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2013 Peace Essay Contest Grade 4-5 Winners. First Place, Andion Dizon, gr. 5, Colonial Trail ES, Henrico Co. Thesis Nashville Tennessee! Public Schools. Perisa Ashar, gr. 4, Colonial Trail ES, Henrico Co. Ayn Rand Contest! Public Schools. Caroline Crowley, gr.
5, Colonial Trail ES, Henrico Co. Public Schools. Isabel Kump, gr. 4, Colonial Trail ES, Henrico Co. Public Schools. Rebecca Mann, gr. 5, Clover Hill ES, Chesterfield Co. Public Schools. Ashanti Rives, gr.
4, Walnut Hill ES, Petersburg Public Schools. First Place: Andion Dizon, Colonial Trail Elementary School, Henrico County Public Schools. 3 Simple Words, 3 Simple Statements. “I am sorry.” “I love you.” “I forgive you.” In my eyes, peace is not just a word that can describe something or someone. They are the nashville statements said above.
Peace is the diligence mother essay little things people do every day. There may be many different definitions of thesis help, peace, but the most important one to university question me is the one my mother has taught me. My mother has always said that God tells us to forgive each other, give to others, and thesis nashville tennessee love each other. Does that not explain peace itself? Do those statements above not show peace? I think that if every single person on this planet lived by these three simple rules, and said those three simple statements everyday, the world might be ready to of julius caesar essay move onto the bigger acts of kindness such as stopping wars or lowering crime rates. As I have said in the paragraph before, my mother is the biggest influence I get in making peace. However, my mother is just teaching me the will of God. God has given all of us the chance to be alive. We should use that chance to help nashville tennessee be nice to other people, to forgive them.
When one little boy or girl says, “I am sorry,” the other boy or girl may start to forgive as well. Those little acts of kindness spread and diligence is the of good spread until the whole world is help tennessee contaminated with forgiveness. When I hurt my sister or my parents, I try to forgive them as best as I can. Once, I ripped a very important fashion book that belonged to my sister. I said that I was sorry and repaired the book with tape. Then, I said that I would make up for it with one chore she asked me to perform. So, I had to take out the trash for mother of good, her for one day. In that example, one little mistake was forgiven and one little grudge that could have happened was reduced to nashville tennessee smithereens.
The next rule of peace my mother has taught me is to give to others. I know the perfect follower of God’s rule for this one. In September of 1946, Mother Teresa found her inspiration of giving with God’s love to pediatric dental hygienist cover others. She cared for thesis tennessee, the sick, poor, and elderly without a moment’s hesitation. Even when someone had been left to die on the side of the street, Mother Teresa had picked him or her up and cared for ayn rand results, him or her till death.
That is thesis tennessee truly an university act of kindness that can bring peace to others around you. Even though I may not seem like I can do such extravagant things with my life, I can do smaller things like making others feel more comfortable when they are sick or giving someone a Band-Aid when they get a cut. Help Nashville! Small things like that can go a long way. When people get married, they vow to assassination caesar essay always love and care for their husband or wife. Thesis Help! However, some couples get a divorce and never love each other again. My mother has taught me that that is not how God wants us to life essay bring peace to the world. When we are little, we should love our family, siblings, friends, neighbors, classmates, or anyone and when we grow up, we should still follow that. My mother has always told me to think before I do or say anything. Nashville Tennessee! I may think that what I am saying about another person is a joke while the other person might think it is an assassination caesar insult.
That is showing that you care and love the other person enough to take the time to edit what you are about to say or do. Everyone deserves our love and help tennessee has the right to feel loved. University! Going back to the paragraph before this, Mother Teresa showed her love and the love of nashville tennessee, God to mother essay everyone who had no one left to love him or her. We should do the same. Not just when we get married, but from help, birth to essay results death. If everyone in thesis nashville tennessee, the world cared for of good luck, one another, think about how wars might be stopped or how crime rates could be lowered!
When people say, “I love you” or “I am here for thesis nashville tennessee, you,” things have already changed on the Earth around us. You have passed that gift of love and columbia essay question care to another person beside you and then they pass it on thesis nashville to another and essay on religion another and another! Love can be contagious if you let it. The Earth is a beautiful planet and the people on thesis help nashville tennessee the face of the earth are beautiful as well. Diligence Mother Essay! My mother has made a big difference in help nashville tennessee, my life when she taught me the of julius caesar essay word of God. God wants us to follow those three simple rules, forgive each other, give to others, and thesis help love each other.
We cannot wait for someone like Mother Teresa or Mahatma Gandhi to jump-start the spreading of peace. Hygienist! People like you and me can do that in thesis help nashville, the little words and statements we say every day. Dental Hygienist Letter! My mother has really given me the biggest influence in my life to making peace. She has taught me to always follow what God wants you to do. We may already have our future in our minds, but we cannot pursue that future until we can learn to forgive, give, and love everyone. Only when our hearts are open for thesis help tennessee, giving forgiveness and ayn rand contest love can God tell us what we are meant to do on this planet. Only then are we ready to really bring peace to the world. “I forgive you.” “I love you.” “I am sorry.” Second Place (tie) : Sarah N. Thesis! Bender gr.
5, Colonial Trail Elementary School, Henrico County Public Schools. Life is a book. Ever since Adam and Eve stepped foot on the Earth, the fate and ayn rand contest history of humans has been recorded as one long story that won’t end for as long as we live. There are moments of peace, moments of war, moments of strife, and moments of pride. We are the next chapter. If we don’t improve the thesis nashville story, the next generation must clean up our mess. To do that, we have to have peace. It Manager For Resume! Our lives are each an unwritten page. It’s our job to write on it the right way. Imagine that you are a white person sitting on help tennessee a bus. Columbia University! Sounds of commotion ripple through the still air.
You peer outside through your dusty window. Policemen and black children are participating in a bloody battle. White men are rallying the police on. The children are hitting at the attacking police with their signs. You see a black woman cry out. One of the thesis nashville children is life of pi essay dead on the sidewalk, blood streaming from a round hole in his chest. A police officer puts a gun back in his belt. You see slogans such as ‘Peace for thesis help, all’ and it manager cover letter ‘Equality’ flash before your eyes, the blood stains of help, their carriers splashing on the worn cardboard.
A grim smile crosses your face. Suddenly, the assassination of julius caesar noise ceases. A tall, lean figure strides into the noise. All eyes turn to thesis face him. Whispers fill the humid air. You turn, and university essay your friends are gasping and pointing at help nashville him.
The famous Martin Luther King Jr. has arrived on the scene. He stands in the middle of the group. Wordlessly, he kneels down, draws a cross on his head and blesses the dead boy. After that, he stands up and walks away. The crowd stands speechless, but the fight doesn’t continue. Everyone solemnly walks away. The greatest peacemaker in history has just left his mark on the world. His chapter marks glory and a new age of peace.
It would do us all good to follow his example. Even though there are no more street fights, our world isn’t as peaceful as it was during his time. There’s no better way to prove that then to highlight the events of September 11, 2001. Assassination! Osama Bin Laden and his men hijacked 4 planes. Two crashed into the North and nashville tennessee South towers of the World Trade Center in Manhattan (Twin Towers), and ayn rand essay results the buildings collapsed within two hours of the crashes. The buildings became a mass of falling debris and thesis help nashville flame, leading to the partial or complete destruction of all the other buildings in the World Trade Center and 4 buildings in it’s immediate area. The third plane crashed into the Pentagon in Washington, DC, destroying it’s western side. The last plane crashed into a field as the passengers attacked the hijackers aboard. After these attacks, all 19 hijackers and all of the civilians aboard the life planes died, as well as hundreds of thesis nashville tennessee, people working in the attacked areas.
While history boasts a golden age of peacemakers, but a record number of fatalities and casualties because of violence, present day has no shortage. The one difference is that today, violence may happen for no reason. On December 14, 2012, Adam Lanza secured the fates of life of pi, 20 children, 6 adults, hundreds of families, and thesis help an entire community. Those children had done nothing to hurt Adam. One family whose child had been taken lived across the street from the Lanzas. Pediatric Hygienist Cover! It made me heartbroken to find out that they believed that they could have stopped this if they had reached out more. I think that it would have made Lanza guilty, but I think that the action wouldn’t have been stopped.
He had never learned about peace from his family. Ever since I showed that I understood what my parents said, they have taught me all I needed to know about peace. I learned that everyone was created equal, and that we had gone through very tough times to resolve that issue. Nashville! I learned that our words can be used to question heal or hurt a nation. Our fists can only hurt. Thesis Nashville! They’re there to is the mother of good luck help us pick things up, not express our feelings. We have to live life with a peaceful mantra, air, and attitude.
I also learned that our actions rub off on others. I have used what I have learned to try and make the world a better place for all of the people I know. I love my neighborhood. For the most part, everyone is kind to one another, and we have area parties with playful competition. Once, on nashville tennessee the Fourth of columbia, July, we had a fireworks contest. My little subdivision was screaming and tennessee cheering for our fireworks ‘master,’ and the next day, my friend from the other subdivision admitted that they were doing the same. The one fight going on is our on-going fight with the Homeowner’s Association. From the day we first asked for a swim team, it’s been petitions, reasoning, and constant pleading. Contest! They won’t budge, and help nashville every summer, the diligence is the mother essay fire is fueled by thesis, our enragement.
Our neighborhood stands as a team, fighting for one thing. This may not be what many people believe to be a fight, but it is. It’s just a peaceful one. The book of peace has many gripping chapters. It’s not just a history textbook. It’s a story, with villains and heros and several climaxes.
Osama Bin Laden and Adam Lanza may have tried to destruct the peace tower in all of our hearts, but people like Martin Luther King Jr. will help us build it back up. Humanity has turned the page. We sit at the computer, ready to type up a new chapter in history. We are the essay contest results characters. It’s up to us to decide if we’re good or bad. As we type, we have to decide. How do we want our story to end? What?
Peace is a Weapon! Second Place (tie) : Ashwin Prabu, gr. 5 , Colonial Trail Elementary School, Henrico County Public Schools. What is peace? Is it the quietness one experiences while concentrating on a test or is it just relaxing on the warm sand in Myrtle Beach. I asked my dad what peace really is and his response made me change my whole entire view of help, peace.
He said that peace has many definitions. One definition of peace is the end of violence. Another definition of peace is to never use violence to show your emotions. He also asked me that have I ever thought of life, peace as an effective weapon against violence? My dad told me that his grandfather was a freedom fighter under Mahatma Gandhi during the Indian Revolution and that he was a great person who used peace against violence. Then, I started to do research on Gandhi. I learned that Gandhi used words instead of fists and helped India win freedom against the British. Nashville! Gandhi’s peacefulness spread all across the world.
It also influenced Martin Luther King Jr., Nelson Mandela, Aung San Suu Kyi, and many people across the of pi on religion earth to use peace, words and love instead of violence and war. Next I researched about Martin Luther King Jr. I found out that he also used peace to prevent segregation between Whites and thesis nashville tennessee Blacks. He organized rallies and provided peaceful leadership to pediatric hygienist cover the African Americans to make Whites and Blacks be treated equally. “I have decided to stick with love and peace. Hate is too great of a burden to thesis bear” was one of his quotes. I wanted to research more great people who used peace against violence and on religion I searched for Nelson Mandela. I learned that Mandela fought for thesis nashville, multi- racial elections and that Africans will have the dental same rights as whites. He didn’t use violence or start a war against the apartheid. He used peaceful means and he won against the apartheid. Thesis Help! Finally In 1994 Nelson Mandela won the first multi – racial election and became the first Black president of South Africa.
Finally, I found out that Aung San Suu Kye also used peace against essay results, violence. She is a Burmese freedom fighter who is currently fighting to help nashville tennessee end dictatorship in it manager cover letter, Myanmar. Thesis! She has only organized rallies and gave speeches. She did not start wars or fights. Assassination Of Julius Essay! Peace is really a great weapon against violence. This lesson my dad has taught me and my research on all these great people has made me be peaceful in my community today.
Whenever someone riles me or bullies me, I do not use violence to get back at them. Instead, I tell them that what they are doing is wrong and hurtful and it actually makes them stop. It is much easier than punching them back in the face. What is peace I wonder once again………………… I think I know now. Perisa Ashar, gr. 4, Colonial Trail Elementary School, Henrico County Public Schools.
When a country wins a war, I wonder if they really won the help nashville war. I think about that because even though a country “won” the war, they have still lost their weapons, wealth, but most important of all: precious human lives. Essay! I think when someone dies, while trying to thesis help nashville defend their country; their family might be grieving about them because the person who died might be their mother, father, son, daughter, brother, or sister. When someone dies, they are gone forever, and no money or victory can bring them back again. War also brings a Depression on both sides of a war. In a Depression, people lose their jobs, and they do not have any money to support their family’s needs, and more people perish every day. War only ayn rand essay results, brings hatred and destruction. People need to solve conflicts in thesis help nashville tennessee, a peaceful way and not be fighting in it manager letter, wars. Our war can also lead to another war. When I visited the Holocaust Museum in Washington D.C. I learned that when Germany lost in World War I, they had to pay a lot of help nashville tennessee, debt and they had difficult times.
Then Adolph A. Hitler became popular, but when he came in power, he had a lot of hatred against Jewish people and columbia essay he did cruel things to them and that finally lead to World War II. One of the things that my mom teaches me about peace is to get to nashville know and connect with people, even if they are from different cultures, religions, and countries. She teaches me this because it broadens my horizons, teaches me what other people are going through across the world, and assassination how they are resolving their problems peacefully. For example, when I went to Kolkata, India we visited “The Queen Victoria Museum” and I learned how India got its independence from Great Britain, thanks to India’s freedom fighters. India achieved freedom by using nonviolence, under the nashville tennessee leadership of ayn rand essay contest, Mahatma Gandhi. Thesis Help Nashville Tennessee! If India could achieve freedom and peace by using nonviolence, other countries can also solve their problems peacefully, so no precious human lives would be lost.
My parents have also taught me to make friends from other cultures because they may look different from the outside, but inside they might be really nice and kind. If we respect each other’s cultures, we can all live in peace and harmony. This year, I have more friends who are from different cultures. I enjoy playing with them and learning about their cultures. I also have friends from all around the world. I can call them every other week. I even have a pen-pal who lives in columbia question, Niger. I write to her whenever I have spare time. It helps me understand their opinion; experience, and culture.
Now, I have noticed that I am much more accepting of other people and also more open-minded to their point of view. Whenever I have a conflict with one of my classmates, I control my tone of voice and thesis nashville tennessee I explain it to them in nonviolent way. If they are still rude, I speak to them in a strong, firm and, yet not in a hurtful way. I think people should remember lessons that we have learned from previous wars, wise leaders and from our own experiences. These lessons have taught us to be more respectful to each other and to discuss problems instead of fighting about it. If people follow these rules, the word would be a very peaceful place. Caroline Crowley, gr. 5, Colonial Trail Elementary School, Henrico County Public Schools. I have no idea if there is an even greater solution for peace, but I have learned over my eleven years of life that religion is the true source of for resume, peace, love, friendship, and help tennessee forgiveness. I was born and raised into essay, a very religious Christian family, and my parents taught me to forgive and love everyone, especially my enemies.
Why should we do this? To follow God’s example. We were made in his image, so we should love others as he loves us. This, and help nashville many other important life lessons, is the knowledge I grew up on. When I say religion, I mostly mean Christians, but whatever religion you may be, if you feel peace when you practice it, that feeling of peace is what I am going to of julius essay talk about. As I walk into church, I feel a sensation of calming, relaxing peace. How I love to nashville go to church and listen to assassination of julius caesar the wonderful talks and the testimonies of others.
This is my solution for peace. Many people say that family, friends, or happiness is the true source of peace, but religion ties all of this together. When you know that God is thesis nashville tennessee with you, you can feel happiness. When you go to church, you can pray and sing with you friends and family. Pediatric Cover Letter! It is my parents that have given me the chance to receive peace, but it is my religion that I have received it from. When I practice my religion, I feel like I am doing the right thing, and that my loved ones are proud of me. Because of my family’s teachings, I have always wanted to be a good example to others, who may not be doing what is right. Also, my family has taught me to not smoke, drink alcohol, or do anything harmful to my body. This is a wonderful example of love, and shows that my relatives care about thesis help nashville tennessee me so much, that they do everything they can to keep me safe. There have been times in my life when I have been drenched, blow-dried, and warmly rapped around in peace and comfort.
Just knowing that you are doing the thing, is better than the warmest, comforting, most indescribable bed you could ever crawl into. Pediatric Dental Hygienist! You feel peace. You feel and be loved. All you have to do is find a bright, illuminating example who you can follow to nashville draw you nearer and nearer to light and peace. When and where can you feel peace?
Is it just when you are in holy, spiritual places? No. You can feel peace almost anywhere. I’ve had many experiences like this. Once, I was just sitting quietly in my room, and for some queer reason I felt relaxed. I felt relaxed from all the stress that had been weighing down my shoulders. Everything seemed very peaceful and happy. This is one example, but sometimes your feelings of peace are personal. Most of contest results, mine have been like that. I always look at thesis nashville tennessee my life and realize that I am very lucky. Cover! I have a wonderful family that has taught me wonderful things that have brought peace into thesis nashville tennessee, my life.
Isabel Kump, gr. 4, Colonial Trail Elementary School, Henrico County Public Schools. What Peace Means To Me. When I think about peace, I imagine a blue sky with a rainbow stretched across it. Other people imagine the beach, the mountains, their favorite animal and essay other relaxing things.
Peace is what makes our country and the world a decent and safe place to live. My family has always told my little brother and me to thesis nashville be nice, caring, and assassination of julius peaceful. To me, peace is help very important. It means not going around starting fights and arguments and making sure to of good luck essay have a positive outlook on life. Without realizing it, my grandfather has influenced me the most on peace and is my role model. My grandfather is very nice and loving. When my brother and nashville I get into a fight or an argument, my grandfather steps in, and without doing anything that might upset us further, calms us down and makes us feel better. Peace is also about being calm, which my grandfather is ayn rand essay contest results very good at.
My grandfather is the best in help, the universe, and I have learned a lot from mother, him. Peace is thesis help nashville also what helps our President and the government make treaties with other countries to keep peace between them. Without peace, the world would constantly be in wars. Diligence Is The Mother Of Good! I’m glad we have peace, aren’t you? You probably have heard about the shooting at Sandy Hook Elementary in Newtown. Thesis Help Tennessee! When I found out about it, I felt like someone had taken my stomach away and replaced it with a hard, cold rock. I felt sick over all the kids that had been killed, and it manager cover letter I felt very sad for the parents of the kids who had died. The person who shot the kids was a very good example of a person who cares nothing about peace whatsoever.
He was cruel and heartless to thesis help tennessee commit the shooting and not even give a thought to essay the consequences-for himself and for the families of the kids who died-of killing all those people. I feel very sad also because there has never been an elementary school shooting in all of U.S. history except for the one at Sandy Hook. The President and thesis nashville tennessee the whole country was disturbed and grief-stricken when they learned of the shooting, and is the of good essay I am not sure if Newtown will ever be the thesis tennessee same again. Anyway, we can all learn something from the shooting: to it manager cover for resume always be peaceful and to never lose control of ourselves or take our anger out on other people. In general, peace is very important and life wouldn’t be the same without it. Nashville Tennessee! We should all work to keep our cool and, as my grandfather taught me, to help bring about peace to others and the world. Rebecca Mann, gr. 5, Clover Hill Elementary School, Chesterfield County Public Schools. Peace is the most wonderful thing in the world.
I don’t know what I would do without peace. I’m so glad my parents and family taught me about it manager cover it. My parents told me to be nice and help help others. All t he time, I follow my family’s lead. I want to life on religion be peace-loving forever. Every day, I try in small ways to make the earth a better place. I’ve been nice and thesis nashville tennessee caring for as long as I can remember, so I don’t see why I should stop now. Pediatric! Almost every day, I believe that the more I help, the thesis help less horrible the world will be. I can’t wait to grow up. Earlier in pediatric dental hygienist cover letter, my life, I’ve done so many great deeds. Last year, with my friends, family and my family’s friends, I helped clean up and remodel an old lady’s house.
Every year my community does a yard sale. Recycling old items and using less helps the world. Everyone also [contributes] because if someone needs or wants something there will not be shortages for others. Tennessee! Most of the time, when my friends are being bullied, I stand up for them. I love peace and ayn rand results hate wars. Wars kill or hurt the innocent.
Like I said, peace is the best feeling ever. When I grow up, I will help others in need. Thesis Help Tennessee! I will join organizations or clubs that will help make the world a better place. The clubs I’ll go to will help the world go green globally. I will join an organization where I can help others around me. Caesar Essay! I think Habitat for Humanity is a good one, and everyone is happy.
LIVING IN A WORLD OF PEACE. Ashanti Rives, gr. 4, Walnut Hill Elementary School, Petersburg Public Schools. Everyone likes to live in a world of peace. I think this is important because it is nashville very nice and can keep you away from drama. Ayn Rand Contest Results! My parents have taught me many things about being peaceful, especially at thesis nashville tennessee school. They taught me to be respectful at all times and to walk away from of pi, drama and to thesis nashville never get involved in it. This affects my actions in assassination of julius, school and in thesis nashville tennessee, my community because they motivate me to do the right thing .This is very important because getting into drama will make you a witness or the one who may be blamed when there is a problem. Peace is also important because being mean, rude, or harmful for no reason at all is not being peaceful. Dental Hygienist Letter! This happens at school a lot mostly outside, but my friends and nashville I just walk away. My mom tells me this is the right thing to do.
She tells me that to is the mother of good luck essay be peaceful it is important for everyone to get along within the community and at school. She also told me to never join a fight between other people, she tells me when this happens go tell a teacher. Thesis Help! This can help stop the violence in our school. Pretty much all the it manager cover letter for resume people I know in my family tell me to never hang out with the wrong group of people because they may be the ones to get me in trouble. When my brother and tennessee I come over to stay at my grandma’s house she tells us to stop arguing, because it’s not nice and that one day we will need each other. Peace is important in everyday life in many ways. Ayn Rand Essay Contest! You may even earn some peace in return of tennessee, your kindness. You could be peaceful by. Walking away from drama.
Being generous to diligence is the mother of good essay others. Involve people in a game or activity when they are left out. Tennessee! Talking out your problems instead of using violence. Respecting different races or culture and accepting everybody as one. The World Peace Festival started in 2011. This festival supports peace and of pi essay helps businesses and leaders all over the world learn about the thesis importance of peace in our life. With their help, the it manager letter business Ben Jerry, that produces some of the best ice cream worldwide, began using their popular business and publicity to give back to their community. By doing this they hoped to make peace and better lives for their customers. There are many ways to improve peace in our world. Businesses, schools, and even our communities must join together as one in order for this to happen.
To do so, everyone must have the thesis help nashville same goal for our nation. But most importantly………………. Everyone must say “YES” to peace!
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Henri Lefebvre and Marxism: A view from the Frankfurt School. interpretations of Marx. In recent years the literature that has appeared about, for, and against Marx and thesis nashville tennessee, Marxism has increased to the point where it can hardly be surveyed. Yet it would be false to of pi, conclude that the debate over matters of content has been advanced. To the extent that this literature does not speak the language of the Cold War and attempt to establish a dubious “counter-ideology,” it produces (as political science or Kremlinology) works full of information concerning the state of thesis help nashville Soviet Marxist doctrines in terms of pediatric dental letter their dependence on help current political trends. To the extent that Marxian theory itself still enters its field of vision, it is dulled by the fact that people (generally following Karl Lowith) classify it in the historical tradition of Soren Kierkegaard and Friedrich Nietzsche, or else reduce it to an ahistorical interpretation of the problematic of life essay on religion alienation in the Economic and thesis help nashville, Philosophical Manuscripts . On the other hand, the group of authors honestly interested in the further development of Marxian theory is exceptionally small. They are able to abstract from what still frequently passes for Marxism in the Eastern half of the columbia question world without denying the objective significance of the East-West conflict for their thought. They have involved themselves intensively with texts of Hegel and Marx, which by nashville tennessee, no means have finally been disposed of, without falling into the contest results hair-splitting ontology — with its consecrated body of quotations — that is typical for the post-Stalinist period in Soviet philosophy. To this group belongs Henri Lefebvre (who has recently become known in Germany through his acute analysis of Stalinism). 1 His writings are indispensable to those who aim at an adequate (and therefore critical) understanding of Marx within the limits of the alternatives that have been institutionalized in the political arena: either calling dialectical materialism a “watertight worldview” (Robert Musil) or dismissing it out of hand as a product of the discredited nineteenth century.
If a publisher has decided to bring out an edition of Le materialisme dialectique , 2 a work that appeared over three decades ago, it is because it has scarcely lost its actuality — aside from nashville, a few points that needed correction. The philosophical discussion of Marxism that began directly after the question First World War with Ernst Bloch’s Spirit of thesis nashville tennessee Utopia and Georg Lukacs’ History and Class Consciousness , and it manager cover for resume, was especially furthered by Karl Korsch, Herbert Marcuse, Max Horkheimer, and Theodor Adorno, broke off with Hitler’s seizure of power. Therefore, works on Marx from that period, as well as those written in western Europe in the late thirties, are still of great importance to us: not least because those works approached problems in a way far more political and closer to reality than was possible for thesis nashville, the new West German attempts at an interpretation of Marx after 1945, which remained more or less academic. These were all essentially centered on the “young Marx” in whom the pediatric dental cover letter authors (Thier, Popitz, Fromm) wanted to see an “existential thinker.” Since Lefebvre’s book also seems at thesis help tennessee, first glance to belong to ayn rand essay contest results, the existence-philosophical, moralizing, and abstract anthropological school of interpretation, it seems necessary to make the reader somewhat more conversant with Lefebvre’s intellectual development. 3 Only on that basis can the central concept of “alienation” in thesis help nashville tennessee his Dialectical Materialism be understood and differentiated from interpretations using this concept in a sense almost exactly opposed to essay contest results, the Marxian one. First, some dates in pre-World War II French philosophy.
About the year 1930, the help tennessee philosophical aspect of Marxism began to arouse interest in France. At the same time, a broad general receptivity toward Hegel, interwoven with attitudes toward Kierkegaard, was announced by diligence is the luck essay, Jean Wahl’s book, Le malheur de la conscience dans la philosophie de Hegel . Wahl is inclined to thesis tennessee, reduce the richness of Hegel’s work to the stage of the “unhappy consciousness.” With this emphasis on the romantic moment in Hegel, it becomes almost impossible to separate Hegel and Kierkegaard. Of Good? Subsequently, the appropriation of the help nashville tennessee idealist dialectic is paralleled by an interpretation of essay contest Marx’s early writings in the light of Heidegger’s Being and Time . This process led to the birth of the thesis nashville tennessee French variety of columbia university existential ontology: to existentialism. Thesis Help? It was completed between 1933 and 1938, years in which Alexandre Kojeve gave his now famous lectures on the Phenomenology of Spirit 4 at the Ecole des Hautes Etudes before students such as Jean-Paul Sartre, Maurice Merleau-Ponty, Raymond Aron, and R. P. Fessard. These lectures follow the same questionable lines as Wahl and essay contest results, see access to nashville tennessee, Hegel’s entire oeuvre in a single level of life consciousness. With Kojeve, it is the much-commented-on chapter “Dependence and thesis nashville tennessee, Independence of Self-Consciousness: Lordship and Bondage.” Although he wants his interpretation of Hegel to be considered “Marxist,” he does not focus on Marx’s materialist “inversion” of the dialectic. Rather, as Fetscher emphasizes, Kojeve already sees in the phenomenological dialectic itself “all the ultimate consequences of the Marxist philosophy of history.” 5 Thus “motifs of thought” that first arose from Marx’s critique of Hegel are ascribed to Hegel. Is The Mother Of Good Essay? But even Marx’s position is not done justice, since Kojeve lags behind his claim that one should elevate oneself to real history, that is, to the concrete forms of human relationships, which are determined differently at different moments in time. Instead, he is satisfied with the sterile definition of a Heideggerian “historicity of existence” that is supposedly present in the Phenomenology of Mind as an “existential” 6 and radically “finite” 7 anthropology. According to Kojeve, the nashville anthropological character of Hegelian thought becomes understandable only on the basis of Heidegger’s emphasis on “ontological finitude,” although the anthropology of Being and Time (which Kojeve asserts in opposition to columbia university essay, Heidegger’s intention) adds nothing new to that developed by thesis help, Hegel.
The supposedly broader “anthropological-ontological basis” 8 with which Kojeve wants to dote dialectical materialism is more liable to reduce it to a doctrine of invariable structures. Not the least of the ways that this would develop is in strictly political terms. Insofar as Kojeve breaks the it manager letter structural elements of the Master-Slave dialectic away from its specific historical background (which must always be thought of with it), he inflates labor and the struggle for help nashville tennessee, life and death into eternal factors, a la social Darwinism. Stripped of every concrete determination, man appears as an essence “which is always conscious of mother of good luck his death, often freely assumes it and sometimes knowingly and freely chooses it”; Hegel’s “anthropological philosophy” is viewed as “ultimately one… of death.” 9 Anachronistically, and thesis nashville tennessee, thus in a way that falsifies Hegel, Kojeve equates the struggle for “recognition” with a “fight for pure prestige.” 10 Human essence and knowledge constitutes itself with a decided “risk” of life. It is as if “self-conscious existence is possible only where there are or — at least — where there have been bloody fights, wars for prestige.” 11 On the it manager for resume other hand, it matters little that he abstractly holds firm to the idea of the “realm of freedom” that Hegel anticipated and that has to thesis help, be realized by Marxism. 12 It is a reconciled condition that does not occupy a situation, in which negativity (time and action in their present meanings) ceases, as do philosophy, revolutions and wars as well: his “political-existential” anthropology sharpened by “decisionism” bears fascistoid traces. It Manager For Resume? 13 If one starts from the thesis help nashville tennessee premise that the Hegel and Marx exegesis outlined here was dominant in the France of the thirties, it becomes clear that Lefebvre, even with all the unavoidable concessions to the spirit of the times, took a path all his own. Opposed to every ontology, to the late-bourgeois as well as to university essay, the Stalinist ones, he developed himself into a critical Marxist whose standards grew out of a materialist analysis of the course of history.
His academic teachers were hardly appropriate to lead his thought in this direction. Help Tennessee? In Aix-en-Provence he studied Augustine and Pascal 14 with the liberal Catholic Maurice Blondel, and at the Sorbonne he worked with Leon Brunschvig, the dental cover “intellectualiste” philosopher of judgment who was an enemy of every dialectic. What made Lefebvre (by no means without conflict) turn to Marxism had little to do with university philosophy. It was the thesis help tennessee political and social upheavals of the postwar period, and more particularly personal problems, psychoanalysis, and association with the essay literary and artistic avant-garde, the surrealist movement. Thesis Tennessee? 15 Lastly, it was the suspicion, which turned into a firm conviction, that philosophy as it had been handed down to us had demonstrated that it increasingly was less able to letter, come to thesis nashville tennessee, grips with, not to columbia essay, mention master, the problems posed by help nashville, the historical situation of being and consciousness in society. It Manager Cover Letter? At this point, the call of Marx and Engels, in their early writings, for the “negation” of philosophy and the turn toward a praxis “which would realize philosophical insight,” seemed to nashville, offer itself to him.
A possibility seemed to open up, not only of more or less articulately mirroring the pediatric dental hygienist fragmentation developing in modern existence — the way it happened in thesis nashville tennessee irrationalist ideologies — but of grasping it concretely, that is, as something which could be transcended. Thus, from the outset, Lefebvre’s Marxism is neither the pediatric dental hygienist cover positivistically limited one of the natural scientist who seeks to help, satisfy the needs of his world view, nor that of the practical politician to whom it is simply a means of rationalizing specific measures. Fetscher correctly indicates that fact, 10 but when he sees the specificity of Lefebvre’s view of Marx in anthropology , more discussion is required, so as to avoid the misunderstandings that lie close at hand in such an interpretation. First of all, as critical theoreticians in general have repeatedly emphasized, Marx is not concerned with a “philosophical anthropology” in Scheler’s sense of static precepts concerning the “construction of the essence of Man.” Such an anthropology sets the impossible task of ayn rand essay contest results demonstrating the thesis exact manner in which “ all specific monopolies, achievements and works of of good mankind proceed” from a “basic structure of the human being,” including history and society, which, characteristically enough, Scheler handles in the rigidified form of “historicity” and “sociality.” 17 However much anthropological writers have tried to incorporate change and becoming into the thesis tennessee idea of human nature, the content of the history of this idea must, nevertheless, remain external to these concepts, because the way they pose the question is based on a strictly conceived hierarchy. Marx is of julius equally little concerned with probing the eternal structure of human labor in the manner of his fundamental-ontological interpreters who, like Kojeve, also want to end up with an thesis help tennessee, anthropology that is basically foreign to essay, history. What emerges in Marx as the help tennessee generally valid structure of pediatric cover human labor is a concept fixed by thought, in which conditions common to all stages of production can be determined. “But,” says the Critique of Political Economy , “the so-called general conditions of thesis nashville all production are nothing but abstract moments with which no actual historical stage of letter for resume production can be grasped.” 18 This position by no means typifies only thesis help tennessee, Marx’s economic analyses. Precisely those early writings, which are always quoted in order to treat Marx as an ontologist, yield little for such an ayn rand essay, interpretation. Thus the German Ideology stresses that by help nashville tennessee, presenting the practical life-processes of men (not of man ), independent philosophy loses its “medium of existence” and it manager cover, can be replaced at best by a “summing-up of the most general results, abstractions which arise from the observation of the historical development of men.” 19 To that sentence, Marx and Engels unequivocally add: Viewed apart from real history, these abstractions have in thesis help nashville tennessee themselves no value whatsoever.
They can only serve to facilitate the arrangement of historical material, to it manager cover letter for resume, indicate the sequence of help tennessee its separate strata. But they by no means afford a recipe or schema, as does philosophy, for neatly trimming the epochs of history. 20. As if the authors of these sentences had never written them, the ontologizing interpreters of of pi on religion Marx resolutely make what are explicitly referred to as helpful concepts , the results of the analysis of materials, precede the materials as their constituent being. Help Nashville Tennessee? No differently did Nietzsche’s Gotzendammerung brand the assassination of julius caesar ?????? ?????? [“proton pseudos” or primary lie — Eds.] of the metaphysical enterprise. Under the guise of tennessee radicalizing historical consciousness, history is eliminated. All that remains of it is that it exists: historicity.Lefebvre criticized both of these methodologically interrelated lines of life essay on religion interpretation, and not least of all Kojeve’s “neo-Hegelian deviation,” 21 in which the “anthropological” and thesis help nashville tennessee, the “ontological” are linked. He exposed the weaknesses of assassination German existential philosophy (Jaspers), 22 no less than those of thesis nashville tennessee French existentialism and its Husserlian-Heideggerian roots. 23 This fundamental opposition is not weakened by the occasional resonances of an existential vocabulary in Lefebvre’s writings.
He does not infringe on its materialist character, yet for it manager cover letter, him Marxism is not a philosophy of being, but a philosophy of concept. The fact that in retrospect Lefebvre now terms his 1925 attitudes “existentialist” should not be understood in the sense of the term established later. Rather, it means that he and his friends, under the pressures of the conditions of the time and the sterility of official philosophy, wrestled with problems which immediately affected their mental (and not only mental) existence. Thesis Nashville? Day-to-day personal experience exposed the limits that were set by the bourgeois world on the free development of human talents and needs, and showed the extent to which modern society suffered from a fragmented self, which the young Hegel had already called the “fountainhead of the diligence of good luck essay needs of nashville tennessee philosophy.” 24 Granted, the critique of this fragmentation that Lefebvre undertook during the years 1925-1929 did not yet fulfill the ayn rand essay contest results criteria which he later developed in thesis help nashville tennessee the idea of a “critique of everyday life.” To the extent that it does not disappear into the abstract immediacy of mere revolt, it remains caught in life essay on religion just that scholastic philosophy of thesis whose insufficiency, as we have said, no one was more conscious than Lefebvre himself. During those years, even he succumbed to the cult of the increasingly impoverished self — a “withdrawal neurosis,”25 which could grow to the point at which the inner self is entirely cut off from the ayn rand outer world and robbed of all content, is driven toward its own self-destruction at the same time that it claims to be concerned with human well-being. At the same time, Lefebvre’s withdrawal into pure interiority — more a symptom than a critique of what exists — is streaked with the thesis help nashville tennessee slowly dawning insight that the world does not exhaust itself in Bergson’s stream of consciousness, that what matters is of pi essay finding one’s way back to objects: “ Retrouver l’objet .” 26. However, Lefebvre’s desire to escape from the bind of cramped subjectivity and to attain a more concrete medium of thought was not realized immediately. When he adhered to Communism in 1928, he saw less clearly than before. True, in 1930 he read Hegel, and Marx’s Capital . But at thesis nashville tennessee, first, the books that were decisive, as for many Marxist neophytes, were Engels’ Anti-Duhring and Lenin’s Materialism and Empirio-Criticism — books which, because of their materialist overzealousness, teach a massive objectivism rather than a scientific objectivity thoroughly penetrated by concepts.
It is understandable that after adopting these dogmatic positions, Lefebvre also interpreted the later Engels’ statements on columbia essay previous philosophy (which are in fact ambiguous) to mean that socialist theory, as a “positive science,” abjures all philosophy. Thus, materialism becomes synonymous with a strict renunciation of abstraction. When Lefebvre became aware of the contradiction contained in that position, namely that if one totally rejects abstraction (in particular, we must add, the theory of the equivalency of thesis help nashville tennessee exchange, which is decisive for Marx), it is impossible to justify the scientific use of concepts, then conflicts with the Party became inevitable. Since the late twenties, the Party had been concerned with its “Bolshevization.” Under the pretense of adopting the Leninist organizational model, it was forming an apparatus to which, with Stalin’s increasing influence over non-Russian Parties, every intellectual effort was ruthlessly subordinated. One must start from this fundamental process of is the mother essay transformation of the French Communist Party in order to judge adequately the works Lefebvre published between 1930 and 1940. Thesis Help Tennessee? They were against both modern authoritarian, irrational ideology 27 and against the attempts of Party Communists to question, either reduce Marx’s teachings to a narrowly conceived economistic theory, or to broaden them into a positive world view (“scientific ideology”) and an abstract methodology of the natural sciences. Lefebvre, similar to Karl Korsch in that respect, is not merely concerned with “situating” Marxism within philosophy or within science, since Marxist speculative philosophy transcends the empiricism of all the individual sciences. Help Nashville? Lefebvre knows that the life way philosophy and science merge into the specifically Marxist concept of thesis nashville tennessee a critique is discontinuous and, therefore, it qualitatively changes them.
That this critique claims to be a science not only does not stand in opposition to life essay on religion, philosophy, it rests precisely on a philosophical distinction: that between immediacy and reflection, appearance and essence. These are categories linked with the name of Hegel. Lefebvre explicitly rejoined Hegel’s dialectic when in the early thirties he turned to questions of logic and of (historical) method, to the problem of thesis help nashville “real humanism” and to the theory of ideological illusion. At that point, just as Lukacs had done previously in History and Class Consciousness , he came up against the problem of the objective meaning of the Hegelian method for the Marxist one. He recognizes that this problem can be approached adequately only when the diligence is the of good historical character of the Marxist method, energetically stressed by Lukacs, is applied not only to its objects, but also to itself. In other words: neither for Marx nor for us is this method a materialist corrective of Hegel that is given once and for all. Just as Marx (and this is not simply a philological question) evaluated his relation to Hegel quite differently at different stages of development, we must also reinterpret afresh the Hegel-Marx relation with respect to continuity and discreteness, and according to the state of history and the nature of our theoretical interests that are determined by it. Thus something like a well-rounded “Marxist image of Hegel” is impossible for help tennessee, Lefebvre. 28.
He considers Hegel’s Logic and Phenomenology from the viewpoint of a materialist philosophy of history which, as a “science of human reality,” 29 takes up in their transitory, historically concrete determinations those questions that can be hypostasized from philosophical anthropology and the “existential” movement and applied as such to a man in assassination of julius essay general. Because Lefebvre also terms, the Marxist science of human reality a “general anthropology,” 30 it seems necessary to return to Fetscher’s statement concerning the thesis basically anthropological character of his understanding of Marx, especially because we have tried to dental hygienist cover, describe the way the help nashville tennessee anthropological-ontological interpretation of Marx deviates from the position of both Marx and of Lefebvre. As we have said, Lefebvre’s concept of anthropology does not aim at a supratemporal substance; for him man is contained in what Marx calls “the world of men, state, society,” 31 that is, in an historical relationship that must, in turn, be examined in it manager its present concrete form. Thesis Help Nashville? The general human essence is whatever it is in its particular manifestation; this essence, however, presents itself at a particular stage of the conflict between man and nature. Perhaps one should say: at this stage, the stage of “prehistory,” it is what it is not — an essay question, unfulfilled promise. In two respects, this radical historical and philosophical conception of anthropology serves a polemical function for thesis help, Lefebvre. First, he needs it to render conceivable the work the of good luck essay concept has to do epistemologically, in terms of the “materiality” presupposed by dialectical materialism.
In addition, it is opposed to help nashville tennessee, the gross reduction of the critique of pediatric cover letter political economy into economism. Marx stands in opposition to thesis nashville, the metaphysical theses of the later Engels, canonized by Stalin and Soviet Marxism, that Nature as it existed before any human or social intervention, contains a dialectical movement; in opposition also to essay contest, Lenin’s attempt to “define” matter as a reality independent of consciousness and to view cognition as a copy of reality. For Marx the materialist, dialectical categories exist only help tennessee, as nodal points in diligence of good essay historical praxis , that is, in help nashville a material reality that is continually being mediated through human actions that also belong to the material and objective world. Only this is “negativity” — “a moving and producing principle.” 32 It was not Marx’s job to pediatric dental letter, “fix” gnoseologically the tennessee materials worked by labor, and in which labor is incorporated: the is the mother luck essay specific determination of materials is just as much a passing moment of the thesis nashville tennessee production process as is their very disappearance. Every mediating act reconstitutes in a higher form the life of pi immediacy that it destroyed. The necessity, expressed for the first time by the early Lukacs, of limiting the validity of the tennessee dialectic to the historical and ayn rand, social world 33 has since then become the unspoken presupposition of every serious interpretation of Marx. 34 Lefebvre could never be on good terms with a “materialism of the nashville isolated object.” He always considered any concept of the material world that did not include f its practical (or at cover, least potentially practical) appropriations as a pure abstraction.
Since Marxism was taught in its Stalinized codification for decades, thinkers such as Sartre, 35 for whom the sacrificium intellectus was too great, hesitated to adopt it for an unnecessarily long time. The aspect of help what Lefebvre calls anthropology, which is columbia university essay question directed against economism, is also a critique of naive-realistic consciousness. Even Marx himself, and not just his vulgarizers, occasionally falls into the thesis tennessee error of raising what he opposes to a methodological norm — the reification of human relationships. His presenting the primacy of hygienist letter a negative totality over help nashville individuals suddenly turns into a kind of taking sides in favor of that totality. University Essay Question? The reified power of historical-economic processes, their objectively alienated aspect, swallows up the subjective human side, which is then taken into consideration only under the heading of “ideological reflexes and echoes.” 36 The specifically social manifestations disappear into their economic essence. Lefebvre, not incorrectly, believes that he remains true to the idea of a critique of political economy when he underlines the irreducibility of human and social spheres to the economic one. 37 That idea consists of not capitulating to the “natural” objectivity of the historical process as a whole. Marxian dialectic derives its claim to a greater objectivity in comparison with classical economists precisely from the fact that it defetishizes the world of commodities; that is, it reveals the subjective mediations of help nashville that world. Whereas by essay, “ideology” Marx meant primarily the realm of thesis phenomena of consciousness as split off from praxis , in today’s society the rigid differentiation between economic and noneconomic factors has become questionable. Pediatric Dental Hygienist Letter? Today the apparatus, which, despite its centrifugal tendencies, functions more and more smoothly, is already ideological. It is this apparatus that has not only shrunken human consciousness, even the unconscious, down to its mere mirror image, but also has atrophied its general modes of behavior, primarily in the area of the consumer.
The analysis of that area 38 should not be left to operational social behaviorism. Henri Lefebvre and Contemporary Interpretations of Marx For Lefebvre it is thesis tennessee a section of a comprehensive “theory of everyday life” 39 that attempts to enrich Marxism (frequently subjected to economistic simplifications) with a previously neglected sociological dimension. We now turn to Lefebvre’s extensive study of the concept of alienation, which made him famous to a degree matched by scarcely another philosopher. From what has been said of his use of the term “anthropology,” it should be clear that for him (as little as for pediatric dental hygienist cover letter, Marx), there is no question of rigidly fixing in help nashville tennessee a few formulae the relationship between society, the individual and nature. Thus, alienation must be redefined according to the historical constellation in which those elements interact; namely from the essay point of view of its “ Aufhebung .” Lefebvre’s transition to socialism recapitulated the stages of help nashville tennessee Marx’s ‘‘self-understanding” to the extent that his categories, like those of Marx, become progressively more concrete. Of Pi Essay On Religion? Lefebvre’s independent development into a Marxist theoretician began with his study of the 1844 Economic and Philosophical Manuscripts , discovered in help tennessee 1931, which in it manager spite of their abstractness already had substantially more content than the then “official” materialist ontology.
His study of the Marx of the thesis help nashville tennessee Paris period found expression in what is essay contest results certainly Lefebvre’s most important book from the thirties: Dialectical Materialism , written in 1934-1935, published in 1938. The book had to have been rejected within the help nashville tennessee Party, if only because it appeared at the same time as the History of the Communist Party in question the Soviet Union , which contained the thesis help chapter written by Stalin, “On Dialectical and Historical Materialism.” During the period of Stalin’s rule, this was clearly an obligatory text and, correspondingly, was quoted often. Whereas for Marx, historical and dialectical materialism (though he never used the expressions) had an identical content, and dental, whereas he always objected to the “abstract materialism of the thesis nashville tennessee natural sciences… which excludes the historical process,” 41 with Stalin the theory (degraded to a “worldview”) was dogmatically divided into dialectical and historical materialism, the latter being simply a special case of the former, which had to do with the most general laws governing the development of matter. Nature and of pi on religion, history are both frozen into things in themselves: the constitutive role of human praxis for thesis help nashville, the changing “objectivity” (and, thus, the cornerstone of Marxian dialectic) remained uncomprehended. It is understandable that Lefebvre’s book, which explicitly spelled out this last point and only granted validity to that objectivity whose character as product is ayn rand contest results perceived clearly, had come into conflict with a doctrine that invokes an thesis help tennessee, immediacy unpenetrated with reflection, yet which, nonetheless, still boasts of itself as being scientific. At a point when the Party glorified the columbia question seven miserable “basic characteristics” of the dialectic and of materialism, which Stalin enumerated like a catalogue, as the high point of Marxist thought, such a view had to sow confusion since it destroyed the “clarity” that had been attained by the catalogers. In Dialectical Materialism , Lefebvre follows an eminently philosophical intention. 42 In the face of the institutionalized simplifications of the thesis help tennessee theory introduced by Stalinism and of its antagonism to results, humanity, he stresses the critical, humanistic impulse of the thesis tennessee theory. The fact that his starting point is the essay question 1844 Manuscripts does not at all imply a devaluation of the economic problematic, as it does in the case of those interpreters for whom Marx’s work falls into “two parts which cannot be linked in any meaningful principled way.” 43 On the help tennessee contrary, Lefebvre views Marx’s development as a unified process in ayn rand essay results which the nashville tennessee theme of “alienated labor” as well as its ideological derivatives, are handled more and more concretely from stage to stage; from Marx’s book against Proudhon to the Theory of essay Surplus Value , there are no (economic in the more strict sense) texts that he does not cite.
The fact that he holds firmly to this unified point of view should be appraised all the more highly since he did not have available the Outline of the Critique of Political Economy , the 1857-1858 “rough draft” [ Rohentwurf ] for the Critique of Political Economy , which was published for the first time in Moscow in 1939 and 1941. 44 He could not see a text nearly a thousand pages thick, which, in terms of the history of Marx’s development, establishes the link between the 1844 Manuscripts and the developed materialist economics of the middle and mature Marx. The rough draft — still “philosophical” and already “economic” — is more appropriate than any other of thesis help Marx’s texts to place the assassination essay discussion of the relationship of help Marxism to caesar essay, Hegel’s philosophy on a broader footing, since Marx himself, in thesis help tennessee his forewords and postfaces, often expresses himself unclearly and gives only is the mother essay, sparse results on this score. It also speaks for Lefebvre that he saw that with the preparatory work to tennessee, the 1859 Critique of Political Economy , Marx began a second, far more positive approach to Hegel. The dialectical method is necessary to really grasp as a system the structural relationships between the categories that bourgeois economists have presented merely as empirical results, to transcend them critically. 45 As Lefebvre shows, this method has to derive the alienation that at assassination of julius essay, first appears only abstractly in the products and the activity of the thesis help nashville tennessee worker from the specifically social character that products and ayn rand contest, activities assume in capitalism; that is, in thesis nashville tennessee a totality that is just as much an objective structure as it is a movement that would not exist without the conscious will and purpose of men. Naturally the insight that through their activity men continually bring forth just those conditions to which they are subjected at first appears only to the theoretical consciousness. In everyday praxis , on the other hand, “individuals are subsumed under social production, which exists as if it were a destiny outside them; but social production is diligence is the of good essay not subsumed under the help nashville individuals who manage it as their common property.” 46. All of letter for resume Lefebvre’s work, including Dialectical Materialism , takes up the help nashville tennessee task of revealing the pediatric dental hygienist illusory character of help this social objectivity. Evolved through practice, it can only be dissolved through practice. But, Lefebvre might be asked, what about the possibility of the dissolution [ Aufhebung ] of alienation, of a realization of the total man, if alienated conditions — which Marx still presupposes in The German Ideology — cease to be an “intolerable power against columbia university essay question which men make a revolution”?
47 Even under the conditions of effective competition, private interests were socially determined from the start and could be pursued only in a given framework. And yet the gap between the help interior and the exterior remained based on competition, which presupposed a minimum of individual consistency. Today, in life of pi essay the age of one-dimensional thought and relations (H. Marcuse), the relatively spontaneous procedure of “introjecting” the exterior into the interior through a self that can also oppose the exterior world is hardly possible any longer. Men identify themselves immediately with the social whole, which tends to reduce all opposition to silence with its oppressive abundance of goods.
48 What becomes of the multiple subjective forms of thesis help nashville tennessee alienation (aesthetic, psychological), which Lefebvre has examined in all his books, and diligence mother luck, whose “positive” — that is, critical — side is only now coming to light, when society directly incorporates whole sectors of the superstructure into its political-economic process? Don’t they have to disappear if the thesis help individual’s identification with the lifestyles imposed on him reproduces itself mechanically? What epistemological value does the concept of essay alienation still possess when alienation has objectified itself as reality in such a way that it deprives men of the possibility of revealing it as, in help nashville tennessee Hegel’s term, a “disappearing appearance”? Marx’s critical reformulation of cover Feuerbach’s conception of alienation refers to The Phenomenology of thesis help Spirit , which implies, albeit idealistically, that man, essentially “self-consciousness,” has been capable of grasping his own torn and shattered condition (and thus that of his world) and “with this knowledge” has raised himself above this fragmentation. Life Of Pi Essay On Religion? 49 But already in Hegel, self-consciousness can manage to thesis help nashville, achieve this “only when revolting.” Though materialist theory does not share the Hegelian belief that a conflict which has become conscious is one which has been concretely mastered, it still presupposes that the transition from the “class in itself” to contest, the “class for itself” first takes place in individual thought, and only then do “knowledge” and “action” become one in collective praxis . Marx’s pre-1848 revolutionary humanism assumes a fairly high (and increasing!) degree of independence of subjective forms of help reflection from the caesar relationships supporting them: the real possibility of becoming enraged. The possibility of revolt is minimized by help nashville, the subsequent course of history — not by university essay question, the developed critique of political economy. The latter’s insistence on the strict objectivity of the process as a whole signifies more a qualitatively new level of capitalism than a “scientific” detour away from the needs of the individual. Nietzsche underscores the findings of Marx’s analysis of help commodities when, in The Will to Power , he makes the pediatric cover letter supposition that consciousness may well become more and more dispensable in the future and is “perhaps destined to disappear and to make place for a full-fledged automatism.” 50 As opposed to that notion, Lefebvre’s conception of alienation seems harmless, because it holds all too firmly to the continuity of the prerequisites of individualistic society, which were already becoming debatable in the second half of the previous century. He overlooks the fact that theory must abstract from help, individuals to the extent that they become mere “personifications of economic categories.” 51. Thus, Lefebvre is one of the few authors who do not erect a Chinese wall between Marx’s youthful and his mature work, and who examine both the “philosophical” motives of the economic writings as well as the “economic” motives of the philosophical works. He rightly sees that the appropriate path leading to questions concerning the discipline of columbia essay question historical and help, dialectical materialism is to be found in is the of good essay the presentation of the history of its origins . 52 This in turn is not separable from the history of the tennessee subject of its investigation: bourgeois society, a concretum in which every historical process is summed up.
Marx, who starts from the fact that “economics” must first be created “as a science in the German sense of the term,” 53 describes his task in the following way: “The work in of julius caesar essay question…, is the critique of economic categories, or… the critical presentation of the system of bourgeois economics. It is at thesis, the same time the presentation of the system and letter, through the presentation the critique of the system.’’ 54 Lefebvre’s writings do take the help nashville Marxian desideratum of the “presentation” of theory extremely seriously. There are several reasons why he leaves open many problems when questions about developing the flow of the total capital of columbia university essay question society according to its adequate “concept” come up; why he hesitates to express the nashville systemic character of the world without reservations. For one thing, he lets himself be guided by the philosophical notion of the of pi essay indissolubility of the universe into concepts that grasp it, apart from the fact that every system tends to destroy the specific content of the individual being, which is nashville tennessee what ultimately matters. For Marx, it is not primarily a question of the universe in a metaphysical sense, but of a universe of facts that are mediated through the negative totality of society. Insofar as society is it manager letter for resume grounded in the abstract generality of exchange, and to that extent resembles an idealistic system, it remains linked to the natural form of human labor power and thesis nashville tennessee, its products, that is, to columbia university, qualitatively determined use value.
For another thing, the system of economic categories Marx had in mind is by no means present in a single form in his writings: if it were, a self-contained presentation of the system would be possible without difficulty. Thus, the analysis of forms of commodities as value, capital, and money, consists only in fragmentary formulations. Third, and tennessee, lastly — and this is the letter most important aspect — under current historical conditions, which are much different from those that Marx understood as capitalism, every systematic presentation of the critique of political economy must contain its own metacritique. However great the objective difficulties in bringing the economic critique to thesis help, the point required today, the existence of its object cannot be doubted. Assassination Of Julius? Now, as before, progress has the character of a “density” that “exists” outside man and that is as yet unmastered.
Only in this way can we explain why for Lefebvre (similarly to Bloch, we may add) the critical meditation on science, to which Marxism once imagined to have raised itself, returns to utopia. It is as if reality refused itself to critical thought to such a degree that it can only stand in a negative relation to it. Help Nashville? An historically unambiguous mediation between the bad that exists and the better that is possible is not present. It is not by accident that Lefebvre has recourse to the romantic-sounding concept of “total man,” as it was used by the young Marx at a time when he had not yet theoretically mastered the diligence is the of good content of history. Tennessee? Today, when it appears that we are no longer masters of this content, that concept is again necessary in order not to contest results, fall into sheer historicism, in order to hold firm to the telos of a rationally installed humanity. Translated by John Heckman. 1 Henri Lefebvre, Probleme des Marxismus, heute (Frankfurt-am-Main: Suhrkamp Verlag, 1965). 2 Dialectical Materialism , edited by Grossman (London: Cape, 1968). [Schmidt’s essay originally appeared as an “Afterword” to the German edition of this work.]
3 He describes its stages exhaustively in the second volume of his extraordinary, part essayistic, part lyrical, part autobiographical work, La somme et le reste (Paris: 1959), under the title “L’itineraire,” pp. 357-559 (Cf. also Lefebvre’s self-presentation in thesis help tennessee the anthology Les philosophes francais d’aujourd’hui [Paris: 1963], pp. 282-300.) A preliminary summary is offered in cover Iring Fetscher’s essay, although it is more than a decade old, „Der Marxismus im Spiegel der franzosischen Philosophie“, in: Marxismusstudien , Schriften der Studiengemeinschaft der Evangelischen Akademien, vol. 3 (Tubingen, 1954), cf. especially pp. 175-182. On Lefebvre’s position after his exclusion from the Party, cf. my postscript to Probleme des Marxismus, heute, op. cit ., pp. 135-145. Also instructive is Gianni Barba’s essay, „Bibliographische Notizen zum Werk von Henri Lefebvre“, in: Neue Kritik (August 1965), Heft 31: 24-28. 4 Introduction a la lecture de Hegel edited by R. Queneau (Paris: 1947). An abridged version exists in English: Introduction to the Reading of Hegel , edited by Allan Bloom (N.Y.: Basic Books, 1969). In addition to Kojeve, Jean Hyppolite is especially responsible for the reception — mediated through existentialism — of Hegel into French consciousness.
Even Sartre’s Being and Nothingness is unthinkable without Hegel’s Logic . On French Hegelianism in general, cf. Iring Fetscher, „Hegel in Frankreich“, in Antares , vol. 1, no. 3 (1952). 5 Fetscher, Der Marxismus im Spiegel der franzosischen Philosophie , p. 183. 6 Kojeve, Introduction to the Reading of Hegel , p 219. 8 Kojeve, Hegel Versuch einer Vergegenwartigung seines Denkens (German translation of the above), Editor’s preface, p. 9. 10 Introduction to Hegel , p. 41. 13 This critical characterization of Kojeve in no way detracts from his great services in the Marxist reinterpretation of Hegel (especially the Phenomenology of Spirit ) in this century.
However — and it is this point that we are criticizing — Kojeve’s thought is prejudiced by help, the fact that he understands Hegel and columbia essay question, Marx in terms of Heidegger’s Being and Time , which, among other things, results in his falling back to the position of an thesis help nashville tennessee, ahistorical Feuerbachianism, which Marx left early in his career. In that he isolates and hypostatizes categories like “struggle,” “war,” and is the luck essay, “prestige,” he comes close to that which, under the thesis nashville tennessee rubric “political anthropology,” belongs in the European prehistory of columbia university right-wing authoritarian thought. Hence, the expression “fascistoid.” (Author’s note for the American edition.) 14 Pascal’s relation to Jansenism is the subject of his doctoral thesis. Later Lefebvre devoted a two-volume study to Pascal which is of great methodological interest: Pascal (Paris: 1949 and 1954). 15 In 1925, during the heroic phase of surrealism, when Breton was attempting a sort of “popular front” between Left intellectuals and organizations friendly to the Communists, Lefebvre — who then, along with Georges Politzer, Norbert Guterman, Georges Friedmann, and thesis, Pierre Morhange, belonged to the group Philosophies (which was as yet by no means Marxist-materialist oriented) — came into contact with the Centrale surrealiste . A contact which without doubt furthered Lefebvre’s politicization and broke off only in 1929, when he fully adhered to Communism with Morhange and Politzer (who in the meantime had become editor of the journal L’Esprit ). Cf. Maurice Nadeau, History of Surrealism (N.Y.: Macmillan, 1965), pp. 155, 161. 16 Der Marxismus im Spiegel der franzosischen Philosophie , cf. p. 176. 17 Max Scheler, „Die Sonderstellung des Menschen“, in Mensch und Erde (Darmstadt: 1927), p. 246. On the materialist critique of the modern inclination to constitute something like a “unified portrayal of man,” see Max Horkheimer’s seminal essay, „Bemerkungen zur philosophischen Anthropologie“, in: Zeitschrift fur Sozialforschung , IV, Jg, Heft 1 (Paris: 1935). p. 1-25.
18 Critique of Political Economy (Berlin: 1951), p. 242. 19 German Ideology (N.Y.: International Publishers, 1947), p. Of Julius Caesar Essay? 15. 21 Quoted by Fetscher, Der Marxismus im Spiegel der franzosischen Philosophie , p. 189. 22 On Lefebvre’s critique of Jaspers, see Rencontres internationales de Geneve, 1948 (Paris/Neufchatel: 1949). 23 In a book which is no longer completely acknowledged by its author, because of its all-to-self-consciously Marxist tenor, but which is nonetheless important: L’existentialisme (Paris: 1946). 24 „Differenz des Fichteschen und des Schellingschen Systems der Philosophie“, in Samtliche Werke , vol. 1, Glockner (Stuttgart: 1958) p. 44. 27 See his studies, Le nationalisme contre les nations (Paris, 1937); Hitler au pouvoir.
Bilan de cinq annees de fascisme en Allemagne (Paris: 1938); Nietzsche (Paris, 1939), a book with a differentiated argument which denounces both the National Socialist’s misuse of Nietzsche’s philosophy and, equally, those motives in Nietzsche’s thought which tend toward such a misuse. 28 Nothing is more revelatory for the boundless dogmatism of the Stalinist era than Zhdanov’s position in the 1947 philosophical discussion, in which he dismissed the “debate on Hegel” as a “rebirth of scholasticism” with the words: “The problem of Hegel has long been resolved. There is no occasion to take it up again.” In Uber Kunst und Wissenschaft (Berlin: 1951), p. 104. 29 La somme et le reste , vol. 1, p. 87. 31 „Kritik der Hegeischen Rechtsphilosophie“, in Marx/Engels, Die heilige Familie (Berlin: 1955), p. 11. 32 Marx, „Kritik der Hegeischen Dialektik und Philosophie uberhaupt“, in Ibid ., p. 80.
33 Even here a dialectic structure cannot be ascribed to it en bloc . See Alfred Schmidt, „Zum Verhaltnis von Geschichte und Natur im dialektischen Materialismus“, in help tennessee Existentialismus und Marxismus (Frankfurt-am-Main: Suhrkamp Verlag, 1965), pp. 103-155. 34 Ernst Bloch may applaud Engels’ recognition of the dialectic of nature, but the concept of nature and matter developed in Das Prinzip Hoffnung is not so much a refinement of Engels, but something much different: a mystical-teleological cosmology. 35 Sartre’s astounding turning-point in columbia essay Critique de la raison dialectique (Paris: 1960), owes extraordinarily much to Lefebvre. When Sartre grasps the categories of his “phenomenological ontology” concretely and historically, he explodes them He is help concerned with grounding “Marxist knowledge,” in opposition to Hegel’s absolute knowledge, in ayn rand essay contest results a “historical and structural anthropology” (cf. p. 108), for which “human existence” (now viewed through its strict economic determination) is inseparably linked with the “understanding of the human.” 37 Here he refers to Lenin, who in his 1894 polemic against the “populists” already stressed that historical materialism constitutes not only the preconditions of a critical economics, but also of sociology. Cf. Werke , vol. 1 (Berlin: 1963), pp. 129-131. 38 It is available in a highly advanced form in the studies of Adorno, Horkheimer, and Marcuse, who have furthered critical and also psychoanalytical insights.
They have attempted to satisfy the thesis demands of diligence mother of good a “dialectical anthropology” by making the society whole, in which everything individual is imprisoned, transparent even within the nashville most private experience. 39 It is based on the concept of alienation developed by Lefebvre in the thirties and it is presented in the work Critique de la vie quotidienne (Paris: 1947). The second edition, of which two volumes have appeared so far (Paris: 1958 and 1962), is more important methodologically. 40 This had been preceded by a series of important publications, written in collaboration with N. Guterman. Lefebvre published the first translation of the 1844 Manuscripts in columbia essay the periodical Avant-Poste in 1933. In 1934, the introduction to the Morceaux choisis de Karl Marx contained the elements of a theory of consciousness that tried to go beyond the summary thesis that consciousness is a “reflex” of being. This theory was more closely argued, especially with reference to the situation of the Popular Front at help tennessee, that time, in the 1936 book, La conscience mystifiee . In the same year as Dialectical Materialism , there appeared the Morceaux choisis de Hegel and a text which had been completely unknown in France until then, Cahiers de Lenine sur la dialectique de Hegel . Diligence Is The Of Good Luck Essay? This last text had a long introduction in which Lefebvre — in opposition to orthodoxy — called attention to the objective meaning of Hegelian philosophy for Marxism and, in thesis help nashville tennessee particular, attempted to show that a conception of cover letter for resume Lenin centering on Materialism and help tennessee, Empirio-Criticism , of 1908, is unreliable.
Both publications found almost no echo in the Party. It Manager Cover For Resume? In 1940, the Cahiers as well as Dialectical Materialism were placed on the Otto list of books forbidden and to be destroyed by thesis, the German occupation authority. 41 Das Kapital , vol. 1 (Berlin: 1955), p. 389. 42 In many respects he sees the ayn rand results problem “Marxism and philosophy” differently today. Although in the thirties he had already disputed the view that dialectical materialism was a philosophy in the traditional sense, that is, a metaphysical system, he still held firm to thesis tennessee, the view that it is still a philosophy : one which is free from the letter limits of previous philosophies. Help Nashville? The Marxist idea of the “ Aufhebung ” of philosophy did not seem to offer any special problem. In view of the fact that the “revolutionizing praxis’ ’ into which philosophy was supposed to be dissolved, never occurred, Lefebvre today sees himself forced to pose anew the question of the meaning of philosophy. In the apparent failure of Stalinized Marxism, he thus no longer sees merely a deviation from authentic “Marxist philosophy.” That concept itself has in the meantime become suspect to him. The crisis of Marxism is assassination of julius essay symptomatic of a crisis of philosophy in general. It should be reflected on help tennessee by means of life on religion a “metaphilosophy.”
43 Beginnings of thesis help nashville tennessee it are found in La somme et le reste , vol. I, pp. 48 and 68; especially in parts VI and columbia university essay question, VII of the second volume, “What Is the philosopher?” and “Is There a Philosophy?” cf. pp. 659-761. Cf. also the tennessee larger book which has appeared in the meantime, Metaphilosophie (Paris: 1965). 44 Ralf Dahrendorf, Marx in Perspektiv (Hannover: 1952), p. Ayn Rand Essay Contest? 165. 44. Since published in a single volume by Dietz, Berlin, 1953. [Known better in English as the Grundrisse — Ed.].
45 Caught as he was in the then obligatory, yet objectively senseless, division of Marxism into historical and dialectical materialism, Lefebvre sees the origins of the latter only at thesis help nashville, this point. Ayn Rand Contest Results? The general development of Marx and Engels up to Poverty of Philosophy (1847) is supposed to nashville tennessee, be one toward “historical materialism” and to consist in pediatric hygienist letter a principled rejection of the Hegelian dialectic. Help Tennessee? A thesis which Lefebvre’s book, however much its structure was determined by it, refutes. 46 Marx, Grundrisse der Kritik der politischen Okonomie , p. 76. 48 Cf. Herbert Marcuse, One-Dimensional Man (Boston: Beacon Press, 1964), p. 9ff. 49 Phenomenology of Spirit , p. 548. 50 WW , vol. Essay On Religion? 16 (Leipzig: 1922), Aph. Thesis Help Tennessee? 523.
52 A procedure he uses not only in Dialectical Materialism , but also in life on religion the two important books Pour connaitre la pensee de Karl Marx (Paris: 1948), and Pour connaitre la pensee de Lenine (Paris: 1957). 53 Marx to Lassalle, Letter of November 12, 1858, in Marx/Engels, Werke , Vol. 29 (Berlin: 1963), p. 567. 54 Marx to Lassalle, Letter of February 22, 1858, in ibid ., p. 550. 3 thoughts on “ Henri Lefebvre and Marxism: A view from the Frankfurt School ” Ross, I am a little surprised you think this philosophical and logical bumbler, Lefebvre, is worth bothering with — but, then again, given your penchant for promoting this stuff, maybe not. Like so many other fans of this Hermetic theory (i.e., Dialectical Materialism [DM]), Lefebvre had a tenuous grasp of Formal Logic:
“Formal Logic asserts: ‘A is thesis nashville A’. Dialectical Logic is not saying ‘A is not-A’…. It says: A is indeed A, but A is also not-A precisely so far as the proposition ‘A is A’ is not a tautology but has real content. A tree is a tree only by being such and letter for resume, such a tree, by bearing leaves. Thesis Help? blossom and fruit, by passing through and preserving within itself those moments of caesar essay its becoming….” [Lefebvre (1968), ‘Dialectical Materialism’, p.41.] Lefebvre, again, just like other DM-fans, offers evidence from not one single logic text (other than perhaps that misnamed book inflicted on thesis nashville humanity by Hegel) in of pi essay on religion support of these odd ideas. However, I have shown how syntactically and semantically inept claims like these are over at Wikipedia: But in much more detail here: “Our world, like a charnel-house, lies strewn with the detritus of dead epochs.” ? Le Corbusier, Urbanisme (1925)
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That being said, any comments, questions, and criticisms are welcome. The twin fires of war and revolution have devastated both our souls and our cities. Help Tennessee? The palaces of yesterday’s grandeur stand as burnt-out skeletons. Ayn Rand Contest? The ruined cities await new builders[…] To you who accept the thesis help tennessee legacy of Russia, to you who will (I believe!) tomorrow become masters of the diligence mother of good essay whole world, I address the question: with what fantastic structures will you cover the help nashville tennessee fires of yesterday?” ? Vladimir Maiakovskii, “An Open Letter to the Workers” (1918) “Utopia transforms itself into actuality. Assassination? The fairy tale becomes a reality. The contours of socialism will become overgrown with iron flesh, filled with electric blood, and begin to dwell full of life. The speed of socialist building outstrips the most audacious daring.
In this lies the distinctive character and essence of the epoch.” ? I. Chernia,“The Cities of Socialism” (1929) “The idea of the conquest of the thesis tennessee substructure, the earthbound, can be extended even further and calls for the conquest of gravity as such . Columbia University? It demands floating structures, a physical-dynamic architecture.” ? El Lissitzky, The Reconstruction of nashville tennessee Architecture in the Soviet Union (1929)
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12 sentence essay Have you ever heard that different people learn in nashville different ways? Well, it’s true. And while some people may be able to learn just by reading the theories on how to caesar essay do something, you learn differently–you need actual examples. Just like protestors or politicians, I’m here to thesis help nashville tennessee lead by example. Ayn Rand. I’ve put together a list of essay conclusions that cover a range of topics and thesis help, essay formats to serve as a stepping stone for your own writing. Why Do You Need a Strong Conclusion? Before I get into the examples, you should know why writing a strong essay conclusion is so important. Your conclusion is not just a summary of what you’ve already written. True, it’s a little bit about summary, but it should take your essay one step further. It needs to answer any unresolved questions the reader might have and end your essay with a bang!
In short, an awesome essay conclusion is super important because it rounds out your essay, making it feel complete. Now on to the good stuff… Analytical Essay Conclusion Examples. Diligence Mother Essay. Topic #1: Analyze the thesis nashville, theme of compassion for one character in the Hunger Games series. The obvious choices for university essay, compassion in the Hunger Games may have been Katniss or Peeta, but the character who personified compassion best was Prim. Help. Throughout the for resume, series, her compassion can be seen when she keeps secrets from her mother for Katniss, when she heals Gale after he gets whipped, and as the tennessee, last act of mother essay, her life as she rushes to save children in thesis help the Capitol. It Manager. She truly lived Albert Schweitzer’s words, “The purpose of human life is to serve, and to show compassion and the will to help others.” The importance of each cause of the American Civil War can be debated, but what is help nashville tennessee, fact is that there were several factors that led the assassination essay, South to secede. Thesis Help Nashville Tennessee. Slavery, states’ rights, and the election of Abraham Lincoln to ayn rand essay contest results the presidency–even though no state in the South voted for him–all contributed to the war. Even though it has been nearly 150 years since the Civil War ended, some of the leftover divide between North and South can still be seen. Though social media allows young users to connect with people across the world and get instantaneous news about the world around them, it also has come with many complications. From access to inaccurate information to the rise of cyberbullying, the bad can sometimes outweigh the good among younger users. With 73% of young Americans ages 12-17 years old using Facebook, it may be time to come up with better rules for promoting responsible use.
Expository Essay Conclusion Examples. Essay conclusions are pretty simple once you know the framework. It all boils down to three main parts: a transition from the last body paragraph, a summary of the thesis statement and main points of the thesis nashville tennessee, essay, and pediatric dental hygienist letter, a closing statement that wraps everything up. If all students knew this simple formula, maybe essay writing would be easier for everyone. The scientific method is common sense. First, a person has to have a research question they want answered and a little background knowledge on the subject. Thesis Help. Then the person forms a hypothesis, or what he or she thinks the answer to of pi the research question is, which he or she tests with an experiment. Thesis Help Nashville Tennessee. Finally, the person should analyze the life of pi, data and help nashville tennessee, draw a conclusion. Diligence Luck. This method can be used both in and out of the scientific realm, testing everything from history to social issues. Passing by a homeless person is not uncommon especially in urban settings.
Homelessness could be caused by help nashville tennessee many factors including job loss, lack of family support, and assassination, the diminishing availability of help tennessee, affordable housing. Although it’s easy for some to think that homelessness is caused by it manager cover for resume mental problems or general laziness, there are other factors to consider. Only when we know the whole scope of the nashville, problem can we begin to come up with a comprehensive solution. Columbia. Narrative Essay Conclusion Examples. Help Tennessee. Topic #7: Write about life of pi on religion what it would be like to be put into the pages of Romeo and Juliet ? Being catapulted into the pages of Romeo and Juliet would definitely come with some culture shock. Men would be carrying swords and fighting each other in thesis help tennessee the street. Girls would be getting married at 13 years old. Had I the knowledge of what would become of the star-crossed lovers, I would have warned Romeo that Juliet’s death was a hoax and to wait until she woke up. This, of course, would make the play quite different, but I would feel that it was my duty after having spent so much time with the characters. Topic #8: A time machine has taken you back to contest meet your favorite author (Edgar Allan Poe in this case). Write about that meeting.
As Edgar and I were discussing the thesis nashville tennessee, common themes and dark imagery of his works, the pediatric dental cover letter, waiter interrupted us, I reached for the wine decanter, poured myself a glass, and asked if he would like some. “No, thanks.” he said, laughing grimly. “After all, it might be poisoned.” Topic #9: Tell about your proudest moment. Standing up for nashville, my little brother made me feel like the character that everyone likes in those after-school sitcoms. I was able to confront the kid that was bullying him without using threats or physical force. In the diligence is the luck essay, end, encouraging the two to thesis help nashville have an open dialogue brought them closer, and ayn rand contest results, while they may never be best friends, at least they can respect each other. Persuasive Essay Conclusion Examples. Topic #10: Should Hermione have ended up with Harry instead of Ron in the Harry Potter series? Harry may be the main character of the Harry Potter series, and J.K. Rowling may have stated recently that even she thinks Hermione and Harry should have ended up together, but the characters are much too similar.
They are both natural leaders, which would create a lot of relationship tension. Ron, on the other hand, is the Type B to thesis balance Hermione’s Type A personality.Since Harry ended up with Ron’s sister, Ginny, all three main characters are married into the same family. That certainly would make holiday get-togethers much more entertaining. The amount of student loan debt is an indication that something is definitely wrong with the system. Although universities need an income to survive, getting a college education should still come at is the of good luck, no direct cost to the student. Free education would allow for thesis nashville, a more educated nation as a whole, it would leave some students with more time to work more on their studies than their jobs, and dental hygienist letter, it could encourage universities to get more creative.
If more universities embraced the Pay It Forward model, the US might become one of the most educated countries in the world. Topic #12: What is the most important thing high school students should be learning but aren’t? There are many areas where public high school education could improve, but the most important is financial planning. While some may argue for thesis help, better nutrition or fitness programs, that information is easily available online and columbia university, even in commercials–and should actually be taught starting in thesis nashville elementary school. Stronger financial planning curricula would teach high schoolers how to establish credit, save for pediatric hygienist cover letter, retirement, and how to thesis tennessee budget.
All of these are important for is the luck essay, life in the real world but can be filled with confusing jargon and advertising schemes. With Americans having more than $11 trillion in tennessee debt, it’s time the younger generation be taught how not to be another statistic. As you probably noticed, there are a lot of ways to end an essay. Generally, there will be a summary, but narrative essays might carry an exception. These types of essays allow you to be more creative with your conclusion. You should still try to end the essay with a sense of cover, closure even if, as in the case of Topic #8, this means ending on a somewhat ominous note. No matter how you learn, it’s pretty helpful to help have practical examples. And now that you do, you can get to finishing your own essay. Once you have your essay drafted, have one of Kibin’s talented editors take a look at it for you. *Cover image Photo by Derek Harper via Wikimedia Commons.
Psst. Essay Contest Results. 98% of thesis nashville, Kibin users report better grades! Get inspiration from over 500,000 example essays. About the Author. Eden Meirow is a self-employed freelance writer with a passion for English, history and education. Pediatric Hygienist. You can find her on Google+. Nashville Tennessee. Thanks for posting this article.
I will use these tips in my essay. I have a question regarding proofreading. Do you think it is worth hiring a professional service for that? In my opinion, hiring a professional proofreading service is not a bad idea. Many students do it. There are many companies, that may help you)) I know one, that my friend hired. It is called Pro-Papers. com. Visit their website) This example has helped me to understand essay writing better.
My English teach hardly comes to our class so I feel like I have to teach myself. Of Pi Essay On Religion. I love the use of practical examples because I learn faster when i get the theoretical and practical teaching. Thanks a lot! We#8217;re happy to hear that we could help you! Thanks for reading. #128578; Excellent piece , I was enlightened by the insight , Does anyone know where my company can grab a fillable ASQ-3 12 Month Questionnaire example to edit ? how about any examples for history?? Hey there, great idea for a blog post, but right now we don#8217;t have much history paper content (except this one: https://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/how-to-find-primary-sources-for-your-essay/). I think the thesis help, qualities of your conclusion will work the results, same for your history essay: so basically restate your thesis in new words, and leave the reader with something to think about. A good history related example from the nashville, above list is: Topic #2: What caused the columbia university question, Civil War?
The importance of each cause of the thesis tennessee, American Civil War can be debated, but what is fact is that there were several factors that led the South to secede. Slavery, states’ rights, and the election of Abraham Lincoln to the presidency–even though no state in the South voted for him–all contributed to the war. Even though it has been nearly 150 years since the Civil War ended, some of the leftover divide between North and South can still be seen. That#8217;s very creative, Jack and could definitely become the premise for closing the first book of a sci-fi trilogy as a teaser for the next installment. #128578; What about a conclusion for it manager letter for resume, an Analytical Essay? Hi there you might want to check out this other post on essay conclusions to help you formulate yours: https://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/essay-conclusion/ The three main things your conclusion should accomplish are to thesis help tie up lose ends, restate your thesis in a different way, and end on an interesting note. I would definitely recommend that you write your conclusion after you#8217;ve drafted the it manager, rest of your paper! It#8217;s much easier to tie up those loose ends after you#8217;ve made your main arguments.
So in your conclusion, you might highlight the thesis tennessee, reasons that sleep is beneficial but also point out some of the drawbacks of sleep (especially because most people would be surprised that there *are* drawbacks to sleep!). You could also answer any questions that are unresolved: how to maximize the benefits of sleep without suffering from the negative effects, for instance. What about a conclusion to an essay on mood disorders. No matter what your topic, your conclusion can follow the same principles. Columbia Essay. as the above examples. Tie up loose ends (answer any unanswered questions) Restate your thesis statement in different words.
Close with an insight or thought that expands upon the work you put into your essay and leaves your reader something to thesis think about. Hi i need help with a thesis could please help im trying to write a good thesis on why or why not parenting education should be mandatory. You need to take a stance and then find evidence to support your stance. Your framework might look like the following: Parenting education should be mandatory (Where? A specific town or in it manager cover for resume the U.S. or in certain circumstances?) because REASON 1, REASON 2, and REASON 3. an example reason is that it would make for thesis nashville, safer home environments.
Parenting education is letter, unnecessary and should not be mandatory (Where?) because REASON 1, REASON 2, and REASON 3. an example reason is it would be an infringement on freedom and tennessee, difficult to create a curriculum that would take into account different family values. Whichever side you choose and whichever reasons you choose, make sure that you have sufficient evidence to support it. This is what i wrote so far parenting education is the pediatric, most important job when raising children . Rasining children does not come with instructions. While critics might argue that parenting education should not be mandatory those in favor believe other wise. Thesis Help Nashville Tennessee. The general argument made by those in favor made of parenting education is better supported for several reasons including nutritions,health,safety and stages of child delevopment.. Ms naomi if there is is the mother luck essay, anything u disagree with please let me know.
I think you are off to help nashville tennessee a good start. I would just revise as follows: Raising children does not come with an instruction manual, and question, parents would be more successful with parenting education. While critics might argue that parenting education should not be mandatory because it is an infringement on the parents#8217; freedoms, those in thesis nashville tennessee favor believe otherwise. Assassination Caesar. Proponents argue that parenting education should be mandatory for several reasons including it will improve nutrition, health, and safety in the home, and it will teach parents about the stages of child development. Once again, great job! I think this is coming together very nicely. Thank you sooo much for ur support i really do apperciate it now i just have to find the right way to reword it on my own wish me luck ?? THANKYOU. Feel free to use what I sent you, the only idea of my own that I added was the nashville, part about #8220;infringement on parents#8217; freedoms#8221; #8212; you could replace this with a more relevant objection. The rest of it was your words just polished up and university essay, organized! Ok thanks again ?? Hi any good website that u would recommend to thesis nashville tennessee upgrade my vocabulary use.
Also, read! The best way to get a great vocab is to read a lot of for resume, books. I#8217;m writing a persuasive essay but i don#8217;t know a good way to close it. Any advice? The general practice for writing a good conclusion is to restate your thesis in help nashville tennessee a different way, tie up any loose ends, and leave your reader thinking. You could do this last part by bringing up a question about the future of essay contest results, your topic or challenge your audience to act (this is an especially good approach in a persuasive essay.) I think that you could focus on these crops#8217; role in the betterment of humanity and how they might contribute solutions to nashville tennessee problems that will arise/worsen in of julius caesar essay the future. Since genetic engineering has the potential to nashville tennessee impact the future, I would focus on one or two of the issues that genetic engineering has the best shot at helping #8212; perhaps ending on an optimistic note #128578; Thanks for reading! I disagree that your conclusion should say something new. If you are bringing in of julius caesar new information, you might as well write another essay. Conclusions are for reiteration and summarization ONLY.
You#8217;re right that you shouldn#8217;t necessarily introduce new information, but there#8217;s nothing wrong with leaving the reader with fresh insight on the topic or something that expands one#8217;s understanding of your subject. The idea is to give the reader something to chew on. I need help with writing why Quito, Ecuador would be the perfect city to host the Olympics. What should I look for to make the audience agree with what I#8217;m trying to nashville say. You just need to of pi essay on religion sit down and brainstorm some of the most compelling reasons to host the Olympics there (weather, surroundings, availability of space for an Olympic park, cost#8230;).
I#8217;d try to thesis help nashville tennessee come up with a list of 15 or so items and then from essay, there, choose three or four that are the most convincing reasons and that you can support with evidence to make your paper the most persuasive. Is there any way to cleverly loop your conclusion back to thesis nashville tennessee your introduction? Typically your conclusion doesn#8217;t have to essay contest results do a whole lot more than restate your thesis in thesis help nashville tennessee a new way, tie up loose ends, and maybe leave your reader with something to contest think about. Haven#8217;t read the tennessee, poem (so you don#8217;t want to use my idea verbatim because it probably doesn#8217;t make sense), but an example of diligence is the, restating and adding something to think about thesis help nashville would look something like : In the end, despite the speaker#8217;s anxieties, the devil does not have more power over the speaker than God does, but God doesn#8217;t have power either. In truth, he is the one in control of his own life. Pediatric Dental Hygienist Cover Letter. While it#8217;s tempting to ascribe one#8217;s fate to thesis help nashville tennessee external forces as a way to avoid responsibility for of julius caesar, one#8217;s actions and help nashville tennessee, decisions, at dental hygienist cover letter, the end of the help nashville tennessee, day, the power always comes from within. i need an of julius caesar, conclusion that is fun/funny for newtons 3 laws, please help and send a response ASAP! Without Newton#8217;s 3 laws and his discovery of gravity, science would be WEIGHTLESS in our lives. am writing an nashville, essay on obedience i need help on the ending of this essay..can i get help rn #128577; Your conclusion should include these elements: 1. Restate your thesis and main points in new words.
2. Tie up any loose ends. Columbia Question. 3. Leave your reader with something to think about. Congrats! You#8217;re at the finish line #128578; Hi i need help for my report today 9am in thesis the morning on #8220;Ways to end a composition#8221; could u help me please.. Hi I need help. I#8217;m writing a paragraphs for #8220;why should senior high school students enroll in our school#8221; And it#8217;s persuasive paragraph. I need an hygienist cover, conclusion please thanks!! In short, you conclusion should paint a clear and help tennessee, compelling picture for assassination, why your school is the thesis, right choice for seniors.
Use this chance to tie up loose ends and make the choice seem obvious. Generally, your conclusion will restate your thesis, tie up any loose ends, and give your reader something to think about. Cover Letter. You can learn more about each of thesis help nashville, these elements in this post: https://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/essay-conclusion/ I#8217;m comparing between single called organisms and cells from multicellular organisms. I would like to know how to conclude my concluding paragraph. I can think of a few possible ways that you could finish your essay. If the overall tone of your essay is question, sad, you could conclude on a hopeful note, where you look ahead to thesis help when the boy#8217;s father comes home: what will they do? How does the boy feel about of pi on religion it? How old will the boy be #8212; the father? Maybe something like: #8220;While [the boy] understood that his father would be gone for thesis help nashville, [some amount of time], he looked forward to the day his father walked through the doorway#8230;#8221; If you want to close on a more somber note, you could also close with a comment about mother of good luck war#8217;s effect on families if that fits with your overall thesis and help tennessee, main idea: #8220;The effects of war are not only fought by soldiers, but by the families they leave back home#8230;#8221; I hope this gives you some ideas #128578; Happy writing! am I the only one who get stuck in the conclusion? I#8217;m writing a 5 paragraph essay about bucket list and I#8217;ve finished 4 paragraphs but it#8217;s really hard to conclude it.. You#8217;re definitely not the is the of good luck, only one who gets stuck there; that#8217;s why we wrote this post #128578; I#8217;m not sure if you#8217;re writing about *your* bucket list or the movie The Bucket List.
If it#8217;s your own list, then the thesis help tennessee, examples under the #8220;narrative#8221; and #8220;expository#8221; sections will be the best ones to use for inspiration. If you#8217;re writing about the movie, you#8217;ll want a more analytical conclusion. You can summarize your topic briefly if that helps you start your conclusion, but just remember to broaden it and it manager letter for resume, make a larger final statement about help nashville your topic, too (why it#8217;s significant/important, for instance). I#8217;m writing an argumentative essay about drugs and alcohol. University Essay. I have no clue in how to end it. Help? I have the same advice for you as I#8217;ve given others.
Your conclusion should include these elements: 1. Restate your thesis and thesis help nashville, main points in new words. 2. Tie up any loose ends. 3. Leave your reader with something to think about. hi im doing a paper on mother luck essay the effects of ww2 can u please help #128578; Also, I#8217;d recommend starting with making a simple list of effects that you can find via your research. Then pick three that stand out and are somewhat related to each other (i.e., economic effects, socio-political effects, human rights effects#8230;). This is help tennessee, such a giant topic that you#8217;re really going to consciously narrow it down to something manageable. help me, my topic is about discrimination. Assassination Caesar Essay. I#8217;m writing an help nashville, essay on assassination of julius the dutch colony of new netherland and I don#8217;t know how to write the conclusion paragraph. Can you help??
It#8217;s hard to say how to approach your conclusion without knowing a little more about what exactly you said about chocolate in your essay (mmm, chocolate). Just remember to use a *little* bit of nashville, summary (restating your thesis statement is a great start!) and then end on a note that leaves your reader thinking. Here#8217;s some more great advice: https://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/essay-conclusion/ please pray for me. Essays are tough sometimes and diligence is the, I really need an tennessee, A or B in this essay due Wednesday. Hey, you#8217;ve got this.
Good luck!! this is really dope and university question, helpful. So glad you found it helpful, Bob. Thanks for reading! I AM WRITING A COURSE WORK ABOUT CONVERSION IN ENGLISH AND I NEED HELP ON INTRODUCTION AND CONCLUSION PLESSEEE((((( Hey everyone)I am writing about #8220;Which of the following Cold War president-Truman Eisenhower or Kennedy was able to contain the spread of Communism?#8221;#8230;Can someone help me with this please?i will be thankful)))) i need help with conclusion:( A conclusion for thesis nashville, that essay might talk about the spread of communism (or lack thereof) after the term of the president you chose to write about cover letter #8212; for instance, you might mention modern-day communist nations and thesis nashville, what a president today could learn from life essay, President Truman, Eisenhower or Kennedy. I#8217;m doing an help nashville tennessee, essay on the relationship between Lady Macbeth and Macbeth and how it develops I#8217;ve got the main paragraphs and introduction but I#8217;m not sure how to finish the it manager cover letter, conclusion by thesis help relating to the essay question. #8220;Choose a play which explores an important relationship, for letter for resume, example husband and help nashville tennessee, wife, leader and follower, parent and child, or any other relationship. Describe this relationship and essay contest, then, by referring to appropriate techniques, explain how the relationship develops.#8221; I think you could end the essay by discussing the larger significance of their relationship within the play and (if you want to go the hypothetical route) mention how the thesis help, play would be different had their relationship been different. You could also re-emphasize a turning point in the development of their relationship that was key to the outcome of the play. I#8217;m doing an essay about tuition-free college. And I chose to against it. I#8217;m stuck with the conclusion.
I don#8217;t know how to end this or recommend a better solution for this. Can someone help me? Thank you in advance! It sounds like you might be getting hung up on the #8220;recommend a better solution#8221; idea, which isn#8217;t a requirement #8212; it#8217;s just one way to end an essay. Instead, you might end by pediatric cover noting the sense of satisfaction one feels when knowing that they paid for their education (perhaps tying this to thesis nashville your own experience, if you are currently paying tuition) or another benefit of tuition #8212; this is a good opportunity to mention something beneficial that perhaps wasn#8217;t #8220;meaty#8221; enough to be one of the cover for resume, main points of your argument.
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Convert Grass Lawns to Gravel to Reduce Insect Suffering. by Brian Tomasik. First written: 16 May 2015; last update: 24 Dec. Help Nashville Tennessee? 2016. Most insects die soon after birth, and their lives probably contain more suffering than happiness. If you have a lawn that you actively maintain, you should consider converting your grass to it manager letter, hard landscape materials like gravel, or to artificial turf, to reduce plant biomass and therefore insect suffering. This could save you labor in the long run, reduces your probability of tick bites, and may be good for the environment. It may prevent at least hundreds of insects from suffering per dollar and might even save you money. However, if you don't actively manage your lawn, the calculation becomes less clear because eliminating a grass lawn might slightly contribute to climate change.
Note: I assume that in help tennessee, many places, neighborhood rules or building codes might prevent you from replacing a lawn with gravel. Would artificial turf be acceptable? Also, maybe it would be allowed to at least put a strip of rocks around the perimeter of your home, or something like that? Doing so might also slightly reduce the number of insects that come indoors. Finally, when picking out a house, you can consider gravel-friendliness as one factor. Other things being equal, it seems better to choose a house in a more rural area where you can buy a larger amount of more secluded land. If you can't use gravel, you could consider adding a porch or other structure that would cover some grass, although the essay amount of land covered per unit cost might be small. It's often claimed that there's nothing humans can do to reduce the suffering of insects in the wild. This claim is wrong. One important way to help wild insects is to study the effects of human environmental policies on insect populations and favor those policies that cause fewer insects to thesis help, come into a nasty, brutish, and short existence.
This work is columbia essay question, important but involves a high degree of thesis help uncertainty in the analysis. If you actively manage your lawn, then a relatively clear-cut way to reduce insect suffering is to it manager for resume, replace your lawn with non-biological materials in order to prevent plants from growing. Thesis Help Tennessee? The reason to mother essay, focus on eliminating plants is because plants are the roots of the thesis help nashville food chain. Dental Hygienist Letter? As long as plant energy is created, someone is eventually going to eat it (whether insects, bacteria, or other critters). Help Tennessee? So just shuffling around population dynamics for heterotrophs isn't solving the fundamental problem that more plant energy means more life. It Manager Cover For Resume? Preventing photosynthesis stops the problem before it gets started. Converting grass lawns to gravel, glass, artificial grass, or other materials is a common landscaping practice -- one that many people do without giving a thought to insect suffering.
You can find tons of articles by searching and similar queries. This page has a slideshow of help tennessee options. Another page gives prices for columbia university different materials: The cost to install a square foot of pea gravel is $1.1 to $1.8. Another source reports $1-$3 per thesis help nashville tennessee square foot. Artificial grass costs $5 to $20 per square foot. The average lawn in the US is about 0.2 acres, or.
8700 square feet. Assuming $1-$3 per diligence is the square foot, the cost of converting your lawn to help nashville tennessee, gravel would be. Once converted, you can avoid the costs of mowing, watering, etc. This page estimates $800-$1000 to pay for lawn-mowing services per year. If you do the assassination of julius mowing yourself, say it takes 10 hours per year at a cost of thesis $50/hour, or $500. Assume a discount rate of 5% and that the gravel lawn lasts 20 years. Saving $500/year for 20 years has a present value of $500 * (1-1.05 -20 )/(.05/1.05) = $6,500.
Saving $1000/year has a present value of $13,000. So a gravel lawn might or might not pay for itself. Of course, this calculation also depends on how a non-grass lawn affects your home price relative to dental hygienist cover letter, a grass lawn, whether gravel is allowed by local regulations, etc. If converting to gravel saves you money, that's great. Even if it doesn't save you money, it might be worth doing anyway depending on its cost in order to thesis, reduce insect suffering.
How much insect suffering it reduces is the topic of the dental cover next section. All told, the Earth has about 13.4 billion hectares of land. Your 0.2-acre lawn is about 6*10 -12 of the thesis help nashville tennessee total. If the world's 10 18 insects were distributed evenly across the Earth, your lawn would contain. 6 million insects. This estimate seems too high, because tropical regions of the world house a disproportionate share of dental cover insects (although Arctic and help nashville tennessee Antarctic regions contain disproportionately fewer insects).
This discussion estimates insect densities on ayn rand results, farm land as. 10 million per hectare, or. 4 million per acre. That again seems plausibly too high for lawns. Thesis Help? Indeed, sometimes I don't see any bugs on lawns, though at dental hygienist cover letter other times I see lots of help little critters hopping around. Diligence Mother Luck? But lawns definitely are home to bugs. A slightly lower estimate of how many insects live on lawns at help a given time or are later supported by the biomass produced on lawns (e.g., decomposers eating dead grass clippings) at mother of good luck a given time might be -- just making up a number based on thesis help, personal observation -- 5 per square foot. It Manager Letter? a Assuming a lawn of 0.2 acres, that implies. 44,000 insects supported by your lawn's grass at thesis help nashville tennessee any given time.
Grass biomass also supports tons of pediatric dental hygienist letter bacteria, nematodes, etc. (especially when it decomposes). Suppose these collectively matter as much as all the insects. Thesis Help Nashville Tennessee? Then your lawn supports a total of 44,000 actual insects + 44,000 equivalent insects = 88,000 effective insects at a given time during the non-winter months. (The appendix at the end of this piece estimates a similar, though slightly higher, number of effective insects using an alternate approach.) Making the conservative assumption that these insects go through one generation per year, then you prevented 88,000 effective insect deaths per year. And if the gravel lawn lasts, say, 20 years before needing to be redone, that's 88,000 * 20 = 1.8 million effective insects saved from is the mother, a short life and miserable death. And this ignores the fact that many of those insects would give birth to hundreds of baby insects, most of which would die soon after being born. So the actual number of insect deaths prevented may be many times higher. If converting your lawn to gravel was financially positive from the beginning, then these reductions in insect suffering are just a bonus. If, instead, converting the nashville lawn cost, say, $10K, then you would have prevented. 180 painful insect lives per dollar, which is quite impressive! Not having a lawn is essay results, also good for the grass that doesn't come into existence, assuming you care about plant suffering to a nonzero degree.
Michael Pollan: That the perfume of jasmine or basil, or the scent of freshly mowed grass, so sweet to us, is (as the ecologist Jack Schultz likes to say) the chemical equivalent of a scream? Obviously this analysis is simplistic and ignores many relevant factors. For instance, maybe gravel lawns would collect puddles of thesis nashville rainwater, which would allow more mosquitoes to breed than before, thereby increasing mosquito populations. University Essay Question? Many more possibilities like this should be explored. Grass sequesters carbon, so non-biological lawns might worsen climate change. This section explores the implications of this point. Firstly, it's important to note that the net effects of climate change on wild-animal suffering and help tennessee far-future suffering aren't obvious. But I think it's plausibly somewhat better in question, expectation to reduce carbon emissions than increase them. How much do lawns help to reduce carbon emissions? In general, lawns don't sequester as much carbon as trees.
Trees sequester carbon because they live for decades before decomposing, trapping carbon year after year as they grow. Grass lives maybe a year before decomposing. Still, grass does sequester some carbon into the soil that isn't fully released back into the atmosphere. Part of the reason for thesis help nashville tennessee this is life on religion, that grass has a lot of roots, which can trap carbon in the soil. If you actively maintain your lawn, a grass lawn may be a net source of nashville tennessee greenhouse gases. Each hour of lawn mowing generates as much pollution as driving a car nearly 100 miles. (source) One study found that managed lawns in Florida sometimes increased net greenhouse-gas emissions.
This blog post rejects claims by the lawn-care industry that managed lawns are net carbon sinks. Of course, if you don't manage your lawns and let them grow wild, they'll be net carbon sinks, but the magnitude of the life essay effect isn't huge (see Table 1 here). Finally, you should consider using white or light-colored gravel or other materials to thesis nashville, increase albedo. University Question? In fact, one page actually recommends that you Replace part of your lawn with a white gravel rock garden. Instead of your grass absorbing heat, the help tennessee white gravel will reflect radiation back into space. Calculation if you don't maintain your lawn. Suppose that in the most extreme case, you don't manage your lawn at all but let the plants grow wild. Dental Hygienist Cover? Also ignore the albedo potential of white gravel. How much could the climate-change impact of replacing lawn with gravel be? This study found that lawns can sequester 46 to 127 g C per help m 2 per diligence is the mother of good essay year. Help Nashville? Another study found (Table 6) net carbon sequestration rates between 0.32 and 0.74 Mg per hectare per year.
Since a hectare is life of pi essay on religion, 10,000 m 2 , this implies 32 to 74 g C per m 2 per year. As above, assume the average lawn is 0.2 acres, or 809 m 2 . Taking an estimate of, say, 46 g C per m 2 per thesis help nashville tennessee year implies. 37 kg C sequestered per year on the whole lawn. CO 2 has one carbon atom (mass number = 12) and of julius caesar essay two oxygen atoms (mass number = 16), so 37 kg C implies 37*(16*2+12)/12 = 136 kg CO 2 , or 0.136 metric tons. Using a similar calculation as is done here, and assuming that climate change increases effective insect populations by 2% in expectation over uncertainty (e.g., we might be 60% confident that climate change will increase effective insect populations by tennessee, 10% and 40% confident that it will reduce them by columbia university essay question, 10%: 0.6*0.1 - 0.4*0.1 = 0.02), we find that our average lawn reduces insect populations by 79,000 per thesis nashville year. 79,000 is dental, awfully close to the 88,000 estimate for how many effective insects were reduced per year by converting grass to gravel. Actually, I rejiggered some of my estimates to make these two come out about the same, in thesis nashville, order to demonstrate the degree of uncertainty at play. (Had I let one or the other of these estimates win out, some readers might have falsely concluded that the question was clear one way or the other.) So if you have a lawn that requires no maintainance, then if you also think that climate change will increase wild-organism suffering on caesar, balance, then the question of whether to replace your lawn with gravel isn't obvious. It's important to remember that. Carbon sequestration declines after grass has been growing on nashville, an area for 25-30 years because soils become saturated with carbon. (This study discusses lawn sink capacity further.) So if you have an old lawn, it may not be providing much sequestration value after all.
These calculations ignore the essay results albedo potential of white gravel. How much would that consideration affect the results? I don't have a good way to quantitatively compare the thesis nashville tennessee albedo effect versus the carbon-sequestration effect, but albedo could be quite significant, given that deforestation in high latitudes might actually cool the planet more than warm it because deforested land has greater albedo. Mother Of Good? I also don't know how much more expensive white gravel is. One study for tennessee lawn carbon sequestration found net sequestration even for actively managed lawns, especially since irrigation and fertilization increase carbon sequestration. However: one of the study's authors was working for the Scotts Miracle-Gro Company and so would have been biased to of julius, favor lawns and active lawn management the study apparently didn't consider the impact of nitrous oxide from fertilizer, which can offset up to about 30 percent of the carbon stored in the lawns other studies as cited above have found that lawns can be net sources rather than sinks of carbon (though these studies have been criticized by pro-lawn researchers). So for actively managed lawns, the jury is still out on thesis tennessee, their net climate-change impact. Thus, it seems more likely that replacing an it manager cover, actively managed lawn with gravel is help nashville tennessee, a net plus.
Should you manage your lawn less if you don't convert to gravel? Even if you don't convert your lawn to dental cover, gravel, it's probably better if you stop using fertilizer, since this presumably increases biomass production and help also may contribute to climate change. You should also probably stop watering your lawn, since water increases biomass production (and may also deplete water resources in columbia essay, your area). Of course, watering somewhat increases carbon sequestration. The sign of pesticide use is less clear, but because the grass will be eaten by some little critter or other down the road, it's plausible that pesticides increase net suffering by increasing deaths per thesis nashville unit time. If you don't care at all about bacteria, this calculation becomes more subtle, because it's possible that, say, pesticides will mean fewer insects but more bacteria, depending on what kinds of critters eat decomposing grass. Or maybe pesticides don't reduce net insect populations because they just translate to more decomposing insects to offset the diligence of good luck essay fewer insects in live grass.
I don't know. It's unclear to me whether mowing your lawn is net good or bad assuming you still have a grass lawn. Not having a grass lawn avoids the downsides of mowing while capturing the upside. If it would cost a lot to thesis tennessee, gravel over your lawn, you can still make a smaller difference by covering parts of your lawn with various permanent objects, like rocks, big pieces of wood, metal, etc. (I say permanent objects because if you move the objects around a lot, they may not inhibit grass growth as much and will crush bugs painfully each time they're moved. For similar reasons, I avoid walking on grass.) Of course, depending on what kind of neighborhood you live in, some of assassination essay these possibilities may not be allowed. I'm also nervous about covering small regions of soil, since anecdotally if I lift up rocks or pieces of wood on thesis nashville, lawns, I find tons of bugs making a home underneath them, which calls into question whether the pediatric dental hygienist cover covering objects actually reduce insect populations at all or instead increase insect populations. In contrast, it seems pretty clear that the gravel on my driveway prevents most surface-dwelling insects from help, living on that region of land except when passing by. A friend told me that weeds used to it manager letter, grow in thesis help nashville tennessee, his gravel driveway, which suggests the dental hygienist cover letter same might happen on gravel lawns. This would reduce the benefit of the gravel lawn in preventing insects. I've lived at several houses with gravel driveways and rarely saw weeds, so this problem isn't universal, but a web search shows that many other homeowners do have weeds in their gravel driveways.
The reason I focus this piece on gravel is that alternate materials, like asphalt or artificial turf, are more expensive, and I'd rather not dissuade people from covering their lawns because the material is so expensive. Thesis Help? Also, asphalt lawns aren't a common landscaping option, so it might be harder to persuade people to go this route, and some neighborhoods might disallow it. Finally, asphalt may be worse for climate change because it's darker than gravel. (White concrete would be better in terms of albedo, but it's quite expensive.) This piece has focused on the possibility of covering your own lawn, but in theory, a person could scale this approach by buying land to it manager cover, be covered. If you bought other houses just to cover their lawns, the strategy would be hopelessly expensive, but if you bought land that doesn't have a house on it, the help nashville cost would actually be modest: maybe a few thousand dollars per acre. For example, one of the first listings I found on assassination of julius essay, a land-sale website was a sale of 75 acres of hunting land for $89,950. (Covering the land would also prevent hunting on it, of course.) Considering that the nashville tennessee cost of covering an acre of land with gravel would be in the tens of letter for resume thousands of dollars based on the estimates used above, buying land would actually be a small portion of the total cost of covering it. Of course, you'd also have to pay annual property taxes, but even if property taxes were.
2% of the land value (which may be high) paid each year for 20 years, the cost still wouldn't be that big. Also, if you bought huge amounts of gravel, you might get a discount relative to thesis help, the prices for gravel on just your own yard. Land in developing nations would be even cheaper. For instance, on an international property-selling site, I randomly found this listing for essay results 75 acres in Belize at help nashville a price of $28,307. Contest Results? Presumably insect densities there would be vastly higher than in many parts of the nashville tennessee US. It Manager? That said, there might also be a cost in hiring someone to look after the property if you didn't live there. (Checking up on thesis nashville tennessee, the property would presumably be less crucial in a developed country where enforcement of ayn rand contest property rights could be relied on to a greater degree.) In general, this approach of buying property to directly address wild-organism suffering on it is interesting. Thesis Help Nashville Tennessee? It's sort of the inverse of The Nature Conservancy's work.
In terms of direct insect suffering prevented, it might sometimes be quite cost-effective. Ayn Rand Essay? However, it doesn't have the same far-future impact potential that spreading concern for wild-organism suffering has. Thesis? It might also make people angry and thereby tarnish the movement to spread empathy for essay wild organisms. This might be particularly true with respect to buying properties in thesis help nashville, developing countries, since people there depend more on diligence is the mother, their land for survival. Maybe outrage at thesis help nashville tennessee covering land with gravel would be reduced if the gravel covering was used for a purpose, such as to columbia essay, create (plant-free) rock gardens or trails/mazes based on rock colors. If the area were opened to nashville, tourists, doing this might generate some income. However, such a business would require a lot of work in its own right, and it's not clear it would make much money. The biggest problem with buying property to cover with gravel might be climate change. Because non-home property generally isn't mowed and fertilized, it's probably a net carbon sink, so graveling it over of julius caesar essay, would probably contribute to climate change, which has the potential to nashville tennessee, offset the benefit of reducing insect populations on ayn rand essay results, the land. Help? This would be less true if you bought farm land, which is mowed and fertilized, but presumably by doing that you'd mostly just shift farming to essay, other pieces of property. If more forest or grassland was converted to farm land to compensate for your buying farm land, then this would still reduce carbon sequestration. (If you buy farm land, the price of farm land increases slightly, thereby slightly increasing food prices and hence reducing agricultural production, but this effect is probably small.)
So in practice, I'm doubtful that buying property to reduce wild-organism suffering on thesis help nashville, it is as promising as it seemed, but we should keep an eye out for other ways in which the strategy could actually work. Maybe the albedo calculations for white gravel would show that it reduces climate change even relative to unmanaged grass, in which case buying land and converting it to white gravel would be good all around. This possibility seems important to explore further. Another idea that would reduce concerns about climate change would be to cover land with solar panels rather than gravel. Diligence Is The Mother Of Good Essay? b However, my guess is that solar panels are really expensive, so unless a solar-power business like this would already be close to cost-neutral in its own right, it would probably be an expensive way to reduce insect suffering. Help Tennessee? And if such a business were profitable in its own right, then your doing it might partially displace solar panels that someone else would have laid down. Life Essay? (Solar panels on roofs don't displace grass, but solar panels on fields do somewhat insofar as they shade the underlying grass.) It would be ideal to help nashville tennessee, lay down solar panels flat on the ground to prevent any grass from growing underneath, but this is ayn rand essay contest, less efficient at capturing energy than letting the thesis help nashville panels tilt toward the of julius essay sun.
Another approach for making an impact beyond your own lawn could be to create an organization to subsidize home owners for converting their lawns to help nashville, gravel or other non-biological materials. This should probably only essay question, be done for home owners who actively manage and help nashville fertilize their lawns. Ignoring the overhead to life of pi essay, administer the organization and find interested customers, the nashville cost-effectiveness of university essay this approach would plausibly be similar as for tennessee converting your own lawn to gravel (or maybe more so because the dental hygienist letter organization could focus on those with the highest lawn-maintainence costs first). It would be important to inspect compliance to make sure people follow through on the conversion and don't bring grass back later on. (This inspection process could be compared with verifying a conservation easement. Help? It might get expensive, unfortunately. To reduce inspection costs, maybe only a small fraction of homes could be inspected at random.) The organization could also run awareness campaigns to inspire people for whom gravel lawns would save money to of julius essay, convert voluntarily. Fortunately, people who spend the most on lawn care are also those for whom converting to gravel is more likely to be altruistically positive because they probably have the most climate-change impact via lawn maintenance. It's unclear what the cost per person convinced would be for help tennessee an awareness campaign. Behavior change is often hard, although there may be several people who would gladly convert their lawns if they heard of the idea, so there may be some people who are relatively easy to of good luck essay, convince. Suppose it costs $900 to convince one person on the margin to switch to gravel lawns, via advertisements, pro-gravel op-eds, etc.
As discussed above, typical gravel lawn prevents. 1.8 million effective insects during non-winter months over 20 years. Assuming that bugs and bacteria are active half the year in temperate climates, that's (1.8 million)/2 = 0.9 million effective-insect-years of suffering, and the cost-effectiveness is (0.9 million)/($900) = 1000 effective-insect-years prevented per thesis help nashville tennessee dollar. Comparison with humane insecticides. Gravel lawns and essay contest humane insecticides are both concrete ways to reduce insect suffering. I look more favorably on gravel lawns because. there's less risk of a gravel-lawn campaign being misinterpreted to imply something possibly harmful, whereas a campaign to reduce the pain of insecticides might lead most casual observers to wrongly assume that we're in favor of help nashville tennessee organic farming pending more thorough research on how much lawns sequester carbon, promoting gravel lawns seems to pediatric dental, have low uncertainty and doesn't rely on assumptions about the run-on ecosystem effects of thesis a different insecticide or whether one type of insecticide is really more humane and it manager letter equally lethal compared with another the start-up costs of a gravel-lawn campaign are smaller (all that's required is to promote something that some people already do) people might look more favorably on gravel lawns, considering that, e.g., they help with California's droughts and help might reduce climate change the case for gravel lawns more prominently brings up the idea that bug lives in aggregate have more bad than good. The main reason why humane insecticides might have higher payoff is that in the long run, it might be possible to help more insects more cheaply if humane insecticides became widespread, since the dollar cost per hectare affected per year is probably smaller for humane insecticides. But given that most people oppose insecticide use for reasons of columbia university question human and environmental health, I doubt there could ever be a widespread movement with economies of scale to merely use more humane insecticides without also reducing the quantity of insecticides employed. Appendix: Estimating effective insects per hectare using net primary productivity.
In the main text I estimated. 88,000 effective insects on a lawn of 0.2 acres. That number was derived from guessing what seemed like a reasonable number of insects per square foot based on what I've seen in real life. This section attempts an alternative estimate based on the net primary productivity of lawn grass. This study reviews the literature to find an average net primary productivity for grasslands of 5.89 to 12.71 Mg dry matter/ha/year. Since I suspect this paper might be biased to overstate carbon sequestration, and in order to help nashville tennessee, keep my estimate conservative, I'll take a smaller figure: say, 2 Mg.
The study says (pp. 809-10) that Each year, ≈10% of the diligence is the of good essay biomass added to the soil may be humified (Duiker and Lal, 2000; Puget et al., 2005; Schimel et al., 1994). If we conservatively assume that 10% of help all the primary production is humified, that leaves 90% to be consumed immediately: 2 * 0.9 = 1.8 Mg. How much of life of pi essay this mass goes into biomass of insects, bacteria, etc.? And how much of the energy is expended as heat? Following are some estimates of nashville tennessee insect ECIs: One page reports: Tests on two species of edible grasshoppers, Locusrana migratoria and a species of ayn rand essay contest results Melanoplus, fed on several kinds of grasses showed combined ECIs in the range of 10-15% and 8-11%, respectively. (Note that the linked page supports entomophagy, which I oppose.) This study found ECIs for grasshoppers between 9.5% and 16.5%. This study found ECIs between. 15%.
This page says: For the German cockroach ( Blattella germanica ), [the ECI] is well above 40. Silkworms, traditionally cultivated in China and neighboring regions, typically have an ECI in the 20-30 span. Conversion efficiencies for effective insects should be higher than this, since some of what isn't digested by insects will be eaten by bacteria later. On the thesis nashville tennessee other hand, the quoted figures are plausibly high-ish ECIs relative to insects in general because insect farmers will tend to use insects with higher ECIs and harvest the columbia university insects once they've grown rather than letting them continue to help nashville, expend energy after they're already at full size. Assuming these considerations roughly cancel, let's take an columbia essay, ECI of. 10%. I assume this ECI is for growing organisms. ECIs for adult organisms should be roughly 0%, since adults tend not to grow further. So all told, the ECI for organisms that eat grass biomass might be, say, the midpoint of 10% and 0%: 5%.
5% of 1800 kg implies 90 kg of nashville heterotroph-organism biomass by dry weight. This is primary-consumer production per it manager cover for resume year, i.e., the help increase in biomass of primary consumers per year. In temperate climates, this growth only happens during spring-fall months. University? If we assume for thesis tennessee simplicity (if not accuracy) that primary consumers are all univoltine and live from spring through fall, then the standing biomass of primary consumers by the end of the season would equal the annual production: 90 kg per hectare. Assume that a mass of bacteria/nematodes/etc. Columbia Essay? equal to the mass of an insect suffers as much as the insect.
Then we can convert 90 kg of dry organism biomass into a number of effective insects by dividing by the dry weight of an thesis help, insect. This page reports that a fruit fly has a mass of 2–3 * 10 ?7 kg, while an ayn rand essay results, adult housefly has a mass of 2 * 10 ?5 kg. Here's another way to estimate housefly mass. An adult housefly is thesis nashville tennessee, 6-7 mm long. Say the fly has equal volume as a 4 mm cube. Then it would be 4 3 = 64 mm 3 or 0.064 cm 3 . Of Pi Essay On Religion? Assume it's. half as dense as water and that its dry weight is. half its wet weight. Then it would weigh (0.064 g)/(2*2) = 0.016 g, or about help 2 * 10 -2 g, which is exactly the same as the for resume 2 * 10 ?5 kg figure from the previous paragraph. Let's take a housefly as our reference insect.
Then the thesis help number of effective houseflies is columbia university essay question, (90 kg)/(2 * 10 ?5 kg per fly) = 4.5 million flies. This is per hectare per help year. It's equivalent to is the mother luck essay, 360,000 effective houseflies supported by thesis nashville, a 0.2-acre lawn. Is The Mother Luck Essay? This is close to my 88,000 estimate, which is help, surprising given that I didn't fudge with any of my input assumptions in essay question, order to make the help nashville number come out right. If you only care about insects, rather than bacteria/nematodes/etc., then the number of effective houseflies would have to mother of good luck essay, be reduced to nashville tennessee, account for of good the fact that a lot of grass isn't eaten by insects. If, say, 10% of digestible grass biomass is eaten by help tennessee, insects, that would imply. 36,000 actual insects supported by the grass of an average lawn, which is about the diligence is the luck same as the 44,000 estimate I arrived at thesis help nashville by guesstimating insects per square foot. Estimate using springtails and mites. This article says of springtail bugs: Ranging from 0.25-10mm in length, there are typically around 10,000 per square metre of soil, rising to as many as 200,000 per square metre in some places. This page says. In sheer numbers, they are reputed to be one of the dental cover most abundant of all macroscopic animals, with estimates of 100,000 individuals per square meter of ground, essentially everywhere on Earth where soil and related habitats (moss cushions, fallen wood, grass tufts, ant and termite nests) occur. Only nematodes, crustaceans, and mites are likely to have global populations of similar magnitude [. ].
Here are vivid videos showing dense springtails on soil. A friend of mine (unfortunately!) has a vermiculture bin, and in it, I've seen populations of mites as dense as. 1 per mm 2 just on the surface of the bin. Help Nashville? That implies. 10 6 mites per diligence of good luck essay square meter. Suppose that the thesis decaying grass on your lawn supports 10,000 springtails per columbia essay question m 2 = 10 8 springtails per thesis help tennessee hectare. Suppose the typical springtail is small -- say 0.5 mm. Above I suggested that a typical housefly is 6-7 mm long. So a housefly is about (6.5/0.5) 3 = 2 * 10 3 times bigger than a springtail. Hence, 10 8 springtails per hectare have about the ayn rand essay contest results same size as. 50,000 houseflies per hectare.
That's. 4000 houseflies on a 0.2-acre lawn. And if we count mites and other invertebrate fauna as well, this number might be a few times bigger, putting this estimate in a similar ballpark as the thesis help nashville tennessee 44,000 estimate of bugs on a typical lawn in contest results, the main text. In the main text, I assumed a very conservative 5 bugs per thesis help tennessee square foot of lawn. This is at of julius caesar essay least an order of magnitude lower than the densities of invertebrates per square foot of help nashville tennessee grassland that are reviewed in this 1937 article: Mr. McAtee in a grassy meadow in essay results, March found 1,374 animals in four square feet, or 343 per square foot, but of nashville this number, 933 were one species of ant, Trematoriurn caespitum , and although there was no ant colony in the plot, yet for comparison with a woodland plot, he subtracts these strongly contrasting elements, leaving 239 animals for caesar four square feet, or 60 per square foot. Thesis Nashville Tennessee? This much more nearly approximates the results obtained in the present investigation, which totaled 6,843 animals for the 100 square feet examined, or, to compare with a locality where the climate more nearly approximates that of Washington, those of a previous investigation by the writer in central Illinois [. ], where the animal population (counting grasshopper and mealybug egg-clusters as one, rather than each egg as a separate individual) averaged 57.5 per square foot in the fall and early winter, and 82.9 per mother of good square foot in the spring. Mr.
Morris [. ] records finding 3,586,088 insects per acre, or 82 per square foot in thesis help, a pasture in England. Dr. Beebe [. ] found [. Hygienist Cover? ] 65 per help square foot of leaves and columbia moss from an uncleared area in the woods of a New York Zoological Park [. Thesis Help? ]. The writer [. ] collected 215 ants and 114 other insects and small animals from assassination of julius caesar essay, three square feet of pasture near the beach at Pt. Cangrejos, Porto Rico, or 110 animals per square foot.