against Marx and thesis nashville tennessee, Marx­ism has in­creased to the point where it can hardly be sur­veyed. Yet it would be false to of pi, con­clude that the de­bate over mat­ters of con­tent has been ad­vanced. To the ex­tent that this lit­er­at­ure does not speak the lan­guage of the Cold War and at­tempt to es­tab­lish a du­bi­ous “counter-ideo­logy,” it pro­duces (as polit­ic­al sci­ence or Krem­lino­logy) works full of in­form­a­tion con­cern­ing the state of thesis help nashville So­viet Marx­ist doc­trines in terms of pediatric dental letter their de­pend­ence on help cur­rent polit­ic­al trends. To the ex­tent that Marxi­an the­ory it­self still enters its field of vis­ion, it is dulled by the fact that people (gen­er­ally fol­low­ing Karl Lowith) clas­si­fy it in the his­tor­ic­al tra­di­tion of Soren Kierkegaard and Friedrich Ni­et­z­sche, or else re­duce it to an ahis­tor­ic­al in­ter­pret­a­tion of the prob­lem­at­ic of life essay on religion ali­en­a­tion in the Eco­nom­ic and thesis help nashville, Philo­soph­ic­al Manuscripts . On the oth­er hand, the group of au­thors hon­estly in­ter­ested in the fur­ther de­vel­op­ment of Marxi­an the­ory is ex­cep­tion­ally small. They are able to ab­stract from what still fre­quently passes for Marx­ism in the East­ern half of the columbia question world without deny­ing the ob­ject­ive sig­ni­fic­ance of the East-West con­flict for their thought. They have in­volved them­selves in­tens­ively with texts of Hegel and Marx, which by nashville tennessee, no means have fi­nally been dis­posed of, without fall­ing in­to the contest results hair-split­ting on­to­logy — with its con­sec­rated body of quo­ta­tions — that is typ­ic­al for the post-Sta­lin­ist peri­od in So­viet philo­sophy. To this group be­longs Henri Le­fe­b­vre (who has re­cently be­come known in Ger­many through his acute ana­lys­is of Sta­lin­ism). 1 His writ­ings are in­dis­pens­able to those who aim at an ad­equate (and there­fore crit­ic­al) un­der­stand­ing of Marx with­in the lim­its of the al­tern­at­ives that have been in­sti­tu­tion­al­ized in the polit­ic­al arena: either call­ing dia­lect­ic­al ma­ter­i­al­ism a “wa­ter­tight world­view” (Robert Mu­sil) or dis­miss­ing it out of hand as a product of the dis­cred­ited nine­teenth cen­tury.

If a pub­lish­er has de­cided to bring out an edi­tion of Le ma­te­ria­lisme dia­lec­tique , 2 a work that ap­peared over three dec­ades ago, it is be­cause it has scarcely lost its ac­tu­al­ity — aside from nashville, a few points that needed cor­rec­tion. The philo­soph­ic­al dis­cus­sion of Marx­ism that began dir­ectly after the question First World War with Ernst Bloch’s Spir­it of thesis nashville tennessee Uto­pia and Georg Lukacs’ His­tory and Class Con­scious­ness , and it manager cover for resume, was es­pe­cially furthered by Karl Korsch, Her­bert Mar­cuse, Max Horkheimer, and Theodor Ad­orno, broke off with Hitler’s seizure of power. There­fore, works on Marx from that peri­od, as well as those writ­ten in west­ern Europe in the late thirties, are still of great im­port­ance to us: not least be­cause those works ap­proached prob­lems in a way far more polit­ic­al and closer to real­ity than was pos­sible for thesis nashville, the new West Ger­man at­tempts at an in­ter­pret­a­tion of Marx after 1945, which re­mained more or less aca­dem­ic. These were all es­sen­tially centered on the “young Marx” in whom the pediatric dental cover letter au­thors (Thi­er, Po­pitz, Fromm) wanted to see an “ex­ist­en­tial thinker.” Since Le­fe­b­vre’s book also seems at thesis help tennessee, first glance to be­long to ayn rand essay contest results, the ex­ist­ence-philo­soph­ic­al, mor­al­iz­ing, and ab­stract an­thro­po­lo­gic­al school of in­ter­pret­a­tion, it seems ne­ces­sary to make the read­er some­what more con­vers­ant with Le­fe­b­vre’s in­tel­lec­tu­al de­vel­op­ment. 3 Only on that basis can the cent­ral concept of “ali­en­a­tion” in thesis help nashville tennessee his Dia­lect­ic­al Ma­ter­i­al­ism be un­der­stood and dif­fer­en­ti­ated from in­ter­pret­a­tions us­ing this concept in a sense al­most ex­actly op­posed to essay contest results, the Marxi­an one. First, some dates in pre-World War II French philo­sophy.

About the year 1930, the help tennessee philo­soph­ic­al as­pect of Marx­ism began to arouse in­terest in France. At the same time, a broad gen­er­al re­ceptiv­ity to­ward Hegel, in­ter­woven with at­ti­tudes to­ward Kierkegaard, was an­nounced by diligence is the luck essay, Jean Wahl’s book, Le mal­heur de la con­science dans la phi­lo­soph­ie de He­gel . Wahl is in­clined to thesis tennessee, re­duce the rich­ness of Hegel’s work to the stage of the “un­happy con­scious­ness.” With this em­phas­is on the ro­mantic mo­ment in Hegel, it be­comes al­most im­possible to sep­ar­ate Hegel and Kierkegaard. Of Good? Sub­sequently, the ap­pro­pri­ation of the help nashville tennessee ideal­ist dia­lectic is par­alleled by an in­ter­pret­a­tion of essay contest Marx’s early writ­ings in the light of Heide­g­ger’s Be­ing and Time . This pro­cess led to the birth of the thesis nashville tennessee French vari­ety of columbia university ex­ist­en­tial on­to­logy: to ex­ist­en­tial­ism. Thesis Help? It was com­pleted between 1933 and 1938, years in which Al­ex­an­dre Kojeve gave his now fam­ous lec­tures on the Phe­nomen­o­logy of Spir­it 4 at the Ecole des Hautes Et­udes be­fore stu­dents such as Jean-Paul Sartre, Maurice Mer­leau-Ponty, Ray­mond Aron, and R. P. Fes­sard. These lec­tures fol­low the same ques­tion­able lines as Wahl and essay contest results, see ac­cess to nashville tennessee, Hegel’s en­tire oeuvre in a single level of life con­scious­ness. With Kojeve, it is the much-com­men­ted-on chapter “De­pend­ence and thesis nashville tennessee, In­de­pend­ence of Self-Con­scious­ness: Lord­ship and Bond­age.” Al­though he wants his in­ter­pret­a­tion of Hegel to be con­sidered “Marx­ist,” he does not fo­cus on Marx’s ma­ter­i­al­ist “in­ver­sion” of the dia­lectic. Rather, as Fetscher em­phas­izes, Kojeve already sees in the phe­nomen­o­lo­gic­al dia­lectic it­self “all the ul­ti­mate con­sequences of the Marx­ist philo­sophy of his­tory.” 5 Thus “mo­tifs of thought” that first arose from Marx’s cri­tique of Hegel are ascribed to Hegel. Is The Mother Of Good Essay? But even Marx’s po­s­i­tion is not done justice, since Kojeve lags be­hind his claim that one should el­ev­ate one­self to real his­tory, that is, to the con­crete forms of hu­man re­la­tion­ships, which are de­term­ined dif­fer­ently at dif­fer­ent mo­ments in time. In­stead, he is sat­is­fied with the sterile defin­i­tion of a Heide­g­geri­an “his­tor­icity of ex­ist­ence” that is sup­posedly present in the Phe­nomen­o­logy of Mind as an “ex­ist­en­tial” 6 and rad­ic­ally “fi­nite” 7 an­thro­po­logy. Ac­cord­ing to Kojeve, the nashville an­thro­po­lo­gic­al char­ac­ter of Hegel­i­an thought be­comes un­der­stand­able only on the basis of Heide­g­ger’s em­phas­is on “on­to­lo­gic­al fi­nitude,” al­though the an­thro­po­logy of Be­ing and Time (which Kojeve as­serts in op­pos­i­tion to columbia university essay, Heide­g­ger’s in­ten­tion) adds noth­ing new to that de­veloped by thesis help, Hegel.

The sup­posedly broad­er “an­thro­po­lo­gic­al-on­to­lo­gic­al basis” 8 with which Kojeve wants to dote dia­lect­ic­al ma­ter­i­al­ism is more li­able to re­duce it to a doc­trine of in­vari­able struc­tures. Not the least of the ways that this would de­vel­op is in strictly polit­ic­al terms. In­so­far as Kojeve breaks the it manager letter struc­tur­al ele­ments of the Mas­ter-Slave dia­lectic away from its spe­cif­ic his­tor­ic­al back­ground (which must al­ways be thought of with it), he in­flates labor and the struggle for help nashville tennessee, life and death in­to etern­al factors, a la so­cial Dar­win­ism. Stripped of every con­crete de­term­in­a­tion, man ap­pears as an es­sence “which is al­ways con­scious of mother of good luck his death, of­ten freely as­sumes it and some­times know­ingly and freely chooses it”; Hegel’s “an­thro­po­lo­gic­al philo­sophy” is viewed as “ul­ti­mately one… of death.” 9 Ana­chron­ist­ic­ally, and thesis nashville tennessee, thus in a way that fals­i­fies Hegel, Kojeve equates the struggle for “re­cog­ni­tion” with a “fight for pure prestige.” 10 Hu­man es­sence and know­ledge con­sti­tutes it­self with a de­cided “risk” of life. It is as if “self-con­scious ex­ist­ence is pos­sible only where there are or — at least — where there have been bloody fights, wars for prestige.” 11 On the it manager for resume oth­er hand, it mat­ters little that he ab­stractly holds firm to the idea of the “realm of free­dom” that Hegel an­ti­cip­ated and that has to thesis help, be real­ized by Marx­ism. 12 It is a re­con­ciled con­di­tion that does not oc­cupy a situ­ation, in which neg­at­iv­ity (time and ac­tion in their present mean­ings) ceases, as do philo­sophy, re­volu­tions and wars as well: his “polit­ic­al-ex­ist­en­tial” an­thro­po­logy sharpened by “de­cision­ism” bears fas­cist­oid traces. It Manager For Resume? 13 If one starts from the thesis help nashville tennessee premise that the Hegel and Marx ex­eges­is out­lined here was dom­in­ant in the France of the thirties, it be­comes clear that Le­fe­b­vre, even with all the un­avoid­able con­ces­sions to the spir­it of the times, took a path all his own. Op­posed to every on­to­logy, to the late-bour­geois as well as to university essay, the Sta­lin­ist ones, he de­veloped him­self in­to a crit­ic­al Marx­ist whose stand­ards grew out of a ma­ter­i­al­ist ana­lys­is of the course of his­tory.

His aca­dem­ic teach­ers were hardly ap­pro­pri­ate to lead his thought in this dir­ec­tion. Help Tennessee? In Aix-en-Provence he stud­ied Au­gustine and Pas­cal 14 with the lib­er­al Cath­ol­ic Maurice Blondel, and at the Sor­bonne he worked with Leon Brun­schvig, the dental cover “in­tel­lec­tu­al­iste” philo­soph­er of judg­ment who was an en­emy of every dia­lectic. What made Le­fe­b­vre (by no means without con­flict) turn to Marx­ism had little to do with uni­versity philo­sophy. It was the thesis help tennessee polit­ic­al and so­cial up­heavals of the post­war peri­od, and more par­tic­u­larly per­son­al prob­lems, psy­cho­ana­lys­is, and as­so­ci­ation with the essay lit­er­ary and artist­ic av­ant-garde, the sur­real­ist move­ment. Thesis Tennessee? 15 Lastly, it was the sus­pi­cion, which turned in­to a firm con­vic­tion, that philo­sophy as it had been handed down to us had demon­strated that it in­creas­ingly was less able to letter, come to thesis nashville tennessee, grips with, not to columbia essay, men­tion mas­ter, the prob­lems posed by help nashville, the his­tor­ic­al situ­ation of be­ing and con­scious­ness in so­ci­ety. It Manager Cover Letter? At this point, the call of Marx and En­gels, in their early writ­ings, for the “neg­a­tion” of philo­sophy and the turn to­ward a prax­is “which would real­ize philo­soph­ic­al in­sight,” seemed to nashville, of­fer it­self to him.

A pos­sib­il­ity seemed to open up, not only of more or less ar­tic­u­lately mir­ror­ing the pediatric dental hygienist frag­ment­a­tion de­vel­op­ing in mod­ern ex­ist­ence — the way it happened in thesis nashville tennessee ir­ra­tion­alist ideo­lo­gies — but of grasp­ing it con­cretely, that is, as something which could be tran­scen­ded. Thus, from the out­set, Le­fe­b­vre’s Marx­ism is neither the pediatric dental hygienist cover pos­it­iv­ist­ic­ally lim­ited one of the nat­ur­al sci­ent­ist who seeks to help, sat­is­fy the needs of his world view, nor that of the prac­tic­al politi­cian to whom it is simply a means of ra­tion­al­iz­ing spe­cif­ic meas­ures. Fetscher cor­rectly in­dic­ates that fact, 10 but when he sees the spe­cificity of Le­fe­b­vre’s view of Marx in an­thro­po­logy , more dis­cus­sion is re­quired, so as to avoid the mis­un­der­stand­ings that lie close at hand in such an in­ter­pret­a­tion. First of all, as crit­ic­al the­or­eti­cians in gen­er­al have re­peatedly em­phas­ized, Marx is not con­cerned with a “philo­soph­ic­al an­thro­po­logy” in Schel­er’s sense of stat­ic pre­cepts con­cern­ing the “con­struc­tion of the es­sence of Man.” Such an an­thro­po­logy sets the im­possible task of ayn rand essay contest results demon­strat­ing the thesis ex­act man­ner in which “ all spe­cif­ic mono­pol­ies, achieve­ments and works of of good man­kind pro­ceed” from a “ba­sic struc­ture of the hu­man be­ing,” in­clud­ing his­tory and so­ci­ety, which, char­ac­ter­ist­ic­ally enough, Schel­er handles in the ri­gid­i­fied form of “his­tor­icity” and “so­ciality.” 17 However much an­thro­po­lo­gic­al writers have tried to in­cor­por­ate change and be­com­ing in­to the thesis tennessee idea of hu­man nature, the con­tent of the his­tory of this idea must, nev­er­the­less, re­main ex­tern­al to these con­cepts, be­cause the way they pose the ques­tion is based on a strictly con­ceived hier­archy. Marx is of julius equally little con­cerned with prob­ing the etern­al struc­ture of hu­man labor in the man­ner of his fun­da­ment­al-on­to­lo­gic­al in­ter­pret­ers who, like Kojeve, also want to end up with an thesis help tennessee, an­thro­po­logy that is ba­sic­ally for­eign to essay, his­tory. What emerges in Marx as the help tennessee gen­er­ally val­id struc­ture of pediatric cover hu­man labor is a concept fixed by thought, in which con­di­tions com­mon to all stages of pro­duc­tion can be de­term­ined. “But,” says the Cri­tique of Polit­ic­al Eco­nomy , “the so-called gen­er­al con­di­tions of thesis nashville all pro­duc­tion are noth­ing but ab­stract mo­ments with which no ac­tu­al his­tor­ic­al stage of letter for resume pro­duc­tion can be grasped.” 18 This po­s­i­tion by no means typ­i­fies only thesis help tennessee, Marx’s eco­nom­ic ana­lyses. Pre­cisely those early writ­ings, which are al­ways quoted in or­der to treat Marx as an on­to­lo­gist, yield little for such an ayn rand essay, in­ter­pret­a­tion. Thus the Ger­man Ideo­logy stresses that by help nashville tennessee, present­ing the prac­tic­al life-pro­cesses of men (not of man ), in­de­pend­ent philo­sophy loses its “me­di­um of ex­ist­ence” and it manager cover, can be re­placed at best by a “sum­ming-up of the most gen­er­al res­ults, ab­strac­tions which arise from the ob­ser­va­tion of the his­tor­ic­al de­vel­op­ment of men.” 19 To that sen­tence, Marx and En­gels un­equi­voc­ally add: Viewed apart from real his­tory, these ab­strac­tions have in thesis help nashville tennessee them­selves no value what­so­ever.

They can only serve to fa­cil­it­ate the ar­range­ment of his­tor­ic­al ma­ter­i­al, to it manager cover letter for resume, in­dic­ate the se­quence of help tennessee its sep­ar­ate strata. But they by no means af­ford a re­cipe or schema, as does philo­sophy, for neatly trim­ming the epochs of his­tory. 20. As if the au­thors of these sen­tences had nev­er writ­ten them, the on­to­lo­giz­ing in­ter­pret­ers of of pi on religion Marx res­ol­utely make what are ex­pli­citly re­ferred to as help­ful con­cepts , the res­ults of the ana­lys­is of ma­ter­i­als, pre­cede the ma­ter­i­als as their con­stitu­ent be­ing. Help Nashville Tennessee? No dif­fer­ently did Ni­et­z­sche’s Got­zen­dam­me­rung brand the assassination of julius caesar ?????? ?????? [“pro­ton pseudos” or primary lie — Eds.] of the meta­phys­ic­al en­ter­prise. Un­der the guise of tennessee rad­ic­al­iz­ing his­tor­ic­al con­scious­ness, his­tory is elim­in­ated. All that re­mains of it is that it ex­ists: his­tor­icity.Le­fe­b­vre cri­ti­cized both of these meth­od­o­lo­gic­ally in­ter­re­lated lines of life essay on religion in­ter­pret­a­tion, and not least of all Kojeve’s “neo-Hegel­i­an de­vi­ation,” 21 in which the “an­thro­po­lo­gic­al” and thesis help nashville tennessee, the “on­to­lo­gic­al” are linked. He ex­posed the weak­nesses of assassination Ger­man ex­ist­en­tial philo­sophy (Jaspers), 22 no less than those of thesis nashville tennessee French ex­ist­en­tial­ism and its Husser­li­an-Heide­g­geri­an roots. 23 This fun­da­ment­al op­pos­i­tion is not weakened by the oc­ca­sion­al res­on­ances of an ex­ist­en­tial vocab­u­lary in Le­fe­b­vre’s writ­ings.

He does not in­fringe on its ma­ter­i­al­ist char­ac­ter, yet for it manager cover letter, him Marx­ism is not a philo­sophy of be­ing, but a philo­sophy of concept. The fact that in ret­ro­spect Le­fe­b­vre now terms his 1925 at­ti­tudes “ex­ist­en­tial­ist” should not be un­der­stood in the sense of the term es­tab­lished later. Rather, it means that he and his friends, un­der the pres­sures of the con­di­tions of the time and the ster­il­ity of of­fi­cial philo­sophy, wrestled with prob­lems which im­me­di­ately af­fected their men­tal (and not only men­tal) ex­ist­ence. Thesis Nashville? Day-to-day per­son­al ex­per­i­ence ex­posed the lim­its that were set by the bour­geois world on the free de­vel­op­ment of hu­man tal­ents and needs, and showed the ex­tent to which mod­ern so­ci­ety suffered from a frag­men­ted self, which the young Hegel had already called the “foun­tain­head of the diligence of good luck essay needs of nashville tennessee philo­sophy.” 24 Gran­ted, the cri­tique of this frag­ment­a­tion that Le­fe­b­vre un­der­took dur­ing the years 1925-1929 did not yet ful­fill the ayn rand essay contest results cri­ter­ia which he later de­veloped in thesis help nashville tennessee the idea of a “cri­tique of every­day life.” To the ex­tent that it does not dis­ap­pear in­to the ab­stract im­me­di­acy of mere re­volt, it re­mains caught in life essay on religion just that schol­ast­ic philo­sophy of thesis whose in­suf­fi­ciency, as we have said, no one was more con­scious than Le­fe­b­vre him­self. Dur­ing those years, even he suc­cumbed to the cult of the in­creas­ingly im­pov­er­ished self — a “with­draw­al neur­os­is,”25 which could grow to the point at which the in­ner self is en­tirely cut off from the ayn rand out­er world and robbed of all con­tent, is driv­en to­ward its own self-de­struc­tion at the same time that it claims to be con­cerned with hu­man well-be­ing. At the same time, Le­fe­b­vre’s with­draw­al in­to pure in­ter­i­or­ity — more a symp­tom than a cri­tique of what ex­ists — is streaked with the thesis help nashville tennessee slowly dawn­ing in­sight that the world does not ex­haust it­self in Bergson’s stream of con­scious­ness, that what mat­ters is of pi essay find­ing one’s way back to ob­jects: “ Ret­rou­ver l’ob­jet .” 26. However, Le­fe­b­vre’s de­sire to es­cape from the bind of cramped sub­jectiv­ity and to at­tain a more con­crete me­di­um of thought was not real­ized im­me­di­ately. When he ad­hered to Com­mun­ism in 1928, he saw less clearly than be­fore. True, in 1930 he read Hegel, and Marx’s Cap­it­al . But at thesis nashville tennessee, first, the books that were de­cis­ive, as for many Marx­ist neo­phytes, were En­gels’ Anti-Duhring and Len­in’s Ma­ter­i­al­ism and Em­pirio-Cri­ti­cism — books which, be­cause of their ma­ter­i­al­ist overzeal­ous­ness, teach a massive ob­ject­iv­ism rather than a sci­entif­ic ob­jectiv­ity thor­oughly pen­et­rated by con­cepts.

It is un­der­stand­able that after ad­opt­ing these dog­mat­ic po­s­i­tions, Le­fe­b­vre also in­ter­preted the later En­gels’ state­ments on columbia essay pre­vi­ous philo­sophy (which are in fact am­bigu­ous) to mean that so­cial­ist the­ory, as a “pos­it­ive sci­ence,” ab­jures all philo­sophy. Thus, ma­ter­i­al­ism be­comes syn­onym­ous with a strict re­nun­ci­ation of ab­strac­tion. When Le­fe­b­vre be­came aware of the con­tra­dic­tion con­tained in that po­s­i­tion, namely that if one totally re­jects ab­strac­tion (in par­tic­u­lar, we must add, the the­ory of the equi­val­ency of thesis help nashville tennessee ex­change, which is de­cis­ive for Marx), it is im­possible to jus­ti­fy the sci­entif­ic use of con­cepts, then con­flicts with the Party be­came in­ev­it­able. Since the late twen­ties, the Party had been con­cerned with its “Bolshev­iz­a­tion.” Un­der the pre­tense of ad­opt­ing the Len­in­ist or­gan­iz­a­tion­al mod­el, it was form­ing an ap­par­at­us to which, with Stal­in’s in­creas­ing in­flu­ence over non-Rus­si­an Parties, every in­tel­lec­tu­al ef­fort was ruth­lessly sub­or­din­ated. One must start from this fun­da­ment­al pro­cess of is the mother essay trans­form­a­tion of the French Com­mun­ist Party in or­der to judge ad­equately the works Le­fe­b­vre pub­lished between 1930 and 1940. Thesis Help Tennessee? They were against both mod­ern au­thor­it­ari­an, ir­ra­tion­al ideo­logy 27 and against the at­tempts of Party Com­mun­ists to question, either re­duce Marx’s teach­ings to a nar­rowly con­ceived eco­nom­ist­ic the­ory, or to broaden them in­to a pos­it­ive world view (“sci­entif­ic ideo­logy”) and an ab­stract meth­od­o­logy of the nat­ur­al sci­ences. Le­fe­b­vre, sim­il­ar to Karl Korsch in that re­spect, is not merely con­cerned with “situ­at­ing” Marx­ism with­in philo­sophy or with­in sci­ence, since Marx­ist spec­u­lat­ive philo­sophy tran­scends the em­pir­i­cism of all the in­di­vidu­al sci­ences. Help Nashville? Le­fe­b­vre knows that the life way philo­sophy and sci­ence merge in­to the spe­cific­ally Marx­ist concept of thesis nashville tennessee a cri­tique is dis­con­tinu­ous and, there­fore, it qual­it­at­ively changes them.

That this cri­tique claims to be a sci­ence not only does not stand in op­pos­i­tion to life essay on religion, philo­sophy, it rests pre­cisely on a philo­soph­ic­al dis­tinc­tion: that between im­me­di­acy and re­flec­tion, ap­pear­ance and es­sence. These are cat­egor­ies linked with the name of Hegel. Le­fe­b­vre ex­pli­citly re­joined Hegel’s dia­lectic when in the early thirties he turned to ques­tions of lo­gic and of (his­tor­ic­al) meth­od, to the prob­lem of thesis help nashville “real hu­man­ism” and to the the­ory of ideo­lo­gic­al il­lu­sion. At that point, just as Lukacs had done pre­vi­ously in His­tory and Class Con­scious­ness , he came up against the prob­lem of the ob­ject­ive mean­ing of the Hegel­i­an meth­od for the Marx­ist one. He re­cog­nizes that this prob­lem can be ap­proached ad­equately only when the diligence is the of good his­tor­ic­al char­ac­ter of the Marx­ist meth­od, en­er­get­ic­ally stressed by Lukacs, is ap­plied not only to its ob­jects, but also to it­self. In oth­er words: neither for Marx nor for us is this meth­od a ma­ter­i­al­ist cor­rect­ive of Hegel that is giv­en once and for all. Just as Marx (and this is not simply a philo­lo­gic­al ques­tion) eval­u­ated his re­la­tion to Hegel quite dif­fer­ently at dif­fer­ent stages of de­vel­op­ment, we must also re­in­ter­pret afresh the Hegel-Marx re­la­tion with re­spect to con­tinu­ity and dis­crete­ness, and ac­cord­ing to the state of his­tory and the nature of our the­or­et­ic­al in­terests that are de­term­ined by it. Thus something like a well-roun­ded “Marx­ist im­age of Hegel” is im­possible for help tennessee, Le­fe­b­vre. 28.

He con­siders Hegel’s Lo­gic and Phe­nomen­o­logy from the view­point of a ma­ter­i­al­ist philo­sophy of his­tory which, as a “sci­ence of hu­man real­ity,” 29 takes up in their trans­it­ory, his­tor­ic­ally con­crete de­term­in­a­tions those ques­tions that can be hy­po­stas­ized from philo­soph­ic­al an­thro­po­logy and the “ex­ist­en­tial” move­ment and ap­plied as such to a man in assassination of julius essay gen­er­al. Be­cause Le­fe­b­vre also terms, the Marx­ist sci­ence of hu­man real­ity a “gen­er­al an­thro­po­logy,” 30 it seems ne­ces­sary to re­turn to Fetscher’s state­ment con­cern­ing the thesis ba­sic­ally an­thro­po­lo­gic­al char­ac­ter of his un­der­stand­ing of Marx, es­pe­cially be­cause we have tried to dental hygienist cover, de­scribe the way the help nashville tennessee an­thro­po­lo­gic­al-on­to­lo­gic­al in­ter­pret­a­tion of Marx de­vi­ates from the po­s­i­tion of both Marx and of Le­fe­b­vre. As we have said, Le­fe­b­vre’s concept of an­thro­po­logy does not aim at a supra­tem­por­al sub­stance; for him man is con­tained in what Marx calls “the world of men, state, so­ci­ety,” 31 that is, in an his­tor­ic­al re­la­tion­ship that must, in turn, be ex­amined in it manager its present con­crete form. Thesis Help Nashville? The gen­er­al hu­man es­sence is whatever it is in its par­tic­u­lar mani­fest­a­tion; this es­sence, however, presents it­self at a par­tic­u­lar stage of the con­flict between man and nature. Per­haps one should say: at this stage, the stage of “pre­his­tory,” it is what it is not — an essay question, un­ful­filled prom­ise. In two re­spects, this rad­ic­al his­tor­ic­al and philo­soph­ic­al con­cep­tion of an­thro­po­logy serves a po­lem­ic­al func­tion for thesis help, Le­fe­b­vre. First, he needs it to render con­ceiv­able the work the of good luck essay concept has to do epi­stem­o­lo­gic­ally, in terms of the “ma­ter­i­al­ity” pre­sup­posed by dia­lect­ic­al ma­ter­i­al­ism.

In ad­di­tion, it is op­posed to help nashville tennessee, the gross re­duc­tion of the cri­tique of pediatric cover letter polit­ic­al eco­nomy in­to eco­nom­ism. Marx stands in op­pos­i­tion to thesis nashville, the meta­phys­ic­al theses of the later En­gels, can­on­ized by Stal­in and So­viet Marx­ism, that Nature as it ex­is­ted be­fore any hu­man or so­cial in­ter­ven­tion, con­tains a dia­lect­ic­al move­ment; in op­pos­i­tion also to essay contest, Len­in’s at­tempt to “define” mat­ter as a real­ity in­de­pend­ent of con­scious­ness and to view cog­ni­tion as a copy of real­ity. For Marx the ma­ter­i­al­ist, dia­lect­ic­al cat­egor­ies ex­ist only help tennessee, as nod­al points in diligence of good essay his­tor­ic­al prax­is , that is, in help nashville a ma­ter­i­al real­ity that is con­tinu­ally be­ing me­di­ated through hu­man ac­tions that also be­long to the ma­ter­i­al and ob­ject­ive world. Only this is “neg­at­iv­ity” — “a mov­ing and pro­du­cing prin­ciple.” 32 It was not Marx’s job to pediatric dental letter, “fix” gnos­eo­lo­gic­ally the tennessee ma­ter­i­als worked by labor, and in which labor is in­cor­por­ated: the is the mother luck essay spe­cif­ic de­term­in­a­tion of ma­ter­i­als is just as much a passing mo­ment of the thesis nashville tennessee pro­duc­tion pro­cess as is their very dis­ap­pear­ance. Every me­di­at­ing act re­con­sti­t­utes in a high­er form the life of pi im­me­di­acy that it des­troyed. The ne­ces­sity, ex­pressed for the first time by the early Lukacs, of lim­it­ing the valid­ity of the tennessee dia­lectic to the his­tor­ic­al and ayn rand, so­cial world 33 has since then be­come the un­spoken pre­sup­pos­i­tion of every ser­i­ous in­ter­pret­a­tion of Marx. 34 Le­fe­b­vre could nev­er be on good terms with a “ma­ter­i­al­ism of the nashville isol­ated ob­ject.” He al­ways con­sidered any concept of the ma­ter­i­al world that did not in­clude f its prac­tic­al (or at cover, least po­ten­tially prac­tic­al) ap­pro­pri­ations as a pure ab­strac­tion.

Since Marx­ism was taught in its Sta­lin­ized co­di­fic­a­tion for dec­ades, thinkers such as Sartre, 35 for whom the sac­ri­fi­ci­um in­tel­lect­us was too great, hes­it­ated to ad­opt it for an un­ne­ces­sar­ily long time. The as­pect of help what Le­fe­b­vre calls an­thro­po­logy, which is columbia university essay question dir­ec­ted against eco­nom­ism, is also a cri­tique of naive-real­ist­ic con­scious­ness. Even Marx him­self, and not just his vul­gar­izers, oc­ca­sion­ally falls in­to the thesis tennessee er­ror of rais­ing what he op­poses to a meth­od­o­lo­gic­al norm — the re­ific­a­tion of hu­man re­la­tion­ships. His present­ing the primacy of hygienist letter a neg­at­ive to­tal­ity over help nashville in­di­vidu­als sud­denly turns in­to a kind of tak­ing sides in fa­vor of that to­tal­ity. University Essay Question? The re­ified power of his­tor­ic­al-eco­nom­ic pro­cesses, their ob­ject­ively ali­en­ated as­pect, swal­lows up the sub­ject­ive hu­man side, which is then taken in­to con­sid­er­a­tion only un­der the head­ing of “ideo­lo­gic­al re­flexes and echoes.” 36 The spe­cific­ally so­cial mani­fest­a­tions dis­ap­pear in­to their eco­nom­ic es­sence. Le­fe­b­vre, not in­cor­rectly, be­lieves that he re­mains true to the idea of a cri­tique of polit­ic­al eco­nomy when he un­der­lines the ir­re­du­cib­il­ity of hu­man and so­cial spheres to the eco­nom­ic one. 37 That idea con­sists of not ca­pit­u­lat­ing to the “nat­ur­al” ob­jectiv­ity of the his­tor­ic­al pro­cess as a whole. Marxi­an dia­lectic de­rives its claim to a great­er ob­jectiv­ity in com­par­is­on with clas­sic­al eco­nom­ists pre­cisely from the fact that it de­fet­ish­izes the world of com­mod­it­ies; that is, it re­veals the sub­ject­ive me­di­ations of help nashville that world. Where­as by essay, “ideo­logy” Marx meant primar­ily the realm of thesis phe­nom­ena of con­scious­ness as split off from prax­is , in today’s so­ci­ety the ri­gid dif­fer­en­ti­ation between eco­nom­ic and noneco­nom­ic factors has be­come ques­tion­able. Pediatric Dental Hygienist Letter? Today the ap­par­at­us, which, des­pite its cent­ri­fu­gal tend­en­cies, func­tions more and more smoothly, is already ideo­lo­gic­al. It is this ap­par­at­us that has not only shrunken hu­man con­scious­ness, even the un­con­scious, down to its mere mir­ror im­age, but also has at­rophied its gen­er­al modes of be­ha­vi­or, primar­ily in the area of the con­sumer.

The ana­lys­is of that area 38 should not be left to op­er­a­tion­al so­cial be­ha­vi­or­ism. Henri Le­fe­b­vre and Con­tem­por­ary In­ter­pret­a­tions of Marx For Le­fe­b­vre it is thesis tennessee a sec­tion of a com­pre­hens­ive “the­ory of every­day life” 39 that at­tempts to en­rich Marx­ism (fre­quently sub­jec­ted to eco­nom­ist­ic sim­pli­fic­a­tions) with a pre­vi­ously neg­lected so­ci­olo­gic­al di­men­sion. We now turn to Le­fe­b­vre’s ex­tens­ive study of the concept of ali­en­a­tion, which made him fam­ous to a de­gree matched by scarcely an­oth­er philo­soph­er. From what has been said of his use of the term “an­thro­po­logy,” it should be clear that for him (as little as for pediatric dental hygienist cover letter, Marx), there is no ques­tion of ri­gidly fix­ing in help nashville tennessee a few for­mu­lae the re­la­tion­ship between so­ci­ety, the in­di­vidu­al and nature. Thus, ali­en­a­tion must be re­defined ac­cord­ing to the his­tor­ic­al con­stel­la­tion in which those ele­ments in­ter­act; namely from the essay point of view of its “ Auf­he­bung .” Le­fe­b­vre’s trans­ition to so­cial­ism re­capit­u­lated the stages of help nashville tennessee Marx’s ‘‘self-un­der­stand­ing” to the ex­tent that his cat­egor­ies, like those of Marx, be­come pro­gress­ively more con­crete. Of Pi Essay On Religion? Le­fe­b­vre’s in­de­pend­ent de­vel­op­ment in­to a Marx­ist the­or­eti­cian began with his study of the 1844 Eco­nom­ic and Philo­soph­ic­al Manuscripts , dis­covered in help tennessee 1931, which in it manager spite of their ab­stract­ness already had sub­stan­tially more con­tent than the then “of­fi­cial” ma­ter­i­al­ist on­to­logy.

His study of the Marx of the thesis help nashville tennessee Par­is peri­od found ex­pres­sion in what is essay contest results cer­tainly Le­fe­b­vre’s most im­port­ant book from the thirties: Dia­lect­ic­al Ma­ter­i­al­ism , writ­ten in 1934-1935, pub­lished in 1938. The book had to have been re­jec­ted with­in the help nashville tennessee Party, if only be­cause it ap­peared at the same time as the His­tory of the Com­mun­ist Party in question the So­viet Uni­on , which con­tained the thesis help chapter writ­ten by Stal­in, “On Dia­lect­ic­al and His­tor­ic­al Ma­ter­i­al­ism.” Dur­ing the peri­od of Stal­in’s rule, this was clearly an oblig­a­tory text and, cor­res­pond­ingly, was quoted of­ten. Where­as for Marx, his­tor­ic­al and dia­lect­ic­al ma­ter­i­al­ism (though he nev­er used the ex­pres­sions) had an identic­al con­tent, and dental, where­as he al­ways ob­jec­ted to the “ab­stract ma­ter­i­al­ism of the thesis nashville tennessee nat­ur­al sci­ences… which ex­cludes the his­tor­ic­al pro­cess,” 41 with Stal­in the the­ory (de­graded to a “world­view”) was dog­mat­ic­ally di­vided in­to dia­lect­ic­al and his­tor­ic­al ma­ter­i­al­ism, the lat­ter be­ing simply a spe­cial case of the former, which had to do with the most gen­er­al laws gov­ern­ing the de­vel­op­ment of mat­ter. Nature and of pi on religion, his­tory are both frozen in­to things in them­selves: the con­stitutive role of hu­man prax­is for thesis help nashville, the chan­ging “ob­jectiv­ity” (and, thus, the corner­stone of Marxi­an dia­lectic) re­mained un­com­pre­hen­ded. It is un­der­stand­able that Le­fe­b­vre’s book, which ex­pli­citly spelled out this last point and only gran­ted valid­ity to that ob­jectiv­ity whose char­ac­ter as product is ayn rand contest results per­ceived clearly, had come in­to con­flict with a doc­trine that in­vokes an thesis help tennessee, im­me­di­acy un­pen­et­rated with re­flec­tion, yet which, non­ethe­less, still boasts of it­self as be­ing sci­entif­ic. At a point when the Party glor­i­fied the columbia question sev­en miser­able “ba­sic char­ac­ter­ist­ics” of the dia­lectic and of ma­ter­i­al­ism, which Stal­in enu­mer­ated like a cata­logue, as the high point of Marx­ist thought, such a view had to sow con­fu­sion since it des­troyed the “clar­ity” that had been at­tained by the cata­logers. In Dia­lect­ic­al Ma­ter­i­al­ism , Le­fe­b­vre fol­lows an em­in­ently philo­soph­ic­al in­ten­tion. 42 In the face of the in­sti­tu­tion­al­ized sim­pli­fic­a­tions of the thesis help tennessee the­ory in­tro­duced by Sta­lin­ism and of its ant­ag­on­ism to results, hu­man­ity, he stresses the crit­ic­al, hu­man­ist­ic im­pulse of the thesis tennessee the­ory. The fact that his start­ing point is the essay question 1844 Manuscripts does not at all im­ply a de­valu­ation of the eco­nom­ic prob­lem­at­ic, as it does in the case of those in­ter­pret­ers for whom Marx’s work falls in­to “two parts which can­not be linked in any mean­ing­ful prin­cipled way.” 43 On the help tennessee con­trary, Le­fe­b­vre views Marx’s de­vel­op­ment as a uni­fied pro­cess in ayn rand essay results which the nashville tennessee theme of “ali­en­ated labor” as well as its ideo­lo­gic­al de­riv­at­ives, are handled more and more con­cretely from stage to stage; from Marx’s book against Proud­hon to the The­ory of essay Sur­plus Value , there are no (eco­nom­ic in the more strict sense) texts that he does not cite.

The fact that he holds firmly to this uni­fied point of view should be ap­praised all the more highly since he did not have avail­able the Out­line of the Cri­tique of Polit­ic­al Eco­nomy , the 1857-1858 “rough draft” [ Ro­hent­wurf ] for the Cri­tique of Polit­ic­al Eco­nomy , which was pub­lished for the first time in Mo­scow in 1939 and 1941. 44 He could not see a text nearly a thou­sand pages thick, which, in terms of the his­tory of Marx’s de­vel­op­ment, es­tab­lishes the link between the 1844 Manuscripts and the de­veloped ma­ter­i­al­ist eco­nom­ics of the middle and ma­ture Marx. The rough draft — still “philo­soph­ic­al” and already “eco­nom­ic” — is more ap­pro­pri­ate than any oth­er of thesis help Marx’s texts to place the assassination essay dis­cus­sion of the re­la­tion­ship of help Marx­ism to caesar essay, Hegel’s philo­sophy on a broad­er foot­ing, since Marx him­self, in thesis help tennessee his fore­words and post­faces, of­ten ex­presses him­self un­clearly and gives only is the mother essay, sparse res­ults on this score. It also speaks for Le­fe­b­vre that he saw that with the pre­par­at­ory work to tennessee, the 1859 Cri­tique of Polit­ic­al Eco­nomy , Marx began a second, far more pos­it­ive ap­proach to Hegel. The dia­lect­ic­al meth­od is ne­ces­sary to really grasp as a sys­tem the struc­tur­al re­la­tion­ships between the cat­egor­ies that bour­geois eco­nom­ists have presen­ted merely as em­pir­ic­al res­ults, to tran­scend them crit­ic­ally. 45 As Le­fe­b­vre shows, this meth­od has to de­rive the ali­en­a­tion that at assassination of julius essay, first ap­pears only ab­stractly in the products and the activ­ity of the thesis help nashville tennessee work­er from the spe­cific­ally so­cial char­ac­ter that products and ayn rand contest, activ­it­ies as­sume in cap­it­al­ism; that is, in thesis nashville tennessee a to­tal­ity that is just as much an ob­ject­ive struc­ture as it is a move­ment that would not ex­ist without the con­scious will and pur­pose of men. Nat­ur­ally the in­sight that through their activ­ity men con­tinu­ally bring forth just those con­di­tions to which they are sub­jec­ted at first ap­pears only to the the­or­et­ic­al con­scious­ness. In every­day prax­is , on the oth­er hand, “in­di­vidu­als are sub­sumed un­der so­cial pro­duc­tion, which ex­ists as if it were a des­tiny out­side them; but so­cial pro­duc­tion is diligence is the of good essay not sub­sumed un­der the help nashville in­di­vidu­als who man­age it as their com­mon prop­erty.” 46. All of letter for resume Le­fe­b­vre’s work, in­clud­ing Dia­lect­ic­al Ma­ter­i­al­ism , takes up the help nashville tennessee task of re­veal­ing the pediatric dental hygienist il­lus­ory char­ac­ter of help this so­cial ob­jectiv­ity. Evolved through prac­tice, it can only be dis­solved through prac­tice. But, Le­fe­b­vre might be asked, what about the pos­sib­il­ity of the dis­sol­u­tion [ Auf­he­bung ] of ali­en­a­tion, of a real­iz­a­tion of the total man, if ali­en­ated con­di­tions — which Marx still pre­sup­poses in The Ger­man Ideo­logy — cease to be an “in­tol­er­able power against columbia university essay question which men make a re­volu­tion”?

47 Even un­der the con­di­tions of ef­fect­ive com­pet­i­tion, private in­terests were so­cially de­term­ined from the start and could be pur­sued only in a giv­en frame­work. And yet the gap between the help in­teri­or and the ex­ter­i­or re­mained based on com­pet­i­tion, which pre­sup­posed a min­im­um of in­di­vidu­al con­sist­ency. Today, in life of pi essay the age of one-di­men­sion­al thought and re­la­tions (H. Mar­cuse), the re­l­at­ively spon­tan­eous pro­ced­ure of “in­tro­ject­ing” the ex­ter­i­or in­to the in­teri­or through a self that can also op­pose the ex­ter­i­or world is hardly pos­sible any longer. Men identi­fy them­selves im­me­di­ately with the so­cial whole, which tends to re­duce all op­pos­i­tion to si­lence with its op­press­ive abund­ance of goods.

48 What be­comes of the mul­tiple sub­ject­ive forms of thesis help nashville tennessee ali­en­a­tion (aes­thet­ic, psy­cho­lo­gic­al), which Le­fe­b­vre has ex­amined in all his books, and diligence mother luck, whose “pos­it­ive” — that is, crit­ic­al — side is only now com­ing to light, when so­ci­ety dir­ectly in­cor­por­ates whole sec­tors of the su­per­struc­ture in­to its polit­ic­al-eco­nom­ic pro­cess? Don’t they have to dis­ap­pear if the thesis help in­di­vidu­al’s iden­ti­fic­a­tion with the life­styles im­posed on him re­pro­duces it­self mech­an­ic­ally? What epi­stem­o­lo­gic­al value does the concept of essay ali­en­a­tion still pos­sess when ali­en­a­tion has ob­jec­ti­fied it­self as real­ity in such a way that it de­prives men of the pos­sib­il­ity of re­veal­ing it as, in help nashville tennessee Hegel’s term, a “dis­ap­pear­ing ap­pear­ance”? Marx’s crit­ic­al re­for­mu­la­tion of cover Feuerbach’s con­cep­tion of ali­en­a­tion refers to The Phe­nomen­o­logy of thesis help Spir­it , which im­plies, al­beit ideal­ist­ic­ally, that man, es­sen­tially “self-con­scious­ness,” has been cap­able of grasp­ing his own torn and shattered con­di­tion (and thus that of his world) and “with this know­ledge” has raised him­self above this frag­ment­a­tion. Life Of Pi Essay On Religion? 49 But already in Hegel, self-con­scious­ness can man­age to thesis help nashville, achieve this “only when re­volt­ing.” Though ma­ter­i­al­ist the­ory does not share the Hegel­i­an be­lief that a con­flict which has be­come con­scious is one which has been con­cretely mastered, it still pre­sup­poses that the trans­ition from the “class in it­self” to contest, the “class for it­self” first takes place in in­di­vidu­al thought, and only then do “know­ledge” and “ac­tion” be­come one in col­lect­ive prax­is . Marx’s pre-1848 re­volu­tion­ary hu­man­ism as­sumes a fairly high (and in­creas­ing!) de­gree of in­de­pend­ence of sub­ject­ive forms of help re­flec­tion from the caesar re­la­tion­ships sup­port­ing them: the real pos­sib­il­ity of be­com­ing en­raged. The pos­sib­il­ity of re­volt is min­im­ized by help nashville, the sub­sequent course of his­tory — not by university essay question, the de­veloped cri­tique of polit­ic­al eco­nomy. The lat­ter’s in­sist­ence on the strict ob­jectiv­ity of the pro­cess as a whole sig­ni­fies more a qual­it­at­ively new level of cap­it­al­ism than a “sci­entif­ic” de­tour away from the needs of the in­di­vidu­al. Ni­et­z­sche un­der­scores the find­ings of Marx’s ana­lys­is of help com­mod­it­ies when, in The Will to Power , he makes the pediatric cover letter sup­pos­i­tion that con­scious­ness may well be­come more and more dis­pens­able in the fu­ture and is “per­haps destined to dis­ap­pear and to make place for a full-fledged auto­mat­ism.” 50 As op­posed to that no­tion, Le­fe­b­vre’s con­cep­tion of ali­en­a­tion seems harm­less, be­cause it holds all too firmly to the con­tinu­ity of the pre­requis­ites of in­di­vidu­al­ist­ic so­ci­ety, which were already be­com­ing de­bat­able in the second half of the pre­vi­ous cen­tury. He over­looks the fact that the­ory must ab­stract from help, in­di­vidu­als to the ex­tent that they be­come mere “per­son­i­fic­a­tions of eco­nom­ic cat­egor­ies.” 51. Thus, Le­fe­b­vre is one of the few au­thors who do not erect a Chinese wall between Marx’s youth­ful and his ma­ture work, and who ex­am­ine both the “philo­soph­ic­al” motives of the eco­nom­ic writ­ings as well as the “eco­nom­ic” motives of the philo­soph­ic­al works. He rightly sees that the ap­pro­pri­ate path lead­ing to ques­tions con­cern­ing the dis­cip­line of columbia essay question his­tor­ic­al and help, dia­lect­ic­al ma­ter­i­al­ism is to be found in is the of good essay the present­a­tion of the his­tory of its ori­gins . 52 This in turn is not sep­ar­able from the his­tory of the tennessee sub­ject of its in­vest­ig­a­tion: bour­geois so­ci­ety, a con­cretum in which every his­tor­ic­al pro­cess is summed up.

Marx, who starts from the fact that “eco­nom­ics” must first be cre­ated “as a sci­ence in the Ger­man sense of the term,” 53 de­scribes his task in the fol­low­ing way: “The work in of julius caesar essay ques­tion…, is the cri­tique of eco­nom­ic cat­egor­ies, or… the crit­ic­al present­a­tion of the sys­tem of bour­geois eco­nom­ics. It is at thesis, the same time the present­a­tion of the sys­tem and letter, through the present­a­tion the cri­tique of the sys­tem.’’ 54 Le­fe­b­vre’s writ­ings do take the help nashville Marxi­an de­sid­er­at­um of the “present­a­tion” of the­ory ex­tremely ser­i­ously. There are sev­er­al reas­ons why he leaves open many prob­lems when ques­tions about de­vel­op­ing the flow of the total cap­it­al of columbia university essay question so­ci­ety ac­cord­ing to its ad­equate “concept” come up; why he hes­it­ates to ex­press the nashville sys­tem­ic char­ac­ter of the world without re­ser­va­tions. For one thing, he lets him­self be guided by the philo­soph­ic­al no­tion of the of pi essay in­dis­sol­ubil­ity of the uni­verse in­to con­cepts that grasp it, apart from the fact that every sys­tem tends to des­troy the spe­cif­ic con­tent of the in­di­vidu­al be­ing, which is nashville tennessee what ul­ti­mately mat­ters. For Marx, it is not primar­ily a ques­tion of the uni­verse in a meta­phys­ic­al sense, but of a uni­verse of facts that are me­di­ated through the neg­at­ive to­tal­ity of so­ci­ety. In­so­far as so­ci­ety is it manager letter for resume groun­ded in the ab­stract gen­er­al­ity of ex­change, and to that ex­tent re­sembles an ideal­ist­ic sys­tem, it re­mains linked to the nat­ur­al form of hu­man labor power and thesis nashville tennessee, its products, that is, to columbia university, qual­it­at­ively de­term­ined use value.

For an­oth­er thing, the sys­tem of eco­nom­ic cat­egor­ies Marx had in mind is by no means present in a single form in his writ­ings: if it were, a self-con­tained present­a­tion of the sys­tem would be pos­sible without dif­fi­culty. Thus, the ana­lys­is of forms of com­mod­it­ies as value, cap­it­al, and money, con­sists only in frag­ment­ary for­mu­la­tions. Third, and tennessee, lastly — and this is the letter most im­port­ant as­pect — un­der cur­rent his­tor­ic­al con­di­tions, which are much dif­fer­ent from those that Marx un­der­stood as cap­it­al­ism, every sys­tem­at­ic present­a­tion of the cri­tique of polit­ic­al eco­nomy must con­tain its own metac­ri­tique. However great the ob­ject­ive dif­fi­culties in bring­ing the eco­nom­ic cri­tique to thesis help, the point re­quired today, the ex­ist­ence of its ob­ject can­not be doubted. Assassination Of Julius? Now, as be­fore, pro­gress has the char­ac­ter of a “dens­ity” that “ex­ists” out­side man and that is as yet un­mastered.

Only in this way can we ex­plain why for Le­fe­b­vre (sim­il­arly to Bloch, we may add) the crit­ic­al med­it­a­tion on sci­ence, to which Marx­ism once ima­gined to have raised it­self, re­turns to uto­pia. It is as if real­ity re­fused it­self to crit­ic­al thought to such a de­gree that it can only stand in a neg­at­ive re­la­tion to it. Help Nashville? An his­tor­ic­ally un­am­bigu­ous me­di­ation between the bad that ex­ists and the bet­ter that is pos­sible is not present. It is not by ac­ci­dent that Le­fe­b­vre has re­course to the ro­mantic-sound­ing concept of “total man,” as it was used by the young Marx at a time when he had not yet the­or­et­ic­ally mastered the diligence is the of good con­tent of his­tory. Tennessee? Today, when it ap­pears that we are no longer mas­ters of this con­tent, that concept is again ne­ces­sary in or­der not to contest results, fall in­to sheer his­tor­icism, in or­der to hold firm to the te­los of a ra­tion­ally in­stalled hu­man­ity. Trans­lated by John Heck­man. 1 Henri Le­fe­b­vre, Prob­le­me des Marx­is­mus, heu­te (Frank­furt-am-Main: Suhr­kamp Ver­lag, 1965). 2 Dia­lect­ic­al Ma­ter­i­al­ism , ed­ited by Gross­man (Lon­don: Cape, 1968). [Schmidt’s es­say ori­gin­ally ap­peared as an “Af­ter­word” to the Ger­man edi­tion of this work.]

3 He de­scribes its stages ex­haust­ively in the second volume of his ex­traordin­ary, part es­say­ist­ic, part lyr­ic­al, part auto­bi­o­graph­ic­al work, La som­me et le res­te (Par­is: 1959), un­der the title “L’iti­ne­raire,” pp. 357-559 (Cf. also Le­fe­b­vre’s self-present­a­tion in thesis help tennessee the an­tho­logy Les phi­lo­so­phes francais d’au­jourd’hui [Par­is: 1963], pp. 282-300.) A pre­lim­in­ary sum­mary is offered in cover Ir­ing Fetscher’s es­say, al­though it is more than a dec­ade old, „Der Marx­is­mus im Spie­gel der fran­zo­si­schen Phi­lo­soph­ie“, in: Marx­is­mus­stud­i­en , Schrif­ten der Stud­i­en­ge­meinsch­aft der Evan­gel­is­chen Aka­de­mi­en, vol. 3 (Tubingen, 1954), cf. es­pe­cially pp. 175-182. On Le­fe­b­vre’s po­s­i­tion after his ex­clu­sion from the Party, cf. my post­script to Prob­leme des Marx­is­mus, heute, op. cit ., pp. 135-145. Also in­struct­ive is Gi­anni Bar­ba’s es­say, „Bib­li­o­graph­is­che Not­izen zum Werk von Henri Le­fe­b­vre“, in: Neue Kri­tik (Au­gust 1965), Heft 31: 24-28. 4 In­tro­duc­ti­on a la lec­ture de He­gel ed­ited by R. Queneau (Par­is: 1947). An abridged ver­sion ex­ists in Eng­lish: In­tro­duc­tion to the Read­ing of Hegel , ed­ited by Al­lan Bloom (N.Y.: Ba­sic Books, 1969). In ad­di­tion to Kojeve, Jean Hyp­polite is es­pe­cially re­spons­ible for the re­cep­tion — me­di­ated through ex­ist­en­tial­ism — of Hegel in­to French con­scious­ness.

Even Sartre’s Be­ing and Noth­ing­ness is un­think­able without Hegel’s Lo­gic . On French Hegel­ian­ism in gen­er­al, cf. Ir­ing Fetscher, „He­gel in Frank­reich“, in Ant­ares , vol. 1, no. 3 (1952). 5 Fetscher, Der Marx­is­mus im Spie­gel der fran­zo­si­schen Phi­lo­soph­ie , p. 183. 6 Kojeve, In­tro­duc­tion to the Read­ing of Hegel , p 219. 8 Kojeve, He­gel Ver­such ein­er Ver­ge­gen­war­ti­gung sei­nes Den­kens (Ger­man trans­la­tion of the above), Ed­it­or’s pre­face, p. 9. 10 In­tro­duc­tion to Hegel , p. 41. 13 This crit­ic­al char­ac­ter­iz­a­tion of Kojeve in no way de­tracts from his great ser­vices in the Marx­ist re­in­ter­pret­a­tion of Hegel (es­pe­cially the Phe­nomen­o­logy of Spirit ) in this cen­tury.

However — and it is this point that we are cri­ti­ciz­ing — Kojeve’s thought is pre­ju­diced by help, the fact that he un­der­stands Hegel and columbia essay question, Marx in terms of Heide­g­ger’s Be­ing and Time , which, among oth­er things, res­ults in his fall­ing back to the po­s­i­tion of an thesis help nashville tennessee, ahis­tor­ic­al Feuerba­chi­an­ism, which Marx left early in his ca­reer. In that he isol­ates and hy­po­stat­izes cat­egor­ies like “struggle,” “war,” and is the luck essay, “prestige,” he comes close to that which, un­der the thesis nashville tennessee rub­ric “polit­ic­al an­thro­po­logy,” be­longs in the European pre­his­tory of columbia university right-wing au­thor­it­ari­an thought. Hence, the ex­pres­sion “fas­cist­oid.” (Au­thor’s note for the Amer­ic­an edi­tion.) 14 Pas­cal’s re­la­tion to Jansen­ism is the sub­ject of his doc­tor­al thes­is. Later Le­fe­b­vre de­voted a two-volume study to Pas­cal which is of great meth­od­o­lo­gic­al in­terest: Pas­cal (Par­is: 1949 and 1954). 15 In 1925, dur­ing the hero­ic phase of sur­real­ism, when Bre­ton was at­tempt­ing a sort of “pop­u­lar front” between Left in­tel­lec­tu­als and or­gan­iz­a­tions friendly to the Com­mun­ists, Le­fe­b­vre — who then, along with Georges Politzer, Norbert Guter­man, Georges Fried­mann, and thesis, Pierre Morhange, be­longed to the group Philo­sophies (which was as yet by no means Marx­ist-ma­ter­i­al­ist ori­ented) — came in­to con­tact with the Cent­ra­le sur­rea­liste . A con­tact which without doubt furthered Le­fe­b­vre’s politi­ciz­a­tion and broke off only in 1929, when he fully ad­hered to Com­mun­ism with Morhange and Politzer (who in the mean­time had be­come ed­it­or of the journ­al L’Es­prit ). Cf. Maurice Nadeau, His­tory of Sur­real­ism (N.Y.: Mac­mil­lan, 1965), pp. 155, 161. 16 Der Marx­is­mus im Spie­gel der fran­zo­si­schen Phi­lo­soph­ie , cf. p. 176. 17 Max Schel­er, „Die Son­der­stel­lung des Men­schen“, in Mensch und Erde (Darm­stadt: 1927), p. 246. On the ma­ter­i­al­ist cri­tique of the mod­ern in­clin­a­tion to con­sti­tute something like a “uni­fied por­tray­al of man,” see Max Horkheimer’s sem­in­al es­say, „Be­mer­kun­gen zur phi­lo­soph­is­chen An­thro­po­lo­gie“, in: Zeits­chrift fur So­zi­al­for­schung , IV, Jg, Heft 1 (Par­is: 1935). p. 1-25.

18 Cri­tique of Polit­ic­al Eco­nomy (Ber­lin: 1951), p. 242. 19 Ger­man Ideo­logy (N.Y.: In­ter­na­tion­al Pub­lish­ers, 1947), p. Of Julius Caesar Essay? 15. 21 Quoted by Fetscher, Der Marx­is­mus im Spie­gel der fran­zo­si­schen Phi­lo­soph­ie , p. 189. 22 On Le­fe­b­vre’s cri­tique of Jaspers, see Ren­con­tres in­ter­na­tio­na­les de Ge­neve, 1948 (Par­is/Neuf­cha­tel: 1949). 23 In a book which is no longer com­pletely ac­know­ledged by its au­thor, be­cause of its all-to-self-con­sciously Marx­ist ten­or, but which is non­ethe­less im­port­ant: L’ex­ist­en­ti­al­is­me (Par­is: 1946). 24 „Dif­fer­enz des Ficht­es­chen und des Schel­ling­schen Sys­tems der Phi­lo­soph­ie“, in Samt­li­che Wer­ke , vol. 1, Glock­ner (Stut­tgart: 1958) p. 44. 27 See his stud­ies, Le na­ti­on­al­is­me cont­re les na­ti­ons (Par­is, 1937); Hit­ler au pou­voir.

Bil­an de cinq an­nees de fas­cis­me en Al­le­ma­gne (Par­is: 1938); Ni­et­z­sche (Par­is, 1939), a book with a dif­fer­en­ti­ated ar­gu­ment which de­nounces both the Na­tion­al So­cial­ist’s mis­use of Ni­et­z­sche’s philo­sophy and, equally, those motives in Ni­et­z­sche’s thought which tend to­ward such a mis­use. 28 Noth­ing is more rev­el­at­ory for the bound­less dog­mat­ism of the Sta­lin­ist era than Zh­dan­ov’s po­s­i­tion in the 1947 philo­soph­ic­al dis­cus­sion, in which he dis­missed the “de­bate on Hegel” as a “re­birth of schol­asti­cism” with the words: “The prob­lem of Hegel has long been re­solved. There is no oc­ca­sion to take it up again.” In Uber Kunst und Wis­sen­schaft (Ber­lin: 1951), p. 104. 29 La somme et le reste , vol. 1, p. 87. 31 „Kri­tik der He­geis­chen Recht­s­phi­lo­soph­ie“, in Marx/En­gels, Die hei­li­ge Fam­ilie (Ber­lin: 1955), p. 11. 32 Marx, „Kri­tik der He­geis­chen Dia­lek­tik und Phi­lo­soph­ie uber­haupt“, in Ibid ., p. 80.

33 Even here a dia­lectic struc­ture can­not be ascribed to it en bloc . See Al­fred Schmidt, „Zum Ver­halt­nis von Ge­schich­te und Na­tur im dia­lekt­ischen Ma­ter­i­al­is­mus“, in help tennessee Ex­ist­en­ti­al­is­mus und Marx­is­mus (Frank­furt-am-Main: Suhr­kamp Ver­lag, 1965), pp. 103-155. 34 Ernst Bloch may ap­plaud En­gels’ re­cog­ni­tion of the dia­lectic of nature, but the concept of nature and mat­ter de­veloped in Das Prin­zip Hoffnung is not so much a re­fine­ment of En­gels, but something much dif­fer­ent: a mys­tic­al-tele­olo­gic­al cos­mo­logy. 35 Sartre’s astound­ing turn­ing-point in columbia essay Cri­ti­que de la rais­on dia­lec­tique (Par­is: 1960), owes ex­traordin­ar­ily much to Le­fe­b­vre. When Sartre grasps the cat­egor­ies of his “phe­nomen­o­lo­gic­al on­to­logy” con­cretely and his­tor­ic­ally, he ex­plodes them He is help con­cerned with ground­ing “Marx­ist know­ledge,” in op­pos­i­tion to Hegel’s ab­so­lute know­ledge, in ayn rand essay contest results a “his­tor­ic­al and struc­tur­al an­thro­po­logy” (cf. p. 108), for which “hu­man ex­ist­ence” (now viewed through its strict eco­nom­ic de­term­in­a­tion) is in­sep­ar­ably linked with the “un­der­stand­ing of the hu­man.” 37 Here he refers to Len­in, who in his 1894 po­lem­ic against the “pop­u­lists” already stressed that his­tor­ic­al ma­ter­i­al­ism con­sti­tutes not only the pre­con­di­tions of a crit­ic­al eco­nom­ics, but also of so­ci­ology. Cf. Werke , vol. 1 (Ber­lin: 1963), pp. 129-131. 38 It is avail­able in a highly ad­vanced form in the stud­ies of Ad­orno, Horkheimer, and Mar­cuse, who have furthered crit­ic­al and also psy­cho­ana­lyt­ic­al in­sights.

They have at­temp­ted to sat­is­fy the thesis de­mands of diligence mother of good a “dia­lect­ic­al an­thro­po­logy” by mak­ing the so­ci­ety whole, in which everything in­di­vidu­al is im­prisoned, trans­par­ent even with­in the nashville most private ex­per­i­ence. 39 It is based on the concept of ali­en­a­tion de­veloped by Le­fe­b­vre in the thirties and it is presen­ted in the work Cri­ti­que de la vie quo­ti­di­en­ne (Par­is: 1947). The second edi­tion, of which two volumes have ap­peared so far (Par­is: 1958 and 1962), is more im­port­ant meth­od­o­lo­gic­ally. 40 This had been pre­ceded by a series of im­port­ant pub­lic­a­tions, writ­ten in col­lab­or­a­tion with N. Guter­man. Le­fe­b­vre pub­lished the first trans­la­tion of the 1844 Manuscripts in columbia essay the peri­od­ic­al Av­ant-Poste in 1933. In 1934, the in­tro­duc­tion to the Mor­ceaux chois­is de Karl Marx con­tained the ele­ments of a the­ory of con­scious­ness that tried to go bey­ond the sum­mary thes­is that con­scious­ness is a “re­flex” of be­ing. This the­ory was more closely ar­gued, es­pe­cially with ref­er­ence to the situ­ation of the Pop­u­lar Front at help tennessee, that time, in the 1936 book, La con­sci­ence mys­ti­fiee . In the same year as Dia­lect­ic­al Ma­ter­i­al­ism , there ap­peared the Mor­ceaux chois­is de Hegel and a text which had been com­pletely un­known in France un­til then, Ca­hiers de Le­nine sur la dia­lec­tique de He­gel . Diligence Is The Of Good Luck Essay? This last text had a long in­tro­duc­tion in which Le­fe­b­vre — in op­pos­i­tion to or­tho­doxy — called at­ten­tion to the ob­ject­ive mean­ing of Hegel­i­an philo­sophy for Marx­ism and, in thesis help nashville tennessee par­tic­u­lar, at­temp­ted to show that a con­cep­tion of cover letter for resume Len­in cen­ter­ing on Ma­ter­i­al­ism and help tennessee, Em­pirio-Cri­ti­cism , of 1908, is un­re­li­able.

Both pub­lic­a­tions found al­most no echo in the Party. It Manager Cover For Resume? In 1940, the Ca­hiers as well as Dia­lect­ic­al Ma­ter­i­al­ism were placed on the Otto list of books for­bid­den and to be des­troyed by thesis, the Ger­man oc­cu­pa­tion au­thor­ity. 41 Das Ka­pit­al , vol. 1 (Ber­lin: 1955), p. 389. 42 In many re­spects he sees the ayn rand results prob­lem “Marx­ism and philo­sophy” dif­fer­ently today. Al­though in the thirties he had already dis­puted the view that dia­lect­ic­al ma­ter­i­al­ism was a philo­sophy in the tra­di­tion­al sense, that is, a meta­phys­ic­al sys­tem, he still held firm to thesis tennessee, the view that it is still a philo­sophy : one which is free from the letter lim­its of pre­vi­ous philo­sophies. Help Nashville? The Marx­ist idea of the “ Auf­he­bung ” of philo­sophy did not seem to of­fer any spe­cial prob­lem. In view of the fact that the “re­vo­lu­tion­iz­ing prax­is’ ’ in­to which philo­sophy was sup­posed to be dis­solved, nev­er oc­curred, Le­fe­b­vre today sees him­self forced to pose anew the ques­tion of the mean­ing of philo­sophy. In the ap­par­ent fail­ure of Sta­lin­ized Marx­ism, he thus no longer sees merely a de­vi­ation from au­then­t­ic “Marx­ist philo­sophy.” That concept it­self has in the mean­time be­come sus­pect to him. The crisis of Marx­ism is assassination of julius essay symp­to­mat­ic of a crisis of philo­sophy in gen­er­al. It should be re­flec­ted on help tennessee by means of life on religion a “meta­ph­ilo­sophy.”

43 Be­gin­nings of thesis help nashville tennessee it are found in La som­me et le res­te , vol. I, pp. 48 and 68; es­pe­cially in parts VI and columbia university essay question, VII of the second volume, “What Is the philo­soph­er?” and “Is There a Philo­sophy?” cf. pp. 659-761. Cf. also the tennessee lar­ger book which has ap­peared in the mean­time, Me­ta­ph­ilo­soph­ie (Par­is: 1965). 44 Ralf Dahren­dorf, Marx in Per­spekt­iv (Han­nov­er: 1952), p. Ayn Rand Essay Contest? 165. 44. Since pub­lished in a single volume by Di­etz, Ber­lin, 1953. [Known bet­ter in Eng­lish as the Grund­ris­se — Ed.].

45 Caught as he was in the then oblig­a­tory, yet ob­ject­ively sense­less, di­vi­sion of Marx­ism in­to his­tor­ic­al and dia­lect­ic­al ma­ter­i­al­ism, Le­fe­b­vre sees the ori­gins of the lat­ter only at thesis help nashville, this point. Ayn Rand Contest Results? The gen­er­al de­vel­op­ment of Marx and En­gels up to Poverty of Philo­sophy (1847) is sup­posed to nashville tennessee, be one to­ward “his­tor­ic­al ma­ter­i­al­ism” and to con­sist in pediatric hygienist letter a prin­cipled re­jec­tion of the Hegel­i­an dia­lectic. Help Tennessee? A thes­is which Le­fe­b­vre’s book, however much its struc­ture was de­term­ined by it, re­futes. 46 Marx, Grund­ris­se der Kri­tik der po­lit­ischen Oko­no­mie , p. 76. 48 Cf. Her­bert Mar­cuse, One-Di­men­sion­al Man (Bo­ston: Beacon Press, 1964), p. 9ff. 49 Phe­nomen­o­logy of Spir­it , p. 548. 50 WW , vol. Essay On Religion? 16 (Leipzig: 1922), Aph. Thesis Help Tennessee? 523.

52 A pro­ced­ure he uses not only in Dia­lect­ic­al Ma­ter­i­al­ism , but also in life on religion the two im­port­ant books Pour connaitre la pensee de Karl Marx (Par­is: 1948), and Pour connaitre la pensee de Lenine (Par­is: 1957). 53 Marx to Las­salle, Let­ter of Novem­ber 12, 1858, in Marx/En­gels, Werke , Vol. 29 (Ber­lin: 1963), p. 567. 54 Marx to Las­salle, Let­ter of Feb­ru­ary 22, 1858, in ibid ., p. 550. 3 thoughts on “ Henri Lefebvre and Marxism: A view from the Frankfurt School ” Ross, I am a little surprised you think this philosophical and logical bumbler, Lefebvre, is worth bothering with — but, then again, given your penchant for promoting this stuff, maybe not. Like so many other fans of this Hermetic theory (i.e., Dialectical Materialism [DM]), Lefebvre had a tenuous grasp of Formal Logic:

“Formal Logic asserts: ‘A is thesis nashville A’. Dialectical Logic is not saying ‘A is not-A’…. It says: A is indeed A, but A is also not-A precisely so far as the proposition ‘A is A’ is not a tautology but has real content. A tree is a tree only by being such and letter for resume, such a tree, by bearing leaves. Thesis Help? blossom and fruit, by passing through and preserving within itself those moments of caesar essay its becoming….” [Lefebvre (1968), ‘Dialectical Materialism’, p.41.] Lefebvre, again, just like other DM-fans, offers evidence from not one single logic text (other than perhaps that misnamed book inflicted on thesis nashville humanity by Hegel) in of pi essay on religion support of these odd ideas. However, I have shown how syntactically and semantically inept claims like these are over at Wikipedia: But in much more detail here: “Our world, like a charnel-house, lies strewn with the detritus of dead epochs.” ? Le Corbusier, Urbanisme (1925)

event (22) panel (22) guest post (246) images (55) interviews (26) media (379) images (298) PDFs (45) videos (13) modernity (198) news (61) PDFs (7) translations (161) writings (571) articles (267) essays (69) fragments (60) poetry (3) reviews (59) book reviews (38) event reviews (12) movie reviews (5) music reviews (2) short stories (3) write-ups (139) sartesian on Georg Lukacs, philosopher of Bolshevism Communist Reading List (Ultra-Left) – Eden Sauvage on thesis help Marx and Wertkritik Tyler on “Decolonial” dead-end: Houria Bouteldja and the new indigenism beyond Left and of pi essay, Right norberto larios on , « : 101 » (1925-33) — Along with fully searchable, downloadable PDFs of the original Russian texts smolny57 on Georg Lukacs, philosopher of thesis Bolshevism tabneto on Georg Lukacs, philosopher of cover for resume Bolshevism daFunkDealer on Open-source Marxism 2016: Fresh batch of “pirate scab” PDFs Georg Lukacs, philosopher of thesis tennessee Bolshevism | The Charnel-House on Young Lukacs Carolyn Sortor on Fredric Jameson after the postmodern International Psychoanalysis Blog Archive The Trotskyists on New York Trotskyism in the 1930s Tribute to Graham Greene | shadowplay on Graham Greene’s infamous review of Wee Willie Winkie (1937), starring Shirley Temple Gelena Tompson on Ivan Kudriashev’s interplanetary-dynamic abstractions (1917-1928) Science fiction and the slaughterbench of history. This blog is intended to serve as a place where I can share my work and thoughts online. On the of julius one hand, it will provide a convenient place for me to store an online portfolio for future reference. At the same time, I am interested in help connecting and engaging with others who are interested in the subjects it covers. Disclaimer: Needless to say, all of the opinions expressed on my blog are mine alone, unless otherwise indicated. They do not necessarily reflect the views of caesar any other group or organization. No one else is responsible for them.

That being said, any comments, questions, and criticisms are welcome. The twin fires of war and revolution have devastated both our souls and our cities. Help Tennessee? The palaces of yesterday’s grandeur stand as burnt-out skeletons. Ayn Rand Contest? The ruined cities await new builders[…] To you who accept the thesis help tennessee legacy of Russia, to you who will (I believe!) tomorrow become masters of the diligence mother of good essay whole world, I address the question: with what fantastic structures will you cover the help nashville tennessee fires of yesterday?” ? Vladimir Maiakovskii, “An Open Letter to the Workers” (1918) “Utopia transforms itself into actuality. Assassination? The fairy tale becomes a reality. The contours of socialism will become overgrown with iron flesh, filled with electric blood, and begin to dwell full of life. The speed of socialist building outstrips the most audacious daring.

In this lies the distinctive character and essence of the epoch.” ? I. Chernia,“The Cities of Socialism” (1929) “The idea of the conquest of the thesis tennessee substructure, the earthbound, can be extended even further and calls for the conquest of gravity as such . Columbia University? It demands floating structures, a physical-dynamic architecture.” ? El Lissitzky, The Reconstruction of nashville tennessee Architecture in the Soviet Union (1929)

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12 sentence essay Have you ever heard that different people learn in nashville different ways? Well, it’s true. And while some people may be able to learn just by reading the theories on how to caesar essay do something, you learn differently–you need actual examples. Just like protestors or politicians, I’m here to thesis help nashville tennessee lead by example. Ayn Rand. I’ve put together a list of essay conclusions that cover a range of topics and thesis help, essay formats to serve as a stepping stone for your own writing. Why Do You Need a Strong Conclusion? Before I get into the examples, you should know why writing a strong essay conclusion is so important. Your conclusion is not just a summary of what you’ve already written. True, it’s a little bit about summary, but it should take your essay one step further. It needs to answer any unresolved questions the reader might have and end your essay with a bang!

In short, an awesome essay conclusion is super important because it rounds out your essay, making it feel complete. Now on to the good stuff… Analytical Essay Conclusion Examples. Diligence Mother Essay. Topic #1: Analyze the thesis nashville, theme of compassion for one character in the Hunger Games series. The obvious choices for university essay, compassion in the Hunger Games may have been Katniss or Peeta, but the character who personified compassion best was Prim. Help. Throughout the for resume, series, her compassion can be seen when she keeps secrets from her mother for Katniss, when she heals Gale after he gets whipped, and as the tennessee, last act of mother essay, her life as she rushes to save children in thesis help the Capitol. It Manager. She truly lived Albert Schweitzer’s words, “The purpose of human life is to serve, and to show compassion and the will to help others.” The importance of each cause of the American Civil War can be debated, but what is help nashville tennessee, fact is that there were several factors that led the assassination essay, South to secede. Thesis Help Nashville Tennessee. Slavery, states’ rights, and the election of Abraham Lincoln to ayn rand essay contest results the presidency–even though no state in the South voted for him–all contributed to the war. Even though it has been nearly 150 years since the Civil War ended, some of the leftover divide between North and South can still be seen. Though social media allows young users to connect with people across the world and get instantaneous news about the world around them, it also has come with many complications. From access to inaccurate information to the rise of cyberbullying, the bad can sometimes outweigh the good among younger users. With 73% of young Americans ages 12-17 years old using Facebook, it may be time to come up with better rules for promoting responsible use.

Expository Essay Conclusion Examples. Essay conclusions are pretty simple once you know the framework. It all boils down to three main parts: a transition from the last body paragraph, a summary of the thesis statement and main points of the thesis nashville tennessee, essay, and pediatric dental hygienist letter, a closing statement that wraps everything up. If all students knew this simple formula, maybe essay writing would be easier for everyone. The scientific method is common sense. First, a person has to have a research question they want answered and a little background knowledge on the subject. Thesis Help. Then the person forms a hypothesis, or what he or she thinks the answer to of pi the research question is, which he or she tests with an experiment. Thesis Help Nashville Tennessee. Finally, the person should analyze the life of pi, data and help nashville tennessee, draw a conclusion. Diligence Luck. This method can be used both in and out of the scientific realm, testing everything from history to social issues. Passing by a homeless person is not uncommon especially in urban settings.

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As Edgar and I were discussing the thesis nashville tennessee, common themes and dark imagery of his works, the pediatric dental cover letter, waiter interrupted us, I reached for the wine decanter, poured myself a glass, and asked if he would like some. “No, thanks.” he said, laughing grimly. “After all, it might be poisoned.” Topic #9: Tell about your proudest moment. Standing up for nashville, my little brother made me feel like the character that everyone likes in those after-school sitcoms. I was able to confront the kid that was bullying him without using threats or physical force. In the diligence is the luck essay, end, encouraging the two to thesis help nashville have an open dialogue brought them closer, and ayn rand contest results, while they may never be best friends, at least they can respect each other. Persuasive Essay Conclusion Examples. Topic #10: Should Hermione have ended up with Harry instead of Ron in the Harry Potter series? Harry may be the main character of the Harry Potter series, and J.K. Rowling may have stated recently that even she thinks Hermione and Harry should have ended up together, but the characters are much too similar.

They are both natural leaders, which would create a lot of relationship tension. Ron, on the other hand, is the Type B to thesis balance Hermione’s Type A personality.Since Harry ended up with Ron’s sister, Ginny, all three main characters are married into the same family. That certainly would make holiday get-togethers much more entertaining. The amount of student loan debt is an indication that something is definitely wrong with the system. Although universities need an income to survive, getting a college education should still come at is the of good luck, no direct cost to the student. Free education would allow for thesis nashville, a more educated nation as a whole, it would leave some students with more time to work more on their studies than their jobs, and dental hygienist letter, it could encourage universities to get more creative.

If more universities embraced the Pay It Forward model, the US might become one of the most educated countries in the world. Topic #12: What is the most important thing high school students should be learning but aren’t? There are many areas where public high school education could improve, but the most important is financial planning. While some may argue for thesis help, better nutrition or fitness programs, that information is easily available online and columbia university, even in commercials–and should actually be taught starting in thesis nashville elementary school. Stronger financial planning curricula would teach high schoolers how to establish credit, save for pediatric hygienist cover letter, retirement, and how to thesis tennessee budget.

All of these are important for is the luck essay, life in the real world but can be filled with confusing jargon and advertising schemes. With Americans having more than $11 trillion in tennessee debt, it’s time the younger generation be taught how not to be another statistic. As you probably noticed, there are a lot of ways to end an essay. Generally, there will be a summary, but narrative essays might carry an exception. These types of essays allow you to be more creative with your conclusion. You should still try to end the essay with a sense of cover, closure even if, as in the case of Topic #8, this means ending on a somewhat ominous note. No matter how you learn, it’s pretty helpful to help have practical examples. And now that you do, you can get to finishing your own essay. Once you have your essay drafted, have one of Kibin’s talented editors take a look at it for you. *Cover image Photo by Derek Harper via Wikimedia Commons.

Psst. Essay Contest Results. 98% of thesis nashville, Kibin users report better grades! Get inspiration from over 500,000 example essays. About the Author. Eden Meirow is a self-employed freelance writer with a passion for English, history and education. Pediatric Hygienist. You can find her on Google+. Nashville Tennessee. Thanks for posting this article.

I will use these tips in my essay. I have a question regarding proofreading. Do you think it is worth hiring a professional service for that? In my opinion, hiring a professional proofreading service is not a bad idea. Many students do it. There are many companies, that may help you)) I know one, that my friend hired. It is called Pro-Papers. com. Visit their website) This example has helped me to understand essay writing better.

My English teach hardly comes to our class so I feel like I have to teach myself. Of Pi Essay On Religion. I love the use of practical examples because I learn faster when i get the theoretical and practical teaching. Thanks a lot! We#8217;re happy to hear that we could help you! Thanks for reading. #128578; Excellent piece , I was enlightened by the insight , Does anyone know where my company can grab a fillable ASQ-3 12 Month Questionnaire example to edit ? how about any examples for history?? Hey there, great idea for a blog post, but right now we don#8217;t have much history paper content (except this one: https://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/how-to-find-primary-sources-for-your-essay/). I think the thesis help, qualities of your conclusion will work the results, same for your history essay: so basically restate your thesis in new words, and leave the reader with something to think about. A good history related example from the nashville, above list is: Topic #2: What caused the columbia university question, Civil War?

The importance of each cause of the thesis tennessee, American Civil War can be debated, but what is fact is that there were several factors that led the South to secede. Slavery, states’ rights, and the election of Abraham Lincoln to the presidency–even though no state in the South voted for him–all contributed to the war. Even though it has been nearly 150 years since the Civil War ended, some of the leftover divide between North and South can still be seen. That#8217;s very creative, Jack and could definitely become the premise for closing the first book of a sci-fi trilogy as a teaser for the next installment. #128578; What about a conclusion for it manager letter for resume, an Analytical Essay? Hi there you might want to check out this other post on essay conclusions to help you formulate yours: https://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/essay-conclusion/ The three main things your conclusion should accomplish are to thesis help tie up lose ends, restate your thesis in a different way, and end on an interesting note. I would definitely recommend that you write your conclusion after you#8217;ve drafted the it manager, rest of your paper! It#8217;s much easier to tie up those loose ends after you#8217;ve made your main arguments.

So in your conclusion, you might highlight the thesis tennessee, reasons that sleep is beneficial but also point out some of the drawbacks of sleep (especially because most people would be surprised that there *are* drawbacks to sleep!). You could also answer any questions that are unresolved: how to maximize the benefits of sleep without suffering from the negative effects, for instance. What about a conclusion to an essay on mood disorders. No matter what your topic, your conclusion can follow the same principles. Columbia Essay. as the above examples. Tie up loose ends (answer any unanswered questions) Restate your thesis statement in different words.

Close with an insight or thought that expands upon the work you put into your essay and leaves your reader something to thesis think about. Hi i need help with a thesis could please help im trying to write a good thesis on why or why not parenting education should be mandatory. You need to take a stance and then find evidence to support your stance. Your framework might look like the following: Parenting education should be mandatory (Where? A specific town or in it manager cover for resume the U.S. or in certain circumstances?) because REASON 1, REASON 2, and REASON 3. an example reason is that it would make for thesis nashville, safer home environments.

Parenting education is letter, unnecessary and should not be mandatory (Where?) because REASON 1, REASON 2, and REASON 3. an example reason is it would be an infringement on freedom and tennessee, difficult to create a curriculum that would take into account different family values. Whichever side you choose and whichever reasons you choose, make sure that you have sufficient evidence to support it. This is what i wrote so far parenting education is the pediatric, most important job when raising children . Rasining children does not come with instructions. While critics might argue that parenting education should not be mandatory those in favor believe other wise. Thesis Help Nashville Tennessee. The general argument made by those in favor made of parenting education is better supported for several reasons including nutritions,health,safety and stages of child delevopment.. Ms naomi if there is is the mother luck essay, anything u disagree with please let me know.

I think you are off to help nashville tennessee a good start. I would just revise as follows: Raising children does not come with an instruction manual, and question, parents would be more successful with parenting education. While critics might argue that parenting education should not be mandatory because it is an infringement on the parents#8217; freedoms, those in thesis nashville tennessee favor believe otherwise. Assassination Caesar. Proponents argue that parenting education should be mandatory for several reasons including it will improve nutrition, health, and safety in the home, and it will teach parents about the stages of child development. Once again, great job! I think this is coming together very nicely. Thank you sooo much for ur support i really do apperciate it now i just have to find the right way to reword it on my own wish me luck ?? THANKYOU. Feel free to use what I sent you, the only idea of my own that I added was the nashville, part about #8220;infringement on parents#8217; freedoms#8221; #8212; you could replace this with a more relevant objection. The rest of it was your words just polished up and university essay, organized! Ok thanks again ?? Hi any good website that u would recommend to thesis nashville tennessee upgrade my vocabulary use.

Also, read! The best way to get a great vocab is to read a lot of for resume, books. I#8217;m writing a persuasive essay but i don#8217;t know a good way to close it. Any advice? The general practice for writing a good conclusion is to restate your thesis in help nashville tennessee a different way, tie up any loose ends, and leave your reader thinking. You could do this last part by bringing up a question about the future of essay contest results, your topic or challenge your audience to act (this is an especially good approach in a persuasive essay.) I think that you could focus on these crops#8217; role in the betterment of humanity and how they might contribute solutions to nashville tennessee problems that will arise/worsen in of julius caesar essay the future. Since genetic engineering has the potential to nashville tennessee impact the future, I would focus on one or two of the issues that genetic engineering has the best shot at helping #8212; perhaps ending on an optimistic note #128578; Thanks for reading! I disagree that your conclusion should say something new. If you are bringing in of julius caesar new information, you might as well write another essay. Conclusions are for reiteration and summarization ONLY.

You#8217;re right that you shouldn#8217;t necessarily introduce new information, but there#8217;s nothing wrong with leaving the reader with fresh insight on the topic or something that expands one#8217;s understanding of your subject. The idea is to give the reader something to chew on. I need help with writing why Quito, Ecuador would be the perfect city to host the Olympics. What should I look for to make the audience agree with what I#8217;m trying to nashville say. You just need to of pi essay on religion sit down and brainstorm some of the most compelling reasons to host the Olympics there (weather, surroundings, availability of space for an Olympic park, cost#8230;).

I#8217;d try to thesis help nashville tennessee come up with a list of 15 or so items and then from essay, there, choose three or four that are the most convincing reasons and that you can support with evidence to make your paper the most persuasive. Is there any way to cleverly loop your conclusion back to thesis nashville tennessee your introduction? Typically your conclusion doesn#8217;t have to essay contest results do a whole lot more than restate your thesis in thesis help nashville tennessee a new way, tie up loose ends, and maybe leave your reader with something to contest think about. Haven#8217;t read the tennessee, poem (so you don#8217;t want to use my idea verbatim because it probably doesn#8217;t make sense), but an example of diligence is the, restating and adding something to think about thesis help nashville would look something like : In the end, despite the speaker#8217;s anxieties, the devil does not have more power over the speaker than God does, but God doesn#8217;t have power either. In truth, he is the one in control of his own life. Pediatric Dental Hygienist Cover Letter. While it#8217;s tempting to ascribe one#8217;s fate to thesis help nashville tennessee external forces as a way to avoid responsibility for of julius caesar, one#8217;s actions and help nashville tennessee, decisions, at dental hygienist cover letter, the end of the help nashville tennessee, day, the power always comes from within. i need an of julius caesar, conclusion that is fun/funny for newtons 3 laws, please help and send a response ASAP! Without Newton#8217;s 3 laws and his discovery of gravity, science would be WEIGHTLESS in our lives. am writing an nashville, essay on obedience i need help on the ending of this essay..can i get help rn #128577; Your conclusion should include these elements: 1. Restate your thesis and main points in new words.

2. Tie up any loose ends. Columbia Question. 3. Leave your reader with something to think about. Congrats! You#8217;re at the finish line #128578; Hi i need help for my report today 9am in thesis the morning on #8220;Ways to end a composition#8221; could u help me please.. Hi I need help. I#8217;m writing a paragraphs for #8220;why should senior high school students enroll in our school#8221; And it#8217;s persuasive paragraph. I need an hygienist cover, conclusion please thanks!! In short, you conclusion should paint a clear and help tennessee, compelling picture for assassination, why your school is the thesis, right choice for seniors.

Use this chance to tie up loose ends and make the choice seem obvious. Generally, your conclusion will restate your thesis, tie up any loose ends, and give your reader something to think about. Cover Letter. You can learn more about each of thesis help nashville, these elements in this post: https://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/essay-conclusion/ I#8217;m comparing between single called organisms and cells from multicellular organisms. I would like to know how to conclude my concluding paragraph. I can think of a few possible ways that you could finish your essay. If the overall tone of your essay is question, sad, you could conclude on a hopeful note, where you look ahead to thesis help when the boy#8217;s father comes home: what will they do? How does the boy feel about of pi on religion it? How old will the boy be #8212; the father? Maybe something like: #8220;While [the boy] understood that his father would be gone for thesis help nashville, [some amount of time], he looked forward to the day his father walked through the doorway#8230;#8221; If you want to close on a more somber note, you could also close with a comment about mother of good luck war#8217;s effect on families if that fits with your overall thesis and help tennessee, main idea: #8220;The effects of war are not only fought by soldiers, but by the families they leave back home#8230;#8221; I hope this gives you some ideas #128578; Happy writing! am I the only one who get stuck in the conclusion? I#8217;m writing a 5 paragraph essay about bucket list and I#8217;ve finished 4 paragraphs but it#8217;s really hard to conclude it.. You#8217;re definitely not the is the of good luck, only one who gets stuck there; that#8217;s why we wrote this post #128578; I#8217;m not sure if you#8217;re writing about *your* bucket list or the movie The Bucket List.

If it#8217;s your own list, then the thesis help tennessee, examples under the #8220;narrative#8221; and #8220;expository#8221; sections will be the best ones to use for inspiration. If you#8217;re writing about the movie, you#8217;ll want a more analytical conclusion. You can summarize your topic briefly if that helps you start your conclusion, but just remember to broaden it and it manager letter for resume, make a larger final statement about help nashville your topic, too (why it#8217;s significant/important, for instance). I#8217;m writing an argumentative essay about drugs and alcohol. University Essay. I have no clue in how to end it. Help? I have the same advice for you as I#8217;ve given others.

Your conclusion should include these elements: 1. Restate your thesis and thesis help nashville, main points in new words. 2. Tie up any loose ends. 3. Leave your reader with something to think about. hi im doing a paper on mother luck essay the effects of ww2 can u please help #128578; Also, I#8217;d recommend starting with making a simple list of effects that you can find via your research. Then pick three that stand out and are somewhat related to each other (i.e., economic effects, socio-political effects, human rights effects#8230;). This is help tennessee, such a giant topic that you#8217;re really going to consciously narrow it down to something manageable. help me, my topic is about discrimination. Assassination Caesar Essay. I#8217;m writing an help nashville, essay on assassination of julius the dutch colony of new netherland and I don#8217;t know how to write the conclusion paragraph. Can you help??

It#8217;s hard to say how to approach your conclusion without knowing a little more about what exactly you said about chocolate in your essay (mmm, chocolate). Just remember to use a *little* bit of nashville, summary (restating your thesis statement is a great start!) and then end on a note that leaves your reader thinking. Here#8217;s some more great advice: https://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/essay-conclusion/ please pray for me. Essays are tough sometimes and diligence is the, I really need an tennessee, A or B in this essay due Wednesday. Hey, you#8217;ve got this.

Good luck!! this is really dope and university question, helpful. So glad you found it helpful, Bob. Thanks for reading! I AM WRITING A COURSE WORK ABOUT CONVERSION IN ENGLISH AND I NEED HELP ON INTRODUCTION AND CONCLUSION PLESSEEE((((( Hey everyone)I am writing about #8220;Which of the following Cold War president-Truman Eisenhower or Kennedy was able to contain the spread of Communism?#8221;#8230;Can someone help me with this please?i will be thankful)))) i need help with conclusion:( A conclusion for thesis nashville, that essay might talk about the spread of communism (or lack thereof) after the term of the president you chose to write about cover letter #8212; for instance, you might mention modern-day communist nations and thesis nashville, what a president today could learn from life essay, President Truman, Eisenhower or Kennedy. I#8217;m doing an help nashville tennessee, essay on the relationship between Lady Macbeth and Macbeth and how it develops I#8217;ve got the main paragraphs and introduction but I#8217;m not sure how to finish the it manager cover letter, conclusion by thesis help relating to the essay question. #8220;Choose a play which explores an important relationship, for letter for resume, example husband and help nashville tennessee, wife, leader and follower, parent and child, or any other relationship. Describe this relationship and essay contest, then, by referring to appropriate techniques, explain how the relationship develops.#8221; I think you could end the essay by discussing the larger significance of their relationship within the play and (if you want to go the hypothetical route) mention how the thesis help, play would be different had their relationship been different. You could also re-emphasize a turning point in the development of their relationship that was key to the outcome of the play. I#8217;m doing an essay about tuition-free college. And I chose to against it. I#8217;m stuck with the conclusion.

I don#8217;t know how to end this or recommend a better solution for this. Can someone help me? Thank you in advance! It sounds like you might be getting hung up on the #8220;recommend a better solution#8221; idea, which isn#8217;t a requirement #8212; it#8217;s just one way to end an essay. Instead, you might end by pediatric cover noting the sense of satisfaction one feels when knowing that they paid for their education (perhaps tying this to thesis nashville your own experience, if you are currently paying tuition) or another benefit of tuition #8212; this is a good opportunity to mention something beneficial that perhaps wasn#8217;t #8220;meaty#8221; enough to be one of the cover for resume, main points of your argument.

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Convert Grass Lawns to Gravel to Reduce Insect Suffering. by Brian Tomasik. First written: 16 May 2015; last update: 24 Dec. Help Nashville Tennessee? 2016. Most insects die soon after birth, and their lives probably contain more suffering than happiness. If you have a lawn that you actively maintain, you should consider converting your grass to it manager letter, hard landscape materials like gravel, or to artificial turf, to reduce plant biomass and therefore insect suffering. This could save you labor in the long run, reduces your probability of tick bites, and may be good for the environment. It may prevent at least hundreds of insects from suffering per dollar and might even save you money. However, if you don't actively manage your lawn, the calculation becomes less clear because eliminating a grass lawn might slightly contribute to climate change.

Note: I assume that in help tennessee, many places, neighborhood rules or building codes might prevent you from replacing a lawn with gravel. Would artificial turf be acceptable? Also, maybe it would be allowed to at least put a strip of rocks around the perimeter of your home, or something like that? Doing so might also slightly reduce the number of insects that come indoors. Finally, when picking out a house, you can consider gravel-friendliness as one factor. Other things being equal, it seems better to choose a house in a more rural area where you can buy a larger amount of more secluded land. If you can't use gravel, you could consider adding a porch or other structure that would cover some grass, although the essay amount of land covered per unit cost might be small. It's often claimed that there's nothing humans can do to reduce the suffering of insects in the wild. This claim is wrong. One important way to help wild insects is to study the effects of human environmental policies on insect populations and favor those policies that cause fewer insects to thesis help, come into a nasty, brutish, and short existence.

This work is columbia essay question, important but involves a high degree of thesis help uncertainty in the analysis. If you actively manage your lawn, then a relatively clear-cut way to reduce insect suffering is to it manager for resume, replace your lawn with non-biological materials in order to prevent plants from growing. Thesis Help Tennessee? The reason to mother essay, focus on eliminating plants is because plants are the roots of the thesis help nashville food chain. Dental Hygienist Letter? As long as plant energy is created, someone is eventually going to eat it (whether insects, bacteria, or other critters). Help Tennessee? So just shuffling around population dynamics for heterotrophs isn't solving the fundamental problem that more plant energy means more life. It Manager Cover For Resume? Preventing photosynthesis stops the problem before it gets started. Converting grass lawns to gravel, glass, artificial grass, or other materials is a common landscaping practice -- one that many people do without giving a thought to insect suffering.

You can find tons of articles by searching and similar queries. This page has a slideshow of help tennessee options. Another page gives prices for columbia university different materials: The cost to install a square foot of pea gravel is $1.1 to $1.8. Another source reports $1-$3 per thesis help nashville tennessee square foot. Artificial grass costs $5 to $20 per square foot. The average lawn in the US is about 0.2 acres, or.

8700 square feet. Assuming $1-$3 per diligence is the square foot, the cost of converting your lawn to help nashville tennessee, gravel would be. Once converted, you can avoid the costs of mowing, watering, etc. This page estimates $800-$1000 to pay for lawn-mowing services per year. If you do the assassination of julius mowing yourself, say it takes 10 hours per year at a cost of thesis $50/hour, or $500. Assume a discount rate of 5% and that the gravel lawn lasts 20 years. Saving $500/year for 20 years has a present value of $500 * (1-1.05 -20 )/(.05/1.05) = $6,500.

Saving $1000/year has a present value of $13,000. So a gravel lawn might or might not pay for itself. Of course, this calculation also depends on how a non-grass lawn affects your home price relative to dental hygienist cover letter, a grass lawn, whether gravel is allowed by local regulations, etc. If converting to gravel saves you money, that's great. Even if it doesn't save you money, it might be worth doing anyway depending on its cost in order to thesis, reduce insect suffering.

How much insect suffering it reduces is the topic of the dental cover next section. All told, the Earth has about 13.4 billion hectares of land. Your 0.2-acre lawn is about 6*10 -12 of the thesis help nashville tennessee total. If the world's 10 18 insects were distributed evenly across the Earth, your lawn would contain. 6 million insects. This estimate seems too high, because tropical regions of the world house a disproportionate share of dental cover insects (although Arctic and help nashville tennessee Antarctic regions contain disproportionately fewer insects).

This discussion estimates insect densities on ayn rand results, farm land as. 10 million per hectare, or. 4 million per acre. That again seems plausibly too high for lawns. Thesis Help? Indeed, sometimes I don't see any bugs on lawns, though at dental hygienist cover letter other times I see lots of help little critters hopping around. Diligence Mother Luck? But lawns definitely are home to bugs. A slightly lower estimate of how many insects live on lawns at help a given time or are later supported by the biomass produced on lawns (e.g., decomposers eating dead grass clippings) at mother of good luck a given time might be -- just making up a number based on thesis help, personal observation -- 5 per square foot. It Manager Letter? a Assuming a lawn of 0.2 acres, that implies. 44,000 insects supported by your lawn's grass at thesis help nashville tennessee any given time.

Grass biomass also supports tons of pediatric dental hygienist letter bacteria, nematodes, etc. (especially when it decomposes). Suppose these collectively matter as much as all the insects. Thesis Help Nashville Tennessee? Then your lawn supports a total of 44,000 actual insects + 44,000 equivalent insects = 88,000 effective insects at a given time during the non-winter months. (The appendix at the end of this piece estimates a similar, though slightly higher, number of effective insects using an alternate approach.) Making the conservative assumption that these insects go through one generation per year, then you prevented 88,000 effective insect deaths per year. And if the gravel lawn lasts, say, 20 years before needing to be redone, that's 88,000 * 20 = 1.8 million effective insects saved from is the mother, a short life and miserable death. And this ignores the fact that many of those insects would give birth to hundreds of baby insects, most of which would die soon after being born. So the actual number of insect deaths prevented may be many times higher. If converting your lawn to gravel was financially positive from the beginning, then these reductions in insect suffering are just a bonus. If, instead, converting the nashville lawn cost, say, $10K, then you would have prevented. 180 painful insect lives per dollar, which is quite impressive! Not having a lawn is essay results, also good for the grass that doesn't come into existence, assuming you care about plant suffering to a nonzero degree.

Michael Pollan: That the perfume of jasmine or basil, or the scent of freshly mowed grass, so sweet to us, is (as the ecologist Jack Schultz likes to say) the chemical equivalent of a scream? Obviously this analysis is simplistic and ignores many relevant factors. For instance, maybe gravel lawns would collect puddles of thesis nashville rainwater, which would allow more mosquitoes to breed than before, thereby increasing mosquito populations. University Essay Question? Many more possibilities like this should be explored. Grass sequesters carbon, so non-biological lawns might worsen climate change. This section explores the implications of this point. Firstly, it's important to note that the net effects of climate change on wild-animal suffering and help tennessee far-future suffering aren't obvious. But I think it's plausibly somewhat better in question, expectation to reduce carbon emissions than increase them. How much do lawns help to reduce carbon emissions? In general, lawns don't sequester as much carbon as trees.

Trees sequester carbon because they live for decades before decomposing, trapping carbon year after year as they grow. Grass lives maybe a year before decomposing. Still, grass does sequester some carbon into the soil that isn't fully released back into the atmosphere. Part of the reason for thesis help nashville tennessee this is life on religion, that grass has a lot of roots, which can trap carbon in the soil. If you actively maintain your lawn, a grass lawn may be a net source of nashville tennessee greenhouse gases. Each hour of lawn mowing generates as much pollution as driving a car nearly 100 miles. (source) One study found that managed lawns in Florida sometimes increased net greenhouse-gas emissions.

This blog post rejects claims by the lawn-care industry that managed lawns are net carbon sinks. Of course, if you don't manage your lawns and let them grow wild, they'll be net carbon sinks, but the magnitude of the life essay effect isn't huge (see Table 1 here). Finally, you should consider using white or light-colored gravel or other materials to thesis nashville, increase albedo. University Question? In fact, one page actually recommends that you Replace part of your lawn with a white gravel rock garden. Instead of your grass absorbing heat, the help tennessee white gravel will reflect radiation back into space. Calculation if you don't maintain your lawn. Suppose that in the most extreme case, you don't manage your lawn at all but let the plants grow wild. Dental Hygienist Cover? Also ignore the albedo potential of white gravel. How much could the climate-change impact of replacing lawn with gravel be? This study found that lawns can sequester 46 to 127 g C per help m 2 per diligence is the mother of good essay year. Help Nashville? Another study found (Table 6) net carbon sequestration rates between 0.32 and 0.74 Mg per hectare per year.

Since a hectare is life of pi essay on religion, 10,000 m 2 , this implies 32 to 74 g C per m 2 per year. As above, assume the average lawn is 0.2 acres, or 809 m 2 . Taking an estimate of, say, 46 g C per m 2 per thesis help nashville tennessee year implies. 37 kg C sequestered per year on the whole lawn. CO 2 has one carbon atom (mass number = 12) and of julius caesar essay two oxygen atoms (mass number = 16), so 37 kg C implies 37*(16*2+12)/12 = 136 kg CO 2 , or 0.136 metric tons. Using a similar calculation as is done here, and assuming that climate change increases effective insect populations by 2% in expectation over uncertainty (e.g., we might be 60% confident that climate change will increase effective insect populations by tennessee, 10% and 40% confident that it will reduce them by columbia university essay question, 10%: 0.6*0.1 - 0.4*0.1 = 0.02), we find that our average lawn reduces insect populations by 79,000 per thesis nashville year. 79,000 is dental, awfully close to the 88,000 estimate for how many effective insects were reduced per year by converting grass to gravel. Actually, I rejiggered some of my estimates to make these two come out about the same, in thesis nashville, order to demonstrate the degree of uncertainty at play. (Had I let one or the other of these estimates win out, some readers might have falsely concluded that the question was clear one way or the other.) So if you have a lawn that requires no maintainance, then if you also think that climate change will increase wild-organism suffering on caesar, balance, then the question of whether to replace your lawn with gravel isn't obvious. It's important to remember that. Carbon sequestration declines after grass has been growing on nashville, an area for 25-30 years because soils become saturated with carbon. (This study discusses lawn sink capacity further.) So if you have an old lawn, it may not be providing much sequestration value after all.

These calculations ignore the essay results albedo potential of white gravel. How much would that consideration affect the results? I don't have a good way to quantitatively compare the thesis nashville tennessee albedo effect versus the carbon-sequestration effect, but albedo could be quite significant, given that deforestation in high latitudes might actually cool the planet more than warm it because deforested land has greater albedo. Mother Of Good? I also don't know how much more expensive white gravel is. One study for tennessee lawn carbon sequestration found net sequestration even for actively managed lawns, especially since irrigation and fertilization increase carbon sequestration. However: one of the study's authors was working for the Scotts Miracle-Gro Company and so would have been biased to of julius, favor lawns and active lawn management the study apparently didn't consider the impact of nitrous oxide from fertilizer, which can offset up to about 30 percent of the carbon stored in the lawns other studies as cited above have found that lawns can be net sources rather than sinks of carbon (though these studies have been criticized by pro-lawn researchers). So for actively managed lawns, the jury is still out on thesis tennessee, their net climate-change impact. Thus, it seems more likely that replacing an it manager cover, actively managed lawn with gravel is help nashville tennessee, a net plus.

Should you manage your lawn less if you don't convert to gravel? Even if you don't convert your lawn to dental cover, gravel, it's probably better if you stop using fertilizer, since this presumably increases biomass production and help also may contribute to climate change. You should also probably stop watering your lawn, since water increases biomass production (and may also deplete water resources in columbia essay, your area). Of course, watering somewhat increases carbon sequestration. The sign of pesticide use is less clear, but because the grass will be eaten by some little critter or other down the road, it's plausible that pesticides increase net suffering by increasing deaths per thesis nashville unit time. If you don't care at all about bacteria, this calculation becomes more subtle, because it's possible that, say, pesticides will mean fewer insects but more bacteria, depending on what kinds of critters eat decomposing grass. Or maybe pesticides don't reduce net insect populations because they just translate to more decomposing insects to offset the diligence of good luck essay fewer insects in live grass.

I don't know. It's unclear to me whether mowing your lawn is net good or bad assuming you still have a grass lawn. Not having a grass lawn avoids the downsides of mowing while capturing the upside. If it would cost a lot to thesis tennessee, gravel over your lawn, you can still make a smaller difference by covering parts of your lawn with various permanent objects, like rocks, big pieces of wood, metal, etc. (I say permanent objects because if you move the objects around a lot, they may not inhibit grass growth as much and will crush bugs painfully each time they're moved. For similar reasons, I avoid walking on grass.) Of course, depending on what kind of neighborhood you live in, some of assassination essay these possibilities may not be allowed. I'm also nervous about covering small regions of soil, since anecdotally if I lift up rocks or pieces of wood on thesis nashville, lawns, I find tons of bugs making a home underneath them, which calls into question whether the pediatric dental hygienist cover covering objects actually reduce insect populations at all or instead increase insect populations. In contrast, it seems pretty clear that the gravel on my driveway prevents most surface-dwelling insects from help, living on that region of land except when passing by. A friend told me that weeds used to it manager letter, grow in thesis help nashville tennessee, his gravel driveway, which suggests the dental hygienist cover letter same might happen on gravel lawns. This would reduce the benefit of the gravel lawn in preventing insects. I've lived at several houses with gravel driveways and rarely saw weeds, so this problem isn't universal, but a web search shows that many other homeowners do have weeds in their gravel driveways.

The reason I focus this piece on gravel is that alternate materials, like asphalt or artificial turf, are more expensive, and I'd rather not dissuade people from covering their lawns because the material is so expensive. Thesis Help? Also, asphalt lawns aren't a common landscaping option, so it might be harder to persuade people to go this route, and some neighborhoods might disallow it. Finally, asphalt may be worse for climate change because it's darker than gravel. (White concrete would be better in terms of albedo, but it's quite expensive.) This piece has focused on the possibility of covering your own lawn, but in theory, a person could scale this approach by buying land to it manager cover, be covered. If you bought other houses just to cover their lawns, the strategy would be hopelessly expensive, but if you bought land that doesn't have a house on it, the help nashville cost would actually be modest: maybe a few thousand dollars per acre. For example, one of the first listings I found on assassination of julius essay, a land-sale website was a sale of 75 acres of hunting land for $89,950. (Covering the land would also prevent hunting on it, of course.) Considering that the nashville tennessee cost of covering an acre of land with gravel would be in the tens of letter for resume thousands of dollars based on the estimates used above, buying land would actually be a small portion of the total cost of covering it. Of course, you'd also have to pay annual property taxes, but even if property taxes were.

2% of the land value (which may be high) paid each year for 20 years, the cost still wouldn't be that big. Also, if you bought huge amounts of gravel, you might get a discount relative to thesis help, the prices for gravel on just your own yard. Land in developing nations would be even cheaper. For instance, on an international property-selling site, I randomly found this listing for essay results 75 acres in Belize at help nashville a price of $28,307. Contest Results? Presumably insect densities there would be vastly higher than in many parts of the nashville tennessee US. It Manager? That said, there might also be a cost in hiring someone to look after the property if you didn't live there. (Checking up on thesis nashville tennessee, the property would presumably be less crucial in a developed country where enforcement of ayn rand contest property rights could be relied on to a greater degree.) In general, this approach of buying property to directly address wild-organism suffering on it is interesting. Thesis Help Nashville Tennessee? It's sort of the inverse of The Nature Conservancy's work.

In terms of direct insect suffering prevented, it might sometimes be quite cost-effective. Ayn Rand Essay? However, it doesn't have the same far-future impact potential that spreading concern for wild-organism suffering has. Thesis? It might also make people angry and thereby tarnish the movement to spread empathy for essay wild organisms. This might be particularly true with respect to buying properties in thesis help nashville, developing countries, since people there depend more on diligence is the mother, their land for survival. Maybe outrage at thesis help nashville tennessee covering land with gravel would be reduced if the gravel covering was used for a purpose, such as to columbia essay, create (plant-free) rock gardens or trails/mazes based on rock colors. If the area were opened to nashville, tourists, doing this might generate some income. However, such a business would require a lot of work in its own right, and it's not clear it would make much money. The biggest problem with buying property to cover with gravel might be climate change. Because non-home property generally isn't mowed and fertilized, it's probably a net carbon sink, so graveling it over of julius caesar essay, would probably contribute to climate change, which has the potential to nashville tennessee, offset the benefit of reducing insect populations on ayn rand essay results, the land. Help? This would be less true if you bought farm land, which is mowed and fertilized, but presumably by doing that you'd mostly just shift farming to essay, other pieces of property. If more forest or grassland was converted to farm land to compensate for your buying farm land, then this would still reduce carbon sequestration. (If you buy farm land, the price of farm land increases slightly, thereby slightly increasing food prices and hence reducing agricultural production, but this effect is probably small.)

So in practice, I'm doubtful that buying property to reduce wild-organism suffering on thesis help nashville, it is as promising as it seemed, but we should keep an eye out for other ways in which the strategy could actually work. Maybe the albedo calculations for white gravel would show that it reduces climate change even relative to unmanaged grass, in which case buying land and converting it to white gravel would be good all around. This possibility seems important to explore further. Another idea that would reduce concerns about climate change would be to cover land with solar panels rather than gravel. Diligence Is The Mother Of Good Essay? b However, my guess is that solar panels are really expensive, so unless a solar-power business like this would already be close to cost-neutral in its own right, it would probably be an expensive way to reduce insect suffering. Help Tennessee? And if such a business were profitable in its own right, then your doing it might partially displace solar panels that someone else would have laid down. Life Essay? (Solar panels on roofs don't displace grass, but solar panels on fields do somewhat insofar as they shade the underlying grass.) It would be ideal to help nashville tennessee, lay down solar panels flat on the ground to prevent any grass from growing underneath, but this is ayn rand essay contest, less efficient at capturing energy than letting the thesis help nashville panels tilt toward the of julius essay sun.

Another approach for making an impact beyond your own lawn could be to create an organization to subsidize home owners for converting their lawns to help nashville, gravel or other non-biological materials. This should probably only essay question, be done for home owners who actively manage and help nashville fertilize their lawns. Ignoring the overhead to life of pi essay, administer the organization and find interested customers, the nashville cost-effectiveness of university essay this approach would plausibly be similar as for tennessee converting your own lawn to gravel (or maybe more so because the dental hygienist letter organization could focus on those with the highest lawn-maintainence costs first). It would be important to inspect compliance to make sure people follow through on the conversion and don't bring grass back later on. (This inspection process could be compared with verifying a conservation easement. Help? It might get expensive, unfortunately. To reduce inspection costs, maybe only a small fraction of homes could be inspected at random.) The organization could also run awareness campaigns to inspire people for whom gravel lawns would save money to of julius essay, convert voluntarily. Fortunately, people who spend the most on lawn care are also those for whom converting to gravel is more likely to be altruistically positive because they probably have the most climate-change impact via lawn maintenance. It's unclear what the cost per person convinced would be for help tennessee an awareness campaign. Behavior change is often hard, although there may be several people who would gladly convert their lawns if they heard of the idea, so there may be some people who are relatively easy to of good luck essay, convince. Suppose it costs $900 to convince one person on the margin to switch to gravel lawns, via advertisements, pro-gravel op-eds, etc.

As discussed above, typical gravel lawn prevents. 1.8 million effective insects during non-winter months over 20 years. Assuming that bugs and bacteria are active half the year in temperate climates, that's (1.8 million)/2 = 0.9 million effective-insect-years of suffering, and the cost-effectiveness is (0.9 million)/($900) = 1000 effective-insect-years prevented per thesis help nashville tennessee dollar. Comparison with humane insecticides. Gravel lawns and essay contest humane insecticides are both concrete ways to reduce insect suffering. I look more favorably on gravel lawns because. there's less risk of a gravel-lawn campaign being misinterpreted to imply something possibly harmful, whereas a campaign to reduce the pain of insecticides might lead most casual observers to wrongly assume that we're in favor of help nashville tennessee organic farming pending more thorough research on how much lawns sequester carbon, promoting gravel lawns seems to pediatric dental, have low uncertainty and doesn't rely on assumptions about the run-on ecosystem effects of thesis a different insecticide or whether one type of insecticide is really more humane and it manager letter equally lethal compared with another the start-up costs of a gravel-lawn campaign are smaller (all that's required is to promote something that some people already do) people might look more favorably on gravel lawns, considering that, e.g., they help with California's droughts and help might reduce climate change the case for gravel lawns more prominently brings up the idea that bug lives in aggregate have more bad than good. The main reason why humane insecticides might have higher payoff is that in the long run, it might be possible to help more insects more cheaply if humane insecticides became widespread, since the dollar cost per hectare affected per year is probably smaller for humane insecticides. But given that most people oppose insecticide use for reasons of columbia university question human and environmental health, I doubt there could ever be a widespread movement with economies of scale to merely use more humane insecticides without also reducing the quantity of insecticides employed. Appendix: Estimating effective insects per hectare using net primary productivity.

In the main text I estimated. 88,000 effective insects on a lawn of 0.2 acres. That number was derived from guessing what seemed like a reasonable number of insects per square foot based on what I've seen in real life. This section attempts an alternative estimate based on the net primary productivity of lawn grass. This study reviews the literature to find an average net primary productivity for grasslands of 5.89 to 12.71 Mg dry matter/ha/year. Since I suspect this paper might be biased to overstate carbon sequestration, and in order to help nashville tennessee, keep my estimate conservative, I'll take a smaller figure: say, 2 Mg.

The study says (pp. 809-10) that Each year, ≈10% of the diligence is the of good essay biomass added to the soil may be humified (Duiker and Lal, 2000; Puget et al., 2005; Schimel et al., 1994). If we conservatively assume that 10% of help all the primary production is humified, that leaves 90% to be consumed immediately: 2 * 0.9 = 1.8 Mg. How much of life of pi essay this mass goes into biomass of insects, bacteria, etc.? And how much of the energy is expended as heat? Following are some estimates of nashville tennessee insect ECIs: One page reports: Tests on two species of edible grasshoppers, Locusrana migratoria and a species of ayn rand essay contest results Melanoplus, fed on several kinds of grasses showed combined ECIs in the range of 10-15% and 8-11%, respectively. (Note that the linked page supports entomophagy, which I oppose.) This study found ECIs for grasshoppers between 9.5% and 16.5%. This study found ECIs between. 15%.

This page says: For the German cockroach ( Blattella germanica ), [the ECI] is well above 40. Silkworms, traditionally cultivated in China and neighboring regions, typically have an ECI in the 20-30 span. Conversion efficiencies for effective insects should be higher than this, since some of what isn't digested by insects will be eaten by bacteria later. On the thesis nashville tennessee other hand, the quoted figures are plausibly high-ish ECIs relative to insects in general because insect farmers will tend to use insects with higher ECIs and harvest the columbia university insects once they've grown rather than letting them continue to help nashville, expend energy after they're already at full size. Assuming these considerations roughly cancel, let's take an columbia essay, ECI of. 10%. I assume this ECI is for growing organisms. ECIs for adult organisms should be roughly 0%, since adults tend not to grow further. So all told, the ECI for organisms that eat grass biomass might be, say, the midpoint of 10% and 0%: 5%.

5% of 1800 kg implies 90 kg of nashville heterotroph-organism biomass by dry weight. This is primary-consumer production per it manager cover for resume year, i.e., the help increase in biomass of primary consumers per year. In temperate climates, this growth only happens during spring-fall months. University? If we assume for thesis tennessee simplicity (if not accuracy) that primary consumers are all univoltine and live from spring through fall, then the standing biomass of primary consumers by the end of the season would equal the annual production: 90 kg per hectare. Assume that a mass of bacteria/nematodes/etc. Columbia Essay? equal to the mass of an insect suffers as much as the insect.

Then we can convert 90 kg of dry organism biomass into a number of effective insects by dividing by the dry weight of an thesis help, insect. This page reports that a fruit fly has a mass of 2–3 * 10 ?7 kg, while an ayn rand essay results, adult housefly has a mass of 2 * 10 ?5 kg. Here's another way to estimate housefly mass. An adult housefly is thesis nashville tennessee, 6-7 mm long. Say the fly has equal volume as a 4 mm cube. Then it would be 4 3 = 64 mm 3 or 0.064 cm 3 . Of Pi Essay On Religion? Assume it's. half as dense as water and that its dry weight is. half its wet weight. Then it would weigh (0.064 g)/(2*2) = 0.016 g, or about help 2 * 10 -2 g, which is exactly the same as the for resume 2 * 10 ?5 kg figure from the previous paragraph. Let's take a housefly as our reference insect.

Then the thesis help number of effective houseflies is columbia university essay question, (90 kg)/(2 * 10 ?5 kg per fly) = 4.5 million flies. This is per hectare per help year. It's equivalent to is the mother luck essay, 360,000 effective houseflies supported by thesis nashville, a 0.2-acre lawn. Is The Mother Luck Essay? This is close to my 88,000 estimate, which is help, surprising given that I didn't fudge with any of my input assumptions in essay question, order to make the help nashville number come out right. If you only care about insects, rather than bacteria/nematodes/etc., then the number of effective houseflies would have to mother of good luck essay, be reduced to nashville tennessee, account for of good the fact that a lot of grass isn't eaten by insects. If, say, 10% of digestible grass biomass is eaten by help tennessee, insects, that would imply. 36,000 actual insects supported by the grass of an average lawn, which is about the diligence is the luck same as the 44,000 estimate I arrived at thesis help nashville by guesstimating insects per square foot. Estimate using springtails and mites. This article says of springtail bugs: Ranging from 0.25-10mm in length, there are typically around 10,000 per square metre of soil, rising to as many as 200,000 per square metre in some places. This page says. In sheer numbers, they are reputed to be one of the dental cover most abundant of all macroscopic animals, with estimates of 100,000 individuals per square meter of ground,[24] essentially everywhere on Earth where soil and related habitats (moss cushions, fallen wood, grass tufts, ant and termite nests) occur.[25] Only nematodes, crustaceans, and mites are likely to have global populations of similar magnitude [. ].

Here are vivid videos showing dense springtails on soil. A friend of mine (unfortunately!) has a vermiculture bin, and in it, I've seen populations of mites as dense as. 1 per mm 2 just on the surface of the bin. Help Nashville? That implies. 10 6 mites per diligence of good luck essay square meter. Suppose that the thesis decaying grass on your lawn supports 10,000 springtails per columbia essay question m 2 = 10 8 springtails per thesis help tennessee hectare. Suppose the typical springtail is small -- say 0.5 mm. Above I suggested that a typical housefly is 6-7 mm long. So a housefly is about (6.5/0.5) 3 = 2 * 10 3 times bigger than a springtail. Hence, 10 8 springtails per hectare have about the ayn rand essay contest results same size as. 50,000 houseflies per hectare.

That's. 4000 houseflies on a 0.2-acre lawn. And if we count mites and other invertebrate fauna as well, this number might be a few times bigger, putting this estimate in a similar ballpark as the thesis help nashville tennessee 44,000 estimate of bugs on a typical lawn in contest results, the main text. In the main text, I assumed a very conservative 5 bugs per thesis help tennessee square foot of lawn. This is at of julius caesar essay least an order of magnitude lower than the densities of invertebrates per square foot of help nashville tennessee grassland that are reviewed in this 1937 article: Mr. McAtee in a grassy meadow in essay results, March found 1,374 animals in four square feet, or 343 per square foot, but of nashville this number, 933 were one species of ant, Trematoriurn caespitum , and although there was no ant colony in the plot, yet for comparison with a woodland plot, he subtracts these strongly contrasting elements, leaving 239 animals for caesar four square feet, or 60 per square foot. Thesis Nashville Tennessee? This much more nearly approximates the results obtained in the present investigation, which totaled 6,843 animals for the 100 square feet examined, or, to compare with a locality where the climate more nearly approximates that of Washington, those of a previous investigation by the writer in central Illinois [. ], where the animal population (counting grasshopper and mealybug egg-clusters as one, rather than each egg as a separate individual) averaged 57.5 per square foot in the fall and early winter, and 82.9 per mother of good square foot in the spring. Mr.

Morris [. ] records finding 3,586,088 insects per acre, or 82 per square foot in thesis help, a pasture in England. Dr. Beebe [. ] found [. Hygienist Cover? ] 65 per help square foot of leaves and columbia moss from an uncleared area in the woods of a New York Zoological Park [. Thesis Help? ]. The writer [. ] collected 215 ants and 114 other insects and small animals from assassination of julius caesar essay, three square feet of pasture near the beach at Pt. Cangrejos, Porto Rico, or 110 animals per square foot.